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🚄 | Asakaigan Railway changes DMV introduction schedule Aiming to start safe operation by 2021 Tokyo Ori Para

Photo Photo: Asakaigan Railway

Asa Kaigan Railway changes DMV introduction schedule Aiming to start safe operation by 2021 Tokyo Ori Para

If you write the contents roughly
Although it was not put into practical use in the northern land, the Asakaigan Railway decided to introduce it and has been preparing for the world's first commercial operation.

Asakaigan Railway abandoned the start of DMV business operation within 2020.Reviewing the overall schedule, 2021 Tokyo Ori ... → Continue reading

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Asa Kaigan Railway

Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd.(Asakai Gantetsudo)TokushimaKaifu-gunKaiyo TownHeadquartered inAsato LineOperates,Third sector railwaybusiness person.


oldJapan Railway Construction CorporationOn the construction lineJapan National Railways Management Reconstruction Promotion Special Measures LawBy the enforcement of1980年Construction work was interruptedAsa LineOf these, the Tokushima prefecture side where most of the structures were completedKaifu Station - Koura StationTo build and operate a space1988年ToTokushima-Kochi-Kaiyo Town-Toyo TownBy investment such asThird sectorA railway company established by the method, the same sectionAsato LineIt operates as.

Asato LineShikoku Passenger Railway(JR Shikoku)Mugi LineBecause the population along the railway line is small and the route distance is short, the fare income is less than 2 million yen (Transport densityIs about 170 people / day), and except for subsidies, it has been in the red since its opening and has never been in the black.Due to the consolidation of high schools along the railway lines, the number of regular customers has decreased, and the annual current account deficit has risen to around 5-9 million yen, and the burden on local governments is said to be close to the limit. August 2003, 8 "Nihon Keizai ShimbunIn the Kansai version,AbolishedIt is named as one of the seven third-sector companies (including those other than railways) that are considering.As for the Asakaigan Railway, the local government will continue to subsidize it until 7, but it is said that its abolition is under consideration. According to the 1 "Railway Statistics Annual Report", the Asato Line is available all over Japan.JRIt is the route with the fewest users on routes other than the line.[6], According to the 2011 "Railway Statistics Annual Report"DepreciationIncludingOperating coefficientIs "916", which is the worst number among railway companies nationwide.[7].

2016年In February, Tokushima Prefecture, a major shareholder, aims to revitalize tourism and the region, and the Mugi LineAwakainan StationWithin 10 years from Kannoura Station on the main railwayDual mode vehicle Announced a policy aiming to introduce (DMV). The DMV is a vehicle that can run on both railroads and roads, and will use the roads in the future.Muroto CapeIt also aims to extend to tourist destinations such as[8]..At the meeting of the "5st Asato Line DMV Introduction Council" in May of the same yearVehicles currently ownedWas proposed to replace with one DMV vehicle[9]Later,2017年At the 2nd meeting held in February2020年Officially decided to introduce DMV by[10].

2019年The first one of the DMV vehicles was completed and unveiled in March.By the end of August of the same year, the remaining two cars were completed and the three cars scheduled to be introduced were ready.

August 2020, 8,Railway Business LawBased on Article 28-2 (Abolition of business), JR Shikoku has submitted a notice of abolition of railway business between Awa-Kainan Station and Kaifu Station on the Mugi Line for 1.5km.Minister of Land, Infrastructure and TransportSubmitted to the address, Asakaigan Railway applied for permission for the railway business to transfer the section between Awa-Kainan Station and Kaifu Station to the Asato Line.[11][12].. same year9/23, The Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism approved the abolition date to be advanced, so JR Shikoku submitted a notification to advance the abolition date to October 10st.[13][14].

The DMV was scheduled to start operation in 2020,Spread of new coronavirus infectionOn December 2021, 2020, the Asato Line DMV Introduction Council decided to postpone the start of DMV operation to around the summer of 12 due to delays in construction due to the above.[15].


Board Member

Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board

Successive President of Asakaigan Railway
AlgebraNameTerm of officeAlma materCareerSource
First generationShinzo Miki1988年8/16 - 1993年AroundTokushima Medical UniversityTokushima Governor
Tsumoru Ino1998年AroundKyoto UniversityTokushimaDeputy Governor
Matsuo Sakamoto2001年-2002年AroundTokushima Prefecture Deputy Governor
Tatehiko Hiraoka? - 2006年6/27ShishikuiMayor[30]
Kenji GokenyaOctober 2006, 6- 2014年6Tokushima Prefectural Hainan High SchoolHaiyangMayor[30]
Kei MaedaFebruary 2014- 2018年5Tokushima Prefectural Hainan High SchoolMayor Kaiyo
February 2018-Tokyo University of AgricultureMayor Kaiyo[31]

Senior Managing Director

Successive Managing Director of Asakaigan Railway
AlgebraNameTerm of officeAlma materCareerSource
Tokuichi Bando2005年? - 2010年?Shikoku Passenger Railway
Etsuji Ichiyanagi2010?-Shikoku Passenger Railway
Tadashi Negoro2012- 2014年6Shikoku Passenger Railway
Kazuma OkamotoFebruary 2014- 2018年5Shikoku Passenger Railway
Yunobu MiyazakiFebruary 2018- 2019年1Takushoku UniversityTokyu Department Store→ Welfare facility for the elderly → Participant in Asakaigan Railway[32][33][34]
Toyoki IharaOctober 2019, 6-AEON retail→ Asakaigan Railway Counselor[34][35]


Usage situation


Adult ordinary passenger fare(Half price for children, rounded up to less than 10 yen). As of October 2020, 11[36][21].

About a kilosectionFare (yen)
2Awa Kainan-KaifuFree

Admission ticket Adults 200 yen, children 100 yen

OnceGreen carConcatenatedLimited express train local trainWhen I was on board asGreen fee(Unreserved seats) were set (as of March 1997, Kaifu-Shishikui: 3 yen, Kaifu-Kannoura: 220 yen, Shishikui-Kannoura: 240 yen.[37]).


As of 2020 month,RailcarWith 2 carsDual mode vehicle (DMV) 3 cars are enrolled.The two diesel railcars have been discontinued on November 2, 2020, as described below.

Two new diesel railcars were prepared at the time of opening in 1992, but one was scrapped in an accident in 2 and replaced in 1.AbolishedBecameTakachiho RailwayOne car was transferred free of charge from. Introduced three dual-mode vehicles (DMVs) in 1, summer 2019[15]からAwakainan Station --Between Koura Station[29]The operation is scheduled to start at.

Vehicle to be operated 

  • DMV-1 "Surfing to the Future"[38]
  • DMV-2 "Sudachi no Kaze"[38]
  • DMV-3 "Asakaigan Restoration"[38]

Past vehicle

  • ASA-100 type"Shiokaze" (101)
    • The ASA-100 type and the ASA-200 type, which will be described later, were introduced in 1992.Niigata IronworksLight railcar made byNDCAn 18m class diesel railcar with a stainless steel body in the series.Tosa Kuroshio Railway OfTKT-8000 typeIs based on.The engine isDMF13HS It is equipped with one (250PS / 2000rpm).seatIs a convertible cross seat inside the car (long seat at the end of the car).Because the business distance is shortWCIs not installed.2020年11/30Ended operation with[22][23].
  • ASA-300 type"Takachiho" (301)
    • Originally transferred free of charge from Takachiho Railway, which was abolished due to the accident scrapping of ASA-201 described later, in 2009.TR-201[39][40]Is.From August 8th of the same year, it was put into operation as a "Takachiho reprint train" with the old number of TR-30 marked in the appearance of the Takachiho Railway era.[41][42],2010年From 3 monthSudachi-kun(Character of Tokushima Prefecture) and Ponkan-kun (Toyo TownCharacter)Wrapping vehicleHas become[43].. Like the ASA-100 and ASA-200, there are no toilets installed. Operation ended on November 2020, 11[22][23].

Removed vehicle 


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ From September 9st to October 1th, ASA-10InspectionAs a substitute car during the period, JR ShikokuTokushima driver's officeArrangementKiha 40 Operated by borrowing 2110[20].


  1. ^ Of the official websiteTOP page
  2. ^ a b "September Notepad" "Railway pictorial』Vol. 38, No. 12,Electric Vehicle Study Group, December 1988, p. 12.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "30 Balance Sheet / Income Statement”. Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd. 2019/7/24Browse.
  4. ^ Efforts related to affiliated organizations Targets and progress of personnel and financial efforts (24 results) (PDF) -Tokushima Prefecture
  5. ^ The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism's Railway Bureau supervised "Railway Handbook", the first year of Reiwa, electric vehicle study group, railway book publication society
  6. ^ "About the Iwaizumi Line (Moichi-Iwaizumi)" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), East Japan Railway Company, (December 2012, 3), p. 30, オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 6., https://web.archive.org/web/20200613094309/https://www.jreast.co.jp/press/2011/20120316.pdf 2020/10/25Browse. 
  7. ^ Atsushi Umehara (October 2014, 9). “Which railway company costs 100 yen to earn 916 yen?"Worst 20 Railroad" ranking by operating ratio". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン. Toyo Keizai Inc.. 2014/10/19Browse.
  8. ^ "DMV that can run on railroads and roads, Tokushima Prefecture Commercial operation within 10 years". Asahi Shimbun DIGITAL. Asahi Shimbun (September 2016, 2). 2016/10/2Browse.
  9. ^ "Asa Kaigan Railway: DMV only 10km operation Draft at the first meeting of the introduction cooperation / Tokushima"Mainichi Newspapers"Mainichi Shimbun, August 2016, 5.2016/10/2Browse.
  10. ^ "Introduced Asa Kaigan Railway, both railroad and road vehicles by 20 years"Nihon Keizai Shimbun," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, September 2017, 2.2017/3/24Browse.
  11. ^ a b "Notification of partial abolition of railway business and hearing of opinions on ensuring public convenience related to this notification" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Shikoku Transport Bureau, (September 2020, 8), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 8., https://web.archive.org/web/20200813114452/https://wwwtb.mlit.go.jp/shikoku/content/000169040.pdf 2020/10/24Browse. 
  12. ^ "About submission of railway business abolition notice between Mugi Line Awa-Kainan and Kaifu" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Shikoku Railway Company, (July 2020, 8), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 8., https://web.archive.org/web/20200811082914/http://www.jr-shikoku.co.jp/03_news/press/2020%2008%2011%2002.pdf 2020/10/24Browse. 
  13. ^ "Notification to advance the date of partial abolition of railway business" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Shikoku Transport Bureau, (September 2020, 9), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 9., https://web.archive.org/web/20200929134121/https://wwwtb.mlit.go.jp/shikoku/content/20200929.pdf 2020/10/24Browse. 
  14. ^ "About submission of advance notice of abolition date between Mugi Line Awa-Kainan and Kaifu" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Shikoku Railway Company, (July 2020, 9), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 9., https://web.archive.org/web/20200929093547/http://www.jr-shikoku.co.jp/03_news/press/2020%2009%2029.pdf 2020/10/24Browse. 
  15. ^ a b c "Introduction of" DMV "for both railroads and roads, postponed to FY21 Tokushima / Asakaigan Railway". Mainichi Newspapers(November 2020, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20201226051958/https://mainichi.jp/articles/20201225/k00/00m/040/189000c 2020/12/26Browse. 
  16. ^ "The long-cherished wish of 70 years has passed and the Asato Line has opened." "Traffic newspaper』Kotsu Shimbun, April 1992, 4, page 4.
  17. ^ a b “Train, garage collides with a wall and derails, driver injuries Asa Kaigan Railway”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2008, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20151022063712/http://www.asahi.com/kansai/travel/news/OSK200807010039.html 2020/10/11Browse. 
  18. ^ Asato Line: Asato Line resumes operation this evening / Tokushima "Mainichi Shimbun" July 2008, 7 Local Edition[Broken link]
  19. ^ Suffering from vehicle management Derailment of Asato Line, need for alternative vehicle for vehicle inspection Tokushima Shimbun April 2008, 7[Broken link]
  20. ^ "Railway Fan" November 2008 issue, p. 11.
  21. ^ a b c d e “-Notice from Asatetsu-” (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Asakaigan Railway, (October 2020, 10), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 10., https://web.archive.org/web/20201026114654/http://asatetu.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/R2.10.26_%E3%80%90%E9%81%8B%E4%BC%91%E3%80%91%E3%81%82%E3%81%95%E3%81%A6%E3%81%A4%E3%83%8B%E3%83%A5%E3%83%BC%E3%82%B9.pdf 2020/10/26Browse. 
  22. ^ a b c d e “Asakaigan Railway Diesel Operation Ends at the End of November Tokushima”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2020, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20201024063725/https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASNBR6TGZNBRPTLC01K.html 2020/10/24Browse. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Asatetsu diesel vehicle, last operation" I will never forget "fans farewell". Tokushima newspaper(November 2020, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20201201115723/https://www.topics.or.jp/articles/-/455297 2020/12/1Browse. 
  24. ^ "For those who plan to use the last train [Sale of limited tickets for the last train going up and down]" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Asakaigan Railway, (October 2020, 11), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 11., https://web.archive.org/web/20201126124514/http://asatetu.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/%E9%99%90%E5%AE%9A%E3%81%8D%E3%81%A3%E3%81%B7%E3%83%9D%E3%82%B9%E3%82%BF%E3%83%BCA4.pdf 2020/11/26Browse. 
  25. ^ "About the release of DMV vehicle "performance test"”(Japanese). Asakaigan Railway. 2021/1/20Browse.
  26. ^ "Asa Iron DMV performance test started | NHK Tokushima Prefecture News". NHK NEWS WEB. Japan Broadcasting Corporation (January 2021, 1). 2021/1/21Browse.
  27. ^ "DMV of Asakaigan Railway, performance test from January 1 ... Limited release to residents along the line on the first day”(Japanese). response (September 2021, 1). 2021/1/21Browse.
  28. ^ "Safety is the first DMV test run: News: Kochi: Area”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online. Yomiuri Shimbun (November 2021, 1). 2021/1/21Browse.
  29. ^ a b “Tokushima) Asakaigan Railway DMV operation will be introduced to Muroto in FY20”. Asahi Shimbun (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2019, 12). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20191225124323/https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASMDS3GXKMDSPUTB001.html 2020/10/24Browse. 
  30. ^ a b "Asakaigan Railway: Financial results for the fiscal year ended March 06, current account deficit of 3 million yen for 7192 consecutive years since opening" Mainichi Shimbun, June 15, 2006
  31. ^ August at the bottom of the slope of Koura Station with the introduction of Asatetsu DMV --Kentsu Shinbun electronic version (viewed July 2018, 7, October 26, 2018).
  32. ^ Asa Kaigan Railway, responsible from outside Railway and road operation --Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2018, 5, viewed March 1, 2019).
  33. ^ Mr. Yushin Miyazaki, who became the managing director of Asakaigan Railway --Tokushima Shimbun (viewed June 2018, 6, March 21, 2019).
  34. ^ a b Mr. Ihara takes over as a counselor for DMV operation Asa Kaigan Railway --Tokushima Shimbun (viewed June 2019, 4, March 2, 2019).
  35. ^ Mr. Ihara, Managing Director of Asakaigan Railway, to promote the introduction of DMV --Tokushima Shimbun (viewed June 2019, 6, October 8, 2019)
  36. ^ "Ferry Kuroshima Fares”(Japanese). Asakaigan Railway. 2019/10/1Browse.
  37. ^ "JTB Timetable" March 1997 issue, p.3.
  38. ^ a b c "What is DMV (Dual Mode Vehicle)? | Asato Railway”(Japanese). 2020/12/2Browse.
  39. ^ "Torokko Train JR Kyushu Takachiho Railway, transferred for a fee General vehicle Free of charge to 2 towns along the lineNishinippon Shimbun January 2008, 10[Broken link]
  40. ^ "Railway Fan" April 2009, p. 4.The original article was dated February 195, 2008 in the Tokushima Shimbun.It is clearly stated in this article that the accident vehicle has been scrapped.
  41. ^ "Takachiho reprint train operation" (recruitment of event participants, etc.) --Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd. (along the Gokkigen Coastline), viewed August 2009, 8 and October 1, 2015.
  42. ^ Takachiho Railway's vehicle, revived on Asakaigan Railway from 30th, Asahi Shimbun, December 2009, 8, May 30, 2015.
  43. ^ Wrapping vehicle using image character appeared !! --Asakaigan Railway Co., Ltd. (along the Gokkigen Coastline), viewed August 2010, 2 and October 22, 2015.

Related item

外部 リンク

World's first list

World's first listYou can check it in the current situation世界Introduce the first thing in.


Use of fire



First, the creation of the oldest toolAfrican Great Rift Valley OfOlduvai GorgeFrom about 260 million years ago to about 180 million years agoStone makerHas been discovered[1].. this is"Ordowan StonewareIt was called,Homo habilis,Homo erectusEtc.)[1].
Second, the oldest use of fire is南アフリカDiscovered in the north, about a million years old[2].. The initial use of fire was "Wildfire(VolcanoActivities/Lightning-Forest fireDue toSpontaneous combustion)” was used, but after that, I discovered ignition technology and started to ignite by myself.[3].
Third, there are various theories regarding the use of the oldest word (spoken language)[3].. This is because the words themselves do not remain as relics.[3].. However, it was about one million years ago that the three conditions of the origin of the hunter-gatherer civilization were met: the making of tools, the use of fire, and the use of words (spoken language).[3].
Based on the above,Homo genus OfmetabolismForm orLifestyleWas called the "hunting and gathering civilization" and created the oldest civilization(I.e.最初 のrevolutionIs called the "human revolution"[3].


One of the oldest knownVillageTell Abu Freira (cf.), it started after the village formation period (around 11,500 years ago). Present(I.e.,Alepposuburbs.


  • saltUse-Unknown. Prehistoric. In the first place, many of the animals find a place where salt crystals are formed and regularly eat it. 4700 BC-4200 BC (now in the land of Bulgaria)Solnitsata The town of salt production flourished.
Birthplace of food, inventor, company




Educational facilities and institutions
  • University (Research/Educational Institution)-
  • Universities commonly described as "oldest university" in Western literature- University of Bologna,1088年Founded around
Cultural facility
Commercial facility


*Airports, railways, roads, ports and structures attached to them (that is, structures related to transportation)#trafficSee section.

*For facilities and structures related to sports, see#SportSee section.

*For facilities and structures related to plants such as power plants#IndustrialSee section.

*For facilities and structures related to amusement, see "#EntertainmentSee section.







Planetary explorationForRover TheSpace Development Sectionreference.

オ ー ト バ イ



  • Submarine railwaytunnel(Professional one)- Severn tunnel(Started construction in 1873, opened in 1886, United Kingdom)
Estuary(Brackish waterThe bottom of the tunnel is 3620m and the scale of the bottom of the Kanmon tunnel is 1140m. With a total length of 7008m, it was the longest tunnel in England for over 100 years. Completed in the United Kingdom in 1843Mark Isambad BrunelbyThames tunnelIs the firstUnderwater tunnelIs recognized.

Our Sky


*About spaceSpace Development Sectionreference.

* World's firstNuclear planeIs "#MilitarySection.



Print media


  • Medicinal plantUse-Unknown. Since humans eat herbs when they get sick even if they are not taught, perhaps human beings had selectively put herbs in their mouth before they became human. The record is (prospering around Iraq today)Mesopotamian civilizationThe name of more than 200 botanicals is recorded in a clay plate found in Assyria in the north of the land.
  • 麻 酔手術 -Unidentifiable (records that cannot be verifiedB.C.In all over the world)
Medicinal herb,alcoholVarious records of general anesthesia using BC have been recorded since BC.surgery,Caesarean sectionI know it was used for. In the famous one,200年Around (Back HanEnd)Chugoku OfFlowerSaid he had a surgery using a general anesthetic called "Maefusan".Three Kingdoms』(280年Around). However, these records are too old to be verified.
The last affected person due to natural infection1977年One person, and then2003年5/8becomewho (WHO) made a declaration of eradication (declaration of achievement of elimination from the natural environment). As of 2012, smallpox is the only human race that has succeeded in controlling epidemics.EpidemicBut also.
It is unknown what the world's first skin graft was,500 BCAroundSaint(English editionRhinoplasty (developed according to patients undergoing nasal scraping)OrthopedicsSurgical method)(English editionIs detailed. In addition, the world's first skin graft is based on a flap (a surgical method that transplants skin/subcutaneous tissue or deep tissue with blood flow).earlobeThere is also a theory that it was a reconstruction technique.
- (English editionbycorneaTransplant (1905年
It is more generally accepted that this is regarded as "the world's first successful human organ transplantation", but this is merely based on the modern scientist's view of modern medical science as the beginning of medical treatment. ,Ancient indiaIt is not possible to make the skin grafts performed in the US "not organ transplants".
Success with other internal organs,pancreas(1966年),liver(1967年),心 臓(1967年),lung(1986年),trachea(2008年),face(2010年[11]),uterus(2011年),penis(2015年).

Biotechnology, etc.

Biotechnology(Biotechnology), and the world's first leading technology field with the same purpose.

  • Commercial GMOs-GMO TomatoesFlavr Savr(Released in 1994)
[Avoid ambiguity]AsSheepLaboratory mouseHas been reported.
1996年7/5Was born infemale Ofindividual.. The following was announced1997年2/22.
In addition, the birth of somatic cell clone mammals other than sheep,Laboratory mouse(1997 years),cow(1997 years),pig(2000 years),cat(2001 years),Goat(2001 years),Gaul(2001 years),Rat(2003 years),Rabbit(2003 years),Deer(2003 years),A horse(2003 years),ferret(2004 years),Dog(2005 years),camel(2009) and so on.
  • SpecialStem cellsEstablishment of creation technology

Chemical synthesis, etc.

*About space#Space developmentSee.


Wind power
Hydraulic power
  • Water mill -Around the 2nd century BCAsia MinorThe water turbine was being used as a power source.Ancient romeThe water wheel is also mentioned in the work of the engineer Vitruvian Man.



Computer/computer related

  • Abacus(Abacus, manual calculator)- 2700 BCAround
  • Mechanical calculator- 1642年Completed three years after the start of research by Blaze Pascal (Pascaline Pascaline).

Electric/electronic type

Arithmetic device/control device

Storage device/I/O device


Computer games

game machine
Arcade game machine
Consumer game consoles

Mobile phone/smartphone

Other equipment



Postal service

またPostSince the system was first established in the world and spread throughout the world,Universal postal treatyIt is the world's only privileged exemption from the obligation to write the issuing country on stamps. The only stamps without country names are in England.

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu


Mind sports

1997年,UK TheUK OfRoyal Festival HallHeld at.


Recording on media
  • Million sellerRecord of- Enrico Caruso"Wear your costume" (Opera "Clown], there are multiple recordings)
    • In record unit,Alma Gluck"Nostalgic Virginia" (Victor's red label 12 inch record No.74420) is the world's first million seller.


tv set

Literary arts

Arcade housing

Exercise, sports

Martial arts[Avoid ambiguity]-martial arts,Physical trainingAnd so onmotionGeneral and physical sports (Mind sportsWorld's first about general physical sports, which is distinguished from [brain sports].

- 21th century BCAroundMiddle Ages of Ancient Egypt OfBeni HassanLocated inTomb OfmuralSeveral sports of that time (illustrated inwrestling,Weightlifting,motion,Bow and arrowbyhunting,ballAccompanied byRitualSuch)[20]
: Bow-and-arrow hunting and rituals involving balls are not sports in the modern concept, but it is not correct to measure the perceptions of the time with modern common sense. There is a possibility that we cannot call these sports, but if so,TossCompetition also cannot be called an ancient sport.
  • Full-scale sports events that can be confirmed with historical materials- 776 BCOlympia Grand Festival (1stAncient olympic
: Ancient greece OfOlympiaAt9th century BCIt is believed that it was held from the beginning, but the early Olympia Grand Festival (Ancient Olympic Games) is not recorded, and it is customary to count the one from 776 BC as the first. As mentioned above, the sports event itselfAncient egyptAnd even in ancient Greece.
"en:America's Cup#1851 America wins the CupSee also.
-According to the Broughton's Rule rulebook1743年ToEnglandMade inboxingCompetition
: 中 世EuropeThere were various violent and chaotic sports in the cities and rural areas of the country, but strict rules were put in place only in this era. However, the definition of "modern sports" that requires the maintenance of strict rules is based on the concept of modern Europe, and sports with strict rules did not exist before that. It doesn't mean. I can't say that there wasn't a sport in ancient Egypt,Ancient olympicIt definitely happened. Also, in areas other than Europe, such as JapanSumo(Of which,17st century(Edo Sumo and Osaka Sumo started in XNUMX), even if there were those that prepared the conditions of "modern sports" in the earlier times,Rationalism[Avoid ambiguity]It should be noted that it is excluded because it was not born from.

Martial arts, martial arts


Winter sports

: Skiing around the fieldShoot prey in winterhuntingIs the prototype, and later thisSnow battleBiathlon was born as it was used as a technique for ya. As a pure sport, the Trinsyl Rifle Ski Club was established1861年Was established. As a sports competition,1924年Chamonix Winter OlympicsIs the oldest one.
: A style that can be called the prototype of modern skiing.
: 1800 eraIs said to have already slipped on a snowy mountain with one plate,1963年To(English edition(United States flag アメリカ合衆国) Skateboard made by processing a skateboard(English editionOr1965年To(English edition(United States flag アメリカ合衆国) On the snowsurfingToys for(English editionIs said to be the origin.
: As for play,15st centuryIt is said to have originated in Scotland, and at that time it was said that a flat-bottomed river stone was slid over ice. Curling of the current rule is19st centuryEarlyカナダEstablished in.
: However,Sled competitionAs for the ski before the spreadEurope,North AmericaIt was a popular competition held in the mountains.
: As for play,スイス OfJapan AlpsBorn and developed in rural areas.


Around the world


Polar regions

Extreme reach
Crossing (passing the pole)


deep sea

Our Sky

*About spaceSpace Development Sectionreference.

Round the world flight with other methods and aircraftFlight around the world"reference.

Space development


Space station
Animal mission
  • Went to spaceAnimal - V2 rocketGot onFruit fly(Launched on February 1947, 2)
    • Also the first animal to survive on Earth
    • After that, monkeys, dogs, rabbits, frogs, guinea pigs, cats, tortoises, oleanders, spiders, newts, parasitoids, stag beetles, beetles, amoeba, plants, fungi, fertilized eggs of chickens, silkworms, Madagascar cockroaches, Mexico. Flying beans, butterflies, artemia, mackerel beetles, crickets, snails, carp, medaka, sea urchins, jellyfish, and chimpanzees are in space.
  • Went to spacemammalian -Riding a V2 rocketRhesus monkey(Launched on February 1949, 6)
    • continue,Mouse,DogTook a rocket and went to space.
  • Earth orbitOrbiting animals- Sputnik 2Got onLeica dog(1957年11/3launch,USSR
  • Deep spaceAnimals that went to- Yellow tortoise,Cheese fly,Meal wormetcLunar orbitOrbit (launched September 1968, 9)
  • 宇宙空間Surviving animals directly exposed to Photon M3Got onPlatypus(November 2007)
  • An egg-bearing animal in space-riding a Photon M3cockroach(November 2007)
    • Return to the earth and lay eggs safely.
  • Animals born (hatched) in space-unknown
Manned mission

Artificial satellite

Space probe

Orbiting (other than Earth orbit)
Sample return

Launch Site/Space Port



World's first armorFloating turret(The world's first Devastation-class armored floating battery), the 4th ship "Tonnante", the 1st ship "Dévastation", and the 3rd ship "(English edition (Lave)", 2nd ship "Foudroyante"[23] Crimean WarBuilt inside (※line of order), during the war(English editionIs well known for its success in[24].
Union Army OfmonitorConfederate OfVirginiaby. Both sides could not sink the other party and ended in a draw.

Our Sky

- Japanese armySeaplane carrier of "Wakamiya Maru(LaterMarine defense ship"Wakamiya")Maurice FalmanformulaCompound leafSeaplaneBut,Battle of QingdaoドイツAttack the military base (1914年9/5, First sortie)
- World War IIn1914年9/8,ロシアBoarded a military planePeter NesterovThe captainオーストリアMilitaryReconnaissance aircraftAttacks made against[25]
Both aircraft were destroyed and crashed due to this action, and a total of three passengers on both aircraft died. The definition of "special attack" here does not matter whether or not one is prepared for self-death. Nesterov made a crushing attack using the main landing gear of a military aircraft, which was still unarmed at the time, but it is unclear whether the result of the crash of his aircraft was his intention (don't consider survival).Kamikaze CommandoDifferent from).Special Attack Team #Special attacks in other countriesSee also
AttackerロシアMilitary aircraftMorane Solnier G(Unarmed type), attacked sideオーストリアMilitary affiliationReconnaissance aircraft(English edition.. The attacker has also crashed, so he did not win the air battle.
- ドイツMilitaryFokker EindeckerM.5K/MG prototype,FranceMilitaryMorane SolnierL double seat(English editionShot down (19157/1
German armyShooting down King(English editionOne of the five Fokker Eindecker M.5K/MG prototypes commanded by the Lieutenant was shot down.


The first satellite, the Corona.en: Corona (satellite) #Corona launchesSee.
(English editionThe second unit (also known as the MiDAS satellite).
History of DSP satellite # performance improvement,en: Missile Defense Alarm System #MiDAS launchesSee also



Canned goods
Tinplate itself since ancient timesIndustrialWas manufactured in a traditional way. Before the factory-made industrial production beganBohemiaThe region is longEuropeWas an exclusive production site in. From the same 1620s, BohemiaKingdom of SaxonyThe production area has expanded,Domestic handicraftIt was production.
expeditionWere plagued with food supply problems inNapoleon BonaparteGroundbreakingPreserved FoodsCall for technologySweepstakesWas developed in response to.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Sea urchinEmbryoWe found that each split grows into a complete sea urchin. It is positioned as a cloning technology before cell nuclear transfer.
  2. ^ FrogKind of.
  3. ^ Globally recognizedKashmir FunkDiscovered the same vitamin the following year.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Toshiyuki Yoshino, "Introduction to the History of Metabolism of Civilization," "Human and Environment," Vol. 6, 2015, p. 60.
  2. ^ a b Toshiyuki Yoshino, "Introduction to the History of Metabolism of Civilization," "Human and Environment," Vol. 6, 2015, pp. 60-61.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Toshiyuki Yoshino, "Introduction to the History of Metabolism of Civilization," "Human and Environment," Vol. 6, 2015, p. 61.
  4. ^ "14 years of "Keitai Emoji" talked by creators and new steps". Nikkei Trendy (September 2012, 5). 2018/8/28Browse.
  5. ^ a b Hideo Hosono, "Basic Study of Satoyama-Minami Nasu-", "Hakuoh University Ronshu", Vol. 19, No. 1, 2004, p. 109.
  6. ^ a b Akira Takasaka, "Where do we come from and where do we go? -Changes in life from the perspective of human history-", International Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2017, pp. 42-43.
  7. ^ "The Shore Porters' Society: About Us-Our History" (year 2007). 2008/5/6Browse.
  8. ^ World's first commercial self-driving truck approved for driving on public roads
  9. ^ "Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17". World Digital Library (September 1903, 12). 2013/7/22Browse.
  10. ^ World's First Untethered Manned Electric Helicopter Flight
  11. ^ World's first face-to-face transplant man thanked Spain at TV press conference
  12. ^ The world's first uterine transplant baby is born! The development of medical technology has come this far!
  13. ^ "Learning to program the D-Wave One". 2011/5/11Browse.
  14. ^ Quantum computer has first buyer
  15. ^ ""PC Engine Archives" in the PlayStation Store "Game Archives" category is available today”. Sony Computer Entertainment Japan News Release (September 2007, 9). 2012/9/21Browse.
  16. ^ "Capcom Online Games | Title Details | Fighting Street”. Capcom Co., Ltd. (October 2009, 10). 2016/5/9Browse.
  17. ^ Sony Global -Sony History-
  18. ^ a b Recochoku announces Heisei download ranking! GReeeeN “Kiseki” is the most downloaded song throughout the Heisei period., PRTIMES (RecoChoku Co., Ltd.), April 2019, 4 25:11.
  19. ^ "1 Rock Around the Clock Bill Haley and his Comets" "Billboard Number 1 Hit (top) 1955-1970" Fred Bronson (Author), Kenichi Inoue et al. (Translation),Ongaku Tomosha, 1988, 25 pages.ISBN 978-4-276-23601-1.. (The corresponding pageNoble(No notation)
  20. ^ Masahiro Inagaki,,, "History of Illustrated Sports: An Approach to "World Sports History""Daishukan Bookstore, October 1996, 10, pp. 10-14.ISBN 978-4-469-26352-7.
  21. ^ "China launches the world's first quantum communication satellite”. (June 2016, 8). 2016/8/19Browse.
  22. ^ "China orbits the world's first quantum communication satellite". Wall Street Journal (September 2016, 8). 2016/8/19Browse.
  23. ^ All four ships read Japanese.
  24. ^ "classe Dévastation". Dossiers Marine.As of August 2007, 9オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012/1/12Browse.
  25. ^ Koura Miura, Hitler's Special Attack Team-German "Kamikaze" in History"Work company, August 2009, 2.ISBN 4-86182-224-6.ISBN 978-4-86182-224-7.

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