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🧳 | JAL, Tokyo / Narita-Bengaluru line set up extra flights 3 round trips in March and April


JAL, Tokyo / Narita-Bengaluru line set up extra flights 3 round trips in March and April

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This flight is based on the Air Travel Bubble by the Government of India and can only be used by those who can enter the country, such as holding a visa.

Japan Airlines (JAL) will set up a special flight on the Tokyo / Narita-Bengaluru route.From Tokyo / Narita on March 3th and 12th ... → Continue reading


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Indian Government

Indian Government(Indian Seifu,English: Government of India) IsIndia OfCentral government.Indian ConstitutionInstalled by 28StateAnd fourFederal territoryIs summarized. capitalNew DelhiHas a government function.

Basic structure

To bring the states togetherWestminster SystemHas adopted[2].. Federal governmentExecutive branch,Legislative office,JudiciaryIt is composed of three divisions, according to the Constitution.Administrative power prime minister,Legislative power 国会,Jurisdiction Supreme CourtIs given to.PresidentIs elected by the votes of both House of Representatives and state members of the Diet, and is a state.HeadIndian ArmySupreme commanderBut has no political power[3].. on the other hand,prime ministerResponsible for the Diet as Head of Government (Parliamentary Cabinet System). The DietBicameral systemIs adopted,Senate OfLarge suburbsHas 250 seats,House of Representatives OfRourke SuburIs 545 seats[1].. The courtSupreme CourtBelow are 24 high courts, below which are several district courts,Special courtIs not provided[4].

The legal field is divided by the Constitution into three categories: federal government list, state government list, federal government and state government list.[5],Civil law,Criminal law,Civil Procedure Code,Code of Criminal ProcedureEtc. are on the federal government list[6].. Due to the background of being a British colony, the legal systemCommon lawHowever, regarding important laws and regulationsGrammarStipulated in[5].

Legislative office

国会Is of the Indian governmentLegislative office.Large suburbs(Senate)WhenRourke Subur(House of Representatives) Consists ofBicameral systemI'm taking. The Senate has the character of a state representative, and members are appointed by the president's nomination or by the state legislature. On the other hand, the House of Representatives has the character of representing the people.[7][8].

Elections for members of the House of Representatives are held on a nationwide scale, and are basically elected by direct elections in a single-seat constituency system by constituencies. However, two out of 545 people will be representatives of the Anglo-Indian society, and if the relevant person is not selected, the representative of the Anglo-Indian society will be appointed. Also,Designated caste(Scheduled Castes: SCs) andDesignated tribe(Scheduled Tribes: STs) are pre-allocated exclusively[9].

This parliamentParliamentary sovereigntyI don't have the billSupreme CourtbyJudicial reviewNeed to receive[10].. On the other hand,Parliamentary Cabinet SystemCan influence administrative authority through the Cabinet[11].. Under the Constitution of India, the Cabinet is responsible for the House of Representatives Lok Sabha[12].. The House of Representatives has a dissolution, and the Senate has no dissolution. The term of office for members of the House of Representatives is five years, the term of office for Senators is six years, and one-third of Senators are re-elected every two years.[7][13].

Executive branch

AdministrationWith regard to, the part related to the daily life of citizens is the responsibility of the state government and with the federal government.Separation of powerIs planned[14].


Article 53, Paragraph 1 of the Constitution is nominally mainly for administrative authorityPresidentIs giving to. Substantial administrative authorityprime ministerThe president will follow the advice of the prime minister.

The administrative authority belongs to the Council of Ministers (Cabinet), but the prime minister and ministers are appointed by the president. On the other hand, the Council of Ministers is jointly responsible to the House of Representatives. If the president tries to dissolve the Council of Ministers on his own initiative, it will be a constitutional crisis. Therefore, in practice, the Council of Ministers will not be dissolved as long as the ruling party occupies the majority of the House of Representatives.

The president is tasked with appointing senior officials within the government. For example, the governors of 29 statesFederal territoryAppointments of administrative officers, Supreme Court judges, High Court judges, Attorney General, National Election Commission Chairman and Commissioner are stipulated as responsibilities.[15][16].

Also, the nationHeadAs in other countriesAmbassador of Extraordinary PlenipotentiaryfromCredentialsReceive the dedication of. Meanwhile, the otherCommonwealthNationalHigh CommissionerThe credential fromprime ministerReceives.

In addition,Indian ArmyConstitutionalSupreme commanderBut also[17].

In addition, against criminalspardonCan also be done. This amnesty decision can be made by the president independently of the prime minister and parliament. But in reality it is done with the advice of the Prime Minister[18].. The president as of 2020Ram Nath Kovind.

Vice President

The Vice President is the second-largest official in the Government of India and acts on his behalf in the absence of the President. Also, the SenateLarge suburbsIs constitutionally stipulated to chair[19].. The Vice President is elected by a secret ballot by an election committee of both Houses of Parliament.

prime minister

prime minister TheIndian ConstitutionWas designated as the head of government byPresidentAssists and leads the Council of Ministers (Cabinet). Basically, the leader of the ruling party, which is the majority of the parliament, serves.

As the head of the cabinet that holds administrative authority in the parliamentary cabinet system, the prime minister can appoint and dismiss other ministers. He is also responsible for the content of the bill to be submitted to Parliament as the head of the Cabinet. If the Prime Minister resigns or dies during his term, the Cabinet will dissolve.

The president appoints the prime minister, who assists the president in his duties.

Cabinet, ministers and other administrative organizations

The Council of Ministers (Cabinet) is composed of the Prime Minister and each minister.[20]..The constitution stipulates that all ministers are members of parliament.The head of the cabinet is the prime minister, assisted by the chief cabinet secretary.Each minister other than the prime minister constitutes the cabinet and is also the head of the ministry.However, there are ministers (cabinet ministers) and ministers of state (ministers of state), and the cabinet is composed only of ministers.閣外大臣は省庁を監督する閣外専管大臣(Ministers of State (Independent Charges))と閣内大臣を補佐する閣外大臣(MoS:Minister of State)で構成されるThe Minister of State consists of the Ministers of State (Independent Charges), which supervises the ministries, and the Minister of State (MoS), which assists the Minister of State.[21]..In addition, the Minister of State is obliged to report to the Minister of State, but the Minister of State can perform his duties independently.

Central government agency

The following central ministries and agencies exist in India.

Indian central ministry[22][23][24]
Ministry nameEnglish nameName of the chief
(English editionMinistry of Agriculture & Farmers' WelfareMinister of Agriculture and Peasant Welfare
(English editionMinistry of AYUSHMinister AYUSH
(English editionMinistry of Chemicals and FertilizersMinister of Chemistry and Fertilizer
(English editionMinistry of Civil AviationMinister of Civil Aviation
(English editionMinistry of CoalCoal Minister
(English editionMinistry of Commerce and IndustryMinister of Commerce and Industry
(English editionMinistry of CommunicationMinister of Communications
(English editionMinistry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public DistributionConsumer Issues, Food and Public Distribution Minister
(English editionMinistry of Corporate AffairsMinister of Enterprise
(English editionMinistry of CultureMinister of Culture
Department of DefenseMinistry of DefenseMinister of Defense
(English editionMinistry of Development of North Eastern RegionNortheastern Regional Development Minister
(English editionMinistry of Earth SciencesMinister of Earth Science
(English editionMinistry of Electronics and Information TechnologyMinister of Electronics and Communication Technology
(English editionMinistry of Environment, Forest and Climate ChangeMinister of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
Ministry of Foreign AffairsMinistry of External AffairsMinister of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of FinanceMinistry of FinanceMinister of Finance
(English editionMinistry of Food Processing IndustriesMinister of Food Processing Industry
(English editionMinistry of Health and Family WelfareMinister of Health and Family Welfare
(English editionMinistry of Heavy Industries and Public EnterprisesMinister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises
Ministry of InteriorMinistry of Home AffairsInterior Minister
(English editionMinistry of Housing and Urban AffairsMinister of Housing and Urban Issues
(English editionMinistry of EducationMinister of Education
(English editionMinistry of Information and BroadcastingMinister of Information and Broadcasting
(English editionMinistry of Labor and EmploymentMinister of Labor and Employment
(English editionMinistry of Law and JusticeMinister of Justice
(English editionMinistry of Micro, Small and Medium EnterprisesMinister of Small and Medium Enterprises
(English editionMinistry of MinesMinister of Mining
(English editionMinistry of Minority AffairsMinority Minister
(English editionMinistry of New and Renewable EnergyNew Renewable Energy Minister
(English editionMinistry of Panchayati RajMinister Panchayati
(English editionMinistry of Parliamentary AffairsParliamentary Affairs Minister
(English editionMinistry of Personnel, Public Grievances and PensionsMinister of Human Resources, Grievance and Pension
(English editionMinistry of Petroleum and Natural GasMinister of Oil and Natural Gas
(English editionMinistry of PowerMinister of Electricity
Ministry of RailwaysMinistry of RailwaysMinister of Railways
(English editionMinistry of Road Transport and HighwaysMinister of Land Transport and National Highway
(English editionMinistry of Rural DevelopmentMinister of Rural Development
(English editionMinistry of Science and TechnologyMinister of Science and Technology
(English editionMinistry of ShippingMinister of Shipping
(English editionMinistry of Skill Development and EntrepreneurshipMinister of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Promotion
(English editionMinistry of Social Justice and EmpowermentMinister of Social Justice and Empowerment
(English editionMinistry of Statistics and Program ImplementationMinister of Statistics and Project Implementation
(English editionMinistry of SteelMinister of Steel
(English editionMinistry of TextilesMinister of Textiles
(English editionMinistry of TourismMinister of Tourism
(English editionMinistry of Tribal AffairsMinister of Tribal Affairs
(English editionMinistry of Jal ShaktiMinister Jar Shakti
(English editionMinistry of Women and Child DevelopmentMinister of Women and Child Development
(English editionMinistry of Youth Affairs and SportsYouth Affairs and Sports Minister


India's judicial system followed that of the British colonial eraAnglo-American lawUsing the system[5].

Unlike the United States, India's judicial system is unified across the country and there are no state courts. Therefore, the jurisdiction of the court is the Supreme Court, which has jurisdiction over the whole country, the High Court, which has jurisdiction over the state, and the district court, which has jurisdiction over the administrative units below the state.

Supreme Court

Supreme CourtIs the capitalNew DelhiIt is located in, and consists of a chief justice and 30 judges. The Supreme Court Judge is based on the recommendation of Collegium, a private council consisting of the Chief Judge, the four Supreme Court Judges, and the senior High Court Judges scheduled for the appointment. Appointed to the Supreme Court by the President[25].

The Chief Judge is given first-instance jurisdiction, appeal jurisdiction, advisory power, and record court power. Furthermore, with the approval of the president, it is possible to appoint officers for fraud investigation inside the court and to decide the method and procedure of conducting the trial. The Constitution also gives the president and vice president the authority to investigate.[26].

Local government

Indian stateEach has a state government,Governor(The Governer) has formal administrative authority, but the substantive administrative authority is held by the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministries.[27].. The state council has a two-chamber system in five states and a one-chamber system in the other states. The term of office of state legislatures is the same as that of parliamentarians, with the House of Representatives for five years and the Senate for six years, of which one-third are re-elected every two years.

Federal territoryIs under the control of the central government and is governed by an executive appointed by the president[28].


  1. ^ a b c "India basic data”. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2020/9/7Browse.
  2. ^ Subramanian, K. (June 2014, 6). “A prime ministerial form of government”. The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/a-prime-ministerial-form-of-government/article6120400.ece 2018/3/9Browse. 
  3. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute 2009, pp. 3-6.
  4. ^ "Constitution of India's definition of India". Indiagovt.in.As of August 2019, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/9/9Browse.
  5. ^ a b c Ryo Kotoura. “Overview of Indian legal system / Points to keep in mind when contracting with Indian companies". Anderson Mori & Tomotsune Law Office. 2020/9/7Browse.
  6. ^ "Legal services India on Criminal laws in India”. Legal Services India. 2018/4/11Browse.
  7. ^ a b Yuu Yamada (July 2016, 7). “Indian Parliament and Complex Political Party Political System". Daiwa Institute of Research Group. 2020/9/8Browse.
  8. ^ Arnull, Elaine; Fox, Darrell (29 June 2016). Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practise. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-137-43397-8. https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1137433973 2017/5/10Browse. 
  9. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute 2009, p. 6.
  10. ^ “Parliament's actions subject to judicial review: court”. The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/Parliaments-actions-subject-to-judicial-review-court/article14704694.ece 2017/7/19Browse. 
  11. ^ “Indian Constitution And Parliamentary Government | Law Teacher”. https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/administrative-law/indian-constitution-and-parliamentary-government-administrative-law-essay.php 2017/7/20Browse. 
  12. ^ Laxmikanth. Governance in India. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-107466-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=DY1CAQAAQBAJ&pg=SA5-PA9&dq=parliament+control+executive#v=onepage 
  13. ^ "Our Parliament". webcache.googleusercontent.com. 2017/7/20Browse.
  14. ^ Arnull, Elaine; Fox, Darrell (29 June 2016). Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practice.Springer. ISBN 978-1-137-43397-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=Rn2QDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA186&lpg=PA186&dq=The+Executive+Branch+of+government+of+India+is+the+one+that+has+sole+authority+and+responsibility+for+the+daily+administration+of+the+state+bureaucracy.+The+division+of+power+into+separate+branches+of+government+is+central+to+the+republican+idea+of+the+separation+of+powers.+President#v=onepage 
  15. ^ Pratiyogita Darpan (March 2007). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. P. 60. https://books.google.com/books?id=5ugDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT60 
  16. ^ Bakshi, Parvinrai Mulwantrai (2010). The Constitution of India (10th ed.). New Delhi: Universal Law Pub. Co. p. 48. ISBN 978-8175348400. OCLC 551377953 
  17. ^ Oldenburg, Philip (2010). India, Pakistan, and Democracy: Solving the Puzzle of Divergent Paths. Taylor & Francis. P. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-78018-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=V6nras7L790C&pg=PA71 
  18. ^ Kumar; Rajesh. Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India Pg no. 72.
  19. ^ "Important India functions of vice president". 2020/9/9Browse.
  20. ^ Cabinet Ministers (as on 26 May 2014). Cabsec.nic.in. Retrieved 6 December 2013. Archived 27 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ "Research on the ideal state of the Japan Sports Agency (24) Chapter 6 India (PDF)". Ministry of education. 2020/9/16Browse.
  22. ^ "Council of Ministries”. National Portal of India. 2020/9/10Browse.
  23. ^ "Indian ministries and agencies". Daily Indian EconomyFinance Facsimile News Co., Ltd. 2020/9/10Browse.
  24. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute 2009, pp. 111-113.
  25. ^ Kirpal, Bhupinder N., ed (2013). Supreme but not infallible: Essays in honor of the Supreme Court of India (6th impr. Ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 97–106. ISBN 978-0-19-567226-8. OCLC 882928525. https://www.worldcat.org/title/supreme-but-not-infallible-essays-in-honour-of-the-supreme-court-of-india/oclc/882928525?referer=di&ht=edition 
  26. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute 2009, p. 7.
  27. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute 2009, pp. 14-15.
  28. ^ Mitsubishi Research Institute 2009, p. 1.


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