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Japanese garden(Nihon Teien) is a traditional Japanese gardengarden.Japanese gardenAlso known as (Wafuteien).
The composition of the Japanese garden is池Taking advantage of the undulations of the land, centering onTsukiyamaAs a natural stoneGarden stoneAnd vegetation(I.e.From time to timeWatchingIt is common to model the scenery that can be created.A method to express how water flows out of the deep mountains and becomes a big flow, a stone set expression by erecting stones and combining stones, giving it a religious meaningMt. HouraisanMany methods are used to resemble Horaijima, Tsurushima, and Kamejima.In the passage across the pond and streamTaiko Bridge, Stepping stones, rarelyZigzag bridgeAre used.
In the gardenLantern,pavilion(Azumaya),Tea roomEtc. are also placed.AlsoDry landscape gardenA garden called "Water Flow" was also created, which expresses the water flow with stones, sand, and plants without using water.It is characterized by white sand that symbolizes the flow of water, but this is in the gardenWedThe idea that is indispensable is hidden.That is why the garden is called Sansui.Muromachi PeriodAfter thatDry landscape garden TheZen BuddhismIn connection with the idea ofZen templeMany are made with.Edo periodAfter that, use the scenery not only inside the garden but also outside the gardenBorrowed sceneryIs also widely used.
If you look at the transition of Japanese garden style,Building StyleChanges andContinentfromReligious,thoughtThe influence of is changing the garden.Arata IsozakiJapanese gardens especially the seaMetaphorWhat seems to be aboutLikeIt is because it created a metaphor generator called ".SakuteikiThe description of "Ikezumi" and the stonework to express them also expresses nature such as the sea as a metaphor, and hears about the gardening method of reducing the scenery by looking at it.The use of such a metaphor conveys what it expresses to an unspecified number of people.Pure Land Garden,immortalAs a model that should be expressed in a garden that includes ancient ideas such as, the ritual garden such as the Sai garden is one of the trainings with the gods and sympathizers on the spot, and the garden of the Zen temple is also one of the trainings. It is said that it is necessary to have a view shared by people with ideas.
The problem of architecture and exterior space is paradoxical in modern Japan.This is because the traditional architectural climate of Japan makes the exterior space self-evident.Modern architectureNo style binding like, all空间When the components become equivalent and the external space is conscious as another spatial constituent language, Japan passes through the filter of modern architecture.TraditionDeepened my understanding of the target spacemodernist OfbuildingThen, he realized the importance of the external space and put it on the table of his own spatial expression.It建築 家Horiguchi SumiIs consciously listed.
HoriguchiMeiji UniversityArchitectural courseAtLandscapingIn his lecture on the theory, he shows his view of the garden as the origin of the Japanese garden.At this time, there are three elements to describe a garden that is different from the conventional garden image.Ancient times OfOld tomb,Itsukushima shrine,Imperial Palace OfmoatThe edge is raised.There, architecture, gardens, and nature are gathered together to create a space.Space designIt states that it constitutes a very large space that fits the words.That is,gardenThegardenとbuildingRather than splitting intobuilding,NATUREFurthermore, it is comprehensive including the atmosphere of the site.City planningSpatial compositiongardenI consider it to be.1934Okada's house, which was announced in, mediates between the Western-style room and the Japanese-style room in the garden, which is an external space.The moon-viewing platform that connects the house and the garden extends from the hall facing the south, and the space transitions from there to the garden of Akikusa.HouseProvides an attractive place to open to the outside.This kind of spatial composition is Horiguchi'sAfter the warIt is also seen in the work of.By coexisting Japanese and Western styles and integrating architecture and garden, scenes and depths are created, and the space composition that leads to Japanese aesthetics is completed.
The name of the Japanese-style garden is sometimes called the Japanese-style garden to distinguish the ordinary Japanese garden that is actually landscaped from the Western-style gardens of today.
Before the Heian period
- In the Japanese archipelago from the 3rd century, with the progress of national (Kuni) integration and political coalition, Takatsuka-style tombs are accompanied.Old tombIt is thought that it was the time when was started to be built, and the construction of stone chambers, the production of sarcophagus, and the burial moundsFukiishiIn addition, a large amount of stones are used for pasting stones in the moat of the residence, and techniques such as stacking large stones to process hard stones are seen. Large-scale civil engineering work such as embankment and embankment was to be carried out.
- "Japanese calligraphyThere are some articles about gardens, but the expressions about gardens are quoted from Chinese books, so be careful.As a description, for example, reigned in the 1st century ADEmperor KageyukiIn February of 4th, I loved the garden of the Kukuri Palace, and the pond in the garden was golden.carpThere is a crap that is filled with.In the Kofun period, a little later, the gardens have been around since ancient times.BuddhismHas been the center of the worldSumiyamaIt is said that it runs around a mountain of stones that represents.It is known that this symbolic mountain seems to have been built extensively in the 7th century.In the New Year of the Spring of the 8th year of Emperor Chuai, it is described that the common people gathered in honor of King Wen Zhou's virtue and the sacred swamp was formed without a day.In the second year of Emperor Ingyō, there is an article about the empress who plays alone in the garden, looking for a sword in the garden.A substantial garden space was established, such as setting up a sword to divide the residential land and making vegetables to grow vegetables.Emperor KyouArticles such as seeing Sakuraka by the well in 8 years are considered to be valid at the stage when the aesthetic sense of the natural environment was established.
- "Japanese calligraphy"according to,7st centuryWas reigning in the first halfEmperor SuikoIt had a garden with Mt. Meru and Kurehashi to the south of the shrine, and reigned in the latter half of the 7th century.Emperor SaimeiIt is said that the same was true for.In the 612th year of Empress Suiko (XNUMX AD), some of the people who came from Baekje were skillful in forming the shape of the mountain, and the emperor ordered him to put Mt. Meru in the south garden of the court. It is said that he set up Shumisen and Kurehashi.Also, in the story, some of the people who came from Korea's Baekje country had vitiligo on their faces and bodies, so they tried to throw them away on an underwater island for fear of illness. I have a little talent to build the shape of the mountain, "so when I built it in the south garden of the Imperial Palace, I learned that" Mt. Meru "and" Kure no Hashi "were skillfully made. At the Imperial PalaceBaekje OfNaturalizedIsMichiko(Michinoko no Takumi) (also known as "Shikimaro") is on the shore of the stone in the south garden of the Imperial Palace.SumiyamaAnd Kurehashi (roof,BalustradeIt is said that he built a bridge with a bridge.Around 620, Soga no Umako set up a square pond on the site of the mansion, which is why he was called "Shima Minister", and there is a record that this garden was rare and popular.A small pond was dug in the "garden" that was practically used as a flat square, and a small island was built to create a "garden" for viewing.BaekjeからBuddhismThere was a controversy over whether or not it was a Buddha, but on the Buddha sideSogaTakes the win,Asuka TempleWas erected.The fact that the garden was created by Mr. Soga makes us imagine that the technique of the garden was also introduced from Baekje.In addition, in the third year of Emperor Saimei (3), six men and women who drifted from Tokara country and arrived in Tsukushi country were called and built Mt. Meru to the west of Asuka-dera Temple in Yamato. There is a description that Mt. Meru was built in the 657th year (6) and 5th year (659) of Emperor Saimei.
- Itsukushima shrineThe spatial feature is that the main shrine is surrounded by a curved corridor around the axis connecting the main shrine and the large torii that floats on the sea, and the shrine and the large torii that blend in naturally appear and disappear according to the approach, and the sea is likened to a pond in the garden. , The mountain surrounding the back is likened to a god, and a magnificent landscape that incorporates the sea and mountains in an integrated manner is incorporated.On the opposite bankJizen ShrineAccording to Itsukushima Shrine, it was impossible to illustrate even if you could taste it for yourself.buildingとgardenWas actually measured建築 家Fumitaka NishizawaThere is a word.
- MieIga CityThe Jonokoshi Ruins, which is a site related to the festival excavated in, was designated as a national scenic spot and a historic site because it had the remains related to the landscape consciousness and technology of the later garden.This site is thought to belong to the latter half of the 4th century in the early Kofun period, and the spring water from three places merges to form a large ditch and flows down the vicinity of the village. Has a revetment.It can be seen that large stones are placed at the cape at the confluence and some of them are arranged as standing stones.It is said that this is a construction method consciousness that leads to the method of adding stones to the bending points of posterity.
- Renewal of Dahuarear,Emperor TenmuPrince of theKusakabe PrinceA garden was also set up in the mansion of (Shima no Otodo), and the appearance was written in "Manyoshu" by the song of the Toneri of Harumiya, who was saddened by Prince Kusakabe's early life.Manyoshu』\ It is left in Volume XNUMX.From this song, the appearance of Prince Kusakabe's garden is considerably clarified.In the garden, there is a pond and stonework reminiscent of a rough rock, and between the stoneworkAzaleaWas planted, and there is an island in the pond, which is why it was called "Tachibana no Shimamiya".Also, in the pond of the old garden pond found in "Manyoshu", for example, "Kazu (Katsu) Kazu (170)" , "If you look at the Ariso on the island of Mitateshi, you may be able to grow your knees and grass (181)", "Suiden Fuiso no Urami stone (Iwa) In addition, there are several heads that sang the "Island Palace" palace of Prince Hinami of Tenbu, such as "Maybe Minami (185)".In addition, even if it is (Kaifuusou) in "Kaifuuso" (751), it can be seen as a Japanese-style view of Kakusui, which is a poem of the ancient Chinese Winding Stream Party in March. You can.In this way, the impression of Japan's distinctive scenic spots cannot be ignored at the origin of skillfully harmonizing Chinese colors with Japanese features.That is the Yoshino River (Rikyu) in the Nara period, and the Oi River (Arashiyama) in the Heian period.All of them have mountains, valleys, streams, waterfalls, rock formations, stagnation, and fresh green leaves, and it can be seen that they naturally modeled the typical landscaping method.The attempt to dig a pond and express the scenery of the sea in this way has been passed down to the Japanese gardens since then.It is important that there are many depictions of seascapes such as beaches, rough shores, and islands in the records as the basis of the formation of Japanese gardens, especially even in mountainous countries far from the sea.Seto Inland SeaThe beautiful scenery of is a longing and recollection from around this time, and from the effort to reproduce it in the garden, to the traditional style composed of natural elements such as artificial hills, ponds, islands, white sand, water streams, and waterfalls. It has developed and shows that the pioneer can already be seen in this era.
- Asuka Palace,HeijokyoThe excavation of the ruins of the garden has progressed, and we are adding knowledge that cannot be obtained in the literature.1975(Showa 50)ExcavationFrom the Sakyo Sanjo Nibo Rokutsubo of Heijokyo, a pond with a length of 55 meters and a maximum width of 5 meters, which was bent into a long and narrow shape and covered with boulders at the bottom, was excavated and made public.Song FeastIt attracted attention as a garden where was held.The depth of the pond is shallow and the shoreline is intricately curved, and you can see the gardening techniques of the Nara period and the state of the garden at that time, such as laying boulders on the bottom of the pond and placing stones on the edge of the pond.
After the Heian period
- 8st centuryAt the end of the cityHeianjingHowever, Kyoto is a scenic spot surrounded by clear streams of Mt. Shimizumei, which is surrounded by dark green on three sides.There were forests, ponds and springs everywhere.The mountains on three sides belonged to the Paleozoic strata and had gentle undulations, and some independent hills were scattered around the basin margin.Beautiful garden stones and white sand were taken from this paleontological mountain river, but such a natural environment supplies high-quality gardening materials such as trees, stones, water, and sand, and it is possible to create a garden from both topography and materials. It can be said that it was a suitable place.
- It is said that there are 2 east-west towns and 4 north-south towns in Kyo.Shinsenen,Resenin,Suzakuin,JunnainIt is said that there was a garden such as, but you can see the appearance of the past when the abundant spring water of that time was stored in Shinsen-en Garden, which leaves a small part of it.In addition, it is said that choosing scenic spots in the suburbs and running villas and villas to create gardens began around this time.Kyoto CityUkyo WardIn SagaOsawa Pond at Daikakuji TempleIt is,Emperor SagaIt is said to be the remains of what was made as a garden pond in the detached palace.Heian periodIt is a valuable remains of the early garden.The Osawa Pond, which is the main part of the garden, has two large and small Nakajima islands near the north bank, Tateishi in the pond, and the traces of Nakoso Falls on the north side.
- The format of the aristocratic mansion during the Heian periodSleeping constructionThe architectural style became universal, and along with that, the style of the garden was adjusted as a Shinden-zukuri garden.In front of the Shinden-zukuri (south side), there was a garden where water was poured from the water supply into the pond with Nakajima.In addition, the garden of Kawarain, the residence of Minamoto no Toru, is a seascape of Oshu Shiogama and Ukishima of Matsushima, and Rokujoin is a copy of Tango's Tennohashidate. I can tell that it was done.Shukkeien, a landscape garden that has been passed down since the Nara period, was widely used in this era, but it changed from a huge copy of the seascape to a copy of a specific seascape.Also on these themesUtaawaseIt can be said that the Japanese garden is literary and emotional because of the events held in Japan, but at this time, it was a transition period from "old-fashioned things" to "now-fashioned things", and the lifestyle Is said to have been changing.ChugokuIntroduced fromChinese paintingFinally Japanified, so-called "Yamato pictureIt was also during this period that "" was established.Chinese poetryAgainstKanaIt was also during this period that literary works of writing began to be written.
- Also from the middle of the Heian periodJodoUnder the influence ofWestern Pure Land OfParadiseI saw itJodo GardenWas in fashion.The worshipers passed through the south gate, crossed the warped bridge over Oike, and reached Mido via Nakajima.Ponds and gardens are often slightly shaped.Jodo MandalaIt is presumed that this is because it is based on the composition of.
- The gardens of this era are known in particular detail in the public houses of the time.Tachibana no ToshitsunaIs said to have been written bySakuteiki] Is left.A secret book written in the latter half of the Heian period on techniques such as garden land allocation, stonework, waterfalls / watering, and planting.Sakuteiki』The claim that the motif is obtained from the natural landscape is carried through.In addition, the way of dealing with the author naturally is expressed by the word "follow the beggar".This is because the natural terrain and rocks demand humans, and the feeling that nature demands humans shows a unique Japanese view of nature.It means that nature does not become an object to be overcome in conflict with human beings, but it blends into nature and tries to create a garden while following nature.In addition, various ways of showing it are described as <Water supply in a place without a pond is spread outside the matter>, but the description of the way of showing shows a pioneering expression of the Japanese gardening method that will be developed later. Has been done.The emotional world of literature that sings the seasons and the waterfalls, waterfalls, wild lines, and pre-plants that are arranged near the building describe the feeling of gardening that Japanese people like. As "Sakuteiki" was written by the Kuge himself, the Kuge at that time was top notch.GardenerBut it was also.This author's fatherByodo-in TempleMadeFujiwara no YorimichiIs.When Fujiwara no Yorimichi tried to make a garden, he didn't have a favorite expert and it is said that he made the garden himself.
- First timeSamurai politicsSet upYoritomo GengenAlso,KamakuraInheriting the style of the Pure Land Garden,Eifukuji TempleI'm building a garden.Yoritomo in the Oshu battle in July 1189 (Bunji 5)HiraizumiI sawChusonji Temple,Motsuji Temple,MuryokoinIt is said that he was impressed by the majesty of the vihāra and built it for the requiescats of his younger brother Yoshitsune, Yasuhira Fujiwara and many other soldiers who died in the battle. Since 1978, the Kamakura City Board of Education has been conducting archaeological excavations focusing on confirming the main temples centered on Nikaido, Amitabha, and Yakushido, and the remains of the garden that spreads in front of these buildings. .. By 1993, an area of about 12000 square meters had been excavated, and as a result, the layout of the cathedral, the size of the temple, and the state of the garden have been gradually clarified.
- 13st centuryAt first, he was a lord and minister of government in the early Kamakura period northwest of Kyoto.Saionji KokeiAcquired the land of Kitayama Sanso, which was the territory of Nakashio, and built Kitayama Dai, but Kintsune invested a huge amount of wealth in this land, and the garden that was cultivated centered on a large pond with a lot of variety. Main hallSaionji TempleIt is said that many temples and houses were arranged, including a fishing hall facing the pond, and Nakajima was built and pine trees were planted in the pond. Visited this place in 1225Fujiwara TeikeIsTomorrow』, There is a 45-shaku waterfall, the pond water is like lapis lazuli, the spring stone is Kiyosumi, and it is truly unparalleled.AlsoMasukagamiIt is also described in, and you can see the skill of the topographical view at that time.
- Shogun Muromachi of the timeYoshimitsu AshikagaIn 1397, he took over the land of Kitayama Sanso and was called Kitayamaden, but he expanded the scale further and ran Sanso Kitayama Dai, and the famous three-story tower, Shariden (Kinkaku), was erected.The Kinkaku is a building that forms the center of the garden and was built in the pond, and it is said that this has created a new perspective of garden appreciation, which is a bird's-eye view from the tower from this era. It is said that it was possible to come and go.The garden with the Ryumon Waterfall, the vast Kyoko Pond, the large and small islands in the pond, and the Iwashima and Maruyama Hakkai stones is difficult to change into western paradise.Yoshimasa Ashikaga TheSaikataji TempleIt is said that the scenery was as good as that of the other.Yoshimitsu is said to have been traced to the Sento Imperial Palace and used for official purposes such as welcoming the history of the Ming dynasty and asking for the emperor's deeds.After Yoshimitsu's deathLuyuan Temple(Kinkakuji) and in 1422Zen templeHowever, it is said that most of the main buildings were relocated, and the gardens were also affected by the relocation, and the destroyed garden stones were left unattended for a long time.The current landscape is due to the restoration and reconstruction of the chief priest Fenglin Akira in the Edo period.
- Kamakura PeriodからMuromachi PeriodFocusing on the Five MountainsZen monkLiterature flourished among us, and againSouthern Song DynastyからInk painting-landscape paintingWas introduced and formed a circle for poetry including public houses.The Shoin of Zen temple is often used as a place for this circle, so the garden of the Shoin naturally developed.In the small space as the front yard of this small Shoin, we created a garden that looks like condensed natural mountain water.Daisen-in TempleThe garden is located on the east side of the Shoin, and rocks are erected on a flat surface of more than 100 square meters. The scenery of floating a stone bridge in the downstream of the lie is similar to that of a landscape painting.Dry landscape gardenSee.
- In this eraDream window solitary stoneMany gardeners including the above are produced.Muso Soseki loved nature and built a famous garden before he went.Above allSaihoji TempleThe garden is a masterpiece composed of the world view of Zen Buddhism, and the influence of this garden on the subsequent gardens is immeasurable.here"SakuteikiIt reminds me of the harsh world of Zen, while resembling the scenery of the mountain village.When Muso Soseki builds a garden, it is part of his training, not for entertainment, and there are records of the suffering of crushing the fields to create a garden.It can be said that the garden, which is comparable to other first-class arts, was born from this way of thinking.The composition of the environment is very suitable for the front yard of the Zen temple, and it can be said that it is the highest peak of stonework.
- Example: As a garden made of Muso SosekiSaihoji Temple(Kyoto),Tenryu temple(Kyoto),Zuisenji Temple(Kamakura), etc., but it is not confirmed because there is a theory that the naturalized monk Lanxi Daolong was involved.In a typical dry landscape garden,Daitokuji TempleDaisen-in TempleIn addition,Ryoanji TempleHojo Ishiba (bothKyoto City)and so on.
- Muromachi PeriodFrom Kyoto,SakaiAs a "fun underneath" from among the townspeopletea ceremonyBecame fashionable.teaDrinkTea utensilsBy appreciating each other, we tried to integrate the main customers.The tea ceremony is called Suyori and is run in Yamai in the city.It is located in the inner part of the Machiya, and guests who come to enjoy the tea ceremony go to the tea room through a narrow passage dedicated to it, apart from the entrance.This is an alley, but there is a garden space for Wabi-cha, which is a functional fusion of this alley and the mountains in the city.Open fieldIt was called, and it changed from the landscape expression of the sea to the taste of the deep mountains, and it was decided to break new ground in the garden expression.
The early modern period
- Edo Period, Shogun or daimyocityWhen building a (Edo) mansion, we actively built a strolling garden where you can go around the garden (a pond represented by the garden of a daimyo mansion, a garden where you can go around around an artificial hill.Ikeizumi migratory gardenIt is said that.Daimyo gardenSee).
- In Tokyo during the Meiji era, the daimyo mansion of the Edo period and the gardens associated with it were destroyed one after another, and in front of this situation.Keijiro OzawaAs a leisure time for his duties, he keeps records of old gardens and collects materials. After he retired, he continued to study gardens and published "Meiji Gardens" in 1915 (Taisho 4).The collected materials amounted to more than 800 volumes.Ozawa is not just a researcher of garden history, he himself created a Japanese garden,Tennoji ParkAnd IseUchinomiya-GekuGaien,Ritsurin ParkIn addition to the scenery of Japan, the Japanese garden exhibited at the Japan-British Exhibition held in London, and my hometown of Mie Prefecture.Kuwana CityThen in 1928Matsudaira SadanobuBuilt with the centennialJiuhua ParkThere are works such as.In addition to studying gardens, he has a deep knowledge of Chinese studies and has written 15 volumes of the Chinese poetry collection "Yoseidou Shigusa".A doctor of literature from art history who developed a fierce dispute with OzawaTokifuyu YokoiWrote "Gardening Thoughts", "Hon'ami Koetsu" and "Kobori Enshu".
- The state of the mansion garden of many emerging bourgeoisies built in Tokyo in the latter half of the Meiji era is also introduced in Shoichi Kondo's "Fifty Kinds of Famous Gardens".In the same book, you can see how the eclectic garden looks like.Eiichi ShibusawaYou can see that Aimuraso, a mansion in Japan, has Japanese houses and Western-style houses lined up in a vast site, and has Western-style and Japanese-style gardens, as well as a tea room and a tea garden.Also KyotoMushakojisenkeBecause it's a gateLandscapingThe Western-style building in the Mitsubishi Fukagawa Fellowship Japanese Garden designed by Soyo IsoyaJosiah CondorAfter that, Condor coexisted Japanese-style houses and gardens with Western-style houses and gardens.Former Iwasaki House Garden,Mitsui Tsunamachi Bettei,Former Moroto Seiroku Residence,Old Furukawa Garden(The Japanese style part is made by Ogawa Jihei) and so on.
- Yamagata Yuho 1896In KyotoNanzenji TempleBuilt to the west ofMurin-anHowever, I made good use of the not-so-large site and used Higashiyama as a backdrop.Lake Biwa CanalA stream of water runs through the lawn.Worked onOgawa Jihei(Ueji) was then in KyotoNanzenji TempleNomura in the vicinityHekiunso,Heian Jingu Shrine,Yasaka ShrineShinen,Maruyama Park, NagahamaKeiunkanWe have created many scenic gardens such as the main garden.The flow of planting is my nephew'sSentaro IwakiIn addition, it will be inherited in various places.
- Worked on Ogiko Sanso along with plantingShintaro OeIn a dissertation entitled "Garden Design" published in the 1924 "Ars Architecture University Course", he develops a methodology leading to garden design, not from the perspective of other architects and garden appreciation.In addition to the view line from the key points in the garden being written in the posted drawing, the classification of Japanese gardens is conventional.Tsukiyama,Open fieldAs a good example of a cliff garden, adding and to the threeSanbutsuji TempleInput hallAre listed.
- Some of them tried to capture the natural scenery instead of the landscape, and it became a sculptural and decorative garden with a strong subjectivity of the gardener.Of the painterHaruyama YamamotoMade by the landscape architectOtsu City OfRokasensuisoIs said to be a literary garden and inherited itSaichi KojimaAlsoKyoto CityThere is a garden, but in the early Showa periodJuki IidaThe garden of miscellaneous trees promoted by (Torasaburo) is called "natural style" by XNUMX units (XNUMX units called others "garden-making style").Kenzo OgataIt was succeeded by, and spread rapidly with the artificialization of the city.Juki Iida and others differ from planting in that they grow naturally in the mountains of the whole country called miscellaneous trees, seek materials that are strong, have many types, and are easy to transplant, and have established a method that makes them look natural at full scale. is there.After that, this method was conveyed by the ease of material procurement and transportation, the convenience of the reference item of wilderness, the establishment of the selection method, and the formulation of the planting method of immature trees, and later planted the miscellaneous trees in the fields. It also secures distribution.Juki Iida's natural-style garden was a form that did not seem to be inconsistent with iron, glass, concrete buildings, vast sites, and small spaces.
- In the Taisho era, the way cities and houses should be emerged as a new theme in the architectural world, and as part of this, interest in residential gardens has increased.In the theory of gardens by modern architectsSakuteikiUnlike the visual evaluation of gardens represented by, the viewpoint that emphasizes functionality and spatiality is set out.At that time, gardens were listed as an item in the six principles of the Life Improvement Alliance, and the Japanese Garden Association was established in 6.Research on old gardens led by the association, and contemporary architects, landscape architects, and gardeners sought new gardens.Minoru KoudaVigorously wrote articles related to gardens,Katsuya YasuokaHas published many books introducing teahouses, sukiya architecture and gardens...In parallel with this, I started researching gardens.Mirei ShigemoriActually measured the existing gardens all over the country, and since the beginning of the Showa era, many templesDry landscape gardenHe created a garden in the temple and criticized the naturalistic garden in the temple to establish a symbolic garden.Avoiding the eclectic atmosphere of the Taisho era, it reached the postwar period supported by the deepening of garden history research and scientific modern landscaping techniques.Especially from the prewar periodMatsunosuke Tatsui,Yoshinobu Yoshinaga,Osamu MoriThe pioneering research of these scientific garden history studies has become a great force in the creation of the present Japanese garden and in the preservation of the famous gardens of the past by further increasing the proof density after the war.
Three famous gardens in Japan
However, its origin and selection criteria are not clear.It has also been pointed out that it cannot be said that all Japanese gardens are taken into consideration in that the vast daimyo gardens created in the Edo period are selected.
- Kenrokuen Garden(Ishikawa PrefectureKanazawa）
- Korakuen(Okayama PrefectureOkayama CityKita）
- Kairakuen(Ibaraki PrefectureMito）
- Motsuji Temple Garden (Iwate PrefectureNishiiwai DistrictHiraizumi Town）
- Former Kanjizaiōin Garden (Hiraizumi Town, Nishiiwai District, Iwate Prefecture)
- Kozenji Temple (Nagano PrefectureKomagane）
- Ichijodani Asakura Garden (FukuiFukui City）
- Saihoji Temple(Moss Temple) (Kyoto Prefecture)Kyoto CityNishikyo Ward）
- Ryoanji Temple Hojo Ishiba (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Ukyo Ward）
- Erinji Temple National scenic garden (Yamanashi Prefecture)Koshu）
- Myoshinji Temple Treasury (Ukyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Tenryu temple Sogenike Garden (Ukyo-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Daitokuji Temple Daisen-in Temple (Kyoto, Kyoto PrefectureKita）
- Luyuan Temple (Kinkakuji Temple) (Kita Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Daitokuji Temple Ryogen-inHojo Garden (Kita-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Jishoji Temple (Ginkakuji) (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Sakyo Ward）
- Kodaiji Entokuin (Kyoto, Kyoto PrefectureHigashiyama Ward）
- Honpoji Temple Tomoe no Niwa (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Kamigyo Ward）
- Former Ojiri Garden (NaraNara）
- Taizanji Temple Anyang Garden (Hyogo prefectureKobe CityNishi-ward）
- Kokawaji Temple Garden (Wakayama PrefectureKinokawa City）
- Bamboo forest Garden (Kochi PrefectureKochi）
The early modern period
- Gyokusenen garden(IshikawaKanazawa）
- Yokan Garden(FukuiFukui City）
- Saifukuji Temple Garden (Fukui Prefecture)Tsuruga）
- Seiganji Temple Garden (Shiga PrefectureMaibara）
- Odoji Temple Hanshan Garden, Rantei Garden (ShigaNagahama）
- Genguen(Shiga PrefectureHikone）
- Ihatsuji Garden(Shiga PrefectureOtsu City）
- Katsura Imperial Villa (Nishikyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Shugakuin Imperial Villa (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Daigoji Temple Sanboin (Kyoto, Kyoto PrefectureFushimi Ward）
- Nishi Honganji Shoin (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Shimogyo Ward）
- Nijo Castle Ninomaru Palace Garden (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Nakagyo Ward）
- Nanzenji Temple Hojo (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Nanzenji Temple Kinchiin (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Daitokuji Temple Hojo (Kita-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Shisendo (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Entsuji Temple (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)
- Shokado Garden (Kyoto)Yawata）
- Negoro-ji Temple Garden (Wakayama Prefecture)Iwade City）
- Wakayama Castle Nishinomaru Garden(Momijidani Teien) (Wakayama Prefecture)Wakayama City）
- Yosuien (Wakayama City, Wakayama Prefecture)
- Kannon Garden (TottoriTottori City）
- Tokushima Castle Former Tokushima Castle Omotesen Garden (Chiakikaku Garden) (TokushimaTokushima）
Meiji and Taisho era
- KeiunkanGarden (Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture)- Seventh generation, Ogawa Jihei(Plant) work
- Maruyama Park (Kyoto, Kyoto PrefectureHigashiyama Ward) ― By Ogawa Jihei (Ueji), the XNUMXth generation
- Murin-an (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture) --By Jihei Ogawa (Ueji), the XNUMXth generation
- Heian Jingu Shrine (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture) --By Jihei Ogawa (Ueji), the XNUMXth generation
- Hekiunso (Sakyo-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture) -The XNUMXth generation, by Ogawa Jihei (Ueji).private
- RakurakusoGarden (Kyoto)Kameoka) --Seventh generation, by Ogawa Jihei (Ueji)
- HakusasonsoGarden (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City)
- Keizawaen (OsakaOsakaTennoji Ward) --Seventh generation, by Ogawa Jihei (Ueji)
- Sorakuen (Kobe city, Hyogo PrefChuo-ku)- National registered monumentFirst registered property of
- Yuisuien (Nara City, Nara Prefecture) --Urasenke XNUMXth Mata Myosai
- Onzansoen (Wakayama PrefectureHainan) --The tide-type pond spring strolling garden, the largest private garden in Japan
- Agegame Garden(Aomori PrefectureHirosaki)-Obatatei Tsukisaku
- Kanehiranarien (Sawaseien)(Aomori PrefectureKuroishi, Scenic spot)
- Zirakuen(Aomori PrefectureHirosaki, Scenic spot)
- Moribien(Aomori PrefectureHirakawa)-Mimasaka Kiyoto
- Kosetsuen(HokkaidoHakodate)-By Minejiro Iwafune
- Saito Garden(Miyagi PrefectureIshinomaki, Scenic spot)
- Former Ikeda Garden(AkitaDaisen City, Scenic spot)
- Takanashi Garden (Chiba PrefectureNoda-shi, Scenic spot)
- Former Tokugawa Akitake Garden (Tojo-tei Garden)(ChibaMatsudo-shi, Scenic spot)
- Former Hotta Masatomo Garden(Chiba佐 倉 市, Scenic spot)
- Sankeien(Kanagawa Prefecture横 浜 市)- Tomitaro HaraWork
- Former Moroto Garden(Mie PrefectureKuwana City, Scenic spot)
- Moroto Garden(Kuwana City, Mie Prefecture, scenic spot)
- Former Hori Gardens(Shimane PrefectureKanoashi-gunTsuwano Town, Scenic spot)
- Mohri Garden(Hofu City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, scenic spot)
- Tachibana Garden(Yanagawa City, Fukuoka Prefecture, scenic spot)
- Nine year hermitage(Former Itami villa) Garden (Saga Prefecture)Kanzaki, Scenic spot)
- Tofukuji Temple Hojo (Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)- Mirei ShigemoriWork
- Matsuo Taisha Shofuen (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Nishikyo Ward) --Mirei Shigemori
- JonanguRakusuien (Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture)Fushimi Ward)- Kinsaku NakaneWork
- Daisen ParkJapanese garden (OsakaSakai CitySakai Ward) --Kinsaku Nakane
- Adachi Museum of Art (Shimane Yasugi City) --Kinsaku Nakane.Winner of the Grand Prix every year since 2003 in the "Outstanding Japanese Garden Ranking" of the American magazine "Journal of Japanese Gardening"
- Todoroki ValleyJapanese garden in the park (Tokyo)Setagaya)-Juki Iida
- Expo Memorial ParkJapanese garden (Osaka PrefectureSuita City)- Rokuro TajiWork.Expo '70Exhibited works
- Nagaku ResidenceGarden (Kainan City, Wakayama Prefecture)
- YamamototeiGarden (TokyoKatsushika）
Tofukuji TempleHojo Garden
Daisen ParkJapanese garden
Adachi Museum of ArtKaresansui Garden
Impact outside Japan
In the latter half of the 19th century, in Western countriesJaponismeJapanese style with garden stones, drum bridges, lanterns, tea rooms, etc.Landscape gardenHas come to be made.Some are made by local gardeners with the image of Japan, while others are made by inviting craftsmen from Japan.Japanese garden"(Japanese Garden).
1867 yearsParis World ExpositionIs Japan (Edo Shogunate・ Satsuma Domain / Saga Domain) participated for the first timeExpoHowever, since the Japanese garden was created at that time, the Japanese garden has been one of the highlights of Japanese exhibits at the Expo held in Europe and the United States.In Europe, aristocrats and millionaires began to create Japanese-style gardens, and even in the North American continent, Japanese-style gardens and teahouses began to be created in a corner of the park.Japanese who were active in Europe during this periodGardenerThere is a Japanese gardener who was active in North America.
Hired foreignerWas coming to Japan asEnglishman建築 家Josiah CondorIn 1893, "Introduction to Japanese Gardens" (Landscape gardening in Japan) Was published by Kelly & Walsh.From the history of the Japanese garden to the composition methodKazuma OgawaCondor explained that the Japanese garden modeling was a gift of selecting the characteristic parts of the surrounding natural landscape, using many photographs taken by the Japanese garden in an easy-to-understand manner. There is.This book is sold in England as well as in Shanghai and Singapore.Sanehide KodamaAccording to the report, Japanese gardens were actually built overseas, such as in the United States, with reference to this book at that time.Reprinted in the United States after World War II and is still todayKodansha InternationalA reprint has been published in.
Also, for the establishment of the Japan Landscaping Society, the Japan Garden Association, and the Japan Landscaping Association before the war.Kiyoshi InoshitaPlay an important role withMatsunosuke TatsuiAside from his research and education in landscaping history, he has translated many books on gardens into English and is trying to introduce them overseas.After World War II, new Japanese people as part of exchanges between sister citiesGardenerA Japanese garden designed by will also be created.In the United States, a specialized magazine for Japanese garden lovers is also published.
- Dry landscape garden
- Migratory garden
- Daimyo garden
- Garden stone - jade - Tsubo-niwa - Open field(Tea garden)- Suikinkutsu - bamboo fence - Lantern - 蹲 - Hand basin - Shishiodoshi - Borrowed scenery - Set stone
- Gardener - Landscaping - Gardener
- Song Feast
- Scenic spot
- Suitable for the four gods - Penglai
- Asian gardens,Chinese garden
- Japanese garden outside Japan
- Image list of city parks and gardens
- "Iwanami Japanese Garden Dictionary" Kenkichi Ono Iwanami Shoten ISBN 4000802070
- "The Garden of Planting, The World of Jihei Ogawa", edited by Hiromasa Amasaki ISBN 4473011585
- "Karesansui"Mirei Shigemori Kawahara Bookstore ISBN 4761101598
- "The Thought of Ancient Gardens-Adoration for the Shinsen World" edited by Hiroyuki Kaneko Kadokawa Shoten Kadokawa Shoten ISBN 4047033391
- "Medieval History of Gardens" Yoshimasa Ashikaga and Higashiyama Sanso History and Culture Library Norio Hida Yoshikawa Kobunkan ISBN-4 642-05609-2
- Norio Hida (1985): "Landscaping from the perspective of" Sakuteiki "" Kajima Institute Publishing pp.142-153
- Kei Nishi (2005): "Ask about the history and design of Japanese garden culture" Gakugei Shuppansha Appendix p.11-25
- Saburo Kimura (1983): "The thing called" Tsukasa Sonoike "" Japan Landscape Architecture Society Vol. 47, No. 5, p.61-66
- ^ Eiichiro Saito, "Genealogy of Japanese-style garden research by modern architects and its characteristics Exchange between the architectural world and the landscaping world as seen in books and magazinesJournal of the Japanese Garden Society 2006 Vol. 2006, No. 14-15, p.15-22, two:10.5982 / jgarden.2006.15
- ^ Setsu Tachibana "Life History of Gardens / Life Geography"
- History of Kyoto Gardens (Kyoto City Cultural Tourism Resource Conservation Foundation)
- Kamakura garden --Kenji Miyamoto (Kanagawa Shimbun)