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🚗 | Citroen Berlingo EV, also set for passenger minivans ... Maximum 280km cruising

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Also set for Citroen Berlingo EV and passenger minivan ... Maximum 280km cruising

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A high-resolution 10-inch digital pad and head-up display are available as options.

On February 2, Citroen will be the EV passenger model of "Citroen Berlingo", "e-be ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Head up display

Head up display(English: Head-Up Display, abbreviation: HUD, Had) is a means of projecting information directly into the human field of view.

This technologyMilitaryDeveloped in the aviation field, it has been experimentally applied in various fields.To something similarHead mounted display (HMD, pronounced "hamd").


The head-up display has the following features.

  • ThisdisplayIs large and transparent, and the information is displayed overlapping the normal field of view of the heads-up display user.
  • Information is imaged at a point at infinity.As a result, the physiological phenomenon of "refocusing", which takes several seconds with a comma, does not occur when the head-up display user switches the viewpoint from the outside world to the image.

The most common means of realizing a head-up display is to project an image onto a transparent optical glass element.PreviouslyF-14Fighterlike,WindshieldThere was also a model that directly projected the image on the (A type before repair, etc.).

Originally, the device that projects an imageCRT (Cathode Ray Tube, CRT).Small display technology has been introduced as a projection device.Small displayLiquid crystal display (LCD),Reflective liquid crystal panel (LCOS),HolographicIt is composed of optical elements and the like.

Initially, heads-up displays were introduced in fighters and later flew low.armyusehelicopterIt came to be introduced to.pilotImportant information such as the speed and direction of travel of the aircraft can be seen overlapping, and during flight, the instrument panelInstrumentOccurs by switching the field of view toSpatial disorientationIt is designed to prevent fatal mistakes.

Large-scaleTransport aircraftAnd somePassenger planeIt is also used in.For fighters, the same information as the head-up displayhelmetDirectly projected onHead mounted display(For exampleJHMCSEtc.), but there is concern that the burden on the neck will increase due to the increase in the weight of the helmet.

Also, of firearmsDat SightSome of them are from EOTech and Bushnell.HolociteThere are also products with the same structure as head-up displays.


The following have been realized or proposed as applications of head-up displays.


It provides the windshield with an image of basic information for the driver (like forming an image at a point at infinity), and some car makers have already released it.[1].

Normally, a speedometer is displayed, butJapanIn Japan,tv setIf you look at the video etc. while drivingRoad Traffic LawIt is a violation (Article 71, Item 5-5).In Japanese passenger carsToyota Crown MajestaIs standard equipment on all models, speed display andcar navigationguide,Night viewIn addition to being used inMazda AtenzaAll grades andMazda Demio,Mazda CX-3,Mazda Axela,Mazda CX-5Some grades,Honda legend Intelligent night vision systemIt is used for.Long time agoNissan SilviaWas also adopted.

pioneerCar navigation system,Carrozzeria-Cyber ​​navigationThen,20127HUD compatible models are available on the market.

2017 year 1 month,Konica MinoltaHas developed the world's first in-vehicle 3D augmented reality heads-up display.According to Konica Minolta's explanation, even if the driver's viewpoint moves, the AR (Augmented Reality) display moves in a variable manner in consideration of the driving speed, and by eliminating the display shift, it is possible to convey accurate video information.[1].


F-15LaterFighterAnd so on, conventional opticsSightIt is equipped instead of.


DoctorAgainstX-ray,CT scanThe image of is superimposed on the patient and displayed.This makes it possible to see the structure of the body that is normally not visible.

Computer games

Computer gamesThen, the information displayed on the screen is called "HUD display" (note thatHead mounted displayThe display inside is also called as follows for convenience).Also, the physical strength of the player character on the normal game screen,ammunitionHead-up displays are used for the purpose of superimposing various information such as the remaining amount, map, and score.However, since it is a head-up display for simultaneously viewing various status displays while gazing at the front of infinity, this is a normal display.Computer displayIt doesn't make much sense to use it for.There is some confusion about the name of the display with "head mounted display".


[How to use footnotes]

Related item


resolutionWhat is (resolution)?Bitmap imageInPixel OfdensityIt is a numerical value indicating.

That is,imageTo expresslatticeThe fineness of is called the resolution, and is generally 1inchIs represented by a number depending on how many are divided.


The unit is generally dot per inch (dpi).Pixel per inch (similar concept)ppi), Line per inch (lpi), The former isScan lineIn the performance notation of scanners, etc., the latter two are mainly used for objects that are printed or displayed as a surface by a set of fine lines.See each item for each unit.It is not possible to compare these values ​​directly.Other than these units, you won't see them in general, but the pixels per meter (ppm) Exists.This is,Bitmap image,PNGIt is used inside the image format such as.Most image display software converts ppm units to ppi units and displays them, so it is rare to see them.

Original resolution (physical resolution)

The original resolution means how detailed the observation target is measured (depicted), or in other words, how far different objects are separated. dpi is a unit that expresses the density of dots, which is a well-defined physical quantity, and the use of the term resolution, which has a meaning as a relative density depending on the size of the screen, is not the original usage.The problem will be clarified by taking the above figure "difference in resolution" as an example.

At first glance, this figure "difference in resolution" is clear, and the figure on the far right has the highest physical resolution.However, we are seeing the same dpi display on the screen, depending on the size of the screen (relative).Number of pixelsHas a different meaning than (physical) resolution.This figure,Analog silver halide photography(To the right)FocusIs correct)Image scannerYou can think of it as a bitmap image captured at the same dpi.No matter how high dpi the image other than the right edge isMonitor display,PrintEven so, the resolution will not be higher than the right end (physical).

Such confusion is due to the use of "resolution" for the physical resolution and the relative resolution that is related to the size of the image.However, the physical resolution is dpi, and the relative resolution, which is related to the size of the image,PixelA unit that indicates the number and the physical size of the screen (inch) Is used.

Media resolution

Display resolution

FormerComputer displayShifted from an impact printer to a display using a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), and due to technical restrictions on the CRT, the resolution of the central part of the screen was lower than that of the left and right edges of the screen.In the era when non-uniform display resolutions were the mainstream, character string display (character display) was the mainstream, so the difference in physical resolution was not an issue.Also, for graphic displays that require uniformity,Vector scanA special type of device was used.afterwards,Graphical user interfaceThe CRT was required to have a dot display performance with squares in the vertical and horizontal directions.For consumer displays, Apple MacintoshGraphical user interfaceWith a setting that leads the CRT with a performance of about 80-100dpi and has a margin, "1PointWe decided to assign "= 1 dot" to express a 72dpi square dot.Even now, display displays are often made based on square displays.However, in the final stages of CRT, performance improved and computer displays came to have a resolution of 100-150 dpi. Microsoft Windows was set on the premise of 96dpi performance.In recent years, since liquid crystal displays have become mainstream, it has become possible to obtain a uniform resolution on the screen, and therefore, high resolution has been attracting attention again.OSX,iOSIn OS such as, the point unit (logical unit) is used instead of the dot unit (physical unit) to control the GUI (the GUI can be physically the same size on any display).For this reason, characters of the same size may become clear or rough due to the difference in display dpi.Similarly, in android and windows 8 or later, logical dot units are set.

Printed matter (Image resolution)

Printed matterAlthough the resolution depends on the printing method, it often has a resolution of about 300 to 600 dpi for general household use and 600 dpi to 2400 dpi for commercial printed matter.However, in a printer, the resolution represents the amount of deviation of the center of dots, so even if printing is performed at that resolution, it is not always possible to see the separated individual dots.

The resolution is originally to display or print an image.deviceIt is a parameter determined by the characteristics of.Therefore, the resolution information added to the image data itself is only auxiliary information such as "I want you to display at this resolution" or "If you display at this resolution, it will be the actual size".

Communication and broadcasting

In many cases, the horizontal resolution and the vertical resolution are the same, so the resolution is indicated by a single numerical value, but in the case of image data for printing and image data for communication, the resolution is higher in the horizontal and vertical directions. It can be different.That is, the intended image shape is obtained by displaying the width and length of one pixel in different states.The ratio of horizontal and vertical resolution at this time is "Pixel aspect ratio(pixel aspect ratio) ”.

Widely used in the broadcasting fieldYUV formatThen, the color of each pixel is indicated by three parameters of luminance information Y, color difference information Cr, and Cb, but in order to reduce the amount of data in communication, the color difference information is often set to half the resolution of the luminance information. It has been.

Color resolution

Also, how many different colors can be held for each point?Color depth,Color resolutionorColor resolutionCalled.Color resolution is often indicated by the number of steps in which the intensity of each of the three primary colors of light, "red, green, and blue," can be expressed.Also, this number of stages is 2.LogarithmIs often expressed as the number of bits using.For example, a bitmap image called 24-bit true color, which is widely used as data with high color resolution, has 256 levels of color resolution for each color.This is expressed as a color resolution of 8 bits for each color, for a total of 24 bits.

Human eye

HumanEye TheLight Ofthree primary colorsOf these, it is known that the sensitivity to blue is weak.Therefore, even if the color resolution of blue is lower than that of red and green, the effect on image quality is small.From this, the color is expressed by a total of 6 bits, 4 bits each for red and green and 16 bits for blue, and the color is expressed with a total of 3 bits, 2 bits each for red and green and 8 bits for blue. Is often done.These color representations are sometimes called 16-bit true color or 8-bit true color.In addition, the one in which 5 bits are assigned to red and blue and 6 bits are assigned to green, and the one in which 5 bits are assigned to red, green, and blue are called high color.

It is generally said that the human eye has the ability to distinguish about 1000 million colors.With 24-bit color resolution, 224= 16,777,216 colors can be expressed, which exceeds the characteristics of the human eye.However, as mentioned above, the color resolution of the human eye differs depending on the color, and there is a research result that red is not enough if there are about 10 bits.For this reason, when emphasizing color reproducibility such as image creation for movies, data having a color resolution of 10 bits, in which 30 bits are assigned to each of red, green, and blue, may be used.


The resolution is originally as described abovePixel densityAlthough it is a value indicating, it is also used as a term indicating the number of pixels of an image.This is the TVHorizontal resolutionThis is because it is derived from the concept of.Screen resolutionSee.

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