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State of Tennessee
Tennessee flagTennessee Mark
(State flag)(State emblem)
State nickname: Volunteer State
Volunteer State
State motto: Agriculture and commerce
Agriculture and Commerce
Tennessee Location
State capitalNashville
Largest cityNashville
Governor(English edition)
Official terminologyEnglish
 - Grand total
 -Water area
36th in the US
109,247 km²
106,846 km²
2,400 km² (2.2%)
 - Grand total
 - Population density
17th in the US
60.0 people/km²
Join US
 -Date of subscription

Time zoneUTC -5, -6
STD -4, -5
latitudeNorth latitude 34°59'-36°41'
longitudeWest longitude 81°39'-90°19'
East-west width710 km
North-south length195 km
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

2,025 m
270 m
54 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-TN
WebsiteTennessee Government
SenatorLamar Alexander

Tennessee(British: State of Tennessee [tɛnᵻˈsiː] ( Audio file),Abbreviation: TN[1][2], Tin metal.[1][2][3],Cherokee: ᏔᎾᏏ, Latin transcription: tanasi[Note 1]) Isアメリカ合衆国SouthernStateIs[2][3]..It ranks 50th in land area and 36th in population among the 17 states of the United States.Civil WarThen.ConfederacyBelonging to the side,Shiloh,Nashville,MurfreesboroEtc. became the battlefield.

Tennessee has eight states on the border (to the west)ArkansasとMissouriTo the northKentuckyとVirginia,To the eastNorth carolinaTo the southGeorgia,Alabama,Mississippi)[4]..Missouri and Tennessee are the only such states in the United States.In the eastern part of the stateAppalachian MountainsThere is.The western borderMississippi RiverIs[4].

State capital TheNashvilleで[2][3], The largest in the statecity TheMemphis(As of 2014)[2])[3]..In other major citiesChattanooga,Knoxvilleand so on.

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (Tennessee) 2010[5]
Racial composition (Tennessee) 2010
イ ン デ ィ ア ン

Origin of the state name

The first variation of the Tennessee name was recorded in 1567.スペインExplorer Juan Pardo, along with his expedition membersSouth CarolinaCalled "Tanasqui" while traveling inland fromイ ン デ ィ ア ンIt was when I passed through the village of. Early 18th centuryEnglishmanTraders are nowMonroe CountyAnd it's called "Tanasi" (or "Tanase")CherokeeI came across the town of.The town is on the river of the same name (now the Little Tennessee River) and was already on the map in 1725.It's unclear if it's the same town that Juan Pard encountered, but recent research suggests that Pard's "Tanaski" was near the confluence of the Pigeon and French Broad rivers, now near the city of Newport.[6].

The meaning and etymology of the word Tennessee is unknown.There is a theory that the initial form of Uchi was modified in Cherokee.There are various theories such as "meeting place", "winding river", and "river at a large bend".[7][8]..AnthropologistJames MooneyAccording to, it is "unanalyzable" and its meaning has been lost.[9].

Current spellingTennesseeThe beginning of the story is attributed to James Glen, Governor-General of the Province of South Carolina. This spelling was used in official letters in the 1750s. It was used and generalized in Henry Timberlake's Cherokee Country Overview, published in 1765. 1788,North carolinaFounded Tennessee County as the third county in what is now central Tennessee.This Tennessee County is nowMontgomery CountyとRobertson CountyIs the predecessor of. In 1796Southwest territoryAs the name of the state when the Constitutional Assembly was convened to organize the new state fromTennesseeIt was adopted.


Tennessee has the nickname "Volunteer State of Volunteers."this isUS-UK warAt that time, especially in 1815Battle of New OrleansNamed for the outstanding work of Tennessee volunteers.[10].


Early history

Paleo-Indians have lived in what is now Tennessee for 12,000 years.[11]..The names of the tribes that lived in the area between the arrival of the Paleo-Indian and the time of European contact are unknown, but archaeologist-named ancient (8000-1000 BC), Woodland. Period (1000 BC-1000 BC),Mississippi cultureThere are several periodizations such as (1000-1600).The ruler of Mississippian culture lived in the Tennessee Valley AuthorityMuscogeeBecame a cultural ancestor ofTennessee RiverIn the water source areaCherokeeHas immigrated.

The earliest recorded European expedition to the territory of Tennessee was in 1540.Hernando de Soto, Tristan de Luna in 1559, Juan Pardo in 1567, etc.SpanishSome are led by explorers.Pald recorded the word "Tanaski" from the Indian settlement name, which may have become the current state name.At that time, Tennessee was inhabited by the Muscogee and Yuchi.The area has become uninhabited as the Indian population may have plummeted due to an infectious disease reported by Europeans.European settlements spread in the north, and the CherokeeVirginiaIt moved from the southern part that was called.As European pioneers spread to the region, Muscogee, Yoochun,ChickasawTribe,ChoctawIndians such as tribes were expelled to the south and west.

The first English settlement in Tennessee was Fort Loudon, near what is now Vonore.At that time, it was the westernmost British front base.The fort was designed by John William Gerrard of Bram and built by Captain Raymond Demea of ​​the British Army.When the fort was completed, Captain Demea entrusted his brother, Captain Paul Demea, to command the fort on August 1757, 8.A hostile relationship arose between the British and the nearby mountainous Cherokee, and Fort Loudon was besieged and surrendered on August 14, 1760.The next morning, Captain Paul Demea and many of his men were ambushed and killed, and most of the remaining garrison were taken prisoner.[12].

In the 1760s, Virginia's long-distance hunters explored the eastern and central parts of Tennessee, with the first European settlers entering the region later in the 18s. The majority of 20th century pioneers were British or their descendants, but nearly XNUMX% were Scottish-Irish.[13]..These pioneers formed the Watoga Alliance, a community built on land rented from the Cherokee tribe.

American Revolutionary War1776, Sycamore Shoals (nowElizabethton) Was at Fort Watoga in EnglandLoyalistHe was attacked by a Cherokee chief dragging canoe and his warrior group.The pioneers called these rebellious Cherokee tribes "Chickamauga".They areNorth carolinaOpposed to the annexation of the Washington district and further north and west settlement of the Transylvenia colony.A warning from Dragging Canoe's cousin Nancy Ward saved many of the pioneer's lives from the first attack by the warrior.The frontier fort on the banks of the Watoga River was built by Overmountain Men in 1780.Appalachian MountainsPrepared for an expedition across North Carolina, later in North CarolinaKings Mountain BattleI played against the British army and defeated it.

In 1784, three counties in the Washington area (now part of Tennessee) separated from North Carolina.FranklinWas formed.CoalitionAttempts to join the United States below failed and returned to North Carolina in 1789. In 1790, the United States governmentSouthwest territoryThe state of North Carolina transferred the area to the United States government.In 1787, North Carolina, its home state, became a Cumberland settlement from the southern tip of Mount Kerinci (East Tennessee) to French Rick (Nashville) to encourage settlers to enter new territories. I made a road to enter.This road was called the "North Carolina Road" or "Avery Road" and was sometimes called the "Wild Wild Road".

State promotion (1796)

Tennessee was promoted to the 1796th state of the United States on June 6, 1.It was the first state to be created in a territory under the jurisdiction of the United States government.At the time of the founding of the country13 coloniesIn addition to, in front of TennesseeVermontとKentuckyWas made, neither of which was the territory of the United States Government[14]..According to Article 1 of the Tennessee Constitution, the territory of Tennessee begins at the intersection of the line passing through the highest point of Mount Stone and the state border with Virginia, and is the basis of the Appalachian Mountains that separates Tennessee and North Carolina. Follow the line connecting the summits, past the towns of Indian Cowee and Chota, and then follow the main ridge of Mount Unicoi to the southern border.All territories, lands and waters west of the line drawn in this way are included in the territory of the new Tennessee.Some of these regulations extend state territory and jurisdiction to land acquired in the future, including land acquired in exchange for other states, or land that may be acquired west of the Mississippi River. Was mentioned.

Martin Van BurenDuring the presidential administration, nearly 17,000 Cherokees and about 2,000 black slaves owned by them were displaced from their hometowns between 1838 and 1839.US ArmyFrom the "immigrant stop" (Fort Kas, etc.) in East Tennessee by escortArkansasTo the west ofIndian TerritoryMarched to the land of[15]..An estimated 4,000 Cherokees died during this move[16]..This trip is in CherokeeNunna daul IsunyiThat is, it was called "the way we cried."By the United States GovernmentIndian forced migrationAs a result, many tribes, not just the Cherokee, were forced to relocate, especially "Civilized Five TribesThe same march that "" endured is "Road of tearsWas called.The term began as a description of the Choctaw migration.

Civil War and Reconstruction

In February 1861, Tennessee separatists, led by Governor Isham Harris, sought voter approval for a meeting to break ties with the United States, but voted against 2% in a referendum.56 Was rejected by%.Strong opposition to withdrawal was in East Tennessee (later there was a move to establish a state to ally with the Union Army). In AprilAttack on Fort SumterReacted to this after it happenedLincolnDemanded that states such as Tennessee launch an army, and Governor Harris began mobilizing the army and submitted a withdrawal ordinance to Congress.United States of AmericaPreliminary negotiations were held directly with the government. On May 1861, 5, the Tennessee Parliament ratified an agreement to form a military alliance with the Confederate States of America.On June 7, the same year, the residents of Central Tennessee changed their mindset significantly and decided to withdraw by a referendum.Tennessee was the last state to decide to leave.

Civil WarBig battles continued in the state, most of themUnion ArmyWon. February 1862,Ulysses GrantWith the shogunUS NavySeized the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. AprilBattle of ShilohでConfederateRepelled the counterattack. On the Mississippi River in front of the city of Memphis in JuneNaval battleThe city of Memphis fell.The Union ruled the western and central parts of Tennessee due to the fall of Memphis and Nashville. Early January 1863,Battle of MurfreesboroAnd thenOperation for TullahomaSo the Union rule became solid.

East Tennessee is extremely ConfederateSullivan CountyExcept for, the Union Army had a strong feeling, but the Confederates ruled here. In early autumn 1863Operation for ChattanoogaThe Confederates then surrounded the city of Chattanooga, but were expelled by Grant forces in November.Many of the Confederate defeatsBattle of PerryvilleLed the Confederate Tennessee Army from to ChattanoogaBraxton BraggIt can be attributed to the shogun's poor strategic eyes.

The last major battle in Tennessee was in November 1864 when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee.Battle of FranklinStopped in DecemberBattle of NashvilleUnion armyGeorge Henry ThomasIt was completely crushed before the shogun.Meanwhile, from President Abraham Lincoln to civiliansAndrew JohnsonWas appointed Secretary of the Tennessee State Army Government.

Declaration of slave liberationWas issued, Tennessee was mostly under Union control.Because of this, Tennessee was not the state in which the Emancipation Proclamation released slaves, and the Declaration did not release any slaves.Still a slaveAfrican AmericanFleeed inside the Union front to gain freedom without waiting for official release.Old and young, men and women, and children camped near the Union Army.Many former slaves fled the war on the Union side, bringing the number to nearly 20 throughout the South.

The Tennessee Parliament approved a draft amendment to the state constitution banning slavery in the state on February 1865, 2.[17]..Citizens approved the amendment in March[18]..Also on April 4, the same year13th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionRatified (abolished slavery in all states).

In 1864, Andrew Johnson, a hawkish Democrat in Tennessee, was elected Vice President of President Lincoln. In April 1865Lincoln assassinatedAfter that, he became president.Under Johnson's generous re-affiliation policy, Tennessee became the first state to re-affiliate the United States, sending a deputy to the United States Congress on July 1866, 7.Tennessee14th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionBecause I had ratifiedReconstructionIt became the only former withdrawal state without a military government secretary at the time.

Even after the reconstruction was officially over, the power struggle in southern society continued.Violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies led to white whites in Tennessee and other southern states in the 1870s and 1880s.Democratic PartyRuled politically.Over the next decade, the legislature passed restrictive legislation to rule African Americans. In 10, the state legislature passed four laws to reform the electoral system, effectively removing the right to vote from African Americans living in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor whites.The law had poll tax, timing of voter registration, and record requirements.Hundreds of thousands of tax-paying citizens have been left without the right to vote for decades into the 1889th century[19]..This deprivation of election rights was established in the 19th centuryJim Crow MethodAccompanied by the stateRacismWas imposed. As of 1900, the African-American population was 480,430, 24% of the state's population, most of whom lived in the central and western parts of the state.[20].

At an exposition in Nashville in 1897, Tennessee celebrated the 100th anniversary of its promotion (although the actual 100th anniversary was 1896, a year behind).Current city of NashvilleCentennial ParkIs full-scaleParthenon templeWas built.

20st century

August 1920, 8, TennesseeSuffrage for womengive19th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionIt became the 36th state required for ratification.The deprivation of the right to vote against African Americans and the poor whites was still ongoing, but for the time being, men and women became equal.

World DepressionThe need to create jobs for the unemployed at the time, the desire to electrify the countryside, the need to control the Tennessee River flooding each spring, and the need to improve the capacity of the Tennessee River And so on, all of these combined, TVA in 1933,Tennessee River Basin Development CorporationWill be established.With that impetus, Tennessee quickly became the largest electricity supplier in the country.

Second World WarTaking advantage of the abundant power of TVAManhattan planIs promoted and East Tennessee uses it as a weaponFissile materialIt became one of the main production and separation points.To accommodate the facility and workersPlanned city OfOak RidgeWas built from scratch.This place is nowOak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12 National Safety Research Institute, and East Tennessee Industrial Park.

Although the effects of limiting the right to vote for poor whites were recognized, subsequent state legislatures expanded the scope of the deprivation of election law until it covered all states. In 1949, political scientist V. O. Key Jr. said, "The size of the poll tax has not prohibited voting as much as the inconvenience of paying it. County officials (as they did in Knoxville) tax. By giving them the opportunity to pay, they regulated voters, or by making payments as difficult as possible, and vice versa. Such tax manipulation, and thus voting rights manipulation, with political bosses in the city.Political machineGave the opportunity to rise.City politicians bought large numbers of poll tax receipts and distributed them to blacks and whites to vote as directed. "[19].

In 1953, the Legislature amended the State Constitution to eliminate poll tax.Still, there are many areas where blacks and poor whites have been hindered from registering as voters.Voting Rights Act of 1965The national civil rights law was enacted, and obstacles were removed.[19].

In 1996, he celebrated the 200th anniversary of the promotion of the state. A festival entitled "Tennessee 200" lasted for a year throughout the state, opening with the opening of a new state park (1th Anniversary Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville.

The big train accident that occurred in the state in 1918 became the worst train accident in the history of the United States[21].. SS on the Mississippi River near Memphis in April 1865SultanaExplosion accident became one of the largest marine accidents in Japan[22].


Related item:Tennessee County List

Tennessee is adjacent to eight other states.Tennessee in the northKentuckyとVirginiaIn the eastern partNorth carolinaIn the southGeorgia,AlabamaとMississippiIn the westArkansasとMissouriAre in contact with each other.This stateTennessee RiverDivided into three equal parts.The highest point of the state is in the eastern part of TennesseeGreat Smoky Mountains National ParkInside,Appalachian MountainsBelongs toClingmans DomeAt the top of the mountain, it is 2,025 meters above sea level (6,643 feet).[23]..The Clingmans Dome is on the eastern border andAppalachian TrailBut it is the highest point.The border between Tennessee and North Carolina crosses the summit.The lowest point in the state is the Mississippi River, which borders Mississippi, and is also the lowest point in the city of Memphis.The altitude is 59 meters (195 feet).The geographic center of gravity of TennesseeMurfreesboroIt is in.

Tennessee is geographically and legally divided into three major divisions.That is, East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee.The State Constitution states that of the five Tennessee Supreme Court judges, each major division must not exceed two, and certain committees and boards have similar rules.Generally, the separation line between West Tennessee and Central Tennessee is the Tennessee River, and the separation line between Central Tennessee and East Tennessee.Cumberland PlateauAnd

Topographically, it is divided into 6 categories.That is,Blue ridge mountains, Appalachian Mountains / Canyon Area, Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, Nashville Basin, Gulf Coastal Plain.With 8,350 registered caves in the state, it is the largest in the country.

East tennessee

The Blue Ridge region at the eastern end of the state forms the border with North Carolina.This areaBlue ridge mountainsIt is characterized by high mountains and rocky terrain.The Breeridge Mountains are divided into several branches, including the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bold Mountains, the Unicoy Mountains, the Unaka Mountains, the Lone Plateau, and the Iron Mountains.

The average elevation in the Blue Ridge area is 5,000 feet (1,500 m).The highest point in the stateClingmans DomeIs in this area.This area is almost uninhabited, the Cherokee National Forest,Great Smoky Mountains National Park, And is protected by some federal protected fabrics and state parks.

Approximately 55 miles (88 km) west of the Blue Ridge region is the Ridge and Valley region, where many streams combine to form the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley.There is a fertile watershed plain in the area, separated by forested ridges such as Mt. Bayes and Mt. Kerinci.In the western part of the Tennessee Valley, the lowlands are wide and the ridges are low, known as the Great Valley.The valley is home to many towns and is the third largest city in the stateKnoxvilleAnd the fourth cityChattanoogaThere are two of the three urbanized areas, such as.

The Cumberland Plateau rises west of the Tennessee Valley.It is characterized by a flat mountain at the top divided by a deeply cut valley.Elevations range from 1,500 feet (450 m) to 2,000 feet (600 m).

Middle Tennessee

To the west of the Cumberland Plateau is the Highland Rim, a plateau that surrounds the Nashville Basin.The northern part is known for its high tobacco production and is sometimes referred to as the Pennyroyal Plateau.It is mainly in the southwestern part of the state.The Nashville Basin is a fertile farmland with a great variety of wildlife.

Middle Tennessee was a common destination for pioneers coming from Virginia across the Appalachian Mountains in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.An important trading route, called the Natchez Trace, which was built by the Indians and used for many generations, connected Central Tennessee with the town of Natchez on the lower Mississippi River.This route is now the source of a scenic road called the Natchez Trace Parkway.

TakagiAmerican chestnutThe last survivors of the are native to this area.This treeBody blightIt is useful for growing strong trees.

In addition to having a state government in Central Tennessee, it is a densely populated and central transportation hub.Nashville, the capital city,Clarksville, There are big cities such as Murfreesboro.Half of Tennessee's population lives within a radius of 600 miles (1,000 km) from the city of Nashville.[24]..Interstate 24, 40, and 65 divide the area into three parts.

West tennessee

To the west of the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which includes the Mississippi Bay Formation.The Gulf Coastal PlainGulf of MexicoBeginning in the northIllinoisIt is part of a vast plain that extends to the south.Within Tennessee, it is between the Tennessee River in the east and the Mississippi River in the west, and is divided into three parts.

The eastern part is about 10 miles (16 km) wide and is a hilly area along the west bank of the Tennessee River.To the west is a wide area of ​​swelling hills and streams that extend to the Mississippi River.This area is also known as the Tennessee Bottom.In the westernmost city of Memphis, the Tennessee Bottom ends with a steep cliff overlooking the Mississippi River.To the west is the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, which is less than 300 feet (90 m) above sea level.This lowland is a floodplain and a wetland,Mississippi DeltaSometimes called.In West Tennessee, the city of Memphis is the economic center and the largest city in the state.

Most of West Tennessee was Indian land until the time the Chickasaws transferred the territory between the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers in 1818.Part of this Chickasaw transfer is in Kentucky and is now known as the Jackson Purchasing Site.

Public land

National Park ServiceThe jurisdiction of is included:

  • Andrew Johnson National Historic Site ()
  • Appalachian Trail
  • Big South Fork National River Recreation Area
  • Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
  • Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
  • Foot Hills Parkway
  • Fort Donelson National Battlefield and National Cemetery (nearby)
  • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
  • Natchez Trace Park Road
  • Obed Natural Scenic River (nearby)
  • Over Mountain Victory National Historical Road
  • Shiloh National Military Park and National Cemetery ()
  • Stones River National Battlefield and National Cemetery (Murfreesboro City)
  • Trail of Tears National Historical Road

In addition, the area is 534 km2(132,000acre), 54 state parks, part of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cherokee National Forest, and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park are located in Tennessee.New Madrid EarthquakeLillefoot Lake, made of wood, has traces of deep forest and gives it a strange beauty, along with lotus flowers that cover shallow waters.

Related item:Tennessee State Park List


Most of TennesseeWarm and humid climateIt is in.With the exception of the high-altitude, cool regions of the Appalachian Mountains, the mountainous warm climate orWet continental climateare categorized.Tennessee's climateGulf of MexicoHas had a major impact, with winds from the south carrying rainwater throughout the year.Summers are generally hot, and winters are warm to cool.There is precipitation all year round.The average annual rainfall is 50 inches (1,300 mm).Snowfall ranges from 5 inches (13 cm) in western Tennessee to 16 inches (41 cm) in the high mountains of eastern Tennessee.[25].

Summers are generally hot and humid.Average daytime maximum temperature in summer is 90° F It is near (32 ℃).Winters are warm to cool, and in the highlands the degree of coolness increases.Except for alpine, the average minimum temperature at night is near freezing.Record highs recorded in Perryville on August 1930, 8 9° F (45 ° C), record low temperature recorded in Mountain City on December 1917, 12-30° F It is (-36 ° C).

Tennessee is far from the coast,HurricaneIs less directly affected by the 1982 tropical cyclone Chris,Tropical cycloneAlthough the remnants of the landing have weakened, they can cause considerable rainfall.There are about 50 thunderstorm days on average annually, among which are large(I.e.Some are accompanied by storms.Throughout the state竜 巻Can occur, especially in West Tennessee and Central Tennessee.Sometimes a powerful tornado occurs[26]..The average annual number is 15[27]..Tornadoes can be fierce, with the highest percentage of dead tornadoes in the United States[28]..Winter storms can sometimes be troublesome, and storms with ice and rain are likely to occur.Especially in most of the smoky mountains(I.e.Is a problem.

Monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures (° F) for each city[29]


Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±

United States Census BureauAccording to an estimate as of July 2011, 7, the state population was 1, an increase of 6,403,353% from the 2010 census (6,346,105).[30]..TennesseeCenter of gravity TheMurfreesboro CityThere isRutherford CountyHas become[31].

According to the United States Census Bureau, the population of Tennessee was estimated at 2006 as of 6,038,803, an increase of 83,058 (1.4%) from the previous year and an increase of 2000 (349,541%) from 6.1.This includes a natural increase of 142,266 from the previous census (493,881 births and 351,615 deaths) and a net increase of 219,551 immigrants to the state.Emigration from outside the United States increased by 59,385, and migration from within the United States increased by 160,166% of the population is born outside the South, up from 20% in 1990[32]..In recent years, Tennessee has seen a large number of immigrants from northern, California, and Florida.This is due to the low cost of living and the booming medical and automotive industries.Due to these factors, the Nashville metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing regions in the country.

6.6% of Tennessee's population is reported to be under 5 years old, 24.6% under 18 years old, and 12.4% over 65 years old.Women make up approximately 51.3% of the population.

Race and ancestry

The composition ratio by ancestors declared in the state in 2000 was as follows[33].

Many who declare themselves American are of English or Scottish-Irish descent.Estimates of 21 to 24% are of English ancestry[34][35].. In the 1980 census, 1,435,147 were declared English or mostly English, accounting for 3,221,354% of the population at the time (45).[36].

According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the state was:[37].

African Americans once accounted for 28% of the state's population, but now account for 16% of the total population.The African population of the state is predominantly concentrated in western Tennessee and in Nashville.

As of 2011, 1% of the population under the age of 36.3 is an ethnic minority[38].


The status of parliamentary beliefs of Tennessee residents was as follows:[39].

Indian tribe

Cherokee,Shawnee,,,Chickasaw,,,Muskogee,NatchezIndian tribes such as ,,,, formed villages throughout the area and engaged in farming life.

The largest Cherokee tribe spans four regions in Tennessee and has more than 4 settlements and villages.In particular, Chattanooga in the southern part of the state is called the "Chickamauga region", and "Running Water", "Nickajack", "Long Island", "Lookout Mountain" and "Crow Town" are known as "Five Indian Villages". It was.

For white settlersイ ン デ ィ ア ンTribal coalition uprisingChickamauga War(1776-1794) extended to the state, where many Indian tribes were slaughtered.During this battle, in 1785, the eastern part of the state was completely overwhelmed by whites, and the area was covered.Benjamin FranklinNamed after "FranklinWas said.

Furthermore, in the 19th century, all of these Indian tribes were displaced to other states.The remaining tribes were also revoked from the US federal government as "extinct tribes" in the 20th century.Reservation place(Reservation) has been confiscated and is not supposed to exist on a tribal basis.

From 1983 to 2000 and after 2003, the Tennessee Court established a tribal certification standard within the State Indian Administration Committee in line with the US federal government's tribal certification, and granted permission for tribal certification based on this. Gave.To date, none of the Indian tribes have used this procedure to be recognized by Tennessee. In 1978, only some tribal groups were recognized by the Governor's Declaration, but on December 1991, 12, the Attorney General declared it invalid.In order for Indians to be officially recognized as "Indian tribes" by the US federal and state governments, it is necessary to submit a large amount of pedigree certificates to the Federal Ministry of Interior and the state legislature, and there are dozens of application activities. It's not uncommon for years to come. Since 5, six Indian tribes and organizations have continued to request federal and state parliaments to be recognized as tribes.

Tribes and organizations requesting official recognition from the US federal government

  • "Cherokee(Ani Yun Weya) "
    • "Etowa Cherokee"
    • "Tennessee Cherokee"
    • "Upper Cumberland Cherokee"
    • "Overhill Cherokee"
    • "Southeast Cherokee Union Sugar Creek Band"
    • "Southeast Cherokee Union Red Clay Band"
    • "East Cherokee"
    • "East Cherokee Overhill Band"
    • "East Cherokee / Tennessee"
    • "West Cherokee, Tennessee"
    • "Chickamauga Cherokee"
    • "Chickamauga Cherokee Elk Valley Band"
    • "Chickamauga Cherokee Quatani Mission"
    • "Free Cherokee Tennessee River Band"
    • "Free Cherokee Elk Valley Band"
    • "Free Cherokee Tennessee"
    • "Free Cherokee Chika Mauga"
    • "Buffalo Ridge Cherokee"
    • "Faraway Cherokee"
    • "Wolf Clan"
    • "Deer Clan"
    • "Clan of the Earth"
    • "Chikamaka Band"
    • "Good Medicine Band"
    • "Union of Red Sticks"
    • "White Wolf Guardian Spirit Tokahe Band"
    • "Turkey Town Association"
    • "Zaragi Tribal Mutual Warrior Association"
    • "South and East Tribal Union"
    • "Distant Cherokee Tanashi Council"
    • "Tanashi Group"
  • "CreekUnion (Muscogee) "
  • "Cumberland Creek Federation"
  • ""
  • ""
  • "EasternLenapeTribal Union Central Branch "

Indian Casino

All Indian tribes in Tennessee are supposed to be extinct, and there is no "Indian Casino" opened by the Indian tribes.Those who do not have reservations do not have the right to open an Indian casino.

Major cities and towns

State capital TheNashvilleIs.As a city in the stateMemphis cityHad the largest population, but by 2016 it had reversed and Nashville is a bit larger when viewed as a metropolitan area, accounting for more than 20% of the state's population.Chattanooga CityとKnoxvilleBoth are in the eastern part of the stateGreat Smoky Mountains National ParkAlthough it is close to, it is about one-third the population of Memphis and Nashville.Bristol City(Bristol),Kingsport City(Kingsport)WhenJohnson City(Johnson City) FourcityLocated in the northeastern mountainous region of the state, it is the state's fifth most populous area and is often referred to as the "Tri-Cities."Knoxville,Kingston,MurfreesboroEach city has been a state capital in the past.

The major cities are as follows.

Politics and law

The Governor of Tennessee has a four-year term and can serve up to two consecutive terms.Only the governor is elected in state-wide elections.Unlike other states, the vice-governor is not directly elected, but the Tennessee Senate elects a chairman who also serves as vice-governor.

The legislature, the Tennessee Legislature, has a Senate of 33 members and a House of Representatives of 99 members.Bicameral systemIs.The term of office for Senators is four years, and the term of office for members of the House of Representatives is two years.Each chair is appointed.Legislative officials stipulated in the Constitution are appointed at the joint general meeting of both houses.

At the top of the judiciary is the Tennessee Supreme Court.One chief judge and four Associate Justices serve.Tennessee's three geographical divisions must not exceed two people each.The Tennessee Supreme Court appoints the State Attorney General.This practice is not found in the other 1 states.There are 4 judges in the Court of Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals[41]..Many federal, patrol, and regional courts handle cases.

The current Tennessee Constitution was adopted in 1870.Prior to that, there were two constitutions.The first constitution was adopted in 2 when Tennessee was promoted to the state, and the second constitution was adopted in 1796.The Tennessee Constitution is within its jurisdictionMartial lawIs illegal.This may be a rule that arose from the Union Army of the United States government's military administration after the Civil War.


Results of the presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
2008å¹´56.85% 1,479,17841.79% 1,087,437
2004å¹´56.80% 1,384,37542.53% 1,036,477
2000å¹´51.15% 1,061,94947.28% 981,720
1996å¹´45.59% 863,53048.00% 909,146
1992å¹´42.43% 841,30047.08% 933,521
1988å¹´57.89% 947,23341.55% 679,794
1984å¹´57.84% 990,21241.57% 711,714
1980å¹´48.70% 787,76148.41% 783,051
1976å¹´42.94% 633,96955.94% 825,879
1972å¹´67.70% 813,14729.75% 357,293
1968å¹´37.85% 472,59228.13% 351,233
1964å¹´44.49% 508,96555.50% 634,947
1960å¹´52.92% 556,57745.77% 481,453

Tennessee's politics is similar to other statesRepublican PartyとDemocratic PartyTwo major political parties are competing. The 1920s was a nationwide victory for Republican presidential candidates, but in 1920 Tennessee was a Republican.Warren HardingOf the Governor of OhioJames CoxI barely won against. 1928 is a RepublicanHerbert HooverTheNew York Governor OfAl smithMade a big win against.Apart from these, it remained a solid South with strong Democratic support until the 1950s. Republican in the 1950sDwight D. EisenhowerHe supported the Republican Party twice, and almost every time after that.

More than half of the state is dominated by Republicans, but Democrats have moderate support in the Middle Tennessee countryside and northern Tennessee, and are strong in Nashville and Memphis.Large cities have a large population of African Americans[42]..Republicans were very strong in East Tennessee until the 1960s.Districts 1 and 2 of the United States House of Representatives constituency are located in East Tennessee and were one of the few Republican-supported districts in the south.District 1 has supported the Republican Party since 1881, and District 2 has supported the Republican Party since 1873.

In contrast, African-Americans have long been deprived of their right to vote, with a minority population of 1960% in 16.45, and the White Republican Party dominated politics in the rest of the state until the 1960s.The Republican Party in Tennessee was effectively a partial party. In 1970, Winfield Dunn was elected Governor and Bill Brock was elected Senator of the United States, making the Republican Party a state-wide election-winning party. Since 1970, the Governor of Tennessee has been elected from two major political parties.

2000 United States Presidential ElectionAnd with the United States Senator from TennesseeVice President of the United StatesServed asAl GoreBut I couldn't win in the state of origin.This is a rare example.RepublicanGeorge W. BushSupport for the horse increased in 2004, and the difference in support rate with the rival horse increased from 2000% in 4 to 2004% in 14.[43]..Democrats who have become presidential candidates from the southern states, such asLyndon B. Johnson,Jimmy Carter,Bill ClintonHas performed better in Tennessee than Democrats in the north, especially for floating votes outside metropolitan areas.

Tennessee has sent nine deputies to the United States House of Representatives, with seven Republicans and two Democrats as of 9.Vice Governor Ron Ramsey became President pro tempore of the State Legislature as a Republican for the first time in 2012 years. In the 7 election, the Republican Party became the majority of both Houses of State, the first time since the Reconstruction era.Currently, 2% of voters in the state are considered floating votes[44].

1962 yearsUnited States Supreme CourtThe "Baker v. Carr" decision by the United States established the principle of "one man, one vote" (correcting the one-vote gap) and was based on a proceeding in the Tennessee State Parliament regarding a prejudiced seat nomination. Ta[45][46][47]..This important ruling increased the proportion of urban and suburban legislators and state-wide officials in proportion to the state's population distribution.AlsoAlabamaIt was also applied in many states that were traditionally dominated by rural minorities.

Law enforcement

State agency

Tennessee has four agencies for law enforcement.That is, the Tennessee Highway Patrol, the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation, and the Tennessee Department of Environmental Protection.

The Tennessee Highway Patrol is a major law enforcement agency focused on highway safety regulation and non-wildlife law enforcement and is under the jurisdiction of the Tennessee Department of Safety.The Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency is an independent agency outside the state park that regulates wildlife, boating, and fishing.The Tennessee Bureau of Investigation is a state-wide criminal investigation department equipped with state-of-the-art operating equipment.Park Rangers in Tennessee are responsible for all activities and law enforcement within the state park system.

Local government agency

Local government law enforcement countiesSheriffIt is divided into an office and a municipal police station.The Tennessee Constitution requires counties to be elected sheriffs.In 95 of the 94 counties in the state, sheriffs are heads of law enforcement officers in the county and have jurisdiction over the entire county.Each sheriff's office provides guarantee services, government security, prison operations and major law enforcement in unincorporated areas of the county, as well as support for municipal police stations.Incorporated municipalities are required to maintain police stations and provide police services within their territory.

Three counties in the state take the form of metropolitan governments, each adopting different methods to resolve disputes over the requirement to select sheriffs.

  • Nashville City /Davidson CountyDivides missions and powers between metro sheriffs and metro police prescriptions.The sheriff is not the head of law enforcement in Davidson County.The mission of Sheriff Davidson County is to run warranty services and prisons.The Metro Police Department Chief is the head of the law enforcement department, and the Metro Police Department enforces law enforcement throughout the county.
  • Lynchburg City /Moore CountyChoosed a simpler form, abolished the Lynchburg police station, integrated it into the sheriff's office, and gave it full authority.
  • Heartsville City /Trousdale CountyAlthough it is the smallest county in the state, it adopts a mechanism similar to that of Nashville and has a metropolitan police station while maintaining a sheriff's office.


Economic Analysis BureauIt is estimated that the state's gross domestic product in 2011 was US $ 2,339 million. Per capita income in 9,700 was US $ 2003, which was the 28,641th place in the country, equivalent to 36% of the national average of US $ 31,472. Household income in 91 was $ 2004, 38,550st in the country, or 41% of the national average of $ 44,472.

Tennessee's main products are textiles, cotton, cattle and electricity.There are more than 82,000 farms in the state, of which about 59% produce beef cattle.Cotton was produced early in Tennessee, but its cultivation began in the 1820s, when the land between the Tennessee and Mississippi rivers was opened.The upper end of the Mississippi Delta spread to southern Tennessee and was a fertile land where cotton could be grown.Many soybeans were also cultivated in West Tennessee, especially in the northwest corner of the state.[48].

Major companies, etc.

Tennessee-based companies include:

Tennessee, like its southern neighbors, is a state of labor rights.Union activity has been sluggish for some time and continues to decline, as in most of the country. The unemployment rate as of November 2011 was 11%[49].


Tennesseeincome taxDoes not apply to salaries or wages, but income from stocks, receivables and notes receivable is taxed.Dividends and interest in excess of US $ 1,250 for a single target and US $ 2,500 for multiple targets are taxed at 6%.Most productsconsumption taxAnd the usage tax rate is 9.25%.Foods are as low as 5.5%, but confectionery, diet supplements and processed foods are taxed at 7%.Consumption tax additions by local tax jurisdictions range from 1.5% to 2.75%, and when added up, they range from 8.5% to 9.75%, which is the highest category in Japan.Intangible assets are valued by the shareholder shareholding ratio of lending companies, investment companies, insurance companies or pay graveyard companies.The valuation rate is 40% of the asset value multiplied by the tax rate.Tennessee for inherited property that exceeds one limit ($ 2006 million for deaths since 100)inheritance taxIs imposing[50].


Interstate highway

Interstate 40Crosses the state from east to west.Its branch lines include Memphis City's 240, Nashville's 440, and Knoxville's 140 and 640.Interstate highwayLine 26 also runs east-west, but ends in Kingsport, south of Johnson City, from the border with North Carolina.Interstate 24 is an east-west road that runs diagonally across the state from Chattanooga to Clarksville.Interstate 22Is also an east-west route, connecting to Routes 240 and 269 in Memphis and Route 65 in Birmingham, Alabama.

Interstate highways in the north-south direction are Route 55, Route 65,75,81There is. Route 65 passes through Nashville, Route 75 through Chattanooga and Knoxville, and Route 55 through Memphis. Route 81 enters the state in Bristol and stops near Dandridge at Route 40. The branch line of Route 55 is Route 155. The only branch line of Route 75 is Route 275, which runs through Knoxville.


Major airports in the stateNashville International Airport (BNA),Memphis International Airport (MEM), McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) in Knoxville, Chattanooga Municipal Airport (CHA), Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport (MKL) in Jackson City.From Nashville Airport, from May 2018London Heathrow AirportA direct flight toTokyoWe are also inviting direct flights to. ..Memphis International AirportFedexSince it is a hub airport in Japan, it is the largest cargo handling airport in the world.


In Memphis and New BernAmtrakTrain "City of New OrleansNo. "stops.This trainChicagoとNew OrleansIs tied.

Nashville cityCommuter trainMusic City Star is in operation.


There are a wide range of higher education institutions in the state, from public, private and chartered prep schools to universities.

In the 1920sBibleContrary to the teachings of Darwin,Theory of evolutionWas prohibited from teaching. (From NHK Special "The Century of Video-It Started in Manhattan")

Colleges and universities

Public higher education institutions are under the supervision of the Tennessee Board of Education, which oversees two public university systems: the University of Tennessee System and the Tennessee Board of Education.In addition, many private colleges and universities are being hailed in the state.

School district

Public primary and secondary education operates on a county, city, or special education school district basis.The school district is under the jurisdiction of the Tennessee Ministry of Education.There are also many private schools in the county.

Art and culture


TennesseeSoul music,Country music,Blues,Rock 'n' roll,RockabillyIt has played an important role in the development of American popular music.Beer Street in Memphis is considered the birthplace of the blues, and musicians such as WC Handy were already playing in the club there in 1909.[51]..In the city of MemphisElvis Presley,Johnny Cash,Carl Perkins,Jerry Lee Lewis,Roy Orbison, Charlie Rich and other musicians started recordingSun recordIn the 1950s, rock and roll began to take shape.[52].. The Victor recording session in Bristol in 1927 is said to be the beginning of country music, and the 1930s radio program "Grand Ole OpryMade Nashville the center of the country music recording industry[53][54]..Three museums made of brick and mortar retain the role of Tennessee, which fostered various forms of music genres.That is, the Memphis Rock'n Seoul Museum, located in Nashville.Country Music Hall of Fame MuseumAnd the International Rockabilly Museum in Jackson City.Furthermore, as an online site to commemorate the development of rockabilly, the "Rockabilly Hall of Fame" is based in Nashville.

Against the backdrop of this rich musical culture, the state has 10 official songs, the most in the United States.State songHas been enacted[55]..Typical songs1911年Announced in1925年“My Homeland, Tennessee” was established as the first state song in Japan, but the most famous one is the state official.Waltzof"Tennessee Waltz".

  • My Homeland, Tennessee ("My Homeland, Tennessee", established in 1925)
  • When It's Iris Time in Tennessee ("When Iris Flowers Bloom in Tennessee", established in 1935)
  • My Tennessee ("My Tennessee", established in 1955)
  • The Tennessee Waltz("Tennessee Waltz", established in 1965)
  • Rocky top("Rocky's Top", established in 1982)
  • Tennessee ("Tennessee", established in 1992)[56]
  • The Pride of Tennessee ("Pride of Tennessee", established in 1996)
  • A Tennessee Bicentennial Rap: 1796-1996 ("Tennessee 200th Anniversary Rap", established in 1996)
  • Smoky Mountain Rain("Smoky Mountain Rain", established in 2010)
  • Tennessee ("Tennessee", established in 2012)[56]

Sports team


From the same state

State symbols, etc.

Japan's sister cities


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Wiktionary OfTennessee #English (English)See also


  1. ^ a b Progressive Japanese-English Chinese Dictionary (XNUMXrd Edition) Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  2. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia mypedia Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  3. ^ a b c d World Encyclopedia Second Edition Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  4. ^ a b The complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika) Koto bank. Retrieved May 2018, 10.
  5. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center". Modern Language Association.
  6. ^ Charles Hudson, The Juan Pardo Expeditions: Explorations of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566–1568 (Tuscaloosa, Ala .: University of Alabama Press, 2005), 36–40.
  7. ^ "Tennessee State Library and Archives FAQ”. Web.archive.org. As of November 2004, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2010/7/31Browse.
  8. ^ "Tennessee's Name Dates Back To 1567 Spanish Explorer Captain Juan Pardo”. Tngenweb.org (January 2005, 1). 2010/7/31Browse.
  9. ^ Mooney, pg. 534
  10. ^ "Brief History of Tennessee in the War of 1812”. Tennessee State Library and Archives. As of April 2006, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2006/4/30Browse. Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican-American War.
  11. ^ "Archaeology and the Native Peoples of Tennessee". University of Tennessee, Frank H. McClung Museum. Retrieved on April 26, 2012. Archived August 2012, 7, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Stanley Folmsbee, Robert Corlew, and Enoch Mitchell, Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville, Tenn .: University of Tennessee Press, 1969), p. 45.
  13. ^ Robert E. Corlew, Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1981), page 106
  14. ^ Hubbard, Bill, Jr. (2009). American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. University of Chicago Press. P. 55. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7 
  15. ^ Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232.
  16. ^ Satz, Ronald (1979). Tennessee's Indian Peoples. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-285-3 
  17. ^ "Chronology of Emancipation during the Civil War”. University of Maryland: Department of History. 2012/12/28Browse.
  18. ^ "This Honorable Body: African American Legislators in 19th Century Tennessee”. Tennessee State Library and Archives. 2012/12/28Browse.
  19. ^ a b c Disfranchising Laws, The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.Retrieved 11 March 2008.
  20. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia.Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  21. ^ Allen R. Coggins (2012-01-15). Tennessee Tragedies: Natural, Technological, and Societal Disasters in the Volunteer State. Univ. Of Tennessee Press. P. 158. ISBN 978-1-57233-829-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=SfK6aBuqohQC&pg=PA158 2012/11/23Browse. 
  22. ^ Professor Peter N Stearns; Peter N. Stearns Jan Lewis (1998). An Emotional History of the United States. NYU Press. P. 157. ISBN 978-0-8147-8088-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ul5XPiFk4KIC&pg=PA157 
  23. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States”. US Geological Survey (April 2005, 4). 2008/12/16Browse.
  24. ^ "What's Happening in Nashville”. Vanderbilt.edu. 2010/8/7Browse.
  25. ^ "A look at Tennessee Agriculture (PDF)”. Agclassroom.org. 2006/11/1Browse.
  26. ^ "US Thunderstorm distribution”. src.noaa.gov. As of October 2006, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2006/11/1Browse.
  27. ^ "Mean Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953–2004”. Ncdc.noaa.gov. 2006/11/1Browse.
  28. ^ "Top ten list”. Tornadoproject.com. As of February 2012, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2006/11/1Browse.
  29. ^ "National and Local Weather Forecast, Hurricane, Radar and Report”. Weather.com. 2010/7/31Browse.
  30. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (CSV) ”. 2011 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division (December 2011). 2011/12/21Browse.
  31. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000”. United States Census Bureau. 2008/12/6Browse.
  32. ^ DADE, COREY (November 2008, 11). “Tennessee Resists Obama Wave”. Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122731165800249331.html?mod=googlenews_wsj 2008/11/23Browse. 
  33. ^ "c2kbr01-2.qxd (PDF)". 2010/7/31Browse.
  34. ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed:Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.633–639
  35. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  36. ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 --Table 3 (PDF)". 2011/12/9Browse.
  37. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2015, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2015/2/7Browse.
  38. ^ Exner, Rich (June 2012, 6). “Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot”. The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html 
  39. ^ American Religious Identification Survey (2001). Five percent of the people surveyed refused to answer.
  40. ^ "The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life”. Religions.pewforum.org. 2010/7/31Browse.
  41. ^ "Court of Criminal Appeals”. Tsc.state.tn.us. As of July 2010, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2010/7/31Browse.
  42. ^ Tennessee by County – GCT-PL. Race and Hispanic or Latino 2000 US census bureau
  43. ^ Tennessee: McCain Leads Both Democrats by Double Digits Archived August 2008, 12, at the Wayback Machine. Rasumussen Reports, April 6, 2008
  44. ^ DADE, COREY (November 2008, 11). “Tennessee Resists Obama Wave”. Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122731165800249331.html?mod=googlenews_wsj 
  45. ^ Eisler, Kim Isaac (1993). A Justice for All: William J. Brennan, Jr., and the decisions that transformed America. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-76787-9 
  46. ^ Peltason, Jack W. (1992). “Baker v. Carr”. In Hall, Kermit L. (ed.). The Oxford companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 67-70. ISBN 0-19-505835-6 
  47. ^ Tushnet, Mark (2008). I dissent: Great Opposing Opinions in Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Boston: Beacon Press. Pp. 151-166. ISBN 978-0-8070-0036-6 
  48. ^ "USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture, Maps and Cartographic Resources”. Nass.usda.gov. As of July 2010, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2010/7/31Browse.
  49. ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics
  50. ^ "A Guide to Tennessee Inheritance and Estate Taxes (PDF)". 2011/12/9Browse.
  51. ^ Bobby Lovett, Beale Street. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  52. ^ Michael Bertrand, Sun Records. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  53. ^ Charles Wolfe, Music. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  54. ^ Ted Olson and Ajay Kalra, "Appalachian Music: Examining Popular Assumptions". A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region (Knoxville, Tenn .: University of Tennessee Press, 2006), pp. 163–170.
  55. ^ State Songs
  56. ^ a b "Tennessee" established in 1992 and "Tennessee" established in 2012 are different songs with the same name.


  • Bergeron, Paul H. (1982). Antebellum Politics in Tennessee. University of Kentucky Press. ISBN 0-8131-1469-1 
  • Bontemps, Arna (1941). William C. Handy: Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillan Company 
  • Brownlow, WG (1862). Sketches of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of Secession: With a Narrative of Personal Adventures among the Rebels 
  • Cartwright, Joseph H. (1976). The Triumph of Jim Crow: Tennessee's Race Relations in the 1880s. University of Tennessee Press 
  • Cimprich, John (1985). Slavery's End in Tennessee, 1861–1865. University of Alabama. ISBN 0-8173-0257-3 
  • Finger, John R. (2001). Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33985-5 
  • Honey, Michael K. (1993). Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02000-6 
  • Lamon, Lester C. (1980). Blacks in Tennessee, 1791–1970. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-324-8 
  • Mooney, James (1900). Myths of the Cherokee. New York: reprinted Dover, 1995. ISBN 0-914875-19-1 
  • Norton, Herman (1981). Religion in Tennessee, 1777–1945. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-318-3 
  • Olson, Ted (2009). A Tennessee Folklore Sampler: Selected Readings from the Tennessee Folklore Society Bulletin, 1934–2009. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-668-4 
  • Schaefer, Richard T. (2006). Sociology Matters. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-299775-3 
  • Van West, Carroll (1998). Tennessee history: the land, the people, and the culture. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-000-7 
  • Van West, Carroll, ed (1998). The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. ISBN 1-55853-599-3 

Related item

外部 リンク

Coordinate: 36 degrees north latitude 86 degrees west longitude /36 N, 86 W / 36; -86


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