Photo Main lineup of Audi's high-performance model "RS"
Audi "RS" worldwide sales increased by 16% to record high in 2020
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A wide range of models are available to meet customer needs, including compact hatchbacks and sedans, wagons, coupes, convertibles, and SUVs.
Audi Sport, the high-performance car division of Audi, released the results of global new car sales in 1 on January 19th ... → Continue reading
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In Europe and the United States, which distinguishes body styles in detail from the history of carriages,The United States of AmericaThen.convertible(Convertible ),The United KingdomThen.Roadster(Roadster ) OrDrop head coupe(Drophead Coupe ),France,GermanyThen.Cabriolet Cabriolet(Convertible / Kabriolett ) AndCabrio (Convertible ) Is a typical modern open car. Early cars were open-body, but due to the generalization of closed-body sedans, it refers to traditional open-body cars.Retro NimIs. In modern times, it is often used as a hobby car that enjoys open driving. This type of vehicle has been used in various parades and ceremonies since the carriage era because the guest rooms are open and can be appealed to the outside.
In the early days, all cars were basically convertibles. In this era when engine output was still limited, installing a large roof on a car to increase the weight of the car bodyPower weight ratioAs a result of lowering the speed, it was useless. It is also the mainstream of passenger cars today.MonocoqueRugged, not bodyフ レ ー ムToengine,ト ラ ン ス ミ ッ シ ョ ンBecause of the equipment such as, there was no problem of strength due to the body shape (the strength of the monocoque structure decreases when there is an opening, so a closed structure is ideal). Therefore, cars at the time were usually bare, with only a simple hood that was light in weight at best, rather than the box-shaped cabin that was already commonplace in carriages at the time.
Eventually, automobiles became widespread in ordinary households, and when the output of the engine increased and the necessary horsepower and speed could be secured, it became possible to consider the secondary comfort in the car, and a permanent roof. The box-shaped car covered with the roof became the mainstream after that.
Today's carMonocoqueThe structure is the mainstream, and the car model with the roof cut based on the monocoque car has a weakness that the strength and rigidity are impaired. For this reason, convertibles have been devised to supplement them. Only the roof part is removable, leaving the other partsTarga topThe format was also devised. Just to ensure strength, it takes time to develop a vehicle with a roof as a post-process, and the number of parts increases. It is not cheap because there is no roof, but it is costly because it secures strength while cutting the roof, which increases the weight and makes it expensive. Also, to store the roof and its moving partsseat,trunkIt is said to be a highly hobby car, as space is sacrificed.
In Japan, convertibles are traditionally called "hooded" and are nowCar inspection certificateIt is also written above.T bar roof TheHard topIt is classified into, and the notation is "box type". Also,Coupe cabrioletAlsoHard topHowever, this is a "hood type".
The term equivalent to "open car" outside Japan is "barchetta" (small boat ), "Roadster" (roadster ),"spider"(spider ), "Cabriolet" (convertible ),"convertible"(convertible )and so on. In addition to the difference in names depending on the country, "Barchetta", "Roadster" and "Spider" are "roofs".Closed"Car", "cabriolet" and "convertible" are "roofs"Can be openedIt is also based on the difference in the direction of car construction called "car", and there are differences in the presence or absence of a hood, area, weather resistance, etc.
In addition, recently, "" with higher weather resistance, durability, and safety.Coupe cabrioletThe number of electrically retractable hardtops called "retractable hardtops" has increased.Fiat 500C,Citroen DS3 CabrioAn open model that is an extension of the canvas top has also appeared.
In recent yearsAudiSome manufacturers, such as "Roadster" for the coupe-derived two-seater model,sedanSome of the derivative 2-door and XNUMX-seat ones are distinguished by using the name "cabriolet". The "Roadster" is a derivative of a sports car, or the majority of the car body is made up of its own parts, and the "Cabriolet"Popular carIt is often based on (family cars). As an exception, in the era when all production cars were sports carsPorscheThen,356There are three types, Speedster, Roadster, and Convertible (cabriolet).911Both Speedster and Cabriolet exist in 911 /912と914Of the detachable topTargaAlso lined up.
A serious safety issue for convertibles is the serious danger to occupants in the event of a rollover.T bar roof,Targa topOr, there is equipment of a safety mechanism such as an interference device that instantly protrudes when the vehicle rolls over to protect the head. In collision safety tests by third parties such as Euro NCAP, convertibles are categorized by themselves and tested on a different standard than closed bodies.
Japanese convertible market
By Japanese car1933Appeared inNissan OfDatsunBeginning with the 12-inch Phaeton, the Datsun 1935-inch Roadster used the name of the Roadster in 14. For 2 peopleSheetThetrunkA sportier roadster based on the room-retractable 2 + 2 coupe has been added to the lineup.
After that, this flow was the first after the war.sports carBecame1952Datsun Sports DC-3 andAustinIn partnership with "Datsun 1000Based onFRPAdopted the body1959of"Fair ladyIt is inherited to. Although the roadster was not named in the car name, these were popular as Datsun (Datsun) roadsters until the successor SR311 (Fairlady 2000) in North America.
1962Has just entered the automobile manufacturing industryHonda Motor Co., Ltd. S360Will be the foundation of the later S series. However, it has been a major export destination since the end of the 1960s.North AmericaShift to a general covered body (closed body) by strengthening the safety standards ofExhaust gas regulationsIn addition to reasons such as reduction of development costs when it was forced to respond toOil shockFrom social backgrounds such as, after that, this genre will face a long gap until the appearance of the aforementioned Eunos Roadster.[Annotation 1].
1989Toマ ツ ダReleased by "Eunos Roadster" (currently "Eunos Roadster"Mazda Roadster") Was a pioneer of the new era of convertibles and had a great impact on automobile manufacturers around the world. Roadster is MazdaPopular carIsFamiliaAn improved version of the 1,600cc engine for the vehicle was mounted on the front of the vehicle, and was given a rear-wheel drive and a dedicated vehicle.
At that time this field wasNiche marketIt has been a long time since the surviving models of the old generation, which can be said to be fossil, have been dead, and most automobile manufacturers except some overseas luxury cars have not been willing to do anything. But the Mazda Roadster2004By April, 4 units have been shipped, making it the world's largest producer of two-seater small open sports cars.GuinnessIt was the best success in this field, including being certified by. Also in 2002Daihatsu Copen, In 2015Honda S660The development of new cars is continuing slightly, such as the release of.
Body style list
- Roadster (Roadster ) --Basically a two-seater.
- Cabriolet (Convertible ) / (Convertible )- CarriageDerived from one form. It has a solid hood and hood bone.
- spider(Spider ) --Sports / sporty car. Low postureク モFrom reminiscent of.
- Barchetta (Barchetta )- ItalianでboatMeaning.
- convertible(Convertible ）
- Speedster (Speedster )- PorscheTrademark.
- (Drop head coupe ) --The name of a British-style two-door convertible.
- - FrenchIt means "the roof can be removed".
- Phaeton ―― 4-door open car.
- Coupe cabriolet
- Hard top --Antonym of soft top.
- Targa top ―― "Targa" isPorscheTrademark.
- T bar roof --T top.
It is said to be the highest peak of car racingFormula oneIncluding class machinesRacing car(EspeciallyFormula car) Traditionally has many open cars. AlsoPrototype sports carMay also be adopted.[Source required]
The weight of roofs and coolers is fatal in the world of car racing, which competes for one minute and one second. Driver's seat (especially in racing carscockpitThe size of the roof is reduced to the limit that one person can barely fit in, and waste is eliminated.circuitIt was considered that "useless long objects" did not need to be installed.[Source required]
However, in the design of racing cars, it is also required to pursue aerodynamic ideals such as reducing resistance. It is self-evident that an open structure is aerodynamically disadvantageous. Therefore, the open structure has advantages and disadvantages. The body of formula cars such as F1 still retains its old form because of the cultural aspect of the racing car tradition and to make it easier to rescue the driver in the event of an accident.[Source required]
On the other hand, there have been cases in recent years where things hit the driver directly and are seriously injured or killed, and there are discussions about making it a closed cockpit.LMPThe machine is becoming more closed for that reason, but the formula is still not progressing due to problems such as escape and strength of the closed cockpit..[Source required]
Modified open car
Convertibles are often used for outdoor events and celebrations. However, many open cars on the market have narrow rear seats due to the installation of a hood. Therefore, it is often necessary to convert a car that is not originally an open car into an open car.
oldSoviet UnionAnd the successor countryロシアFederation,People's Republic of China,DPR KoreaIn such cases, it is customary for the highest national leaders and military commanders to ride in a modified convertible and censor soldiers during a military parade.
OnceRoyal family,CountryHeadFor official events in whichRolls-RoyceSuch asluxury carIn many cases, a convertible car was used.AmericaBut until the early 1960sPresidentParades and regions to joinSpeechEtc.Lincoln,CadillacIn many cases, a convertible car was used. However196311/22 OfKennedy assassinationSince then, the situation has changed completely, and now the incumbent president has almost no use of convertibles.
Roman PopeBut once,popeParades and knees when you visit a foreign countrySt. Peter's SquareGathered in群衆I used to use an open car for events such as giving a close blessing to19815/13 OfAttempted assassination of John Paul IIAfter the Pope was seriously injured, the guard was thoroughly guarded.Mercedes-Benz G-ClassStrong on all four sides at the top of a modified convertibleBulletproof glassA private car with a cover like a showcase surrounded byPopemobile) Will be used, and it continues to the present.
In Japan, open cars are often used for celebration parades after winning a championship in sports competitions. Athletes usually sit on the upper part of the backrest of the backseat, carrying one or two people. What is often used at this time isToyota crown,Nissan CedricThere are many open cars that have been remodeled. Such vehicles are usually stored in the manufacturer's garage and rented out as needed.
JapaneseProfessional baseballIf there are many participating players, such as open typebusMay be used.1998Yokohama BayStars (currentlyYokohama DeNA Baystars) During the championship paradeYokohama City Transportation BureauIsogo Sales OfficeOwned and scheduled to be scrapped in 1998Transit BusWas converted into an open bus and put in. In 2004Hinomaru Automotive IndustryIs a regular sightseeing bus that uses an open top busSkybus tokyoSince the start of operation, there are increasing opportunities to use Skybus cars in the championship parade.
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