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"Popular" drive-in theater!At one point, there is no domestic zero ... Revival in Corona

 
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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

movies

movies (Movie) (Eiga (Denei),British: motion picture or movie or film) Is longthe filmStill images taken continuously at high speed (写真)projectorProjection curtain (screen) To reproduce the shape and movement by continuously projecting[1].Activity photo,Kinema,cinemaTomo.

In addition, although it deviates from the original meaning, it is not a filmvideo tapeEtcMagnetic recordingWhat was takenMovie theaterWill be screened atMovieThe works in general are also customarily called "movies".

Since the spread of movie theaters, movies are generally referred to as dedicated facilities (Movie theaterEtc.)screenOften refers to works that are projected onto and published.20st centuryIt is a means of expression that has made great progress, and movies are nowartIt has reached the level that should be called. Also, from ancient timesartIsA painting,彫刻,Music,literature,dance,building,theaterIt is also called "XNUMXth art" as a new art comparable to that of "XNUMXth art" without distinguishing between dance and theater.[2].. It is also treated as a kind of "comprehensive art" because it creates one work by interweaving various fields of art such as images, stories, and music.

Various names

"Movies" and "activity photos"

movies

The original meaning of the word "movie" is "to project a picture" or thus "a picture projected". for that reason,The early modern periodAt the end写真Was used synonymously with[3].. From that point on, it began to be used for "projecting images (on screens, etc.)", "projected images", and "moving images" shot on longer films.

In addition, "Japanese language dictionaryIn the item of "movie" in "the second edition", it is described as follows.

  1. Take a picture with a camera. Also, that image.
  2. Images and films projected by magic lanterns in the Meiji era.
  3. A mechanism that continuously projects images taken at high speed (standard XNUMX frames per second) on a projection curtain to give the viewer the feeling of seeing continuous movement. Activity photo. Kinema. cinema. movie.
Activity photo

"Activity photo" is a literal translation of the English word "motion picture" and was originallyIllusion machineHowever, the meaning changed later and it came to refer to movies.

cinema

"Cinema" isFrenchIt is the katakana notation of "cinéma".French cinéma is "cinématographe (CinematographIs an abbreviation for[4], 1. Art (technology, art) to produce cinematograph film and perform realize (= screening, performance)[4], 2. Projecting (using film) on the screen as if reality were moving[4](= "=" in JapaneseMovie screening”), 3. Where to screen[4](=Movie theater), 4. Of the filmdistributionIndustry to do[4](Movie distributor), which means. In France, based on the tradition of France,Lumiere brothersThe word and concept of "cinema cinema" is used in terms of the concept of cinematograph developed by the company and its technology (as an extension of).EtymologyGreek"Κινεῖν[5](Meaning "moving") ".In addition, there is also the term "film film" in French, and thin and elongated objects for realizing cinematographs are naturally called films, but they are also called films in the sense of individual "movie works".AmericaNow, let ’s make the art work French style.cinemaThe entertainment work is in English style.MoviesThere is a tendency to distinguish it from.

Kinema

In prewar Japan, the movie was "KinemaWas also called. A movie magazine that has continued since that time ("Kinema Junpo』(Kinema Junposha) Etc.), and it is also used when nostalgic feelings are preferred.

Movie history

With the development of photographic technology in the latter half of the 19th century, the development of moving photographs using it began in 1893.Thomas edisonLooking into and enjoying aloneKinetoscopeInvented several movie prototypes in the 1890s[6].. Meanwhile,1895In frenchLumiere brothersProjected a moving photo on the screen and released it. This is considered to be the origin of movies that lead to the present age[7].

The movies shown on the screen received a lot of attention all over the world as soon as they appeared, and the year after the development, they were shown in various countries.[6].. Early-stage films were merely fact-recording footage, but nonetheless, due to their novelty, various places見 世 物Movie theaters were established one after another[8].20st centuryWhen I entered, the production of movies with stories began, and movie works began to be actively made.[9].

The big breakthrough in cinematic expression was1920 eraof"TalkieThe appearance of the so-called "total natural color" movie that followed. Each of these eventually led to the extermination of previous film formats. For example, "Torkey," which is now a pre-"talkie."サ イ レ ン トIs rarely announced. Also, now "monochromeIt is extremely rare for a movie shot in "" to be released.

Unlike these advances in film technology in the first half of the 20th century, the development in film technology in the second half of the 20th century acted to increase the variety of cinematic expressions.

After the war, popular movie shooting techniques include, for example, "Special shooting""ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン""Computer graphics"Is mentioned. These new photography techniques have not become widespread by eradicating earlier methods, but have evolved in their own fields while coexisting with the photography techniques before they appeared.

From the 1970sVTRHowever, due to the difference in the basic display method between film and video, movies were generally shot on 35mm film. Since the beginning of the 21st century, commercial works have also been shot with digital video cameras, and the number of cases where they are edited on a computer without using film is increasing. For more informationDigital cinemaSee.

Classification/Type

There are various classification methods for movies, such as classification focusing on technical aspects, classification based on the route to deliver the movie work to the audience and business model, and classification based on the content (content of the work).

Movie for theatrical release / TV movie / Video movie

Movies were originally developed to be screened in dedicated screening facilities such as movie theaters.business modelAs a matter of fact, the company that produces the movie and the company that distributes it rents the film of the movie to the movie theater for a certain period of time and gets a fee for renting it (RevenueThe movie theater has a contract that pays the distribution company, rents the film for a limited number of days, and a large number of spectators buy the tickets necessary for admission. The difference between the money paid to the distribution company and the money earned from the audience is the "gross profit". It was a mechanism to try to increase profits by doing so.Films of movie productions made by movie production companies were reproduced in large numbers from the original films by movie distributors, and individual rental plans were made for each copy.Each individual copy of the film is supposed to move linearly from movie theater to movie theater, initially rented to a large movie theater in an urban area at a high price, and when the screening period ends there. The schedule, which is gradually rented out to movie theaters in local cities and small towns at a low price, balances with the screening plans of other movie works, and makes sure that there are no "holes" in each movie theater. , It was meticulously organized in consideration of the profits of each movie theater.Such a schedule system was called "track".Even now, movies released in theaters are the basis and mainstream of movies, but since the number of movies that are not so is increasing, movies to be released in theatersRetro Nimso"Theatrical release workIt is also called "theatrical release movie".

Then in the 1940s and 1950s in each countrytv set OfbroadcastAs the number of TV owners increased, it was also possible to put movie works that had already been released in theaters on TV radio waves later. In this case, as a business mechanism, negotiations and contracts are made between the movie company that has the rights to the movie work and the TV station, and the TV station pays the movie company the consideration (fee) for broadcasting. Will be paid. Eventually, although relatively small in number, film works were made that were shot on film for the purpose of broadcasting on television from the beginning. Such works are especially "TV movieThere is a way to classify it. When a TV company produces a movie, the above-mentioned flow of money (TV station → movie company) does not occur.TV programIt is a measure taken by the TV station to enhance1960 eraAs a kind of "main program" in the American TV program ofWesternOr "Home dramaMany movies were produced.[10]

From the late 1970s to the 1980s and beyondBeta max,VHSAs relatively inexpensive home video devices with standards such as these become more and more popular from homes in developed countries, it will eventually be targeted at relatively wealthy homes that own video devices, and will cost several thousand yen to 1 yen. Movie works are now sold in the form of videotapes at a super price. This gave movie (production) companies more ways to make money (other than lending film to cinemas and getting rights from TV stations). As the number of movie works made into videotapes gradually increases, we will lend such videotapes.rental videoA trader appeared, but because the method of monetization of the movie company was not established, the movie work "CopyrightThe trial was related to "loan rights", the use of tapes, and the delineation of the range where screening is permitted, and as a result, the rental company should pay "reasonable consideration" to the movie company. After several trials and negotiations between the movie company and the rental company association, the "rental-only" tape was eventually sold to the rental company at a considerably higher price than the tape sold to the general public. Instead of the movie company's profitable mechanism, or the movie company divides part of the "loan right" into rental companies, the rental company reports the number of times the tape was actually rented to the movie company, and it is linked with that number. The content is to pay the increasing fee firmly in the form ofAgreementThe mechanism of connecting was established. When the business format of video rental was established in this way, movies that were shot on the assumption that they would be sold or rented as videotapes without being released to theaters from the beginning began to appear. It was. These movies are "Video movie"(Or "original video"Etc.). Since then, movie works have been sold and rented on DVD and Blu-ray, and in recent years,BroadbandHowever, when it became widespread in ordinary households, movie companies began to obtain appropriate rights fees not only from television broadcasting but also from online distribution. Since the 2010sNetflixHowever, in order to provide it as Netflix content from the beginning, many "original movies" have been produced and distributed all over the world including Japan.[11]

As the routes by which movie works are delivered to the audience have diversified, the boundaries have become ambiguous, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to uniformly determine where to draw the line. For example, in the United States, the genre of "television movies" has been active for some time, but in moviesAcademy awardsOr "Golden globe awardFor works that are eligible for a movie award such as "Movie Category", the qualifications for application are "Movies to be screened at a movie theater" or "Movies".Pay-per-viewIt is limited to "works delivered in" and excludes "television movies", but on the other hand, in the United StatesEmmy AwardIn the TV program awards such as the Golden Globe Awards and the TV category, awards for "TV movies" are set up in a separate frame.

Film type / magnetic medium type / digital type

In light of the history of cinema, cinema is originally filmed on photographic film.

Eventually, it was also practiced to incorporate such film into magnetic film, but in the movie world, which was originally supposed to be projected onto a large screen in a theater, shooting with 35 mm film is basically the standard. It continued to exist.

Since the 1990s, the situation has changed from country to country, and there is plenty of money to spare.HollywoodFor majors, movies (and big TV dramas) are still35mm filmShooting continued to be the overwhelming mainstream, and there was a phenomenon that digitalization was rather progressing in Japan and other countries. Once the material taken with photographic film in some countriesdigitalizationHowever, the technique of processing and editing unique to digital technology has also come to be used.

Since the beginning of the 2000s, I haven't used photographic film from the beginning.HD24pEtc.デ ジ タ ルMovies that were shot and edited on equipment, then converted to film and then delivered to the theater also appeared, and the number gradually increased. Audio information is also multi-channel in movie theatersSurroundWith the change, without printing on the filmCD-ROMThe number of cases where it is delivered by such means has increased. (For limited circumstances in JapanJapanese movieDetails on the page. )

Most of the movie works shown in recent movie theaters (cinema complex) have changed the mechanism of "distribution" (as in the past, they make duplicates in the form of an object called a film, and as an object, " To each movie theater in the form of digital data from the beginning (rather than being "delivered")Transmission over network line(VPNIt is transmitted (or on a dedicated line), and it is projected onto the screen by a device that directly projects digital data as an image. Technically speakingData centerThere is a server on the movie company side inside, and each movie theater stores the data of the movie workDownloadHowever, the movie company conducts business by exchanging "digital keys" to perform operations and management that make it possible or impossible to show each movie at each movie theater. There is.[12]

Fiction / Documentary or Fiction / Nonfiction
As one of the classification methods of movie works by content, "fictionmovies" / "documentaryThere is a way to classify it as a movie.Also (similar to art using sentences) fiction movies / Non-FictionThere is also a way to classify it as a movie.
Nationality
For movie works, nationality is classified by nationality.GenreIt is also treated like this.For exampleAmerican movies / French movie / Italian movies / British movie / Japanese movie / Korean movie / Chinese movie / Indian movies / Brazilian movie / Argentine cinema And so on.

Movie industry

There are movie industries all over the world, but the largest one isThe United States of AmericaWest coast ofLos Angeles OfHollywoodIs. In terms of money, Hollywood is undoubtedly the largest in the world. However, it is not the United States that produces the most movies a year.IndiaIn 2009, 1288 were produced, which is less than twice the number in the United States. The center of Indian filmmakingMumbai(Formerly Bombay), the movie industry hereBollywoodHowever, since the Indian film industry has a film industry for each language, there are many film production sites other than Mumbai.[13].

In Japan in KyotoUzumasaIs a center of historical films, and there are many other genres in Tokyo.Oizumi() AndChofu City(Nikkatsu film studio,Kadokawa Daiei Studio) AndDadeumi(Toho Studio) And so on. China, which has seen remarkable economic growth recentlyQingdao Oriental Movie MetropolisWas made to appear.

Business characteristics and statistical evaluation of the movie industry

The movie industry has become a "recession-resistant" industry in the United States[14].

In addition, "video,DVDThe spread ofFile sharing softwareThe idea that "the rise of the movie industry will drive the movie industry to ruin" is a "wrong belief", and in reality the number of spectators is increasing rather than decreasing.[14].. Regarding this increase in the number of spectators, it has been pointed out that "by making a masterpiece that can be enjoyed by those who see it on a large screen, the audience is brought to the cinema."[14].. However, it should be noted that increasing the number of spectators in the United States, where the population continues to grow due to the increase in immigrants, does not immediately indicate a strong performance in the film industry. Like other industries, the movie industry will begin to decline if the balance between supply and demand begins to collapse. It has been pointed out that "the number of movie theaters used per capita per year" should be used as an objective index of the supply-demand balance, not the number of spectators, total box office revenue, or the number of screens nationwide.[15].

statistics

In order of movie production

The following data is a list of the top 15 countries of feature films (fiction, animation, documentary) screened by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, unless otherwise stated.[16].

RankingCountryNumber of productionsYears
1Indian flag India1,8132018.[17]
2Nigerian flag9972011
3Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku8742017
4Japanese flag Japan6892019[18]
5United States flag America6602017
6Republic of Korea flag South Korea3392016
7French flag France3002017
8British flag The United Kingdom2852017
9Spanish flag スペイン2412017
10German flag Germany2332017
11Argentina flag アルゼンチン2202015
12Mexican flag メキシコ1762017[19]
13Italian flag イタリア1732017
14Brazilian flag Brazil1602017
15Turkish flag1482017

Box office revenue order

RankingCountryperformance income
(BillionU.S. $)
YearsIn box office
Percentage of home-grown movies[20]
N/AWorld total41.72018[21]N/A
1United States flag America11.082018[22]88.8% (2015)
2Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku9.152018[22]62% (2018)[23]
3Indian flag India2.362018[24]85% (2015)
4Japanese flag Japan2.392019[18]54.4% (2019)[18]
5British flag The United Kingdom1.722018[22]44.3% (2017)
6Republic of Korea flag  South Korea1.62017[25]52.2% (2015)
7French flag France1.52018[22]36.2% (2017)
8German flag Germany1.112018[22]26.3% (2017)[26]
9Russian flag ãƒ­ã‚·ã‚¢1.02017[25]17.4% (2015)
10Australian flag Australia0.952018[22]4.1% (2017)
11Brazilian flag Brazil0.92017[25]8.9% (2017)
12Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³0.872018[22]6.6% (2017)
13Canadian flag ã‚«ãƒŠãƒ€0.762017[27]3.2% (2017)
14Spanish flag ã‚¹ãƒšã‚¤ãƒ³0.72017[25]17.4% (2017)
15Italian flag ã‚¤ã‚¿ãƒªã‚¢0.72017[25]17.6% (2017)

Admission ticket sales order

According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistical Statistics, the top countries in terms of ticket sales are:[16]

RankingCountryNumber of admission tickets sold
(100 million sheets)
YearsNumber of admission tickets sold per person
1Indian flag India2,02020161.55
2Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku1,62020171.16
3United States flag America1,24020173.78
4Mexican flag ãƒ¡ã‚­ã‚·ã‚³33820172.68
5Republic of Korea flag  South Korea21720164.25
6Russian flag ãƒ­ã‚·ã‚¢21320171.48
7French flag France20620173.07
8Japanese flag Japan1942019[18]1.54
9Brazilian flag Brazil18120170.87
10British flag The United Kingdom17120172.59

People involved in the production of movie works

The chief executive of film productionMovie producerIs. The producer chooses the project,Funding, Determine budget scale and set outline of allocation, negotiate with candidate distributors (movie theater series),PropagandaStrategy review and decision,directed byPerson selection,An actorSelection of people, judgment of final cut, etc.

Producer authority is maximum. He is stronger than the director, judges whether the director's work is good or bad, and in some cases even dismisses the director in the middle of shooting and replaces it with another director.

When it comes to movies of a certain size or larger, it costs a lot of money to produce, and you must first raise the cost for production.FundingIs needed as the greatest and fundamental foundation, and if it cannot be done,budgetI can't make a plan, I can't decide the allocation ratio of funds, I can't make a shooting plan, arrange movie staff, arrange equipment, nothing.

Films are produced by a large number and variety of professional staff[28].. The movie, for exampleWriter, Production manager (management of shooting schedule and local transportation of shooting tools), camera (cinematographer, camera engineer, etc.), lighting, recording engineer, "art" (concept, procurement, design of items appearing on the screen) , Production, etc.), Makeup (make up), Costume-related jobs (stylists, costume designers, costume makers, etc.), music (作曲家,Lyricist,singer,Musician,Conductor And so on),VFXDozens of types, even if roughly divided, and hundreds of types of specialists, if subdivided, fulfill their respective roles.A movie is a "comprehensive art" created by bringing together the abilities of these various people.When it comes to large-scale movies, it involves thousands of people, soEnd roll(Display of production personnel) will also be enormous.

directed by

Personally made movie

Currently, filming in individuals or small amateur groups isCamera integrated VTRIt is usually done in. By recording on DVDs and memory devices since the early 2000sMagnetic tapeDo not useDigital videoIs widespread,DVThe video is also active.

Inexpensive equipment is not a requirement for personally produced filmsGeorge Lucas"Personal production ofStar WarsThe new trilogy uses the same equipment as the commercial films of the time.

Analog typeVideo tape recorder8mm before it became popularthe filmIt was the mainstream to shoot in. It is difficult for individuals to procure equipment for 35 mm film for business use (even for cameras, it costs millions of yen to purchase, and "maintenance is unreliable", so most of the rentals for individuals are done. The film was also expensive. Therefore, by using a small film for individuals, the cost of sensitive materials such as film and development costs was reduced.

Meanwhile, in the 1980sBeta camUntil it became widespread, it would be used for outdoor shooting at TV stations and the TV movies mentioned above.16 MiriFilm was often used. If it is 16 mm, it is possible to produce it at a lower cost than 35 mm, and even an individual could "get it done", so "movie production with 16 mm" is the goal of amateurs. The era that has been regarded as "has continued for a long time.

For cheaper and easier movie production on 8mm film,8mm movieSee also section.

Digital camcorder and PC basedNonlinear editingDue to the low price of equipmentAlvin Tofflerof"Third wave]ProsumerIs emerging. Also, for professional use, video management software linked with a non-linear editing system is used.

YouTubeWith the creation of a place where anyone can easily express using video sites such as, the situation surrounding personal production of video has changed significantly. The place to screenprojection mappingWith the development of "movies" and "ImageThe distance between "works" is shrinking.

in Japan,Meiji EraSince then, personally shot movies have begun to be produced.PrewarFrom someColor filmWas shot atNHKIn 2003, "BS Prime Time Video Record: Showa War and Peace: The Expression of the Age Revived by Color Film" Part XNUMX Part XNUMX "NHK Special Video recording: Showa war and peace-The expression of the era revived with color film- ", 2006BS special feature Color video recording Revived Japan in the early Showa period "[29] It was taken up in the first part and the second part and a total of three books.

Basic elements of a movie work

Said to be the "father of Japanese movies"Shozo MakinoAccording to the movie, there are three elements, and the order is "Suji Nuke Dousa". Suzy refers to the script, Nuke refers to the beauty of the image, and Dousa refers to the acting of the actor.[30].

On the other hand, in the explanation of the item "Movie" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica sub-item encyclopedia, "Movie isscenario,Show,Camera work,EditIt is produced by combining the four basic elements of. ", Citing four elements[31].

Relationship with the original, relationship with art by letters

Originally, plots (essence of plot) are written only for movies, and scripts are often written only for movies, but there are novels in advance, and "movies" may be done later. is there. Also (although not many countries do) Japan, the United States, etc.Comic,ComicIn some rugged countries, movies may be made based on manga and comics.

If there is an original literary work

The characteristics of the art of letters, such as novels, and the art of movies, which are images (and sounds), are very different. (There are things that can be done with letters, things that are not suitable for letters, things that can be done with images, and things that are not suitable for images.) Art using letters and art using images are, so to speak, "totally different things", so classics Making a movie based on literature involves various difficulties.

For exampleJulien DuvivierDirector'sAnna Karenina"Every happy family looks the same, but each unhappy family has its own form of misery" (Tetsuo MochizukiI gave up expressing the part corresponding to the video in the video, and in the end, I had to show it in letters.

Numano MitsuyoshiLists three as "simply slogan, the utility of a movie based on literature"[32].

One is "I can complain that it is different from the original".
The second is that "what you shouldn't see in literature can be seen in a movie." For example, "Transformation" directed by Wallery Fokin, etc.カ フ カIs visualizing what he may not have wanted to visualize.
The third is that "I feel like I've read a work that I can't read in about two hours." For example, "War and peace』And so on, but you can see the gorgeous historical world in the movie, and it makes you feel like reading the original one day.

In general, a movie work that tries to visualize the original as faithfully as possible tends to have a low rating as a movie work, and on the contrary, "Sand bowl] OrJean RenoirA movie work with different content from the original, such as the director's "Picnic", or a movie work based on a short story (that is, the original is used as a "trigger" or "crystal core" at best, and keep a distance from the original Therefore, most of the elements of literary works are drastically cut off or changed, and movies that give priority to the convenience of the unique technique of movies) are often regarded as "masterpieces".

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ "Iwanami Japanese Dictionary Third Edition"Iwanami Shoten, 1983, "KojienXNUMXth edition "Iwanami Shoten, 2008 and others.
  2. ^ 1911 "Seventh Art Declaration" (Ritchot Canude)
  3. ^ Original work by Daglon, translation by Yange YanagikawaHaruzo YanagawaTranslated "Photo Mirror Illustrated" 1867
  4. ^ a b c d e Larousse
  5. ^ Greek romanization: kinein
  6. ^ a b "Encyclopedia of Academic Mechanisms" p246-247 VALIS DEUX, supervised by Sakuji Yoshimura, published on January 1996, 1, first edition, Nihon Jitsugyo Publishing Co., Ltd.
  7. ^ "New Edition Hollywood 100 Years History Lecture From Dream Factory to Dream Kingdom" p22 Keisuke Kitano Heibonsha New Book July 2017, 7 First Edition First Edition
  8. ^ "New Edition Hollywood 100 Years History Lecture From Dream Factory to Dream Kingdom" p28-32 Keisuke Kitano Heibonsha New Book July 2017, 7 First Edition First Edition
  9. ^ "Encyclopedia of Academic Mechanisms" p246 VALIS DEUX, supervised by Sakuji Yoshimura, published on January 1996, 1, first edition, Nihon Jitsugyo Publishing Co., Ltd.
  10. ^ Although these were widely appreciated in the United States, they were also imported into Japan in large numbers, and home dramas in particular had a considerable influence on Japanese life culture. However, it is rare for this kind of thing to be newly photographed and produced in Japan today.
  11. ^ These works will not be released in theaters, but will be distributed directly online. In Netflix, works with stories that span multiple episodes are called "TV shows / dramas" (TV Shows in English), and those with only one episode are called "movies" (Movies in English). Most of Netflix's "original movies" belong to the one-shot or two-hour drama genre in Japan.TV movieIt can be said that. These "original films" are increasingly being exhibited at film festivals, causing controversy.Cannes Film FestivalSo, in order to exclude these "original movies" from the judging, it was decided that only the works screened at French movie theaters will be judged from 2018, and it became a controversy."Controversy continues with exclusion of Netflix films at Cannes Film Festival”(May 2017, 5). 2017th of February 11Browse.
  12. ^ NTT technology that supports digital cinema
  13. ^ "World Geographical Magazine Series 5 India" p75 Kazuo Tomozawa ed. October 2013, 10 First Edition First Edition Asakura Shoten
  14. ^ a b c "Sales are strong this summer: Is the movie industry strong in recession and file exchange?" WIRED VISION, delivered on September 2008, 9
  15. ^ Shusei Nishi, "Movie Collapse or Rebirth", Alt Arts / Seiunsha,ISBN 978-4-434-15949-7, 2011, pp. 41-42.
  16. ^ a b "UIS Statistics". . UNESCO international convention against doping in the sport. 2019th of February 5Browse.
  17. ^ "INDIAN FEATURE FILMS CERTIFIED DURING THE YEAR 2018". (September 2018, 8). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  18. ^ a b c d "Statistics Of Film Industry In Japan". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. 2019th of February 2Browse.
  19. ^ Mexican Film Institute. (2017). Statistical yearbook of Mexican Cinema. Mexico City: Mexican Film Institute.
  20. ^ "Percentage of GBO of all films feature exhibited that are national”. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2019th of February 5Browse.
  21. ^ McNary, Dave (January 2019, 1). “2018 Worldwide Box Office Hits Record as Disney Dominates” (English). Variety. https://variety.com/2019/film/news/box-office-record-disney-dominates-1203098075/ 2019th of February 1Browse. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g "Leading film markets worldwide in 2018, by gross box office revenue (in billions US dollars)". . 2019th of February 3Browse.
  23. ^ “Another Record Year for China's Box Office, But Growth Slows”. Caixin Global.. (January 2019, 1). https://www.caixinglobal.com/2019-01-02/another-record-year-for-chinas-box-office-101365697.html 2019th of February 5Browse. 
  24. ^ "Value of the film industry in India". (2018). 2019th of February 5Browse.
  25. ^ a b c d e "2017 THEME Report". MPAA. . 2019th of February 5Browse.
  26. ^ “German Box Office 2017: Revenues Rebound to $ 1.2 Billion”. The Hollywood Reporter(July 2018, 1). https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/german-box-office-2017-revenues-rebound-12-billion-1071532 
  27. ^ "Culture: Feature films”. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2019th of February 5Browse.
  28. ^ "What are the main occupations involved in making a movie?”. Tokyo Film / Actor & Visual Arts College. 2020th of February 8Browse.
  29. ^ High-definition special feature Color video recording Revived Japan in the early Showa period --NHK masterpiece selection (video / still image) NHK Archives
  30. ^ Kyoto City Media Support Center Statue of Shozo Makino
  31. ^ "Encyclopaedia Britannica Subitem Encyclopedia", "Movies"
  32. ^ "After all, the world is made of literature" (Kobunsha p.115f).

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