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✈ | US durable goods core orders slowed for 1 consecutive months in January


U.S. durable goods core orders slowed for 1 consecutive months in January

If you write the contents roughly
Durable goods orders refer to items that have been used for more than 3 years, from toasters to aircraft.

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] -The US Department of Commerce's January durable goods orders statistics released on the XNUMXth are for private capital investment ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


aircraft(This isBritish: aircraft[1]) IsatmosphereInsideFlightTomachine OfGeneric termIs[2].


"Light aircraft" (balloon,airshipEtc.) and "heavy aircraft" (グ ラ イ ダ ー,airplaneEtc.)[1][2].. A light aircraft is one that utilizes the fact that gas, which is lighter than air, has static buoyancy.WingsWorking air dynamicsLiftIs to use[1].airplane,Rotorcraft,Glider,airshipEtc. are included.

The aircraftShipthe same asCitizenshipIs registered and is always required to post the registration number[1].. This allows the aircraftJurisdiction,Diplomatic protectionIs identified where is[1].

Legal definition

Aircraft are legally given different definitions for different purposes. In the following, a typical definition from the perspective of aviation administration is illustrated.

Definition by ICAO
Chicago Convention(International Civil Aviation Convention) does not have a general definition of aircraft,International Civil Aviation OrganizationIn some of its annexes to the Convention (ICAO), "the bearing capacity in the atmosphere is defined as thereactionAny equipment you can get from[3] I am trying. In addition, the phrase "other than the reaction of air on the surface of the earth" is1967May 11It was added toHovercraftWill be excluded.
U.S. Aviation Administrative Definition
米 国 OfUnited States CodePart 49, Part VII, Part A (Air Traffic and Safety) states "any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in, the air. , Or any designed device)” (49 USC §40102(a)(6)). On the other hand, in Federal Regulations Vol. 14 Chapter 1 (Federal Aviation Bureau of the Ministry of Transport), "a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air" is used or used. Device intended to be)' (14 CFR §1.1).
Japanese Aviation Administration Definition
Japan OfAviation lawThen, "People can ride and serve for aviationairplane,Rotorcraft,Glideras well as the airshipOtherCabinet Order"Equipment that can be used for aviation as specified in". (Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Civil Aviation Law) However, there is currently no equipment that falls under the Cabinet Order. Also,balloon,Unmanned aerial vehicle(Aviation Law, Article 2, paragraph 22),rocketEtc. are not included in the aircraft because they are out of this definition[1].

Classification of aircraft

There are various taxonomies. Generally the aircraftdensity 空 気LighterLight aircraftAnd heavier than airHeavy aircraftIt is roughly divided into two. Besides, based on the operator of the aircraft and the purpose of operation, etc.Commercial aircraft"/"Military aircraftThere is a method to classify. In addition, "manned aircraft"/"Drone(Unmanned aerial vehicle)"are categorized. AlsoengineDepending on the type ofTurbine(Machine)"/"piston(Machine)" (or "Reciprocating(Machine)”).

By principle

Light aircraft

volumeThe big "Enjoy (風 船Something like that)hydrogen,heliumLighter than the atmosphere, such as heated airgasBy filling with, the average specific gravity of the aircraft is made lighter than air, and it is an aircraft that flies with buoyancy (static lift). Also known as LTA (Lighter-Than-Air) aircraft or aerostat.

Light airship
A light aircraft that has a propulsion device and can be operated. Has a rigid skeleton structureRigid airship(ZeppelinEtc.) and have no skeletonAirshipThere is.
A light aircraft that does not have a propulsion device.burnerUse the air heated byhot air balloonAnd use hydrogen, helium, etc.Gas balloonThere is.

Heavy aircraft

Wingsaroundatmosphere OfItineraryCaused byLiftAn aircraft that floats and flies with (dynamic lift). Depending on the wing type, it is divided into fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing aircraft. With HTA (Heavier-Than-Air) aircraft or aerodyne.

Fixed wing aircraft
An aircraft that has wings for lift and is fixed to the airframe, and obtains lift by moving in the atmosphere. Airframe with variable wing plane shape (Variable wing aircraft) Is also included.
A fixed wing aircraft equipped with a propulsion device. To create propulsionengineIs a manned aircraftJet engine,Piston engineSuch asInternal combustion engineIs the main. Generally not 1,500 although not classified by ICAOkgA single-engine reciprocating aircraft with a seating capacity of 2-6 people is called a light aircraft.JapanAccording to the aviation law of Japan, a navigation aircraft with a simple structure equipped with a landing (water) device and a power unit is not an airplaneUltralight motiveClassify.
Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft
An airplane that can take off and land vertically like a helicopter. Some jet planes have their engine nozzles facing downwards, and some have lift engines for vertical takeoff and landing separately from those for propulsion. Vertical takeoff and landing by tilting the rotorTilt rotor machineEtc. also have the characteristics of a rotary wing aircraft. Also, although you cannot take off verticallyShort-range takeoff vertical landing aircraft (STOVL)There is also what is called.
グ ラ イ ダ ー(Glider)
Fixed-wing aircraft that do not have power. Towing by another plane or on the groundwinchTake off by external power, such as winding the cable by, and after the takeoff is separated and glides. Those equipped with propulsion devices for takeoff and re-climbingMotor gliderCalled. The crew is limited to 2 people.
Paragliding,hang glidingIs not an aircraft under Japanese aviation law.
Heavy airship
The entire hullLifting bodyNext, the propeller and other parts of the hull will gain propulsionLiftTo surface.
An aircraft that floats in the air due to lift generated by its rotating wings.
The one that drives the rotor with the power of the engine. Propulsion is obtained by slightly tilting the axis of the rotor.
Auto gyro
An aircraft whose power is not transmitted to the rotor blades. It has a propulsion device for forward movement.
Orniopter(Flapping machine)
The one that gains lift by flapping its wings. It exists in radio control. Manned aircraft have yet to successfully take off without auxiliary power[Note 1].
A heavy aircraft that flies only by thrust, regardless of lift
rocket, Non-propeller type non-lift flight modePowered lift, Non-propeller flying platform,Jet packな ど
thrustBy pointing downwards, it rises only by the force of injection.

By size

Air traffic controlThen.Backward turbulenceWhen determining flight intervals forMaximum takeoff weightIs divided into 4 stages[6].

  • Light
Less than 7t,Light aircraftFrom a small single-engine machine such asBeechcraft King AirTwin-engined business machines such as
  • Medium
7t to less than 136t,Regional jetからBoeing 737,Airbus A320Such asNarrow body machineIs applicable.
  • Heavy
136t or more,Boeing 747,Airbus A350Such asWide body machineIs applicable.
  • Super
Airbus A380Dedicated category.

Since most of the aircraft in this category are of medium size, it is planned to be subdivided into 6 stages in "Coordinated Decision Making (ACDM)" aimed at improving operational efficiency of air traffic control.[7].

By use

Based on the operator of the aircraft and the purpose of operation,Commercial aircraft"When"Military aircraft"are categorized.



The plane isAutomobile,列車,ShipAt the same time, it is one of the main means of transportation in modern society, and a transportation system that combines these four types has been constructed.[8].. For passenger transportation over 700km, the advantage of the fastest airplane among the major transportation systems has been established.[9]..For this reason, it is mainly used for transportation between nations and long-distance metropolitan areas, but on the other hand, there are many routes that operate between small cities and remote islands due to its speed, and in this case small aircraft are often used.[10]..On some remote islands where the land is too small to build an airport, helicopter regular passenger routes are also available.[11]..In the case of freight transportation, airplanes are often used for freight that requires expensive and rapid transportation due to the high operating cost.[12].

In addition to transportation and transportation, aircraft are often used for scenic flights.TheseTourismSmall aircraft and helicopters are mainly used for flights[13]..Sightseeing flights by airships are also carried out in some countries, but in Japan in 2007Nippon AirshipAlthough the airship sightseeing flight was started by[14], The company went bankrupt in 2010 and stopped operation[15].

Pesticide,fertilizer,seedEtc. are efficiently sprayed on agricultural landAgricultural machineIs also used all over the world.Many people use small planes, but in JapanYamaha MotorDeveloped the world's first industrial unmanned helicopter in 1987[16], Used in about 4% of paddy fields in Japan, and is widely used[17].

Take an aircraftSports TheSky sportsIs collectively referred to asAerobatic flight,Air race,Hot air balloon competition,Paragliding,sky diving,hang glidingVarious sports are included.


Aircraft engineeringAviation engineeringSay In recent years, there are many areas that overlap with somethingSpace engineeringAlong withAerospace engineeringIs considered a division of.


Human beings have long been eager to fly in the sky, and although the concept of various flight machines was set up, the machine that actually flew in the sky was invented for the first time.1783Was that.France OfMontgolfier BrothersThis yearhot air balloonInvented However, this did not mean that it could move freely in the air, and the development of machines that flew in the air with power continued.

1903ToThe United States of America OfWright brothersFly by power, so-calledairplaneInvented[18]..Airplanes developed rapidly, and after World War I, regular passenger planes began operating, and in 1927.Charles Lindbergh Transatlantic solo non-landing flightSucceeded[19]..During this period, not only ordinary airplanes but also other aircraft were aimed at commercialization, and in the 1930s on long-haul routes.Flying boatIs often adopted[20]Also, airships were one of the important means of air transportation.But the airship was in 1937Hindenburg explosionIt will not be used after that[21]Also, flying boats were replaced by airplanes in the 1940s.[22].

After World War II, in the late 1950sBoeing 707Even on passenger planesJetBecomes mainstream[23]In 1969, the world's firstWide body machineIsBoeing 747Is in service[24], Passenger airplanes have become larger and faster[25].

Relationship with ship

Aviation laws, terms, customs,ShipMany are derived from. For example, the following examples can be given.

  • Passenger planeLet's compare it to a passenger ship,ship)[26],kitchenToGalley』I call it.
  • EnglishLet’s call the conductor “Captain (captain)”. (JapaneseThen the aircraftCaptain, The shipCaptain
  • The crew memberscrew)” and is called an “air crew.Flight attendantIs called a stewardess because it is a passenger ship crew member.
  • On the left side of the aircraftPortside(port side), right side of the aircraft toStarboard side(starboard side)".
  • In the air, drive on the right as you would at sea.Starboard boat priority principleThere is a rule based on, and a red light on the port side and a green light on the starboard side.
  • Set the departure/arrival location to "empty"HarborCall it "(air"port")". Even if there are doors on both sides, there is no legal provision, and basically you get on and off from the port side as well as a ship. Most of the models that open the canopy and board are hinged on the right side.
  • Charter contractSimilar toAircraft leasingIs performed.

A manufacturer that manufactures both aircraft and shipsKawasaki Heavy Industries(Since 1918),Third(Starting entry in 2015),Tsuneishi Holdings(Acquired aircraft manufacturer in 2015) and so on.

Take off and land on land runwaysAmphibious aircraftIs basically treated as an aircraft.

Aviation industry

Aircraft use only certified parts and are basically made to order, so even a small aircraft takes time to deliver and is expensive. For this reason, the second-hand market is developing, with manufacturers selling refurbished certified second-hand machines and a large number of vendors specializing in second-hand machines. As long as there are parts that haveBoeingAirbusOf the two major companies have set up organizations to promote reuse (AFRA,PAMELA). Also, buying and selling parts[27], Many companies develop and sell repair parts and upgrade parts for discontinued aircraft[Note 2].

Buying and selling large passenger aircraftAirlinesHowever, large aircraft are very expensive, it takes several years to deliver them, and it is difficult to adjust to meet demand, so it enters between manufacturers and airlines.Aircraft leasingLarge relationships with financial institutions, such as the existence of many specialized companies[28].. In addition to affirmations, contracts have a unique style such as temporarily contracting for additional purchases, fixing them according to financial conditions and demand, and buying and selling purchase rights between airlines. Since it takes a long time to complete, there is a case where the airline company's management deteriorates after ordering and the aircraft that cannot be paid and is retained by the manufacturer is sold as a new old machine.[29].. Aircraft have a mechanical lifeLegal useful lifeBecause there is a large difference in sales, even parts can be sold, so a large market is formed with many transactions as tax saving, such as a company irrelevant to the aviation industry operating an aircraft leasing business for tax saving[27].. Small machines andBusiness jet TheFractional ownershipThis has activated the market for individuals.

Aircraft costs a lot of money to maintain and store, and a large number of qualified specialists are needed.Therefore, in addition to the manufacturers that manufacture aircraft and many companies that manufacture each component, maintenance and storage operations are also required. Professional media that provides information to specialized companies, temporary staffing companies that dispatch pilots and mechanics, airlines and leasing companies[30] Forms the aviation industry.

Safety and accident


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In addition, as a mere fantasyMagnus effectuseRotor airplaneIt seems that the idea of ​​"getting thrust by a rotating cylinder instead of a fixed wing" is a fancy, but there is no successful example.
  2. ^ For example Learjet Maintenance and Parts-Banyan Air Service -Out of production obsoleteLear jetA company that replaces machines with new engines that meet modern noise standards and sells and installs its own winglets.


  1. ^ a b c d e f Britannica Encyclopedia"aircraft"
  2. ^ a b Kojien Fifth Edition p.889 “Aircraft”
  3. ^ From the Japanese translation of the foundation
  4. ^ "Classification of aircraft”.“ Sky Day ”/“ Sky Season ”Executive Committee. 2016/5/26Browse.
  5. ^ "Aviation practical encyclopedia". Japan AirlinesCo., Ltd. 2016/5/26Browse.
  6. ^ Aviation trivia (25) A380 and 787-8 are the same large aircraft! What is the correct standard for large aircraft, medium aircraft, and small aircraft? -Mynavi news
  7. ^ Close-up! Air traffic controller Tetsuya Murayama Icarus Publishing 2018 ISBN-978 4802206242 p122
  8. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10-11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  9. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  10. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p87-88 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  11. ^ https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG0401A_U3A001C1CR0000/ "Izu remote island knot 20 years Japan's only helicopter regular route, supporting life" Nihon Keizai Shimbun October 2013, 10 Retrieved March 5, 2021
  12. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p10-11 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  13. ^ "Sightseeing Travel and Fun Vehicles" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 5) p75-76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore First Edition December 22, 12
  14. ^ https://ascii.jp/elem/000/000/077/77763/ "Aerial walk gracefully on an airship!" Airship sightseeing cruise "is now in operation! ASCII.jp October 2007, 10 Retrieved March 24, 2021
  15. ^ https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG3103L_R30C10A5CC1000/ "Nippon Airship filed for bankruptcy 2 months after starting sightseeing in Tokyo" Nihon Keizai Shimbun May 2010, 5 Retrieved March 31, 2021
  16. ^ https://news.mynavi.jp/article/20131024-yamaha_uav/ "Yamaha Contributes to Offensive Agriculture with the Latest Industrial Unmanned Helicopter Model" FAZER "for the First Time in 10 Years" Mynavi News 2013/10/24 Retrieved March 2021, 3
  17. ^ https://newswitch.jp/p/21020 "Protecting the forest" Industrial unmanned helicopter, a new business form from Yamaha facing social issues From pesticide spraying to "the last one mile in the sky" New Switch (Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun) February 2020, 02 18 2021 Viewed on 3th of March
  18. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p16 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  19. ^ "Introduction to Transportation Engineering" p16 Kunimichi Takada Naruyamado Bookstore First edition published on March 23, 3
  20. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  21. ^ https://news.yahoo.co.jp/articles/8186061a77796c588620f8ddc067373130579444 "[Detailed Data Test] The Goodyear Blimp Comfortable and Extreme Air Travel Quiet than a Family Car City Ride, Closer to a Ship than an Airplane" AUTOCAR JAPAN 2020/12/19 Retrieved March 2021, 3
  22. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  23. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  24. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Transportation Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p76 Kishiro Sawa Narishando Bookstore February 29, 2 Revised First Edition Issued
  25. ^ "New Edition Transportation and Business [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 1) p71 by Kishiro Sawa and Hiroto Ueba Narishando Bookstore Revised on June 24, 6 First edition published
  26. ^ [Working car] Towing car-Working car at the airport that supports JAL's scheduled operation Vol.1 ~ (2/2) | Working car [Autoc One]
  27. ^ a b Real value of used Boeing 747 "old government machine costs about 30 billion yen" - GentoshaGold online
  28. ^ 7th Aircraft Finance - Hitotsubashi UniversitySumitomo Mitsui Banking CorporationEndowed lecture
  29. ^ US Air Force purchases former Trans-Aero 747-8 for next presidential aircraft Cost reduction with new old aircraft -Aviation Wire August 2017, 8
  30. ^ Boeing 747, Japan's former government-only aircraft, will reach the second-hand market for 30 billion yen - CNN

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