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🚗 | Decided by "GTX" !? VW ID.4, latest prototype of performance specifications


Photo VW ID.4 GTX (provisional) prototype (scoop photo)

Is it decided by "GTX" !? VW ID.4, the latest prototype of performance specifications

 
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In the cabin, you can also expect a unique interior trim that uses carbon fiber.
 

The new electric SUV "ID.2020" announced by VW in September 9 seems to be a high-performance version of it ... → Continue reading

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Carbon fiber

Carbon fiber(Tansosen,British: carbon fiber,中: carbon fiber) IsAcrylic fiberorpitch(oil,coal,Coal tarMade by carbonizing at high temperature using by-products such asfiber.JIS standardThen, "of organic fiberPrecursor90% or more by mass ratio obtained by heat carbonization treatmentcarbonFiber composed of. 」と規定されているIs stipulated[1]..アクリル繊維を使った炭素繊維はCarbon fiber using acrylic fiberPAN system(British: polyacrylonitrile), Carbon fiber using pitchPitch system(British: pitch)[2]..Carbon fiber is rarely used as a single material,Synthetic resinCombined with base material such asComposite materialIt is mainly used as.炭素繊維を用いた複合材料としてはAs a composite material using carbon fiberCarbon fiber reinforced plastic,Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materialand so on.

Features

In a nutshell, the advantages of carbon fiber are "Light and strongIs the point.鉄Compared toproportionAt 1/4,Specific strength10 times, specific elastic modulus is 7 times[2][3]..In addition, it has excellent wear resistance, heat resistance, thermal elasticity, acid resistance, and electrical conductivity.短所としては、製造コストの高さThe disadvantage is the high manufacturing cost[4], Difficulty of processing,RecyclingThe difficulty is mentioned.In addition, the material itself has anisotropy, and it is difficult to determine how it is laminated and if it is damaged, it is difficult to determine the damage, so great care must be taken when using it in critical situations.

History

PAN-based carbon fiber

Single fiber of PAN carbon fiber is 5-7 thickmicronsIs.この多数の単繊維で構成された繊維束をA fiber bundle composed of this large number of single fibersfilamentAnd a bundle of 1,000 to tens of thousands of filamentsToeCalled.This tow is most often treated as a product form of PAN-based carbon fiber.

Tows are classified according to the number of filaments, with 24,000 or less.Regular towOrSmall toe, Over 40,000Large toeIs called.Regular tow has low density, high specific strength, high specific elastic modulus,aircraft,Artificial satelliteMaterial ofGolfFor shaft,fishing rod,tennis racketIt is often used for sports and leisure purposes.On the other hand, the large tow is relatively cheap compared to the regular tow,windmill,AutomobileIt is mainly used for industrial purposes such as materials such as.

PAN-based carbon fiber2010å¹´The worldwide production of regular tonnes is estimated to be 55,300 tons and large tonnes to 14,800 tons, for a total of 70,100 tons.[9][10][11].

Manufacturing method of PAN-based carbon fiber

PAN-based carbon fiber is continuously manufactured by the following process[2][9][12].

  1. PAN fiber synthesis:AcrylonitrilePolyacrylonitrile fiber (PAN fiber) is polymerized from.
  2. Flame resistance process:In the airAt 200-350 ° C for several hours[4]Heat treatmentTo do.This process is also called infusibilization or stabilization.
  3. Carbonization process:nitrogenSuch asInert gasHeat at 1,000-1,500 ° C in an atmosphere.
  4. Graphitization step: Heat at 2,000-3,000 ° C in an atmosphere of an inert gas such as nitrogen.この工程で強度は若干低下するStrength is slightly reduced in this process[13] However, highly elastic carbon fiber can be produced.This process is not included in the production of general-purpose carbon fiber that does not aim for high elasticity.黒鉛化工程を経た炭素繊維をCarbon fiber that has undergone the graphitization processGraphite fiberIt may be distinguished from general-purpose carbon fiber.
  5. Surface treatment process
  6. Sizing process

Pitch carbon fiber

The thickness of the single fiber of the pitch carbon fiber is 7-10 µm.Pitch-based carbon fibers are further classified into isotropic pitch-based and mesophase-pitch-based according to the difference in raw materials.Generally, a general-purpose carbon fiber is produced from an isotropic pitch system, and a carbon fiber having high strength and a high elastic modulus is produced from a mesophase pitch system.

Isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers are used as heat insulating materials for high-temperature furnaces and brake pads and clutch materials for automobiles because of their high flexibility, low thermal conductivity, and excellent sliding characteristics.一方、メソフェーズピッチ系炭素繊維は高弾性率、優れた振動減衰特性、高熱伝導性、低熱膨張率といった特徴があり、印刷用・フィルム用などの工業用ロール部材、薄型テレビ用大型板ガラスの搬送用ロボットアーム、人工衛星用部材などに使われているOn the other hand, mesophase pitch carbon fibers are characterized by high elastic modulus, excellent vibration damping characteristics, high thermal conductivity, and low coefficient of thermal expansion, and are used for transporting industrial roll members for printing and film, and large flat glass for thin televisions. Used for robot arms, artificial satellite members, etc.[8][14].

Manufacturer

JapanA technology that originated from Japanese companies and still occupies the world marketshareIs expensive.

  • PAN manufacturer
  • Pitch manufacturer

Occupational safety and health

  • Specific multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which are a type of carbon fiber, are "guidelines for preventing health problems caused by chemical substances established by the Minister of Health, Labor and Welfare based on the provisions of Article 28, Paragraph 3 of the Industrial Safety and Health Law" (so-called "cancer". It was added to the target substances of "Primary Guidelines").基発0331第26号Nuclear power plant XNUMX No. XNUMX[1]
  • Regarding specific multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which are a type of carbon fiber, on March 2009, 3, the director of the Labor Standards Bureau of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued a revised notification "Preventive Measures to Prevent Exposure to Nanomaterials" (based on). Departure 31) was issued.[2]
  • Protective equipment materials corresponding to the basic No. 331013 have been released by the health and safety manufacturer. (Link P11)[3]
  • In Europe, the risk of lung cancer (lung cancer) has also been pointed out for carbon fibers with a thickness of 3-5 µm (not nanomaterials) for CFRP, which are used in automobiles.[4]
  • Work under dust generated during carbon fiber processing is dust work, and dust countermeasures such as dust masks, protective glasses, protective clothing, and dust collectors are required.[5]
  • The equipment for processing carbon fiber will be dust work equipment, and it is necessary to notify the director of the Labor Standards Inspection Office of the installation notification of dust work equipment, etc.[6][7]

注 釈

  1. ^ The patent application (Japanese Patent Application No. 34-028287, Japanese Patent Application No. 37-004405) dates back to September 1959, but 9, which became publicly known in the paper, is often introduced as the year of invention.

Source

  1. ^ JIS L 0204-2 Textile terminology (raw material section) -Part 2: Chemical fiber
  2. ^ a b c Mitsubishi Chemical Group Plastics, Topics "CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) -PAN-based and Pitch-based-", Posted on October 2010, 10, Retrieved October 19, 2011
  3. ^ What is carbon fiber in the first place?, TORAYCA, Carbon Fiber, Retrieved October 2011, 10
  4. ^ a b "Why is carbon fiber so expensive?", Gizmodo Japan, published on October 2011, 10, viewed October 1, 2011
  5. ^ Yukio Shimura, "Who is the Real Inventor: A Story of Glory and Frustration over Invention" Kodansha <Blue Bucks, B-1525>, August 2006.ISBN 4062575256.
  6. ^ Yasuhiro Tatebayashi "Current Status and Future of PAN-based Carbon Fibers" The Japan Carbon Fiber Manufacturers Association 23rd Composite Materials Seminar Material (PDF) , Posted on October 2010, 6, Retrieved October 29, 2011
  7. ^ "History of carbon fiber development by PAN companies" (PDF) ,The Japan Carbon Fiber Manufacturers Association, Posted on October 2010, 6, Retrieved October 29, 2011
  8. ^ a b Toshihiro Fukagawa "Current Status and Future of Pitch Carbon Fiber" (PDF) , The Japan Carbon Fiber Manufacturers Association 24th Composite Materials Seminar Material, published on August 2011, 8, viewed October 21, 2011.
  9. ^ a b "Trends in the application of carbon fiber as aircraft materials" (PDF) , Japan Aircraft International Joint Development Fund, Outline of commentary on aircraft, etc., published in 2007, viewed October 2011, 10
  10. ^ FAQ, The Japan Carbon Fiber Manufacturers Association, October 2011, 10
  11. ^ Masahiko Kawamura "Current Status and Future of PAN-based Carbon Fiber" (PDF) , The Japan Carbon Fiber Manufacturers Association 24th Composite Materials Seminar Material, published on August 2011, 8, viewed October 21, 2011
  12. ^ Toho Tenax, Carbon Fiber Business "What is Carbon Fiber?", Viewed on December 2011, 10
  13. ^ Yotaro Murakami "Manufacturing method, structure and properties of carbon fiber (PDF) New Material Center attached to Osaka Science and Technology Center, NMC News April 2005 issue, No.4, viewed October 37, 2011
  14. ^ Frequently Asked Questions FAQ, Toho Tenax, Carbon Fiber Business, Retrieved October 2011, 10

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