Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🚗 | Mitsubishi Fuso e-Canter, worldwide delivery exceeds 200 ... Total mileage is over 300 million km


Photo Mitsubishi Fuso e-Canter

Mitsubishi Fuso e-Canter delivers more than 200 vehicles worldwide ... Total mileage is over 300 million km

 
If you write the contents roughly
On the other hand, overseas, in addition to these, it is used for various purposes such as postal delivery, industrial gas transportation, and waste treatment work.
 

On February 2, Daimler Trucks will release the mass-produced EV light-duty truck "e-Canter ..." → Continue reading

 response


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Industrial gas transportation

Post

PostWhat is (Yubin)?MailIt is a system to deliver (deliver). Also, mail[1].

Overview

In Kojien, there is a letter (letter,Postcard) Others A communication system that delivers specified goods domestically and internationally"[2].. In other words, what is mail?MailIs a system/system for delivering information (from a bird's-eye view)communicationThat is one of the systems (communication system).

"Postal" isMail OfAbbreviationSometimes used as[2].

The basis of mail in each country is to specify the address on postal items that comply with the specified dimensions and weight,post officeEtc.CategoryIt is said that if you pay a fixed fee for each, the postal carrier will deliver it to the destination. Similarly, send at normal speed (days)Postcard,sealed letterEven if you don't bother visiting the post office,stampAffixPost boxIf you put it in the mail box, the mail carrier regularly circulates the posts, collects them and carries them to the post office, and after that, delivers them to the destination as well as the mail items that the post office did not have. Target[Note 1].

The destination (delivery destination) of mail is the companyLocation,personalAddressIs generally specified, in which case the company or individualMailboxBe delivered to. In addition, the address of the post officePO BoxIn this case, the mail will be delivered to a specific box at a specific post office, and the recipient will go to the box at appropriate time (at the recipient's convenience). You will receive the mail.

Regarding the postal history collection described in the next section, it is not clear where to start, including the distinction between postal and hikyaku.Taxis mail is probably the starting point because it connects to the Universal Postal Union, and the penny postal system is considered to be the starting point because the British shipbuilding and shipping capabilities have made it possible to expand globally.As far as the UK is concerned, the cheap penny hikyaku was not inferior to the penny postal system in terms of convenience.The postal history collection is different in the history of each country.The other language version also mentions that of Mongolia.フィンランドIt's interesting in connecting with Germany and Russia, but it's not yet written on Wikipedia.The Japan-US postal history collection will be handed over to each country's section.

In addition, Wikipedia says "Works on the subject of mailCategory exists.

Prehistory

monasteryHikyaku Manastic Post to lead churches and monasteries around the world12st centuryIt happened at the beginning.Papal OfficeAnd each monasteryMonkThemessengerStand upnetworkIt became.hierarchyCommunication based onHikyakuMade byCluny Abbey TheCluny BoardReform the Hikyaku system withCentralizationWas fulfilled.MissionaryHikyaku is a citizen'sCorrespondenceAlso carried.TemporaryAvignon AgencyEvenBureaucracyHikyaku was fulfilling.Papal communications are commercialRenaissanceIt will change to a private hikyaku in the period[3].

Medieval universityThe periodical communication was carried out by University Hikyaku Message de Le Versiite. Above allUniversity of ParisThe system was excellent. The hometown association Nasiio, which was created by each student, participated in financial management and foreign negotiations at the university, while entrusting the management of hikyaku to a well-known person in Paris. Hikyaku is divided into a great messenger for managers and a flying messenger for actual transportation. The former received the same preferential treatment as university professors and students.Tithe tax,Salt tax, Wine tax,Toll tax, Other taxes were exempted.Great Messenger returned a portion of its proceeds to the university and Nashiio.They are金融I was blessed with surplus funds to handle.The incentives were a burden to the king and the citizens, and there were many conflicts.The University of Paris's hikyaku continued for centuries,1720For 12 francsnationalizationWas done[3].

11st century --Hikyaku, which contributed to the commercial renaissance of the 12th century,地中海/NordicHe played an active part in the commercial area and their exchange channels.1290,(English editionAncestor ofOmodeo Tasso Bergamo HikyakuWas maintained (Camerata CornelloSee also). HeRepublic of VeniceAdvance to1305Established the Venice Emissary Company.The republic negotiates with the Roman Curia for the Tasso clan and they fly in the papal territoryrightWas admitted.Their hikyakuFrankfurt・ I ran to Madrid and Barcelona.Spain has been a sponsor since the family later started the postal service.The messenger company1436Competed with Hikyaku in the city.on the other hand,Hanseatic AllianceHikyaku was also international. In Bremen, the hikyaku system was established from the mid-12th century. In the 16th-17th centuryRiga・Nuremberg・Amsterdam・Venice, London, Vienna and Prague were operated according to departure and arrival times[3][4].

Knights of Germany TheMalborkAt the beginning, he didn't have a hikyaku, so the knight himself acted as a messenger. If not urgent, I used the monastery Hikyaku. Eventually, the knight's messenger set up a jumpnet in cooperation with a member of the land called Witting.[3].

StrassburgSet up urban hiking in the 10-11th century. This was mixed public and private. Late 14th centuryCologneThen, it had an independent system, public and private. The private sector had a post office in the center of the city and was a post office and post office.FrankfurtThe hikyaku of 1385,Aschaffenburg-Koblenz・Cologne・SiegenI ran to. Mounted cavalry is Bremen andStadeI went back and forth in time. The portrait of Hikyaku remained, and he had an imperial coat of arms instead of his passport. The writing boxes were made of wood or turned into bottle-sized jars, but became silver boxes in the 15th century. I carried a spear and used it not only to protect myself from wild dogs and robbers but also to jump over moats[3].

History

The origin of modern mail is1516From Germany/Italy Prestigious clan figuresFrancesco de Tasis IBut,Thurn und TaxisWas established and operated throughout Europe. This clan hasPostal scienceIs the first research target in the.

Commercial Hikyaku since the Commercial Renaissance facilitated the exchange of contracts. Insurance policy exchangedMarine insuranceHas developed. In the Middle Ages, there are already banks that settle trade, and between theseBill discountExported bills were exchanged. The act of banks earning discounts5th Lateran CouncilWas confirmed by. The required time varies considerably depending on the hikyaku, and the maturity was decided according to the slow speed.Medici family,Hugger house TheExchange rateI used a highly paid bank courier to find out. A nodal point in the Mediterranean/Nordic commercial areaLyonThen, the big city, which is held four times a year,Clearing houseIt was.France209 out of all 169 banks of theBase currencyWas settled using. I was able to find out the exchange rate decided in Oichi by bank hiking. A person named Jean-Baptiste Verathan from Florence was in charge of Lyon's epoch, but was sued by a Lyon banker. Such bank pilgrims also carried the papal and king's documents[3].

1657The British government made the postal service a state-owned business[5].. It merges with later business in 1682.

In London, foreign merchants operated Hikyaku in the 15th century. As a foreign merchant,Hansamerchant·FlandersThere were merchants and Italian merchants. In 1496, England and the Netherlands signed a trade treaty. The monarchs of both countriesMercantilismTake policyHenry V When,Imperial MailAsylum ofフ ェ リ ペ 1 世Met. In 1514, Foreign Merchant Hikyaku was established. This is a treatycensorshipEscaped. In the 16th century, the Adventurer Hikyaku was established based on the George Ryokan near the Royal Exchange, which competed with the foreign merchant Hikyaku. In the 17th centuryRoyal mailWas absorbed by. Royal Mail did not deliver door to door. March 1680,William DokulaRecruited co-owners and penny hikyaku (en) Started. It sold 4 a week in April, but sold 3 in March of the following year. There were no stamps and a storage stamp was used. Penny Hikyaku was spotted by Royal Mail and was nationalized in 1682 without compensation for the infringement of his monopoly. Along with this,Count ShaftsbergDefected to the Netherlands. Penny Hikyaku resumed in December 1682[3].

FranceThen there were two types of hikyaku. Petit Post, a door-to-door delivery service in Paris, was granted a charter in 1760, but profits were backfired and it was requisitioned. This was introduced in various places such as Lyon, and it became a generous service of picking up and delivering six times daily in Paris. There were also Grand Posts that ran on major station roads nationwide. Until the beginning of the 19th century, about 1829% of the population was out of hikyaku. Improvements have been made since XNUMX[3].

1840January,Roland HillWith the implementation of the flat-rate postal system invented by, the foundation of modern postal services was established. World's firstPostage stamp"Penny blackThis postal system was also known as the "Penny postal system".

1870, FrenchMetz CityThe first in JapanAirmailWas carried out.

In 1874Imperial MailBased onUniversal Postal UnionWas established. Currently, postal services can be delivered between postal businesses that are members of it. Until then, postal services were carried out according to the circumstances of each country. A representative of the Tasis family also took part in the signing of the formation of the coalition.Universal postal treatyHow to set postage, and how money can besettlementThe problem of whether to do is solved.

1909 years,German post officeStarted handling small-account transfers, about this serviceReichsbankAgreed with. In 1910Austria/HungaryPostal Savings Bank, Swiss Checks Authority,National Bank of Belgium, And in 1912Luxembourg central bankBut each has made an agreement with the German Post Office. Reichsbank modeled on the UK since 1883Clearing houseWas set up. These existed in 1913 locations in 23 and in 1912 recorded over 35 billion pounds of exchange. Seems less than the UK's over £150bn. However, 35 billion is a net value, and gross debits totaled over 220 billion pounds.[6][Note 2].

1934, 10th Postal Union Conference (Postal Union Congress) Is EgyptianCairoOpened in. Based on the agreement here,International settlement bankUndertakes the practice of international mail transfer[7].. By opening and consolidating the gold accounts of the central banks of each country, it was a mechanism to clear the international settlement of postal, telegraphic and telephone services of the Universal Postal Union. In addition to Germany, the original member states were Britain, France and Scandinavian countries aiming for their isolation. The postal transfer started in April 1937 and was a high-volume, almost infrastructure for Britain and France. But at the end of next yearスイスHave joinedNazi GermanyIt also became useful.Second World WarAfter that, postal transfer became dormant for only a few years.

In that case, depending on Germanyチ ェ コSeparated fromSlovak RepublicThe puppet government offered to open a postal transfer account. This proprietySwiss post Swiss National BankContacted. In response to the inquiry dated September 1942, 9, they answered that they could not open a national bank, and advised to close the Swiss clearing bank account.[8]。勧告通りスイスポストがBIS口座を閉鎖したころに、国際郵便振替をドイツが利用しはじめた。1941-2年には決済件数23で金12.4キログラムの取引だったのが、1942-3年には34件で703.3キログラムとなり、1943-4年には30件で371キログラムの取引を記録した[9].. 2/3 of these deals are from German Imperial MailHungarian post, But the remaining 1/3 is from Germany, but the payment destination is TurkeyアルゼンチンMet.

In 1962, the Asia-Pacific Postal Union was established under Article 8 of the Universal Postal Union Charter. The purpose is to solve problems specific to the postal service in the Asia-Pacific region and to make the service more convenient. Japan joined in 1968. The largest body of the Union, the Grand Conference is usually held every five years.

Around 1980, EnglandカナダIntel Post started service in between[10].. Intel Post is international electronic mail that combines mail and fax. It officially started in 1984 and was abolished in 2003.

Postal service in each country

The major postal businesses (business owners) in each country are as follows. However, the ratio of state-owned and privately-owned companies varies from country to country. In some countries, some postal services are operated by private companies.

Japan

In Japan, regarding delivery of correspondence,Act on Delivery of Letters by Private Businesses(Common nameCorrespondenceIf the conditions ofJapan PostIt is a high value-added postal service that can be entered by businesses other thanSpecific letter mailAbout 404 operators (as of July 2013, 7)[11]Has entered. Private companies are also doing postal services in English, or "postal service" as a general concept.

It should be noted that the "nationwide entry type"General correspondenceThere are no businesses to enter,Japan PostIs going.

In addition, due to past circumstances, even though postal service (that is, postal service) is actually provided, it is legally possible to describe it as “postal” (trademark) in Japan.Japan PostIt is only.

Competitive services of private companies (transport companies, etc.)Mail serviceThere is (courier service).

Japanese postal history

The communication system appeared in JapanTransmissionIt is said to be a "stationary system of Dahua" that is used for public communication by using such means. thisStation systemContinues to rise and fall,Kamakura PeriodLeading toHikyakuThe appearance ofSengoku periodToDamingAfter the hikyaku was used to send the letter ofTokugawa period (Edo period)ToShogunateBy the maintenance ofsamurai,TradesmanA system such as hikyakuya and hikyaku wholesalers has been developed. afterwardsMeiji EraEnter, and Hikyaku moves to the mail.

1858 yearsUS-Japan Amity and Trade TreatyAs a result, the signatory country has set up a consulate in the open port. Countries carried official documents on steamships and warships, but also carried letters from their own citizens. This is so-called consular mail. Eventually, some of them expanded their business and established an independent bureau with full-time employees. Such foreign post offices in Japan areYokohama-Hyogo-NagasakiI had it. The station in Japan complied with the postal rules of each country. The basic functions of stamp sales, letter acceptance, and stamp imprinting have been fully fulfilled. In the settlement in YokohamaSutherland stampsWas used.

1870(Meiji 3) June,StationBecameMaejima MiuIt is,Prime MinisterProposed the creation of a postal system. However, in June of the same year, Maejima moved to Britain with Ueno Okura Ojo, so the proposal for the creation of the postal system was made by the successor station, Masamasa.SugiuraWas taken over by officials from all over the world.

1871On January 4, (Meiji 1), a series of prosecutors' official declarations regarding postal services were promulgated, such as "Letters for writing letters," "Postage fare stamps, high-ranking bills" and "Postal rules".May 4(Lunar calendar November 3), Tokyo-Kyoto-Osaka has established a postal system that is the foundation of the current system, and the first in Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka.Post officeWas founded. The name of "postal" used in the proclamation was based on Maejima's proposal.

Maejima MiuIn the modern Japanese postal system, which was proposed and established by the government, the government had previously spent 1500 cars each year to deliver government letters between Tokyo, Kyoto, and Osaka. A mechanism for delivering profits by also delivering was proposed. The mechanism is Tokyo-Kyoto-Osaka with 62 post offices and post offices.OfficialUndertaken and managed, the delivery time was strictly adhered to. After the establishment of the postal system, the conventional Hikyaku delivered letters between Tokyo and Osaka in 144 hours, but shortened it to 78 hours.

Next day1872When Maejima returned from England in August (Meiji 5), the post office was further expanded nationwide to Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Hakodate, and Niigata.Edo PeriodWas a regional coordinatorLordRequest that your home be a post office,1873In (Meiji 6), the postal system was expanded nationwide because approximately 1100 owners nationwide consented to the post office.

Station dormitoryInternational mailThe maintenance was also done in parallel. In 1872, the procedure was written down following the procedures for the Japan Bureau. As for the content, of the letters that arrived at the station in Japan, the delivery to Yokohama was left to the station in Japan. Other than Yokohama, the Japanese side delivered. The domestic charges from Yokohama onward are paid by the recipient, and the collected amount is the same as the domestic charges. On the contrary, the letter for overseas used a double envelope. The relay was done by sticking a Japanese stamp, which is the sum of domestic and foreign charges, on the upper envelope and sending it to the station dormitory, and the station dormitory stuck the stamp of each country on the lower envelope and entrusting it to the station in Japan. When there was no Universal Postal Union, it was necessary to conclude treaties with each country. Signed in Washington in 1873Japan-US Postal Exchange TreatyIs the first of them. Although there is a stipulation that postal services in Japan and the U.S. each carry mail of the other country for freeNippon YusenThe establishment had to wait for 1885.

  • 1892 -Started handling parcel post[12].
  • 1916 - Simple insuranceStart a business[12].
  • 1921 -Started domestic airmail[12].
  • 1943 -Abolished the Ministry of Communications, established the Communications Agency as an external station of the Ministry of Transport and Communications.
  • 1945 -With the abolition of the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Communications Center was transferred to the Cabinet and transferred to the Cabinet.
  • 1946 -Ministry of Communications revisited.
  • 1949 -Ministry of CommunicationsMinistry of PostAnd divided into the Ministry of Telecommunications.
  • 1966 - Postal LawMajor revision[14][15]..Type XNUMX mail[Note 3]Abolished and integrated into first-class mail[16]..Simple letter[Note 4]Changed to postal letter[17]..Creation of book parcels and simple registered mail, etc.[16].
  • 1968 - Zip Code(3 or 5 digits) Implemented.
  • 1970 -Square type post appeared.
  • 1979 -The telephone automation business is completed and the telephone exchange work at the post office is completed, which sets the 23rd day of every month as a free day.
  • 1983 -Birth of hometown parcel.
  • 1986 - TrainAbolished transportation.
  • 1989 - Fumi card(prepaid card) Issuing, new catalog parcel system established.
  • 1998 -Implementation of postal code (7 digits).
  • 2001 -With the reorganization of central ministries, the Ministry of Posts and Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications To the business division Japan Post Agency(Outside Bureau of Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications).
  • 2003 - Japan PostMove to.
  • 2007 -Due to privatization of postal servicesPostal service (first Japan Post)Will be handled by.
  • 2012 -With the review of privatization of postal services,Japan PostWill be handled bypost officeBecause it was absorbed and merged into).

Japanese mail

Other postal services handled by Japan Post

Japan post related

The United States of America

In the United StatesCivil WarAlthough the official postal service was made free of charge in Japan, a large amount of subsidy was consumed without being able to cover the cost only with the high charges imposed on private users. Later, the Post Office Act of 1792 envisioned the enhancement of the postal network at the federal level, and the legislature itself opened the postal route based on the law. In addition, the cost of reclaiming remote areas was transferred to and dispersed in the northeastern provinces, which are frequently used. By the time of legislation until 1828, Congress opened approximately 2300 routes, except closed ones, and by 1840 the number of inhabitants a post office had had was reduced to approximately 2. These policies have doubled the number of post offices in the United States double that of the United Kingdom and five times that of France. Also, through such a postal systemNews (Chinese)がアメリカ国内に普及し、1790年には50万部(住民5人に1人が読める)だったアメリカの新聞発行部数は、1840年には3900万部と一気に増加した(住民1人あたり2.7部)。しかし、新聞はアメリカの郵便物の95%(1832年のデータ)を占めたものの、郵便制度における歳入は全体の15%に過ぎず、アメリカの郵便と新聞は南北戦争以降、基本的に政治の道具となっている[18].

World DepressionAt the time of bankruptcy of private banks one after another,Postal savingsThe money flowed to. The balance of postal savings was $1931 million in June 6, but was $3 billion in June 5. Postal savings accounted for 1933% to 6% of total deposits of private financial institutions[19].

The US postal service is now a public corporation, The United States Postal Service(United States Postal Service) Is doing. However, it handles only postal services, and does not handle savings or simple insurance. The following three types of basic services are provided.

  • Express Mail
The fastest of the three types. Noon the next day of collection and delivery-Guaranteed to deliver to the recipient by 3 o'clock, if the delivery is not reached in time, the fee will be returned to the client. You can also add insurance up to $15 for free. This is to ensure a credit relationship with the client due to its speedy delivery. Express Mail Flat-Rate Envelope can be sent as a flat envelope, regardless of weight, for a flat fee of $100. Envelopes are free of charge and are available at each post office. In addition, you can check where the requested envelope/parcel is currently on the Internet.
  • First-Class Mail
Ships within 1-3 days within the US. Used for highly confidential documents (such as billing documents and legal documents). The size of a standard USPS postcard costs 23 cents. If it is larger than that, the charge for the envelope is 37 cents. However, there is an additional charge for modified envelopes other than rectangles.
  • Priority Mail
Delivery within 3 days within the US. However, luggage is limited in size, and the total length, width, and height is 180 inches (about 45 cm) or less, and the maximum weight is 70 pounds (about 32 kg). If you use a special envelope called Priority Mail Flat-Rate Envelope, you can send it for flat $3.85 regardless of the destination and weight. USPS website[20]If you use the address label printed out in, a delivery confirmation service will be added free of charge.

USPS also offers the following services:

  • Parcel post
Parcel delivery service, equivalent to JP (Japan Post) Yu-Pack. Delivery within 2 to 9 days within the United States. The total height, width, and height is 130 inches (about 330 cm), and the weight is limited to 70 pounds (about 32 kg).
  • Media Mail
Delivery mail for books, CDs, DVDs, videotapes, etc. Delivery within 8 days within the US Prices are cheaper than Parcel Post.

The United Kingdom

The postal service in the UK has been a state-owned business for more than 1700 years since the 350s.Royal mail, But in 2001, the UK government 100%Investment OfLtd.Was changed to. Dozens of companies are deployed as the Royal Mail Group, mainlyPost Office LimitedIs at the core of practice. In 2005, liberalization of entry into the postal business was carried out,Germany PostNew entrants such as Ya have come one after another, and they have started to work in a competitive state.

Other countries

In Germany,1995Until then, the state-owned business operated mail, telephone and savings. In 1995, the companyDeutsche Telekom,German post(DeutschePostAG)[21]Is divided into three companies, Deutsche PostPrivatizationBecame a corporation. The current post is mainly handled by Deutsche Post.

NetherlandsIs a private company, but operates a postal service. TPGPOST is a fully private capital, and is unique in that it does not include government capital in some parts like the postal organizations of other European countries.

Current,China PostThe actual management ofChugokuIn 2006, the postal service and telecommunications business were split. In 2007, the savings businessChina Post BankAs independent. In addition, in 2007, the body of the postal business was divided into a supervisory authority and an organization to carry out substantial management.

The postal service in Taiwan isRepublic of China GovernmentInvested byChunhua Post(China Post Co., Ltd.) Since 20072008It was called "Taiwan Post" for a while. Once China PostMinistry of Transportation of the Republic of ChinaIt was the post office, but in 2003 due to organizational reformMay 1Was reorganized into a public company and became a state-owned company wholly owned by the Ministry of Transportation. The business includes postal services and postal savings services.


footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In some countries, such as countries where the post is not fully staffed, post boxes may be barely installed.
  2. ^ In 1912 the first airmail was sent in Germany.
  3. ^ Mail that contains printed letters, business documents, sample products, etc., and is required to be opened and presented so that the contents can be inspected.
  4. ^ The legal name is "communication paper with postage stamps".

Source

  1. ^ "Meaning of mail”. Goo Japanese dictionary. 2019/11/24Browse.
  2. ^ a b Kojien XNUMXth edition "Postal"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Hoshina Sadao 2006 Chapter 7 The establishment of medieval Europe and the rise of hikyaku
  4. ^ Hoshina Sadao 2006, pp. 227-228 Chapter 8
  5. ^ Takashi Kitaoka "The story of [the beginning] that I want to know" Rooster, April 1995.ISBN 4-277-88095-9.
  6. ^ Leopold Joseph, The Evolution of German Banking, London, Charles & Edwin Layton, 1913, chapter 3.
  7. ^ Isabella Löhr, Roland Wenzlhuemer, The Nation State and Beyond: Governing Globalization Processes in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, p.56.
  8. ^ Schweizerische Nationalbank, Archiv Bern, Abmachungen mit der BIZ, Archivschachtel Nr. 112.
  9. ^ McKittrick Collection, Movements of Gold Sight Accounts for Postal Transactions 1941-44 by Roger Auboin vom 1.10.44.
  10. ^ The Times 1980/6/18
  11. ^ "List of letter mail carriers”. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2013). 2013/8/15Browse.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ministry of Communications 1921.
  13. ^ Postal Exchange Regulations (No. 7, Meiji 90th Declaration, Government of Japan), XNUMXth year of Meiji (1875) January XNUMX Yorii station dormitory XNUMX Post exchange rules
  14. ^ "Law to partially revise the Postal Law (Law No. 41, June 6, 8)". National Diet Library Japanese Law Index. 2021/2/14Browse.
  15. ^ "Original signature of the law that partially amends the postal law". National Archives Digital archive. 2021/2/14Browse.
  16. ^ a b "48 White Paper on Communication "Ratio of the type system and system of mail"”. Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (March 1974). As of March 3, 2020オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020/5/24Browse.
  17. ^ "Geological News May 1967 No.5 (pdf) ”. For those who collect stamps (8). Industrial Technology Institute Geological Survey of Japan. p. 46 (September 1967, 5). As of September 25, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/2/20Browse.
  18. ^ Daniel R. Headrick, When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, 1700-1850, Oxford University Press, 2000, chapter.6. Communicating Information-Postal and Telegraphic Systems
  19. ^ Shinji Yamada "Learn from the Great Depression" Tokyo Publishing, 1996, p. 9.ISBN 4-924-64459-5. 
  20. ^ USPS website
  21. ^ dpwn.de

References

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close