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🧳 | One-man operation started on Uchibo / Sotobo / Kashima / Mito Line Mito Line uses E531 series


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One-man operation started on the Uchibo, Sotobo, Kashima, and Mito lines The Mito line uses the E531 series

 
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Semi-automatic door functions are used for trains that operate one-man.
 

JR East will start a new one-man operation on the Uchibo Line, Sotobo Line, Kashima Line, Mito Line at the timetable held in March 2021 ... → Continue reading

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One-man driving


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One-man drivingWhat is (one-man operation)?conductorIs not on board,DriverBy one personbus,Passenger trainIt is the operation method of. It is the work of the conductorFareThe driver is also responsible for collection and safety confirmation at the time of departure.One-man operationAlso called[1].

One-man operationTramTheOne-man car, BusOne-man busOrOne-man car, TrainOne-man trainOrOne-man carCall[*1][2].

Japan Offreight trainBut the engine assistant has already been abolished,Oversized cargoExcept for special trains such asConductorSince the connection ofLocomotiveBy nonOverall controloperation[*2]Except forDriverOnly one-man operation (one-man crew).

Overview

One-man operation is mainly carried out by railroads, trams, and buses.In urban subways, drivers only drive and do not collect fares.Urban one-man operationThere are also many.

"One-man" is One-man operation (OMO) The phrase[*3]でThe United States of AmericaBut it is also used. Also in englishconductorlessBecause it is also written as (without conductor)Keihan Electric RailwayIn such cases, the letters "conductorless" are also written below the one-man display.

As a fare collection system,Fare boxToFareMethod to input (Japan, South Korea,Hawaii(Bus, etc.), cases where a ticket is issued when paying the fare (AustraliaQueenslandGold CoastSurfside Bus, Taiwan's distance-proportional fare bus,Singapore,The United KingdomThere is a bus etc.). Also by trams and trains in EuropeCredit boarding methodIs widespread.

In addition, the spread of fare cards is increasing, and JapanSuicaIn Hong Kong, which was put into practical use prior to the systemOctopusIncluding,Prepaid CardTickets are also becoming more widespread. In areas where electronic money is widespread, there are many cases where change is not available, which is very convenient for passengers. In addition, worldwide, these tickets are called "Smart cardIt is common to call it.

One-man operation in Japan

In Japan, mainly line sections with small transportation volume per trainTram,Transit BusIs being implemented to reduce labor costs. For this reason, the burden on the driver is greater than the division of labor by multiple workers. Most Japanese trams and buses operate one-man.

Even if it is a one-man train, if you operate a time zone or section with many passengers, if there are many vehicles and the driver alone can not handle it, or if you have just become a one-man train, the tour operator will not be the conductor. I may be on board. Tour conductors guide passengers and sell tickets,Ticket gateOnly the auxiliary work such as, and the train operation work such as opening and closing the door is done by the driver. For exampleKeihan Ishiyama Sakamoto LineThen, during the morning rush hour, train guards will be on board the vehicles behind. There are train guards who are qualified as drivers and those who are not.

Night highway busIn some cases, two drivers are on board, and while one driver is in charge of driving, the other driver takes a nap and operates while changing driving every few hours. However, in terms of approval, this is also treated as a one-man operation.[3].

History

In Japan's mass transit system, there are cases where a driver is on board alone.1950 eraAfter that, it became full-scale and began to spread widely.1960 eraAfter that.

Prewar

In the very old example of conductor omission,1923(Taisho12 years)Great Kanto EarthquakeTo complement the tram network that was cut off byTokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Electricity Ford T typeTrackChassisThe city that operated with a simple bodyworkbus(Commonly known as "Entaro Bus))[4].. OnlydisasterThis is an emergency measure that accompanies the restoration of the tram network and is more serious.Transit BusThe conductor crew has been revived when the service is started.

By trainCarriage trainAnd smallPassenger carBy human powerPedestrian orbit(Meiji - Taisho762 mm, except for some cases in various places during the period)Gauge OfLight railwasOkayama OfIgasa Railway(Railway line1971<Showa 46> Discontinued line) seems to be the first to be confirmed[5]. The company1927(Showa 2) At that time, it was called "track car" in July.Mass productionAutomobileUltra-compact with a capacity of 20 people, using the power train ofGasoline carIntroduced, but the vehicleCapacityIn October of the same year, a special permit to omit the conductor was applied to and approved by the supervisory authority.FareReceiptstation(Implemented in). It is unknown when the conductor was omitted.

The conductor omission is Shimotsui Railway (later), which introduced an ultra-small gasoline car following Igasa Railway.Shimotsui Electric Railway, Railroad line1990〈Heisei2 years> discontinued line),Bantan Railway(By national acquisitionKakogawa LineIt is said that it was done temporarily (other than that).

After the war

Full-scale one-man operation in Japan's mass transit type transportation1951From OctoberOsaka City Transportation BureauIs said to be the first example of going on a bus on some routes (Imazato at that time-Abenobashi) only at night.[6][*4].. For this1947Established in (Showa 22)Labor Standards Act OfwomanProtection regulations (Midnight workDue to the limitation)FemaleThe fact that the conductor's late-night crew became impossible has had a major impact.[*5].

1960 eraOr later,RegionThen.Private carDissemination of (motorization) AndpopulationDecline (especially due to the decrease in the young populationCommuting to schoolThe number of people is decreasing)Public transport ThepassengerI came to face financial difficulties due to the decrease in the number of people. Also,cityAlso in the departmentrouteSoaring construction costs (DepreciationIncreasing costs)Job offerIt became necessary to deal with the difficulties, and the conductor crew was abolished as a rationalization measure.

In the route bus, one-man operation began to spread from big cities after the 1960s.[*6]Eventually, local buses will also be in the mountainsNarrow routesExcept for special routes that require a conductor as a security personnel, it was one-man operation.

TramThen.Nagoya tramAs a rationalization measure, on a suburban off-road routeShimonoisshiki line-Tsukiji Lineで1954It was the first time that it was implemented from February.[7].. At the same time as the spread of one-man trains has progressed, the number of trams themselves has decreased sharply due to the abolition, and most of the existing trams are operated by one-man operation. In addition, it should be notedHiroshima Electric Railway-Kumamoto City Transportation BureauThen, the conductor is mainly on the articulated vehicle.

Modern one-man operation on ordinary railwaysKanto RailwayRyugasaki Lineで19718/1More implemented,Hitachi Electric Railway(Abolished in 2005) is the same year10/1Followed by[8]..After that, it expanded to JR, a local line of a major railway company. JRでは国鉄民営化による新会社発足のわずか5日前であるOnly XNUMX days before the establishment of a new company by privatization of JNR at JR19873/27,Kansai Main LineYokkaichi-In KawaradaIse RailwayIt started with the operation only for trains, but as a section by pure JR trains19883/13 OfNambu LineShitte-Hamakawasaki,Ominato Line,Mine LineMinami Omine-Omine (closed in 1997),San'in Main LineNagato City-Senzaki,Kashii line,Triangle lineIs the first example.

Also, for railways in metropolitan areas, for the purpose of reducing labor costs,Small and medium private railwayUrban routes, andMajor railwayFocusing on branch lines and terminal sections to the main line ofUrban one-manThe mode of operation called is increasing. The biggest difference from one-man operation on a local railway is in the carNumbered ticketThe fare is collected at the station as before, without issuing the fare or delivering the fare. Urban one-man1975ToShizuoka RailwayShizuoka Shimizu LineStarting with, at major railway companies19809/1 OfNishitetsuMiyajidake LineIt started first with.関東ではIn KantoSeibu Railway OfSeibu Tamagawa Line,Tobu Railway OfIsesaki LineTatebayashi Station-between Isesaki StationTojo LineOgawamachi Station-Kansai, such as between Yorii StationKeihan Electric Railway OfKatano Line-Uji Line-Kyozu Line-Ishiyama Sakamoto Line,Kobe Electric RailwayIt is spread all over the place such as all lines.According to the notification of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismDeadman device・ One-man operation is possible by installing devices such as one-man indicator lights and rear-view mirrors, but in reality, in order to reduce the workload of the driver, automatic broadcasting devices and door switches that can be operated while sitting in the driver's seat Etc. are often equipped.

subwayEven on routes with many users, including those with a large number of users, one-man operations are progressing for the purpose of reducing labor costs. As a full-fledged one19841/20 OfFukuoka City SubwayAirport lineIs the first example[9],Tokyo subwayNamboku Line,Toei SubwayOedo Line(At the beginning of openingHome doorWas not installed, but will be installed at all stations by 2013),Metropolitan New City RailwayTsukuba ExpressIt is expanding to. Two-man driving in anticipation of the era of declining birthrate and aging population[*1]There is also a line that has shifted to one-man operation by installing various support equipment on the line that was opened on the premise of the Tokyo subway.Marunouchi Line・ Toei SubwayMita Line-Yokohama Municipal SubwayBlue line-Tokyo MonorailHaneda Airport LineEtc. are applicable. For each lineAutomatic train driving deviceWe are working to reduce the burden on drivers and further improve safety by providing various support equipment such as automatic driving by (ATO), platform doors, and monitors that can monitor the platform from the driver's seat. In recent years, in order to ensure safety and reduce equipment costs, ATO automatically controls from full-screen platform doors to movable platform fences only when the vehicle is stopped.Fixed position stop deviceIngenuity such as (TASC) can be seen. In addition, it should be notedTokyu Ikegami Line-Tokyu Tamagawa Line-Meitetsu Mikawa Line-Kintetsu Keihanna LineIn such cases, by installing a platform fence instead of a platform door and installing a home sensor that uses an optical sensor in between, the train cannot be automatically braked or the train cannot be started when a person enters. By doing so, we are trying to ensure safety. In major private railways, there is no line where one-man operation is performedKeisei Electric Railway-Odakyu Electric Railway-Keikyu Corporation-Sagami RailwayOnly.

In addition, there is no correlation between one-man operation and train type, especially in local lines.Express trainEven so, one-man operation is performed according to demand. In addition, taking advantage of the fact that there are always station staff at the stations where express trains stop, only rapid trains operate one-man operations in urban areas in the Okayama area of ​​the JR West Sanyo Main Line.Sun liner, Kure lineAkiji LinerThere is also an example like. One-man operation may be performed even for types that require a separate charge, for example, in JR Kyushu, someLimited express train[*7]I am doing one-man operation at. HoweverFlight attendantOrMobile ticket gateThere are also trains on which the driver is on board, in which case the driver rarely provides customer service.

AGTEtc.New transportation systemIn many routes, even the driver is not on board, and all operations are automatically operated from the central command room, and in the case of manned operation, only the driver is on board (similar to the subway mentioned above). Shape). On the other handTokyo Disney ResortOf the monorail line running onDisney Resort LineOn the contrary, the "driver cast", which is equivalent to a driver, is not normally on board, and only the "guide cast", which is equivalent to a conductor in charge of door handling, safety monitoring, guidance, etc., is on board. It is a pattern.

Even local private railwaysTakamatsu Kotohira Electric RailwayThere are also cases where the introduction of one-man operation was postponed due to company circumstances.

The role of the driver and equipment such as vehicles

The driver in a one-man operation vehicle, like the captain and captain, is the chief officer of the trains and buses in operation, and passengers must follow the instructions given by the driver to ensure safety (posted in the car). Specified in "Prohibitions").If refused, passengers may be forced to disembark.

At bus stops and stations, the driver opens the door and treats him as a guest. At the time of departure, the driver confirms safety and closes the door. The driver also broadcasts in the car, but the driver mainly uses automatic broadcasting such as tape, and the driver often supplementarily broadcasts the contents that cannot be dealt with by the automatic broadcasting.

In the case of railways, the emergency brake is activated when the equipment is not operated for a certain period of time due to fainting of the driver.Emergency train stop deviceOr stop nearby trains in the event of an accidentTrain protection radio, Emergency notification / telephone equipment with passengers in the car will be installed. In addition, there is a rear view mirror on the home.Video camera-Improvements will be made to facilitate safety confirmation, such as installing monitors and increasing the lighting and height of the shed.

In the case of a bus,Bus jackAn emergency notification device may be provided in the event of an occurrence. AlsoRoutes with narrow sectionsThen,Rear monitor deviceVehicles with attached vehicles may be introduced, or guides may be boarded only in narrow sections. On Korean buses and surfside buses, surveillance cameras are installed near the driver's seat as a safety measure (violence against the driver) and as a measure against fraud.

Fare payment method

One-man operation fare collection is done at the station or in the car. Regular customersCommuter PassIn many cases, it is only presented.Transit BusOf course, in local railways that have many unmanned stations, it is often collected in the car. Although the in-car collection has the disadvantage of extending the boarding / alighting time, it is particularly economical because the station staff can be omitted. The following are mainly events related to in-car toll collection.

On board

Passengers are issued by a machine installed in the car to prove the boarding locationNumbered ticketOr, obtain a boarding station certificate issued by the machine installed at the station (which may be installed at the station).First trainWhen boarding from a station / stop, it is classified as "no numbered ticket" and the issuance of numbered tickets may be omitted.

In big citiesTransit BusIn the case of a flat fare system, which is common in many cases, the fare is paid at the time of boarding. There is also a method of paying the fare after notifying the bus stop at the time of boarding. this is"Get on and off beforeWill be described in detail in the section.

In the case of railways, depending on the station, before boarding, at the ticketing counter such as an automatic ticket vending machine or outsourcedticketMay be available for purchase. Even on the bus, someBus terminalTickets are sold at.

When getting off

When getting off, next to the driver's seatFare boxInsert the numbered ticket, boarding station certificate and fare to. The fare is in the carFare indicatorIs displayed in. There is usually no change, and the fare box has a built-in currency exchange function. If you have purchased a ticket, insert the ticket into the fare box when you get off.

Also, manned stationsTicket gateWhen getting off at the bus terminal with a bus, the fare may be paid at the station. When getting off at a manned station, the fare is often paid at the station ticket gate (at the checkout counter at large stations), except for some cases. Since numbered tickets cannot be inserted into automatic ticket gates, caution is advised to insert numbered tickets into a dedicated collection box at stations with automatic ticket gates.

At stations that connect to other companies' lines at the ticket gates, the fare is often settled in the car for the purpose of preventing omission of collection, and the "payment certificate" received from the crew is often given to the station staff. For one-man-operated trains on IC card-compatible routes, it is often done at station automatic ticket gates (including simple ticket gates) instead of in-car fare collection.

When transferring from a one-man train to a conductor-operated train, if you have not purchased a ticket, present the numbered ticket and purchase it at the station window. However, if the transfer time is short, purchase from the conductor of the train you are transferring to or from the mobile ticket gate (in-car replenishment tickets can be purchased in addition to regular tickets, as well as some round-trip discount tickets). If the transfer station is an unmanned station, if you do not have a ticket, you will need to settle the fare to the transfer station and then receive a "payment certificate". When you get off the train you are transferring to, you will receive a certificate and the difference fare May be paid.

How to use the fare card

For buses with a flat fare systemBoarding cardTo pay the fare at, use the card reader installed near the fare box (often integrated with the fare box).

In the case of a multi-section fare system (numbered ticket system), basically the boarding stop is recorded with a card reader near the numbered ticket issuing machine when boarding, and the fare is settled with the card reader near the exit when getting off. If there is no record of the boarding stop, an error will occur when getting off, and the driver who receives the declaration of the boarding stop often sets the withdrawal amount manually. However, some businesses deduct the fare from the first bus stop.

In addition, you can receive a numbered ticket with a barcode printed on it and board the bus, and the fare box will calculate the fare from the barcode and withdraw it when you get off, or you will get a numbered ticket when you get on the bus and the driver will use the numbered ticket when you get off. Some buses use a method of setting the amount manually.

By train, usually at the stationAutomatic ticket gateAlternatively, use a simple ticket gate (installed at an unmanned station) equipped with only a sensor and a card reader, and depending on the route.Keifuku Electric Railway-Eizan Electric RailwayIn some cases, the vehicle is equipped with a card reader. AlsoMeitetsu Gamagori LineEven railway companies that support card systems do not allow the use of cards on one-man operation lines.

In either case, if the card balance is insufficient, pay the shortage with another card or cash. Cards that can be charged (additional), such as IC cards, can also be charged and settled.

How to get on and off passengers

Basically, all doors are opened and closed when manned stations such as subways and subway railways are equipped with automatic ticket gates. On the other hand, when paying the fare on a fixed-route bus, tram, or off-road train, various methods are used depending on the degree of congestion and the frequency of getting on and off at intermediate points.

As a general rule, railroads and trams stop at each station (stop) and treat customers regardless of the presence or absence of users. On the other hand, some buses and some trams pass through the bus stop if the get-off button is not pressed by the time of arrival and there are no users waiting for boarding.

Front ride before getting off

It is used in sections other than the section where there are few passengers or the first section where numbered tickets are not issued due to the route fare system. There are prepaid method and numbered ticket method postpaid.

It is mainly used for highway buses that have only one entrance / exit and general route buses that use similar vehicles (top-door vehicles). In addition, the inside (rear) door of a two-door car may be closed semi-permanently and used as a de facto top-door car with a front-ride front-off method. Besides that,Kanto Motor (Tochigi Prefecture),Hakone Tozan Bus,Aizu shared car, Also companies in Okinawa[*8]In, although the rear door can be opened and closed, it is not normally used (used only when getting on and off in a wheelchair), and there are routes that operate by the front-ride front-off method. In this case, on most routes, the stroller needs to be folded when getting on and off.Nohi flight caras well as the Ugo TrafficThen, it is adopted as a measure against heavy snowfall. Even if the company has separate entrances and exits for large and medium-sized vehicles, there are cases where the previous minibus is structurally a top door, so front-ride and front-loading are adopted for small vehicles. OnceKanagawa Central TransportationThis method was also adopted in the multi-section fare system of, but it was changed to a mid-ride before getting off in order to respond to the requests of users along the railway line and barrier-free.[10].

It is also used on railways,JR HokkaidoAre all this method. All doors on the platform side open at stations where ticket gates are operated[*9], In the morning and evening unmanned hours (outside the window business hours), only the front door opens like the unmanned station.JR East OfSazawa LineHas almost the same method as this. Also,JR KyushuThen.Nippo Main Line OfSotaro StationIt is adopted in. AlsoJR West JapanThen, with the timetable revision on March 2020, 3Wakayama LineThe same boarding / alighting method will be used between Gojo and Wakayama.

Getting off before (after)

It is a method of entering through the front door where the crew is present when boarding, proceeding into the car after paying the fare, and exiting through the rear door when getting off. All doors are available at the end point, which shortens the getting-off time.

This method is mainly used for routes with flat fares. In this case, the predetermined fare is put into the fare box at the time of boarding. Depending on the business operator, you can make change (if you can't, you can exchange it and put it in). In addition to being common on regular buses in metropolitan areas, on track linesToden Arakawa Line-Tokyu Setagaya Line-Toyohashi Railway Higashida Main LineIt is adopted in such as. On the Setagaya Line, crew members (drivers and ushers) are assigned to the front and rear doors of the two-car train, and disembarkation is done from the middle door where no crew members are assigned. This method is called "consolidated two-seater" and is the predecessor.Tokyu Tamagawa LineIt has been done since the times. The usher located at the rear of the vehicle does not open or close the door or check the safety, but the driver does everything.

Some buses, mainly in some metropolitan areas, have a section-based fare that allows passengers to get on and off the bus in front of them. In this case, the passenger declares the place of disembarkation to the crew and pays the fare to the place of disembarkation. Also called credit boarding prepayment (or fare declaration method),Tokyu bus-Keikyu Express Bus-Kanagawa Central Transportation-Enoden bus-Seibu Bus-Nara Kotsu-Tobu Bus-Keisei BusIt is used on some routes such as. Advantages include shortening the time to get off during rush hours, but it is easy for miscollection of fares to occur, and with IC cards, which are becoming more widespread, the time required for boarding increases due to the withdrawal amount setting, so bus delays are pointed out. Has been[11].

Initially, one-man operation was introduced from a uniform section of a big city, so it was the mainstream to get off during (rear) before riding, but the Osaka Municipal Transportation Bureau andKyoto City Transportation Bureau(Bus)Kintetsu Bus(Kintetsu Railway and Automobile Bureau era),Funabashi Shinkeisei Bus,Matsudo Shin-Keisei BusThere is also an example of changing to getting off before getting on the middle (rear) like.

In addition, even if you get off before getting on the middle (rear), you may get on the front only at the first bus stop because it is treated as a boarding.[*10]

Middle (rear) get off before boarding

It is used in the section where there are a relatively large number of passengers using the postpaid (numbered ticket) method, or in the first section (section where the numbered ticket is not required) on the route fare system. Take a numbered ticket at the issuing machine near the rear door (entrance) when boarding, and pay the fare according to the numbered ticket number when getting off. In addition to many fixed-route buses, it is used on local railway lines in Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, and most trams. In the Kansai region, except for some fixed-fare route buses that do not issue numbered tickets, they are disembarked before boarding (payment at the time of getting off).

Differences in the operation mode and handling of boarding and alighting of operators within the same area during the transitional period of one-man operation (first-man operation was initially introduced from a uniform section of a large city, so the mainstream was getting on and off in front (rear)) (Amagasaki City and Itami City Transportation Bureaus get off before getting on (after) the uniform section, while Hankyu Bus and Hanshin Bus get off before getting on (after) the numbered ticket system, and in the case of Nara Kotsu, the same operator However, in the center of Nara City, there are cases where the fare payment is mixed with the front ride (rear) getting off and the middle (rear) getting off before and after getting off depending on the system. .. Since 3, Kanagawa Chuo Kotsu has adopted three types of boarding methods: middle (rear) getting off before getting on, front getting off before getting off, and front getting on (rear) getting off. The route for getting off before getting on and off is changed to getting off before getting on and off (after).[12].

XelTo prevent this, many drivers open the rear door for boarding a little later than the front door for getting off, or do not open the back door or close it immediately when there are no passengers on the platform. In the case of a semi-automatic door (which opens and closes with a passenger door button) (while the vehicle is stopped at an unmanned station), the door cannot be opened with the "open" button (inside the car) of the rear door for boarding (the "open" button outside the car, inside the car). The "close" button can be operated). The front door for getting off can be operated with the "open" and "close" buttons inside the car. From that point of view, some stations have trains stopped near the entrances and exits of stations.

Remarks
On some buses and trams, at certain stops, "Transfer ticketMay be issued. When transferring, pay the fare to the final destination and receive the issuance, and for the transferred bus or train, insert the transfer ticket into the fare box when getting off, pay the fare to the transfer point and receive the issuance, and transfer the bus or train Then, when getting off, the transfer ticket and the difference fare are put into the fare box (Sapporo City Transportation BureauEtc.), receive the ticket marked "Numbered ticket / Transfer ticket" at the time of boarding, pay the fare to that point at the designated transfer stop, transfer to the next bus with the ticket piece, and the final destination Method of paying the difference with (Nankai Bus Sakai Sales Office).
On bus routes with many passengers getting off at the end point, a staff member may be assigned to the bus stop during rush hours and other times when there are many passengers getting off, and getting off from the middle (rear) door may be used to shorten the getting off time. In this case, the fare is paid to the staff next to the middle (rear) door. This methodKoshien Station,Hiroden Nishihiroshima StationCan often be seen at. There are also places where trams are handled in the same way, but see the next section for this.

Free boarding and alighting

In railways, all doors can often be used for getting on and off at manned railway stations and automatic ticket gates by remote monitoring and patrol. This is called a free boarding / alighting method (JR ShikokuIn some cases, even at manned stations, getting off before getting on the train is adopted). However, in the route bus, the word "free boarding and alighting" refers to "a method that allows you to get on and off at places other than the bus stop." About thisFree boarding and alightingSee.

For example,Hiroshima Electric RailwayIn the case of mannedHiroshima StationとHiroden Nishi Hiroshima (Kai) Station(Excluding off-hours such as early morning and late night) andHiroden Miyajimaguchi StationYou can get off at the ticket gate by paying the ticket gate later. AlsoIyo Railway OfOrbit lineHowever, during rush hours, staff are assigned to some stops and you can get off at all doors. However, due to the convenience of IC card compatible devices, only passengers with cash, commuter passes, and one-day tickets (paper tickets) can get off from the rear door, and IC card users can only get off from the front door.

In JR, if there is a possibility that boarding / alighting time will be extended and delays will occur, such as during rush hours, all doors may be opened at unmanned stations at the discretion of the command center even on routes where one-man operation is performed. With the revision on March 2006, 3, JR Kyushu now opens all doors even at unmanned stations during one-man operation except for some sections. In JR West, even if it is an unmanned station, all doors will open if ICOCA can be used (except for some lines).

In addition, some lines of Kintetsu RailwayYoro RailwayIn such cases, all doors open even at unmanned stations in order to reduce equipment costs and implement efficient operation, so-calledCredit boarding methodIs incorporated.

Toyama Regional Railway Toyama Port LineThen, as a measure to shorten the getting-off time, the IC card "ecomyca(In-house issue) "and"passca(OldToyama Light RailOnly users of "Issue)" have adopted "credit disembarkation" that allows them to disembark from all doors.[13][14][15][16][17].

(Reference) Routes that have been operated by one-man operation since the opening

AboveIn rural areas, motorization and population decline have progressed, and in urban areas, one-man operation has increased to reduce labor costs. Routes that have opened in recent years have been open in urban areas since the opening.Home door,ATOThere are a large number of routes that have introduced one-man operation. EspeciallyFormer Japanese National Railways Construction LineAnd recently openedsubway(Especially in recent years, many have openedLinear metro),monorailAnd manned drivingNew transportation systemHas been operating one-man operation since its opening in principle. This section targets ordinary trains operated by our own vehicles on our own routes, and does not necessarily have to be one-man operation for all trains. Also, trams and unmanned driving routes are excluded.

The ★ mark indicates that a platform door will be installed at the same time as the opening.
☆ mark is the old Japanese National Railways construction line
● mark is the linear metro subway.
■ mark is a new transportation system for monorail and manned driving.
The ▲ mark indicates that one-man operation is limited to ordinary trains from the beginning of business.Limited express trainHonorable trains such as are lines where all train conductors are on board.
X marks are currently abolished routes.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b In order to distinguish it from one-man operation, the operation in which the driver and conductor are on boardTwo-man drivingOrTwo-men drivingSometimes called.
  2. ^ Auxiliary locomotiveWhen an engineer / driver is on board and performs driving operations. in JapanPush-pull methodThis also applies to freight trains that change the direction of travel with the rear auxiliary equipment. On the other hand, in the case of overall controlDouble operationBut there is only one driver.
  3. ^ Some operators use their own name, such as One person train operation (OPTO).
  4. ^ Keisei Electric Railway's document "Ayumi of Keisei Electric Railway 85" states that it was first done by the company on the Ichikawa-Matsudo Line bus in 1957, but this is a precedent case of Osaka Municipal Transportation and before 1957. This is an incorrect description because it has been introduced by multiple companies.
  5. ^ 1999Until the revision of the Labor Standards Act (11)nurseExcept for some occupations such as (nurse), women could not work in the middle of the night from 22:5 to XNUMX:XNUMX the next morning. Until recently, the only male crew members and station staff, such as conductors and drivers of railways and buses, were due to the fact that they worked late at night.
  6. ^ Sapporo City Transportation BureauThen.employmentFrom the viewpoint of securing, they are reluctant to make one-man operations, and during this period, only a small part of municipal buses were introduced. It is the streetcar that is becoming one-man at the same station1969(Showa 44), when it comes to the bus1972(Showa 47)Sapporo OlympicsIt will be after the end.
  7. ^ fundamentallyHuis Ten BoschNo. Haiki-Huis Ten Bosch,Nippo Main LineOut of787 series4-car driving limited express (Nichirin-Hyuga-Kirishima) And 2-car trains, and if the number of trains is increased or increased during the high-traffic period, the conductor will also be on board.
  8. ^ This includes Naha Bus toll lines, Ryukyu Bus Kotsu non-step buses, Okinawa Bus non-step buses and new one-step buses, and Azuma Bus barrier-free vehicles.
  9. ^ In the mobile timetable used by the driver, at stations where all doors are open, a circle "all" is stamped next to the stop name (station name).
  10. ^ For many years, the Kintetsu Bus had been on the front at the Tokuan stop on the Fuse line due to the structure of the bus stop when turning back. In addition, there were some other similar cases.
  11. ^ The Sendai Subway is also the first subway in Japan that has not been operated by a driver since its opening.
  12. ^ Driven before7000 type"Marine Liner HamanasuWas a non-one-man operation.
  13. ^ 200610/1It was discontinued.
  14. ^ the sameOsaka MetroLinear metroNagahori Tsurumi Ryokuchi LineAt the beginning of the business, the driver was on board.
  15. ^ Although it is a linear metro, there are no plans to install platform doors at this time.
  16. ^ OkinawaThe only railroad.For this reason, all railways in Okinawa Prefecture are operated by one man.

Source

  1. ^ Miyajidake Line one-man operation started (1980)(Nishi-Nippon Railroad)
  2. ^ Atsushi Chitose and Kazuhiro Okuno, "Hakodate Tram One-Man Car Driving", "Railway Fan Vol.9 No.98 August 1969", Koyusha, pp.8-52, 54. "Railway of the World '1969", Asahi Shimbun, pp.73 / 44/70/72/80/91, 95. Tokyo Institute of Technology Railway Research Department "Tram Guidebook", Seibundo Shinkosha, pp.1973-201, 211, etc.
  3. ^ Fumihiko Suzuki"Highway Bus Encyclopedia" p200 (First Edition, August 1989, 8)ISBN 4924420360)
  4. ^ Chapter 2 Birth of Hokkaido Bus Social gathering()
  5. ^ Kazuaki Sawauchi "History of One-Man Driving" "Railway Pictorial No.887 March 2014", Denkisha Kenkyukai, p.3, 11.
  6. ^ Friendship company"Railway fan』April 1986 issue (Volume 4) p300 GROUP ALL STATES LINE Plus Bus
  7. ^ "Railway Pictorial Archives Selection 12 Tram Age 1970", Electric Vehicle Study Group, pp.23, 56.
  8. ^ One-man operation of our company (Hitachi Dentetsu) and its background(Tsutomu Kawasaki(Hitachi Electric Railway), 2001.6 Driving Association MagazineVol.43, No.6, Page17-20, link toJapan Science and Technology AgencyLiterature search)
  9. ^ Kazuaki Sawauchi "History of One-Man Driving" "Railway Pictorial No.887 March 2014", Denkisha Kenkyukai, pp.3-17, 18.
  10. ^ Kanagawa Central Transportation Information Change of boarding / alighting method within the jurisdiction of Machida / Tama Sales Office from March 2017, 3 (Tuesday) (excluding some systems)
  11. ^ "Is it wrong that the route bus is difficult? There are 3 basic ways to ride, but there are also special cases”. Vehicle news. 2019/1/5Browse.
  12. ^ "Is it wrong that the route bus is difficult? There are 3 basic ways to ride, but there are also special cases”. Vehicle news. 2019/1/5Browse.
  13. ^ We will carry out credit disembarkation all day Toyama Light Rail October 2017, 10 Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  14. ^ We will carry out credit disembarkation all day (PDF) --Toyama Light Rail October 2017, 10 Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  15. ^ TV Asahi Shinichi Hatori Morning Show "Showup" corner broadcast on October 2017, 10
  16. ^ "Expanding Toyama Light Rail's" credit disembarkation "all day from October 10th ... Limited to IC cards". Response. (October 2017, 10). https://response.jp/article/2017/10/10/300861.html 2017/10/16Browse. 
  17. ^ "Toyama Light Rail to carry out" credit disembarkation "all day without staff check? Is fraud okay?"Vehicle News. (October 2017, 10). https://trafficnews.jp/post/78786 2017/10/16Browse. 

 

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