Photo Photo: Asakaigan Railway
Asa Kaigan Railway changes DMV introduction schedule Aiming to start safe operation by 2021 Tokyo Ori Para
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Although it was not put into practical use in the northern land, the Asakaigan Railway decided to introduce it and has been preparing for the world's first commercial operation.
Asakaigan Railway abandoned the start of DMV business operation within 2020.Reviewing the overall schedule, 2021 Tokyo Ori ... → Continue reading
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Asa Kaigan Railway
oldJapan Railway Construction CorporationOn the construction lineJapan National Railways Management Reconstruction Promotion Special Measures LawBy the enforcement of1980年Construction work was interruptedAsa LineOf these, the Tokushima prefecture side where most of the structures were completedKaifu Station - Koura StationTo build and operate a space1988年ToTokushima-Kochi-Kaiyo Town-Toyo TownBy investment such asThird sectorA railway company established by the method, the same sectionAsato LineIt operates as.
Asato LineShikoku Passenger Railway(JR Shikoku)Mugi LineBecause the population along the railway line is small and the route distance is short, the fare income is less than 2 million yen (Transport densityIs about 170 people / day), and except for subsidies, it has been in the red since its opening and has never been in the black.Due to the consolidation of high schools along the railway lines, the number of regular customers has decreased, and the annual current account deficit has risen to around 5-9 million yen, and the burden on local governments is said to be close to the limit. August 2003, 8 "Nihon Keizai ShimbunIn the Kansai version,AbolishedIt is named as one of the seven third-sector companies (including those other than railways) that are considering.As for the Asakaigan Railway, the local government will continue to subsidize it until 7, but it is said that its abolition is under consideration. According to the 1 "Railway Statistics Annual Report", the Asato Line is available all over Japan.JRIt is the route with the fewest users on routes other than the line., According to the 2011 "Railway Statistics Annual Report"DepreciationIncludingOperating coefficientIs "916", which is the worst number among railway companies nationwide..
2016年In February, Tokushima Prefecture, a major shareholder, aims to revitalize tourism and the region, and the Mugi LineAwakainan StationWithin 10 years from Kannoura Station on the main railwayDual mode vehicle Announced a policy aiming to introduce (DMV). The DMV is a vehicle that can run on both railroads and roads, and will use the roads in the future.Muroto CapeIt also aims to extend to tourist destinations such as..At the meeting of the "5st Asato Line DMV Introduction Council" in May of the same yearVehicles currently ownedWas proposed to replace with one DMV vehicleLater,2017年At the 2nd meeting held in February2020年Officially decided to introduce DMV by.
2019年The first one of the DMV vehicles was completed and unveiled in March.By the end of August of the same year, the remaining two cars were completed and the three cars scheduled to be introduced were ready.
August 2020, 8,Railway Business LawBased on Article 28-2 (Abolition of business), JR Shikoku has submitted a notice of abolition of railway business between Awa-Kainan Station and Kaifu Station on the Mugi Line for 1.5km.Minister of Land, Infrastructure and TransportSubmitted to the address, Asakaigan Railway applied for permission for the railway business to transfer the section between Awa-Kainan Station and Kaifu Station to the Asato Line... same year9/23, The Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism approved the abolition date to be advanced, so JR Shikoku submitted a notification to advance the abolition date to October 10st..
The DMV was scheduled to start operation in 2020,Spread of new coronavirus infectionOn December 2021, 2020, the Asato Line DMV Introduction Council decided to postpone the start of DMV operation to around the summer of 12 due to delays in construction due to the above..
- 1988年(Showa63 years)9/9: Established.
- 1992年(Heisei4 years)3/26: Asato Line Kaifu Station - Koura StationOpening.
- 2006年(18)3/1: At all stationsStation numberStart displaying.
- 2009年(21)8/10 : Takachiho RailwayTransferred fromTR-201Has been maintained and remains painted during the Takachiho Railway eraASA-301Started operation as "Takachiho Reprint Train".
- 2020年(Reiwa2 years)
- 8/11 : Mugi LineAwakainan Station --Application for permission for railway business to extend the Asato Line between Kaifu StationShikoku Transport BureauTo do.
- 10/31: With usShikoku Passenger RailwayEnd of sales of contact tickets with (JR Shikoku).
- 11/1: From JR Shikoku to Mugi Line Awa-Kainan Station-Kaifu Station will be transferred to Asato Line.
- 11/30: Ended operation of diesel vehicles (ASA-101, ASA-301) on the Asato Line.In addition, the last train bound for Kaifu Station and the last train bound for Kanno-Ura Station can only be boarded by purchasers of the final train limited ticket sold at Shishikui Station (limited to 11 tickets each for up and down from November 27)..
- 12/1: Start of bus agency transportation between Kaifu Station and Kannoura Station.
- 2021年(3nd year of Reiwa)
- 1/20 : Dual mode vehicle (DMV) Vehicle "performance test" begins, limited to the first dayPressOpen to the public at Awa-Kainan Station, Kaifu Station, Shishikui Station, and Kannoura Station for the general public living in Kaiyo-cho and Toyo-cho..
- Around summer: DMV service starts between Awa-Kainan Station and Kannoura Station (planned).
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board
|Algebra||Name||Term of office||Alma mater||Career||Source|
|First generation||Shinzo Miki||1988年8/16 - 1993年Around||Tokushima Medical University||Tokushima Governor|
|Tsumoru Ino||1998年Around||Kyoto University||TokushimaDeputy Governor|
|Matsuo Sakamoto||2001年-2002年Around||Tokushima Prefecture Deputy Governor|
|Tatehiko Hiraoka||? - 2006年6/27||ShishikuiMayor|||
|Kenji Gokenya||October 2006, 6- 2014年6||Tokushima Prefectural Hainan High School||HaiyangMayor|||
|Kei Maeda||February 2014- 2018年5||Tokushima Prefectural Hainan High School||Mayor Kaiyo|
|February 2018-||Tokyo University of Agriculture||Mayor Kaiyo|||
Senior Managing Director
|Algebra||Name||Term of office||Alma mater||Career||Source|
|Tokuichi Bando||2005年? - 2010年?||Shikoku Passenger Railway|
|Etsuji Ichiyanagi||2010?-||Shikoku Passenger Railway|
|Tadashi Negoro||2012- 2014年6||Shikoku Passenger Railway|
|Kazuma Okamoto||February 2014- 2018年5||Shikoku Passenger Railway|
|Yunobu Miyazaki||February 2018- 2019年1||Takushoku University||Tokyu Department Store→ Welfare facility for the elderly → Participant in Asakaigan Railway|||
|Toyoki Ihara||October 2019, 6-||AEON retail→ Asakaigan Railway Counselor|||
|About a kilo||section||Fare (yen)|
Admission ticket Adults 200 yen, children 100 yen
OnceGreen carConcatenatedLimited express train local trainWhen I was on board asGreen fee(Unreserved seats) were set (as of March 1997, Kaifu-Shishikui: 3 yen, Kaifu-Kannoura: 220 yen, Shishikui-Kannoura: 240 yen.).
Two new diesel railcars were prepared at the time of opening in 1992, but one was scrapped in an accident in 2 and replaced in 1.AbolishedBecameTakachiho RailwayOne car was transferred free of charge from. Introduced three dual-mode vehicles (DMVs) in 1, summer 2019からAwakainan Station --Between Koura StationThe operation is scheduled to start at.
Vehicle to be operated
- ASA-100 type"Shiokaze" (101)
- The ASA-100 type and the ASA-200 type, which will be described later, were introduced in 1992.Niigata IronworksLight railcar made byNDCAn 18m class diesel railcar with a stainless steel body in the series.Tosa Kuroshio Railway OfTKT-8000 typeIs based on.The engine isDMF13HS It is equipped with one (250PS / 2000rpm).seatIs a convertible cross seat inside the car (long seat at the end of the car).Because the business distance is shortWCIs not installed.2020年11/30Ended operation with.
- ASA-300 type"Takachiho" (301)
- Originally transferred free of charge from Takachiho Railway, which was abolished due to the accident scrapping of ASA-201 described later, in 2009.TR-201Is.From August 8th of the same year, it was put into operation as a "Takachiho reprint train" with the old number of TR-30 marked in the appearance of the Takachiho Railway era.,2010年From 3 monthSudachi-kun(Character of Tokushima Prefecture) and Ponkan-kun (Toyo TownCharacter)Wrapping vehicleHas become.. Like the ASA-100 and ASA-200, there are no toilets installed. Operation ended on November 2020, 11.
- ASA-200 type"Asashio" (201)
- Basically the same specifications as ASA-101, but this car has a central partソ フ ァ ー, There were two sets of semi-cross seats (seats near the sofa can be converted) and long seats at both ends.Japan Lottery AssociationDonatedLotterywas.2008年6/30Collision withDerailmentCause an accident,same year11/18Accident withScrapped carIt became.
- ^ Of the official websiteTOP page
- ^ a b "September Notepad" "Railway pictorial』Vol. 38, No. 12,Electric Vehicle Study Group, December 1988, p. 12.
- ^ a b c d e f "30 Balance Sheet / Income Statement”. Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd. 2019/7/24Browse.
- ^ (PDF) -Tokushima Prefecture
- ^ The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's Railway Bureau supervised "Railway Handbook", the first year of Reiwa, electric vehicle study group, railway book publication society
- ^ "About the Iwaizumi Line (Moichi-Iwaizumi)" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), East Japan Railway Company, (December 2012, 3), p. 30, オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 6. 2020/10/25Browse.
- ^ Atsushi Umehara (October 2014, 9). “Which railway company costs 100 yen to earn 916 yen?"Worst 20 Railroad" ranking by operating ratio". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン. Toyo Keizai Inc.. 2014/10/19Browse.
- ^ "DMV that can run on railroads and roads, Tokushima Prefecture Commercial operation within 10 years". Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL. Asahi Shimbun (September 2016, 2). 2016/10/2Browse.
- ^ "Asa Kaigan Railway: DMV only 10km operation Draft at the first meeting of the introduction cooperation / Tokushima"Mainichi Newspapers"Mainichi Shimbun, August 2016, 5.2016/10/2Browse.
- ^ "Introduced Asa Kaigan Railway, both railroad and road vehicles by 20 years"Nihon Keizai Shimbun," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, September 2017, 2.2017/3/24Browse.
- ^ a b "Notification of partial abolition of railway business and hearing of opinions on ensuring public convenience related to this notification" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Shikoku Transport Bureau, (September 2020, 8), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 8. 2020/10/24Browse.
- ^ "About submission of railway business abolition notice between Mugi Line Awa-Kainan and Kaifu" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Shikoku Railway Company, (July 2020, 8), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 8. 2020/10/24Browse.
- ^ "Notification to advance the date of partial abolition of railway business" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Shikoku Transport Bureau, (September 2020, 9), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 9. 2020/10/24Browse.
- ^ "About submission of advance notice of abolition date between Mugi Line Awa-Kainan and Kaifu" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Shikoku Railway Company, (July 2020, 9), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 9. 2020/10/24Browse.
- ^ a b c "Introduction of" DMV "for both railroads and roads, postponed to FY21 Tokushima / Asakaigan Railway". Mainichi Newspapers(November 2020, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 12. 2020/12/26Browse.
- ^ "The long-cherished wish of 70 years has passed and the Asato Line has opened." "Traffic newspaper』Kotsu Shimbun, April 1992, 4, page 4.
- ^ a b “Train, garage collides with a wall and derails, driver injuries Asa Kaigan Railway”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2008, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 10. 2020/10/11Browse.
- ^ Asato Line: Asato Line resumes operation this evening / Tokushima "Mainichi Shimbun" July 2008, 7 Local Edition[Broken link]
- ^ Suffering from vehicle management Derailment of Asato Line, need for alternative vehicle for vehicle inspection Tokushima Shimbun April 2008, 7[Broken link]
- ^ "Railway Fan" November 2008 issue, p. 11.
- ^ a b c d e “-Notice from Asatetsu-” (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Asakaigan Railway, (October 2020, 10), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 10. 2020/10/26Browse.
- ^ a b c d e “Asakaigan Railway Diesel Operation Ends at the End of November Tokushima”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2020, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 10. 2020/10/24Browse.
- ^ a b c d "Asatetsu diesel vehicle, last operation" I will never forget "fans farewell". Tokushima newspaper(November 2020, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 12. 2020/12/1Browse.
- ^ "For those who plan to use the last train [Sale of limited tickets for the last train going up and down]" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Asakaigan Railway, (October 2020, 11), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 11. 2020/11/26Browse.
- ^ "About the release of DMV vehicle "performance test"”(Japanese). Asakaigan Railway. 2021/1/20Browse.
- ^ "Asa Iron DMV performance test started | NHK Tokushima Prefecture News". NHK NEWS WEB. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (January 2021, 1). 2021/1/21Browse.
- ^ "DMV of Asakaigan Railway, performance test from January 1 ... Limited release to residents along the line on the first day”(Japanese). response (September 2021, 1). 2021/1/21Browse.
- ^ "Safety is the first DMV test run: News: Kochi: Area”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 1). 2021/1/21Browse.
- ^ a b “Tokushima) Asakaigan Railway DMV operation will be introduced to Muroto in FY20”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2019, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 12. 2020/10/24Browse.
- ^ a b "Asakaigan Railway: Financial results for the fiscal year ended March 06, current account deficit of 3 million yen for 7192 consecutive years since opening" Mainichi Shimbun, June 15, 2006
- ^ August at the bottom of the slope of Koura Station with the introduction of Asatetsu DMV --Kentsu Shinbun electronic version (viewed July 2018, 7, October 26, 2018).
- ^ Asa Kaigan Railway, responsible from outside Railway and road operation --Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2018, 5, viewed March 1, 2019).
- ^ Mr. Yushin Miyazaki, who became the managing director of Asakaigan Railway --Tokushima Shimbun (viewed June 2018, 6, March 21, 2019).
- ^ a b Mr. Ihara takes over as a counselor for DMV operation Asa Kaigan Railway --Tokushima Shimbun (viewed June 2019, 4, March 2, 2019).
- ^ Mr. Ihara, Managing Director of Asakaigan Railway, to promote the introduction of DMV --Tokushima Shimbun (viewed June 2019, 6, October 8, 2019)
- ^ "Ferry Kuroshima Fares”(Japanese). Asakaigan Railway. 2019/10/1Browse.
- ^ "JTB Timetable" March 1997 issue, p.3.
- ^ a b c "What is DMV (Dual Mode Vehicle)? | Asato Railway”(Japanese). 2020/12/2Browse.
- ^ "Torokko Train JR Kyushu Takachiho Railway, transferred for a fee General vehicle Free of charge to 2 towns along the lineNishinippon Shimbun January 2008, 10[Broken link]
- ^ "Railway Fan" April 2009, p. 4.The original article was dated February 195, 2008 in the Tokushima Shimbun.It is clearly stated in this article that the accident vehicle has been scrapped.
- ^ "Takachiho reprint train operation" (recruitment of event participants, etc.) --Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd. (along the Gokkigen Coastline), viewed August 2009, 8 and October 1, 2015.
- ^ Takachiho Railway's vehicle, revived on Asakaigan Railway from 30th, Asahi Shimbun, December 2009, 8, May 30, 2015.
- ^ Wrapping vehicle using image character appeared !! --Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd. (along the Gokkigen Coastline), viewed August 2010, 2 and October 22, 2015.
- List of Japanese railway operators
- Shikoku Passenger Railway --Some of the trains departing from and arriving at Mugi Station on the Mugi Line are with the Asato LineDirect operationWas.
- Tosa Kuroshio Railway --Third sector operator operating the Kochi prefecture side of the Asa line
- Appointment helper --Asakaigan Railway cooperated in shooting the movie version
World's first list
World's first listYou can check it in the current situation世界Introduce the first thing in.
- Local cultures and events are excluded. For these, refer to each article.
- This section means "the fastest in the world"List of the best in the worldIt is a subcategory of.
- If the world is the first and still exists,World's oldest list].
- stone tool - Ape-Original person OfStone maker(Ordowan Stoneware）
- Environmental studiesPersonEconomicsAccording to the research paper of the person, the creation of the oldest tool isAfrican Great Rift Valley OfOlduvai GorgeFrom about 260 million years ago to about 180 million years agoStone makerHas been discovered.. this is"Ordowan StonewareIt was called,Homo habilis,Homo erectusEtc.).
Use of fire
- Spontaneous combustionUse/Ignition method -Original person (南アフリカNorthern)
- According to a research paper by Toshiyuki Yoshino, the oldest use of fire is南アフリカDiscovered in the north, about a million years old.. The initial use of fire was "Wildfire(VolcanoActivities/Lightning-Forest fireDue toSpontaneous combustion)” was used, but after that, I discovered ignition technology and started to ignite by myself..
- Spoken language - Original person(About 100 million years ago)
- According to Yoshino Toshiyuki's research paper, there are various theories regarding the use of the oldest word (spoken language).. This is because the words themselves do not remain as relics... But making tools, using fire, and using words (spoken language)Hunting and gatheringIt is about 100 million years ago that the three conditions of the origin of "type civilization" are met..
- Text -(Urk old script)
- 3200 BCFrom around3000 BCBelong toUrukIt has been excavated from the 4th layer of the ruins.Mesopotamian civilizationThe mainCity stateUruk's people (SumeriansNot alwaysPeopleIt is considered to be an invention by (unspecified). EarliestcuneiformHowever, the "cuneiform" in a narrow sense is2600 BCFrom around2500 BCIt was born during the time when the Sumerians had systematized the Urk script. The Mesopotamian civilization originated3500 BCMany materials use the cuneiform character (in effect, the Urk character) as the period of invention, but it fits the definition.Archeological remainsHas not been discovered (as of 2011).
- In addition,Kakeko engraving letter(6600 BCAround)Old european characters(5300 BCAround) there is a debate about whether it is included in the definition of letters.
- Mobile phone pictogram - i-mode emoji
- 文明 - The four major civilizations of the world(Mesopotamian civilization-Yellow River Civilization-Egyptian civilization-Indus civilization)WhenInca civilization, ま た はトルコRuins in the southeastGobekuri Tepe, Or about 100 million years agoOriginal person OfHunting and gatheringType civilization
- Biologist OfResearch paperAccording to the oldest civilization in the worldFour major civilizations(Mesopotamian civilization-Yellow River Civilization-Egyptian civilization-Indus civilization)WhenInca civilizationIs.
- International EconomicsAccording to the research paper of the author in 1995トルコSoutheastGobekuri TepeExcavated inMonumentOfStructure The9500 BCThe previous one,Hunting and gatheringSaid to have been built by the people.
- Environmental studiesPersonEconomicsAccording to research papers by people, the earliest civilization is "Hunting and gatheringType civilization",Ape-Original personFrom the hunter-gatherer era. "material-Energy-情报 OfmetabolismFrom the viewpoint of form,AnimalSince it has a distinctly different form from文明It is positioned as a type of.. However, the "early monkey people" are not so much as a groupApeSame as.. Therefore, set a standard that is clearly different from that of apes.. "That is, as a new standard for the origin of civilization,ToolsProduction ofTueUse ofword(Spoken language) Use".
- First, the creation of the oldest toolAfrican Great Rift Valley OfOlduvai GorgeFrom about 260 million years ago to about 180 million years agoStone makerHas been discovered.. this is"Ordowan StonewareIt was called,Homo habilis,Homo erectusEtc.).
- Second, the oldest use of fire is南アフリカDiscovered in the north, about a million years old.. The initial use of fire was "Wildfire(VolcanoActivities/Lightning-Forest fireDue toSpontaneous combustion)” was used, but after that, I discovered ignition technology and started to ignite by myself..
- Third, there are various theories regarding the use of the oldest word (spoken language).. This is because the words themselves do not remain as relics... However, it was about one million years ago that the three conditions of the origin of the hunter-gatherer civilization were met: the making of tools, the use of fire, and the use of words (spoken language)..
- One of the oldest knownVillageTell Abu Freira (cf.), it started after the village formation period (around 11,500 years ago). Present(I.e.,Alepposuburbs.
- Hamachi OfAquaculture - 1928年(Showa3 years),Japan OfKagawaHigashikagawaHikitaAndoike (formerly Hiketa, Hiketa-cho, Okawa-gun):Kasaburo Noamiby.
- saltUse-Unknown. Prehistoric. In the first place, many of the animals find a place where salt crystals are formed and regularly eat it. 4700 BC-4200 BC (now in the land of Bulgaria)Solnitsata The town of salt production flourished.
- Birthplace of food, inventor, company
- Bread -(Around 3000 BC Egypt)
- noodles -(China)
- liqueur -Unknown. Prehistoric.
- Instant coffee - Kato SatoriDeveloped by (1901)
- Lactic acid bacteria drink -Lacto Corporation (currentlyCalpis Co., Ltd.)of"Calpis"(1919年7/7Sales start, Japan)
- Nutrition Drink - Lucozade Energy(1929, United Kingdom)
- freeze dryFormulation-Completed by the Italian Army to improve food conditions on the battlefield. (Second World WarDuring,イタリア）
- Instant noodle -There are various theories
- Murata noodles (currentlyToichi)'Chuka soba' (1953) theory, Matsuda Foods (currentlySnack company)'S seasoned Chinese noodles' (1955) theory, Yamato Tsusho's'chicken noodles', Tomei Shogyo's'longevity noodles' (1958) theory, Nissin Food's'Chicken Ramen(1958) The theory. Detail isInstant Ramen #InventionSee.
- Cup Noodle - Nissin Foodof"Nissin Cup Noodle"(1971年9/18Sales start, Japan)
- Powdered sake - Sato Food IndustryDeveloped by (Japan)
- Retort curry - Otsuka foodsof"Bon curry(1968, Japan)
- Canned coffee -Uejima Coffee (currentlyUCC Coffee UCC) "UCC canned coffee with milk" (1969, Japan)
- Treaty - SumerCivilized city stateEmma-Lagash OfPeace agreement → Emmareference. (2600 BCAround)
- Code - Ur Nammu Code. (1750 BCAround)
- Exhaust gas regulation law - Musky method(1970年）
- Village - Jericho(10th millennium BCAround)
- Jericho is a collection of settlements of different ages, and technically the oldest area, Ter es Sultan, falls under this category.
- BarrierVillage with-Jericho (9th millennium BCAround)
- A village surrounded by stone walls appears around 8300 BC to 7300 BC.
- City state - Uruk(3500 BCAround)
- Country - Ancient egypt
- There are various theories.
- Republic - Ancient greeceOrRepublic Rome
- There are various theories.
- Socialist country - Russia-Soviet Union Socialist Republic(1917年）
- Educational facilities and institutions
- University (Research/Educational Institution)-
- Universities commonly described as "oldest university" in Western literature- University of Bologna,1088年Founded around
- Cultural facility
- library - Ashur Vanipal Court Library(7th century BCAround(I.e.）
- Botanical garden - Alexandria LibraryAttached Botanical Garden (エジプト）
- Museum - Capitoline Museum(1471,イタリア）
- 博物馆 - National Museum of Natural History(1793,France）
- Zoo - London zoo(1828,UK）
- National park - Yellowstone National Park (1872年,America)
- aquarium -There are various theories
- Commercial facility
- Shopping mall - Trajan market(2st century,Rome)
- Department store -There are various theories depending on the definition of a department store. In generalBon Marche Department Store(1852年, France) * Origin1838年Established Magazin de Nuvote (fashionable store). Sometimes Magazin de Nuvote is included in a department store in a broad sense.
- supermarket -(en, 1916年,America)
- convenience store -South Island (currentlySeven-Eleven,1927年,America)
- Terminal department store - Hankyu Department StoreUmeda Main Store (Umeda Hankyu Building,1929年,Japan)
- Hyper market - Carrefour(1962年,France)
*Airports, railways, roads, ports and structures attached to them (that is, structures related to transportation)#trafficSee section.
*For facilities and structures related to sports, see#SportSee section.
*For facilities and structures related to plants such as power plants#IndustrialSee section.
*For facilities and structures related to amusement, see "#EntertainmentSee section.
- 最初 のpyramid -Made by Imhotep. 2600 BC.
- Tension structureBuilding - All-Russian Expo OfPavilion (1896年,Vladimir Shukhovdesign)
- Hyperboloid structureBuildings-of the All-Russian ExpoWater towerShukhov Tower (1896年, Designed by Vladimir Shukhov)
- Membrane structureBuilding - Japan World ExpositionAmerican Pavilion (1970年, For a limited time)
- Geodesic dome - ドイツJena Ofplanetarium(1926年,Walther Bauersfelddesign)
- Dome Stadium - Reliant Astrodome(1965年) * World's firstArtificial grassIt is also a stadium that adopted.
- Over 100m highBuilding - Refraction Pyramid(BC 2600)
- Buildings over 300 m high- Eiffel tower(1889)
- Buildings over 400 m high- Empire State Building(1931)
- Buildings over 800 m high- Burj Khalifa(2008)
- High-rise residential area- Tudor City
- Observation tower OfSeismic isolation workConstruction- Tsūtsuken(2015年7/3）
- Firefighter - Roman Empire OfAugustusFire brigade organized by. It was composed of seven teams each consisting of about 500 people (BC17). The earliest fire brigade in the world as far as records can confirm.
- Cooperative - Shore Porters Society(1491年,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu）
- Ltd. - British East India Company(1600年,England)
- Canoe -Unknown. Probably prehistoric. Allegedly built in 8200-7600 BC en: Pesse canoe Has been found.
- sailUse-Unknown. Probably prehistoric. at least,Ancient egypt Of4000 BCA ship with a sail in a vase excavated from a tomb, which is presumed to have been around these days, is depicted.
- Steam ship - Robert FultonThe ClermontHudson riverSucceeded in navigation. (1807年,America)
- Steam turbineship - Turbiniaissue. It sailed at an astonishing speed of 34.5 knots. (1894年,England)
- Hydrogen engineMotor boat - Etienne RenoirDue to (1861年,France)
- Gasoline engine motor boat- Gottlieb DaimlerDue to (1886年,Germany)
- Electric motor boat- Gustave TruveDue to (1880年Around France)
- Modernsubmarine - John Philip HollandbyHolland(1900年,America)
- Distress signal (SOS) Was sent by-Arapaho (1909年）
- TitanicThe theory of Slavonia is wrong.
- Icebreaker -Ice Brecher 1 (1871年,Germany)
- Drilling ship - Mohol planUsed in (1956)
- CommercialNuclear ship - Savannah(1959年,America)
- The world's first nuclear ship, nuclear submarine, and nuclear aircraft carrier#Military".
- Electromagnetic propulsionShip-A prototype produced by Steward Way (1956)
- SuperconductivityElectromagnetic propulsionship - Yamato 1 Kobe PortSucceeded in a sea navigation experiment. (1992年6/16,Japan)
- Screw propellerIt is also the world's first experimental ship that does not exist.
- Wheel -Probably in ancient Mesopotamia around 5 BC
- Carriage -Unknown.Indus civilizationThe ruins of ruts are found in the ruins.
- Riding Vehicle (Riding Wagon)-Inspired by Blaise Pascal in 1662, operated in Paris5 sol carriage.
- steam locomotive - Penadalen(1804年,UK）
- Electric locomotive - Robert davidsonElectric locomotive of (1837年,England)
- Public train by steam locomotive- Stockton and Darlington Railway(1825年,England)
- subway - London Underground(1863年Opened, UK)
- Electric railway - Berlin tram(1881年Electric line opening,ドイツ）
- Diesel locomotive -(1912年,Germany)
- All trains equipped with air conditioning and heating- South Manchuria RailwaySuper express train ofHydrangea issue"(1934年,Manchuria）
- Over 200km/h operating speedHigh speed train - Shinkansen(1964年Opening of business,Japan）
- Magnetic levitation railwayManned Driving-Prinziptraeger (1971年Commissioning, Germany)
- Commercial operation of magnetic levitation railway (for a limited time only)Trans rapid(1979年Opened, Germany)
- Permanent commercial operation of magnetic levitation railways- Birmingham people mover(1984年Opened, UK)
- Iron wheel type linear motor carBusiness operation of- Vancouver Skytrain(1986年Opening of business,カナダ）
- With controlPendulum railcarBusiness operation of- JR Shikoku 2000 series train(1989年,Japan)
- Commercial magnetic levitation railway- Shanghai Trans Rapid(2003年Opening of business,Chugoku）
- Hybrid railcarBusiness operation of- JR East Kiha E200 type railcar(2007年,Japan)
- High-speed railway in the severe cold region- Hadai Passenger Private Line(2012年）
- Steam car - Cunyo's artillery(1796年,France）
- Electric car - Robert AndersonProduction car (1830s, UK)
- Hydrogen car - IpomovirProduction car (1863年,France)
- gasolineAutomobile -There are various theories
- Charge meterWithTaxi - Gottlieb Daimler(1896年,ドイツ）
- Full-scale mass production car- Ford Model T(1908年,America)
- Hybrid car - Mixte(1899年,Austria)
- Plug-in hybrid vehicle - GM/XP-883(1969年,America）
- Mass productionCVTcar - Subaru Justy(1987年,Japan)
- Superconductivitymotor[Avoid ambiguity]Electric car - Sumitomo Electric Industries(2008年,Japan)
- X-ray car- Mrs. CurieVehicle invented by1914年,France)
- Bulldozer -Cummings and McLeod (1923年,America)
- Self-driving truck -Approved for autonomous driving on public roads (2015年,America）.
オ ー ト バ イ
- Toll road - Milan - ComoApproximately 24 km (1924年,イタリア）
- highwayNetwork- Autobahn(1935年,ドイツ）
- Blind guidance block(Braille block)- 1967年3/18,Japan(OkayamaOkayama City）
- Highway installed at seaInterchange - 1988年7/30,Japan(NiigataItoigawa,Hokuriku ExpresswayIgnorance interchange）
- Submarine railwaytunnel(Professional one)- Severn tunnel(Started construction in 1873, opened in 1886, United Kingdom)
- Estuary(Brackish waterThe bottom of the tunnel is 3620m and the scale of the bottom of the Kanmon tunnel is 1140m. With a total length of 7008m, it was the longest tunnel in England for over 100 years. Completed in the United Kingdom in 1843Mark Isambad BrunelbyThames tunnelIs the firstUnderwater tunnelIs recognized.
- Submarine railway tunnel- Kanmon Railway Tunnel(1942年,Japan)
- Undersea road tunnel- Kanmon National Highway Tunnel(1958年,Japan)
- Two-tiered twin (fourth) tunnel- Washuyama Tunnel(1988年,Japan)
- Intercontinental subsea tunnel- Marmalai Project(2013年,トルコ）
*About spaceSpace Development Sectionreference.
- Intentional manned flight1783年11/21 OfMontgolfier BrothersBy productionhot air balloon.
- Power equipmentaircraftFlight of1852年 OfHenri GiffardDue toairship.
- グ ラ イ ダ ーFlight of1891年 OfOtto Lillienthal(Germany).
- airplaneIs widely recognized as a flight of1903年12/17 OfWright brothersbyLight flyer.
- helicopterFlight of1907年 OfMaurice Léger(France).
- Aircraft crash fatal accident- 1908年The pilot of Wright's brother Orville crashed. U.S. Lieutenant Lieutenant Selfridge died.
- Aircraft equipped with jet propulsion mechanism- Coanda = 1910(1910年,ルーマニア）
- Stewardess (femaleFlight attendant)- United airlinesEllen Church fromSan Francisco -Boarding between Cheyenne. (1930年,America)
- Flew for the first timeJet - Heinkel He178(1939年,Germany)
- Supersonic airplane- X-1(1947年10/14,America)
- jetPassenger plane - De Havilland DH.106 Comet(1949年7/27First flight,1952年(May service)
- Electric powered aircraft-airship ``The France"(1884年）
- Solar cellManned flight by- NASASolar Airplane"Gossamer Penguin"(1980年8/7(First flight)
- Dry cellManned flight by- Tokyo Institute of TechnologyCircle Meister (Meister) students of the Human Powered Airplane Division and Matsushita Electric Industrial (currently)Panasonic) GroupTokyo Tech Oxyflyer"(2006年7/16）
- Fuel cellairplane - BoeingAircraft combining hydrogen fuel and lithium-ion battery (2008年March test flight)
- Manned Flight by Electric Helicopter-Produced by Pascal Chretien (2010年）
- World's firstWide body machine - Boeing 747(1969年）
- Total two floorsJet airliner - Airbus A380(2005年）
- Human powered plane -Unknown
- Human power helicopter - Da Vinci III(1989 seconds in 7.1),en: AeroVelo Atlas(2013Sikorsky AwardAward)
- Hybrid Airplanes-Developed by Cambridge University (2015)
- 空港 - Huffman PrairieFlying field (United States)
- Maritime airport - Nagasaki Airport(1975年Opening port, Japan)
- Ltd.International operated by空港 - KIX(1994年,Japan)
- Airport terminal that operates only with renewable energy-airport (2012年）
- Grated -Unknown
- Communication -Middle Edo period
- wirelessTelegraphCommunication- Guglielmo MarconiIs an outdoor long-distance wireless communication experiment (1895)
- Commercial radiotelegramServices-by Marconi International Maritime Communications Company (1900 May 5)
- Commencement of general telegram service between the large passenger ship Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, the Borkum Island Lighthouse Coast Station, and the Borkum Riff Lighthouse Radio Station
- wirelessvoiceCommunication- MulaOpen experiment (June 1900, 6)
- Wireless for the massesTransmitter·wirelessReceiving machine - Hugo GarnsbackSells TELIMCO radios online in the US (November 1900)
- Radio program - Reginald FessendenBroadcast of music and Bible readings (December 1906, 12)
- International distress signalSOS -First call by United Wireless VB of Clap Line "Arapaho" (August 1909, 8)
- Marconi's distress signal CQD was first issued by Marconi MKC of the White Star Line "Republic" (January 1909, 1)
- Standard radio wave-French Army Central Wireless Telegraph Institute launches from Issy Army Radio Station (1918)
- NationalRadio broadcast - Washington DCAnascotiaIt is inNaval airfieldFrom the NavyEntertainment music broadcasting NOF Start (January 1920, 1)
- CommercialRadio broadcast - Frank ConradBy Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing CompanyKDKA Radio(1920 11 年 月 日 2)
- Commercialtv setBroadcast- with the BBCBy (November 1936, 11)
- TV channel - BBC One(1936, United Kingdom)
- CommercialInternet service provider - UUNET(1990)
- Woodblock printing -7th century, China
- Stamp printing-unknown. 764 years in JapanOne million towersIs left.
- Ceramic typography-11th century, China
- Metal type printing-c. 1450Johannes GutenbergIt is said that in Western Europe.
- Academic magazine -(1665)
- SundayNews (Chinese) - オ ブ ザ ー バ ー(1791年12/4,England)
- Women's newspaper- The Ladies Mercury(1693年2/27,England)
- - Esquire(1933)
- Gregorian calendarUse of-Italy, Spain, Portugal,Poland and Lithuania(1582年10/15）
- Medicinal plantUse-Unknown. Since humans eat herbs when they get sick even if they are not taught, perhaps human beings had selectively put herbs in their mouth before they became human. The record is (prospering around Iraq today)Mesopotamian civilizationThe name of more than 200 botanicals is recorded in a clay plate found in Assyria in the north of the land.
- 麻 酔と手術 -Unidentifiable (records that cannot be verifiedB.C.In all over the world)
- Medicinal herb,alcoholVarious records of general anesthesia using BC have been recorded since BC.surgery,Caesarean sectionI know it was used for. In the famous one,200年Around (Back HanEnd)Chugoku OfFlowerSaid he had a surgery using a general anesthetic called "Maefusan".Three Kingdoms』(280年Around). However, these records are too old to be verified.
- historical dataWorld's first general anesthesia surgery that can be confirmed at Hanaoka AoshimabyBreast cancerSurgery (1804年11/14) (Noriaki TakaminebyCleft lipSurgery (1689年))
- smallpox Ofvaccination - SmallpoxUsing200 BCFrom aroundChugoku,IndiaIs being done in.
- vaccine - Edward Jenner Ofvaccination(Vacciniavaccine)(1796年）
- Human capitalGet infected withInfectionEpidemic control of smallpox
- The last affected person due to natural infection1977年One person, and then2003年5/8becomewho (WHO) made a declaration of eradication (declaration of achievement of elimination from the natural environment). As of 2012, smallpox is the only human race that has succeeded in controlling epidemics.EpidemicBut also.
- You can check it with historical materials,Organ transplantationSuccess- 7 BC-6st centuryFrom aroundIndiaWas done inSkin graft(皮膚Transplant)
- It is unknown what the world's first skin graft was,500 BCAroundSaintRhinoplasty (developed according to patients undergoing nasal scraping)OrthopedicsSurgical method)Is detailed. In addition, the world's first skin graft is based on a flap (a surgical method that transplants skin/subcutaneous tissue or deep tissue with blood flow).earlobeThere is also a theory that it was a reconstruction technique.
- - bycorneaTransplant (1905年）
- It is more generally accepted that this is regarded as "the world's first successful human organ transplantation", but this is merely based on the modern scientist's view of modern medical science as the beginning of medical treatment. ,Ancient indiaIt is not possible to make the skin grafts performed in the US "not organ transplants".
- Artificial organtransplant
- Transplant-by (2012年）
- Uterine transplantChildbirth by-Vincent (2014年）
- Human capitalToPre-implantation diagnosis - 1989年Succeeded in1990年A child diagnosed by is born.
Biotechnology(Biotechnology), and the world's first leading technology field with the same purpose.
- Recombinant DNAMolecules-by Paul Berg (1972)
- Genetically modified organism - とStanley CohenbyAntibioticsIncorporating a resistance geneE. coli(1973年）
- Commercial GMOs-GMO TomatoesFlavr Savr(Released in 1994)
- NucleartransplantCloned animals by- とCreated by[Note 2](1952年）
- clonemammalian - 1980 eraWas born inGerm cellsCloned mammals using the nucleus
- 1996年7/5Was born infemale Ofindividual.. The following was announced1997年2/22.
- In addition, the birth of somatic cell clone mammals other than sheep,Laboratory mouse(1997 years),cow(1997 years),pig(2000 years),cat(2001 years),Goat(2001 years),Gaul(2001 years),Rat(2003 years),Rabbit(2003 years),Deer(2003 years),A horse(2003 years),ferret(2004 years),Dog(2005 years),camel(2009) and so on.
- ArtificialReprogramming - John Gardonby(1962年）
- In vitro fertilization - Robert G. Edwardsby(1978年）
- Human capitalGene therapy - National Institutes of Health (NIH) started (1990年）
- SpecialStem cellsEstablishment of creation technology
- Human ES cells (Human capital OfEmbryonic stem cells) Establishment of creation technology- Leading research group (2001年）
- Human iPS cells (humanInduced pluripotent stem cells) Establishing technology-with a research group led by James ThomsonShinya YamanakaThe research groups that they lead each succeed independently and2007年(19)11/20Published in.*For sources and detailsApplicable articlechecking ...
Chemical synthesis, etc.
- Inorganic compoundWas synthesized fromOrganic compound - Urea(1828年）
- Synthetic dyeSynthesis of- William PerkinbyMauve(1851年）
- 酵素Isolation of- Anselm Payanとbyamylase(Diastase) (1883年）
- MedicineSynthesis of- Felix Hoffmanbyaspirin(1897年）
- hormoneIsolation of- Jokichi Takaminebyア ド レ ナ リ ン(1901年）
- vitaminIsolation of- Umetaro SuzukibyVitamin B1[Note 3](1910年）
- AntibioticsDiscovery of- Alexander Flemingbypenicillin(1929年）
*About space#Space developmentSee.
- Wind power
- Hydraulic power
- Water mill -Around the 2nd century BCAsia MinorThe water turbine was being used as a power source.Ancient romeThe water wheel is also mentioned in the work of the engineer Vitruvian Man.
- Electrochemical formulaPower Input - Galvanic battery(1791年）
- Secondary battery(Rechargeable battery)- Gaston Plante OfLead acid battery(1859年）
- Dry cell - Yai JizoSmall for watchesPrimary battery"Yai-type dry cell" (1885年）
- By magnetic field inductionGenerator - 1827年, HungarianJedrik AgnoshStarted an experiment on an electromagnetic rotating device.
- Critical stateReachedReactor - Enrico FermiConducted by "Chicago Pile No. 1"(1942年）
- Power generationReactor that performed- EBR-I(1951年）
- Pendulum clock - Christian Huygensby(1657年）
- Quartz watch -By Warren Marison and J. Houghton (1927年）
- Atomic clock - National Bureau of Standardsby(1949年）
- Gramophone - 1857年, French Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville (en: Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville) ButPhonographInvented. In the 1870sEdisonImproved
- Portable music player -Sony'sWalkman"(1979年）
- CRTReflected inImage - Boris RosingShows a simple figure outline in an open experiment (1911年）
- Vacuum tuberadioReceiver-Prototype 1912, Commercial 1915.
- Commercially availableTranny -TI (Texas Instruments) And IDEA (Industrial Development Engineering Associates) “TR1” (1954年）
- Not individual transistorsIntegrated circuit Radio using (IC)- SonyICR-100,1967年.. Built-in IC capability is equivalent to 14 transistors, 4 diodes, and 14 resistors
- household useVideo deck -Sony's "CV-2000" (1965年）
- Tele video -Sony's "RTR-225" (1975)
- Home-use VCR for 24-hour continuous recording- Nippon VictorCompanyD-VHSVideo "HM-DR10000" (1999年）
- auto focusMechanism adoptedカメラ -Konica (currentlyKonica Minolta)「C35AF」(1977年）
- Digital camera - Eastman KodakDeveloped by Steve Sasson (1975年）
- Commercially available digital camera-Fuji Photo Film (currentlyFujifilm) FUJIX DS-1P (1988年）
- household useVideo camera -Sony "DVC-2400" (1966)
- household useCamcorder -Sony "BMC-100" (1983年）
- Blu-ray DiscCamcorder-"DZ-BD7H" / "DZ-BD70"Hitachi, Ltd.Made (2007年8/2Announcement)
- Home 3D video camera- Panasonic"HDC-TM750" and "HDC-TM650" (2010)
- Commercially availableliquid crystal television -Epson (currentlySeiko Epson Corporation) (1982年）
- Commercially availablePlasma tv - Fujitsu general(1993年）
- Commercially availableOrganic ELTV set - Sony"XEL-1" (2007年11/22）
- Commercially availableLaser tv - Mitsubishi Electric(2008年）
- Commercially available3D TV - Samsung electronics(2010年) Realized with liquid crystal. Panasonic is the second company in the world to use plasma.
- Commercial naked eye 3D TV- Toshiba(2010)
- Abacus(Abacus, manual calculator)- 2700 BCAround
- Mechanical calculator- 1642年Completed three years after the start of research by Blaze Pascal (Pascaline Pascaline).
- Electronic digitalComputer - ABC(1939年),Colossus(1941年),ENIAC(1946年),SSEM(1948年),EDSAC(1949年)Such.
- There are various theories by the definition of computer.
- TransistorExpression computer- en: TRADIC(1954年）
- Commercial general-purpose computer- Ferranti Mark 1(1951)
- Commercial computer using a transistor- Metropolitan-Vickers OfMetrovic 950(1956年）
- Super computer - CDC 6600(1964年）
- First time 1MFLOPSIt is also a computer that has achieved.
- 1GFLOPSA computer that achieved- Cray 2(1985年）
- 1TFLOPSA computer that achieved- ASCI Red(1996年）
- 1PFLOPSA computer that achieved- MDGRAPE-3(2006年）
- Vector computer - Cray 1(1976年）
- Personal computer - Altair 8800(1974年The name at that time wasMicrocomputer）
- laptop - Dalmont Magnum(1981年) The first foldable portable computer.
- Commercially availableTablet computer - GRiDPad(1989年）
- CommercialQuantum computer - D-Wave SystemsReleased by(2011) The first buyerBoeingCompany. However, the inside is a black box, and there is debate about whether it is a true quantum computer..
- Arithmetic device/control device
Storage device/I/O device
- keyboard -Unknown
- Hard disk drive - IBMCompanyIBM 305 RAMAC"(1956年9/13）
- floppy disk -IBM diskette (1970年）
- memory card - Mitsubishi resinとHudsonJointly developed byBEE CARD"(1985年Announcement)
- Personal computeruseCD-ROM drive - Phillips"CM100" (announced in 1985)
- mouse - Douglas EngelbertWas invented (1961)
- Touch panel -Unknown
- Programming- Charles BabbageとAda lovelessbyAnalysis agencyCoding of (1842年）
- Ada Loveless is often the first in the worldProgrammerIt may be said that.
- Programming language
- operating system -Unknown
- Web browser - WorldWideWeb(1991 2 年 月 日 26)
- Computer virus -There are various theories.
- By computersinging - Bell LabsJohn KellySpeech synthesisTo IBM's large computerDaisy bell” (1961年）
- scroll bar -SmallTalk scroll bar at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg and Dan Ingalls (c. 1973-1976)
- Spreadsheet software -"VisiCalc" for "Apple II" by VisiCorp
- 電子 メ ー ル -Developed by Ray Tomlinson (1971年）
- spam -(1978) *It was not sent maliciously.
- Computer games(analog)-"Cathode ray tube entertainment device"(Year 1947)
- Computer games (digital)-"OXO(1952)
- Sports games -"Tennis for Two(Released in October 1958)
- shooting game - Free gamesof"Space War!(May 1962)
- Racing games -"Space Race(Started in 1973)
- Maze game -"Gotcha(Started in 1973)
- Adventure games(text)-"Adventure(Developed in 1976)
- Adventure games(graphic)-"Mystery house(1980)
- Computer RPG -"Dungeon(Developed in 1975)
- Battle action game -"" (Activated in 1981)
- Stealth games - Segaof"005(Started in 1981)
- online game -"Air Warrior(1986)
- scrollGame- Konamiof"scramble(Started in 1981,Horizontal scroll）
- Game- Namcoof"Xevius(Started in 1983)
- Game- Segaof"Moto-Cross] And "Road Race" (1976).Racing game.
- (en) Game-``Moon patrol(1982)
- game machine
- Arcade game machine
- For businessComputer games (arcade game)-"Computer space"(1971年）ShijigiCompany developmentNatching AssociatesCompany sales
- coinA computer game that works by inserting-Galaxy games"(Year 1971)
- Experience game (Large housing games)- Segaof"Hang on(Started in 1985)
- Consumer game consoles
- game machine - Magna Boxof"Odyssey"(1972年）
- Portable electronic game console - Mattelof"Mattel Auto Race(Released in 1975)
- Replaceable cassette computer game machine- Fairchild Semiconductorof"Fairchild Channel F"(1976年）
- Game console with 16-bit CPU-Mattel'sIn Television(Released in 1980)
- Disk driveOnboard game console-released by NintendoFamily computer disk system(1986年2/21Release)
- optical driveOn-board game machine- NEC Home ElectronicsとHudsonJointly developed byCD-ROM2"(1988年12/4Release)
- CD-ROMThe媒体Used asGame software -Hudson'sFighting Street"When"No ・ Ri ・ Ko(Released December 1988, 12)
- Stationary game machineWithcompatibilityThere isPortable game console -NEC Home ElectronicsPC engine GT"(1990年12/1Release)
- Mobile phone games -"Tetris"powered by"Hagenuk MT-2000"(1994年）
- Game console with DVD-ROM- Sony Computer EntertainmentReleased byPlayStation 2"(2000年3/4Release)
- Blu-ray Disc game machine-released by Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.PlayStation 3"(2006年11/11Release)
- Game onlyTablet -"" (2013年）
- Mobile phone - MotorolaDeveloped by Martin Cooper of (1973年）
- Mobile phone with camera -J-phone (currentSoftbank)ofJ-SH04(sharp(Made in 2000)
- VGAliquid crystalpowered byMobile phone -"vodafone 904SH'sharpMade (2006年3Announcement)
- OpticszoomEquipped mobile phone-"vodafone V602SH"sharpMade (2004年6/30Announcement)
- PDA -"Psion Organizer"(Year 1984)
- Smartphone -"IBM Simon"(Year 1994)
- Capacitive touch screenEquipped mobile phone- LG ElectronicsMadeKE850"(Year 2007)
- laser - Theodore Mayman RubycrystalBy laseroscillationSucceeded in. (1960年）
- - Yale UniversityCreated by A. Douglas Stone. (2011年）
- フ ル カ ラ ー3D printer -ProJet 4500 (2014)
- Central Bank - Lixbank(1668)
- Official Futures Exchange-1730 (Kyoho 15th year)
- Technical analysis - Candlestick(Edo Period,Japan)
- Hedge fund - A.W.Jones(1949)
- またPostSince the system was first established in the world and spread throughout the world,Universal postal treatyIt is the world's only privileged exemption from the obligation to write the issuing country on stamps. The only stamps without country names are in England.
- Daily newspaperAtEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSerialization- The Times(From August 1861, 8)
- Also for the first timeWeather mapIt was used.
- Wireless communicationMarine weather forecast by British Meteorological Agency(1911)
- radioBroadcast weather forecast- en: WEEI(1925)
- tv setBroadcast weather forecast- with the BBC(Test broadcast 1936, regular broadcast 1949)
- ボ ー ド ゲ ー ムInternational Competition-<<Unedited>>
- Card gamesInternational Competition-<<Unedited>>
- cubeパ ズ ルInternational competition of- Rubik's CubeFirst International Competition: <<Unedited>>
- Three freezingゲームInternational competition-«Unedited» (held earliestRock-paper-scissorsInternational competition)
- Trading card game - Magic: The Gathering
- Recording on media
- recordRecording to- Thomas edison"Mary's sheep』(1877年,America)
- To recordConcertoRecording- Wilhelm BackhouseThe piano,Sir Landon RonaldConductor, New Symphony Orchestra (currentlyRoyal Albert Hall(Orchestra),GriegComposingPiano concerto(1909年）
- SymphonyAll song recording- Artur NikisCommandBerlin Philharmonic Orchestraby"Symphony No. 5"(Year 1913)
- CommercialCDSoft- Billy Joel"52nd Avenue in New York』(1982年）.
- CommercialDVDSoft- Shinji Tanimura"Shinjiram Nita" (1996年).
- Ringing song - 2002年,Recochoku feature phoneStarted for.
- Chaku-Uta Full -RecoChoku launched for feature phones in 2004.
- Million sellerRecord of- Enrico Caruso"Wear your costume" (Opera "Clown], there are multiple recordings)
- In record unit,Alma Gluck"Nostalgic Virginia" (Victor's red label 12 inch record No.74420) is the world's first million seller.
- A song generally accepted as the "first rock and roll number"- Jackie Brenston"" (1951年）
- Electronic music - Karl Heinz Stockhausen"Study I" (1953年）
- movies - Louis Le Princeof"Round Hay Garden Scene"other(1888年, UK/France)
- screenMovie-same as above
- Story movie- Georges MelliesDirector'sMoon world travel』(1902年,France)
- ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンmovies - Emile ColeDirector'sPhantasmagorie』(1908年,France)
- Talkie(Short film)- Lee de ForestDirector'sA Few Moments with Eddie Cantor』(1923年,America)
- Talkie (feature film, part talkie)- Alan CrosslandDirector'sJazz singer』(1927年,America)
- Talkies (feature film, All Talkies)- Brian FoyDirector'sLantern light』(1928年,America)
- Color movie(Kinema colormethod)- George Albert Smithof"Tartans of Scottish Clans』(1906年,England)
- Color movie (Three-color methodmethod)- Burt GilletteDirector'sFlowers and trees』(1932年,America)
- stereoSound recording movie-``Clockwork orange』(1971年, United Kingdom/America, but monaural when released to theaters)
- Academy awards -XNUMXst Academy Awards Best Award-Wing』(1927年, USA, but the first Academy Awards held1929年）
- Detective Novel - エ ド ガ ー · ア ラ ン · ポ ーof"Morgue town murder』.
- C. Auguste Dupin, the detective who appears in this work, is said to be the world's first detective, and also the world's firstClosed room murderIt is also said to be a work dealing with.
- Super fast gyro setter -World's first case that can be transformed by mode change.
Martial arts[Avoid ambiguity]-martial arts,Physical trainingAnd so onmotionGeneral and physical sports (Mind sportsWorld's first about general physical sports, which is distinguished from [brain sports].
- - 21th century BCAroundMiddle Ages of Ancient Egypt OfBeni HassanLocated inTomb OfmuralSeveral sports of that time (illustrated inwrestling,Weightlifting,motion,Bow and arrowbyhunting,ballAccompanied byRitualSuch)
- : Bow-and-arrow hunting and rituals involving balls are not sports in the modern concept, but it is not correct to measure the perceptions of the time with modern common sense. There is a possibility that we cannot call these sports, but if so,TossCompetition also cannot be called an ancient sport.
- Full-scale sports events that can be confirmed with historical materials- 776 BCOlympia Grand Festival (1stAncient olympic）
- : Ancient greece OfOlympiaAt9th century BCIt is believed that it was held from the beginning, but the early Olympia Grand Festival (Ancient Olympic Games) is not recorded, and it is customary to count the one from 776 BC as the first. As mentioned above, the sports event itselfAncient egyptAnd even in ancient Greece.
- -According to the Broughton's Rule rulebook1743年ToEnglandMade inboxingCompetition
- : 中 世EuropeThere were various violent and chaotic sports in the cities and rural areas of the country, but strict rules were put in place only in this era. However, the definition of "modern sports" that requires the maintenance of strict rules is based on the concept of modern Europe, and sports with strict rules did not exist before that. It doesn't mean. I can't say that there wasn't a sport in ancient Egypt,Ancient olympicIt definitely happened. Also, in areas other than Europe, such as JapanSumo(Of which,17st century(Edo Sumo and Osaka Sumo started in XNUMX), even if there were those that prepared the conditions of "modern sports" in the earlier times,Rationalism[Avoid ambiguity]It should be noted that it is excluded because it was not born from.
- Permanent number -(en, カナダ):Ice hockeyPlayers.1934年2/22, The uniform number "4"Boston BruinsWas designated as a permanent missing number.
Martial arts, martial arts
- 100m run9 seconds - Jim Hines( アメリカ合衆国):1968年Recorded in. The tailwind reference record isBob Hayes(1963年).
- Ski Club-Trinsyl Rifle Ski Club ( ノルウェー): For the purpose of improving the national defense capability at the private level1861年Was founded in.
- Biathlon -As a military competition (military sports competition),18st centuryIn the second halfスウェーデンとノルウェー OfsoldierIs said to have started.
- : Skiing around the field銃Shoot prey in winterhuntingIs the prototype, and later thisSnow battleBiathlon was born as it was used as a technique for ya. As a pure sport, the Trinsyl Rifle Ski Club was established1861年Was established. As a sports competition,1924年Chamonix Winter OlympicsIs the oldest one.
- : A style that can be called the prototype of modern skiing.
- ノ ノ ー ボ ー -There are various theories
- Figure skating
- speed skate
- Short track
- Ice hockey
- curling -The record of the competition that led to curling with stones on ice is1541年In 2 monthEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euMiddle southRenfrew ShireIs the oldest.
- skeleton -As a sports competition,1885年ToSt. Moritz-Toboggan sledA club was created,スイスStarted when there was a race down the frozen road around St. Moritz.
- Bobsled - 1923年ToInternational Bobsleigh Toboganing Federation (FIBT) was founded and established as a sports competition.
Around the world
- Around the Earth- Ferdinand MagellanThe Spanish fleet under command (1519年9/20 - 1522年9/6,Portugal)
- A commander who lived around the earth- Francis drake(1577年,England)
- Anna PurnaClimbing,8000 meters peakClimbing and anaerobic climbing- Maurice Elzog,-(1950年6/3,France）
- EverestClimb- ニュージーランド OfEdmund HillaryとSherpa tribe OfTenzing Norgay(1953年5/29）
- Nanga ParbatClimbing and8000 meters peakAnoxic summit of- Hermann Bourg(1953年7/3,オーストリア）
- EigerNorth wall climb- Heinrich Haller(1938年7/24,Austria)
- FemaleEverestClimb- Junko Tabei(1975年5/16,Japan）
- Denali (McKinley)Winter climbing alone- Naomi Uemura(1984年2/12, Japan)Whereabouts unknownbecome. )
- 8000 meters peakClimb all 14 seats- Reinhold Messner(1986年10/16,イタリア）
- Adventure Grand Slam (8000 meters peak14 seats,Seven continents highest peakClimbing, north and southpoleReach by yourself)- Park Eijo(2005年5/1, South Korea）
- Extreme reach
- North poleReach (dog sled)- Robert Peary(1909年4/6,America)
- South PoleReach (dog sled)- Loir Amundsen(1911年12/14,Norway)
- Reaching the North Pole alone (dog sled)- Naomi Uemura(1978年4/29,Japan)
- Reaching the South Pole (walking)- Earring Kage(1993年1/7,Norway)
- Reaching the North Pole alone- Borge ausland(1994年4/23,Norway)
- Achieved both poles-unknown
- Bipolar walking reached- Robert Swan(1989年3/14,England)
- Reaching both poles alone- Marek Kaminsky(1995年11/5,Poland)
- Crossing (passing the pole)
- AntarcticCrossing (tractor)- Vivian Fuchs(1958年12/31,England)
- ArcticCrossing (dog sled)- Wally Herbert(1969年4/6,England)
- Arctic walking alone- Mitsuo Oba(1997年,Japan)
- Antarctic walk alone-unknown
- Bipolar walking alone-Mitsuro Oba (1999年2/15,Japan)
- By watercraftNortheast routePassage "Vega" (1878年-1879年）
- By watercraftNorthwest routePassing "Gjoa" (1903年-1906年）
- By watercraftArctic OceanCrossing andNorth polePassage-"Arkchika (Арктика)" (1977年）
*About spaceSpace Development Sectionreference.
- No landing aloneTransatlantic flight -Charles LindberghbySpirit of St. Louis(1927年5/20 - 5/21,America)
- No landing alone- Clyde PangbornDue toMiss Beadle(1931年10/4 - 10/5,America)
- Non-landing, unlubricated flight around the world-Voyager by Gina Jaeger and Dick Lutan (1986年12/14 - 12/23）
- Round the world flight with other methods and aircraftFlight around the world"reference.
- Over speed of sound - Chuck JaegerWas established by an experimental jet aircraft (October 1947, 10)
- Solid fuelrocket(Prototype of)-(1000年Around China)
- Liquid fuel rocket- Robert GoddardDeveloped by (1927年3/16）
- 宇宙空間Rocket reaching (80km altitude)- V2 rocket(October 1942, 10, Germany)
- Upper atmosphereObservation rocket - WAC Corporate(1945 9 年 月 日 26)
- Reusable space shuttle - space shuttleコロンビア(1981年4/12First flight in outer space, USA)
- Private developmentSpace ship - Space ship one(2004年）
- Developed by amateurSpace rocket(Over 100 km altitude)-(2004 successful launch)
- Space station
- Animal mission
- Went to spaceAnimal - V2 rocketGot onFruit fly(Launched on February 1947, 2)
- Also the first animal to survive on Earth
- After that, monkeys, dogs, rabbits, frogs, guinea pigs, cats, tortoises, oleanders, spiders, newts, parasitoids, stag beetles, beetles, amoeba, plants, fungi, fertilized eggs of chickens, silkworms, Madagascar cockroaches, Mexico. Flying beans, butterflies, artemia, mackerel beetles, crickets, snails, carp, medaka, sea urchins, jellyfish, and chimpanzees are in space.
- Went to spacemammalian -Riding a V2 rocketRhesus monkey(Launched on February 1949, 6)
- Earth orbitOrbiting animals- Sputnik 2Got onLeica dog(1957年11/3launch,USSR）
- Deep spaceAnimals that went to- Yellow tortoise,Cheese fly,Meal wormetcLunar orbitOrbit (launched September 1968, 9)
- 宇宙空間Surviving animals directly exposed to Photon M3Got onPlatypus(November 2007)
- An egg-bearing animal in space-riding a Photon M3cockroach(November 2007)
- Return to the earth and lay eggs safely.
- Animals born (hatched) in space-unknown
- Manned mission
- Manned space flight - Yuri GagarinBoardingVostok No. 1(1961年4/12Launch, USSR)
- Space food - Vostok No. 2Astronaut Chitov boarded food for the first time in space (1961, Soviet Union)
- Spacewalk - Boshort 2BoardedAlexei Leonov(1965年3/18, Soviet Union)
- SomeoneMonthOrbit- Apollo 8(1968年12/21,America)
- Reaching the human month- Apollo 11(1969年7/20,America)
- The person who got offNeil Armstrong.
- Space travel - Dennis Tito(2001年）
- Artificial satellite - Sputnik 1(1957年10/4Launch, USSR)
- Nuclear powersatelliteThe crash- Cosmos 954(1978年1/24）
- All-electric satellite-702SP Small satellite (en, 2014)
- Meteorological satellite - Tyros 1(Launched on February 1960, 4)
- en: Vanguard 2You can also (Launched on February 1959, 2)
- PassiveCommunication satellite - Echo 1(Launched on February 1960, 8)
- Active communication satellite- Telster satellite(Launched on February 1962, 7)
- Commercial observation satellite with video recording function-SkySat (launched in November 2013)
- Take a picture of the Earth from satellite orbit- Explorer 6(1959年8/14photograph)
- Photograph of the moon from satellite orbit- Luna 3(1959年10/6*Photographed for the first time on the back of the moon
- World's first quantum communication satellite-Sumiko (launched on August 2016, 8)
- Space probe - Luna 1(1959年1/2launch)
- HeliosphereSpace probe navigating outside- Voyager 1(1977年9/5launch,2012年8/25Escape around the heliosphere)
- Photon sailInterplanetary aircraft with propulsion- IKAROS(2010年5/21launch)
- MonthReach (collision)- Luna 2(1959年9/14）
- To the moonsoft landing - Luna 9(1966年1/31）
- From the moontake off(manned)- Apollo 11(1969年）
- Take off from the moon (unmanned)- Luna 16(1970年）
- Other side of the moonSoft landing to- Jealousy No. 4(2019年1/3）
- VenusReach (collision)- Venera 3(19663/1）
- Soft landing on Venus- Venera 7(19708/1）
- 火星Reach (collision)- Mars 2(1971年11/27）
- Soft landing on Mars- Mars 3(197112/2）
- JupiterReach (collision)- Galileo probe(1995年12/7）
- 小 惑星Reach (soft landing)- NEAR shoe maker(2001年2/12）
- Take off from asteroid- Hayabusa(2005年11/20）
- cometReach (collision)- deep Impact(20057/4）
- cometSoft landing to- Philae(2014年11/14）
- Orbiting (other than Earth orbit)
- (I.e.Got on trackSpace probe - Pioneer 5(1960年）
- MonthOrbiting space probe- Luna 10(1966年4/3）
- 火星Orbiting space probe- Mariner No. 9(1971年11/14）
- First time extraterrestrial惑星It is also a space probe in orbit.
- VenusOrbiting space probe- Venera 9(1975年10/20）
- JupiterOrbiting space probe- Galileo(1995年12/8）
- SaturnOrbiting space probe- Cassini(2004年6/30）
- MercuryOrbiting space probe- Messenger(2011年3/18）
- 小 惑星Orbiting space probe- NEAR shoe maker(2000年2/14）
- cometOrbiting space probe- Rosetta(2014年8/6）
- Sun and earthHalo orbitSpace probe on board- ISEE-3 / ICE(1978年11/20）
- Sun and earthLissajous orbitSpace probe on board- ACE(1997年8/25launch)
- Sample return
- Sample return - Apollo 11Is a man and takes home the moon stone (1969年）
- Unmanned sample return- Luna 16Unattended and bring back the moonstone (1970年）
- Solar windSample return of- Genesis(2004年）
- Cosmic dustSample return of- Stardust(2006年）
- 小 惑星Sample return from- Hayabusa(2010年）
- The world's first sample return after landing on the solid surface of a celestial body outside the earth's gravity zone.
Launch Site/Space Port
- Authenticchemical weapon - Ypres FrontUsed inMustard gas(1915年4/22,ドイツ）
- tank - Mark I tank(1915,UK）
- Full circle turnTurretTank- Renault FT-17 Light Tank(1917年,France）
- Smooth cannonOnboard tanks- T-62(1961年,Soviet Union）
- ATChanged Tank-M5 Light Tank (1942年,アメリカ合衆国）
- Armored ship -There are various theories.
- Steam shipBefore appearance金属For an example of a ship that was covered with[Link correction required]"checking.
- Ancient greeceShip of (400 BCAround)Roman emperorCaligulaBuilt by(Also known as Caligula Ship.100年Around)leadIt is said that the ship was covered with.
- Song DynastyChugoku OfwarshipOn the sideIron plateWas stuck.
- 11st centuryノルウェー OfLong ship(VikingThe ship) was armored with iron.
- 1578年ToJapanでOda NobunagaWas built for military purposes onlyAtaka shipIsIron ship(Nine ghostsNaval forceBelonged) was armored with a steel plate.keelWithoutJapanese boatThewarshipIt is open to debate whether or not it can be called, but there is only one line in the "Tamon-in diary" that says "a ship armored with iron".
- Full-scale armored ship- French navy Of(1855年,France）
- World's first armorFloating turret(The world's first Devastation-class armored floating battery), the 4th ship "Tonnante", the 1st ship "Dévastation", and the 3rd ship " (Lave)", 2nd ship "Foudroyante" Crimean WarBuilt inside (※line of order), during the warIs well known for its success in.
- Western armored ships- La Groire(1859年,France)
- Steam propulsionwarship - (1815年,America):US-UK warThe steam-propelled type that appeared at the timeFloating turret.
- Between armored shipsNaval battle - Civil WarMade inBattle of Hampton Rose(1862年March 3-8, USA)
- Union Army OfmonitorとConfederate OfVirginiaby. Both sides could not sink the other party and ended in a draw.
- submarineAttack- Civil WarIn1864年2/17, ConfederatesubmarineHL Hanley Union Army OfSteam sailing warshipTheExterior torpedoSunk in
- torpedoAttack- Royal NavyThe shipShahbyペルーArmored shipWascalAttack on (1877年): However, the result fails.
- Aircraft carrier - Furious(1917年,UK):Modified aircraft carrier(Aircraft carrier built by modifying a normal ship).
- Regular aircraft carrier(A ship built from the beginning for the purpose of operating an aircraft carrier)
- AboardAnti-ship attack by Sino-Japanese warInJapanese NavybyNinghai-class cruiserSinking (1937年）
- MTF(aircraft carrierMTF)- First Air Fleet(1941年January,Japan）
- Aircraft carrierShowdown between each other- Coral Sea Battle(1942年5/8）
- Diving aircraft carrier - Iraq 400(1944年,Japan）
- Nuclear submarine - Nautilus(1954年,America)
- Nuclear ship - Long beach(1959年,America)
- Nuclear carrier - Enterprise(1960年,America)
- Naval shootingGround Force Support-Battle of the Dunes (1658年,England）
- Air strike(aircraftAirstrike)- Italian-Turkish WarIn1911年10/23ToItalian ArmyAir CorpsairshipWentOttoman TurkeyDrop bombs on military units
- airplaneAirstrike by- German armyLight aircraftTaubebyBalkanBombing (1911)
- Seaplane carrier - Mine laying shipLa FoudreWhich was renovated (1911,France）
- Actual combat activities of aircraft launched from an offshore seaplane carrier
- - Japanese armySeaplane carrier of "Wakamiya Maru(LaterMarine defense ship"Wakamiya")Maurice FalmanformulaCompound leafSeaplaneBut,Battle of QingdaoでドイツAttack the military base (1914年9/5, First sortie)
- - World War IIn1914年9/8,ロシアBoarded a military planePeter NesterovThe captainオーストリアMilitaryReconnaissance aircraftAttacks made against
- Both aircraft were destroyed and crashed due to this action, and a total of three passengers on both aircraft died. The definition of "special attack" here does not matter whether or not one is prepared for self-death. Nesterov made a crushing attack using the main landing gear of a military aircraft, which was still unarmed at the time, but it is unclear whether the result of the crash of his aircraft was his intention (don't consider survival).Kamikaze CommandoDifferent from).Special Attack Team #Special attacks in other countriesSee also
- Air battleBy aircraftShot down -Two offensive and defensive aircraft involved in the above actionsairplane
- Built for air warfareFighter - Vickers FB5(1914,UK）
- AuthenticAir raid - ドイツMilitaryairshipZeppelinbyLondon air raid(1915年1/13）
- Air battle victory between fighters
- - ドイツMilitaryFokker EindeckerM.5K/MG prototype,FranceMilitaryMorane SolnierL double seatShot down (19157/1）
- German armyShooting down KingOne of the five Fokker Eindecker M.5K/MG prototypes commanded by the Lieutenant was shot down.
- AirborneAttack- ドイツIn a military railroad destruction missionparachuteDescent (1916年）
- AuthenticParatroopers - 1927年Successful in winter exercisesRussian Airborne ForceThe predecessor of was organized (1931年,USSR）
- ArmedRotorcraft(helicopter)- Fokke Hageris Fa223(1941年,ドイツ）
- Front wing fighter- XP-55(1943年,America）
- Rocket propulsionFighter of- Messerschmitt Me163(1944年Operation started.ドイツ）
- Deployed in battleJet propulsionFighter of- Messerschmitt Me262(Operation started in June 1944.ドイツ）
- StealthAircraft designed with consideration for- Horten Ho229(1944,ドイツ）
- Nuclear plane - NB-36H(1955年,America)
- Military satellite -≪Unedited≫
- MilitaryReconnaissance satellite - OpticsReconnaissance satelliteコ ロ ナKH-1 (1959年Launched in June. America)
- The first satellite, the Corona.en: Corona (satellite) #Corona launchesSee.
- The second unit (also known as the MiDAS satellite).
- History of DSP satellite # performance improvement,en: Missile Defense Alarm System #MiDAS launchesSee also
- Satellite attack weapon -≪Unedited≫
- 自動Handgun - BOCHARD PISTOL(1893年,ドイツ). Before thisRotary handgunOnly exists.
- Bolt action methodThe gun- Dryse gun(1841,Prussia）
- Bullpup methodThe gun- Sony croft carbine(1901年,UK）
- Semi-automatic rifle-Madsen M1888 (1888年,デンマーク）
- Automatic rifle - Fedorov M1916(1913年,ロシア）
- Assault rifle - StG44(1944年,ドイツ). However, during the experimental operation, MKb42 (1942, 42 year machine cavalry gun), MP43 (1943, 43 year submachine gun), MP44 (1944, 44 year submachine gun) was the name.
- Submachine gun - MP18(1918年,ドイツ）
- Anti-tank rifle - Mouser M1918(1918年,ドイツ）
- Cruise missile - Kettering bug(1918年, アメリカ合衆国）
- Ballistic missile - V2(1943年,ドイツ）
- Long-range intercontinental attack weapon- Balloon bomb(1944年, Japan）
- Intercontinental ballistic missile - R-1(1956年,USSR）
- aviationSpecial weapons - Cherry blossom(1944, Japan）
- Human torpedo(1918,イタリア）
- Maritime weapons- Heaven(1944, Japan）
- Nuclear test - Trinity experiment(1945, アメリカ合衆国）
- Reinforced atomic bomb (boost type fission weapon)Experiment - Greenhouse Operation(1951, アメリカ合衆国）
- Hydrogen bomb (nuclear fusion weapon)Experiment - Greenhouse OperationGeorge Experiment (1951, アメリカ合衆国) A full-scale hydrogen bomb test1952年 OfOperation IvyMike experiment.
- Nuclear attack(Atomic bombbyA-bomb)- US Army Air Corpsby,Japan OfAtomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima city(1945年8/6）
- Hydrogen bombbyA-bomb -US ArmyBikini atollWent inCastle operationBravo experimentBy JapanDaifuku RyumaruOf civiliansFishing boatExposed to hundreds of ships (1954年3/1）
- Canned goods
- TinplateFactory manufacturing industry (Manufacture) Production-at least1620 eraToEngland OfSouthamptonWas started in.
- Tinplate itself since ancient timesIndustrialWas manufactured in a traditional way. Before the factory-made industrial production beganBohemiaThe region is longEuropeWas an exclusive production site in. From the same 1620s, BohemiaKingdom of SaxonyThe production area has expanded,Domestic handicraftIt was production.
- Tin cans- 1860 eraWas invented by.
- can opener - 1858年,AmericaInventor ofHowever, he invented a can opener that pierces a can and pulls it around.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Toshiyuki Yoshino, "Introduction to the History of Metabolism of Civilization," "Human and Environment," Vol. 6, 2015, p. 60.
- ^ a b Toshiyuki Yoshino, "Introduction to the History of Metabolism of Civilization," "Human and Environment," Vol. 6, 2015, pp. 60-61.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Toshiyuki Yoshino, "Introduction to the History of Metabolism of Civilization," "Human and Environment," Vol. 6, 2015, p. 61.
- ^ "14 years of "Keitai Emoji" talked by creators and new steps". Nikkei Trendy (September 2012, 5). 2018/8/28Browse.
- ^ a b Hideo Hosono, "Basic Study of Satoyama-Minami Nasu-", "Hakuoh University Ronshu", Vol. 19, No. 1, 2004, p. 109.
- ^ a b Akira Takasaka, "Where do we come from and where do we go? -Changes in life from the perspective of human history-", International Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2017, pp. 42-43.
- ^ "The Shore Porters' Society: About Us-Our History" (year 2007). 2008/5/6Browse.
- ^ World's first commercial self-driving truck approved for driving on public roads
- ^ "Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17". World Digital Library (September 1903, 12). 2013/7/22Browse.
- ^ World's First Untethered Manned Electric Helicopter Flight
- ^ World's first face-to-face transplant man thanked Spain at TV press conference
- ^ The world's first uterine transplant baby is born! The development of medical technology has come this far!
- ^ "Learning to program the D-Wave One". 2011/5/11Browse.
- ^ Quantum computer has first buyer
- ^ ""PC Engine Archives" in the PlayStation Store "Game Archives" category is available today”. Sony Computer Entertainment Japan News Release (September 2007, 9). 2012/9/21Browse.
- ^ "Capcom Online Games | Title Details | Fighting Street”. Capcom Co., Ltd. (October 2009, 10). 2016/5/9Browse.
- ^ Sony Global -Sony History-
- ^ a b Recochoku announces Heisei download ranking! GReeeeN “Kiseki” is the most downloaded song throughout the Heisei period., PRTIMES (RecoChoku Co., Ltd.), April 2019, 4 25:11.
- ^ "1 Rock Around the Clock Bill Haley and his Comets" "Billboard Number 1 Hit (top) 1955-1970" Fred Bronson (Author), Kenichi Inoue et al. (Translation),Ongaku Tomosha, 1988, 25 pages.ISBN 978-4-276-23601-1.. (The corresponding pageNoble(No notation)
- ^ Masahiro Inagaki,,, "History of Illustrated Sports: An Approach to "World Sports History""Daishukan Bookstore, October 1996, 10, pp. 10-14.ISBN 978-4-469-26352-7.
- ^ "China launches the world's first quantum communication satellite”. (June 2016, 8). 2016/8/19Browse.
- ^ "China orbits the world's first quantum communication satellite". Wall Street Journal (September 2016, 8). 2016/8/19Browse.
- ^ All four ships read Japanese.
- ^ "classe Dévastation". Dossiers Marine.As of August 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/1/12Browse.
- ^ Koura Miura, Hitler's Special Attack Team-German "Kamikaze" in History"Work company, August 2009, 2.ISBN 4-86182-224-6.ISBN 978-4-86182-224-7.