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🚗 | [Formula E] "Season 7", the first year of the world championships, has begun ... The Saudi battle will be in the "Disturbed Mercedes Theater"


Photo The new season of Formula E begins in the Saudi series (the photo is the first round).

[Formula E] "Season 7", the first year of the world championships, has begun ... The Saudi battle will be at the "Disturbed Mercedes Theater"

 
If you write the contents roughly
It could be said that his roller coaster turned up a little at the end.
 

Formula E's "Season 7" (2020/2021 season) kicks off in Ad Diriyah, Saudi Arabia ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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roller coaster

roller coaster(British: roller coaster) Isamusement parkIs installed inAttractionIs a kind ofScreaming machineOne of the types of vehicles called (Thrill Ride).

in Japanroller coaster(Japanglish: jet coaster) Is often called. This is a name derived from accelerating like a jet injection, but in realityJet engineAre not used. Formerly Korakuen Yuenchi (Present:Tokyo Dome City Attractions) Derived from the name of the attraction that existed in.

Passengers on a roller coaster enjoy the play equipment by running at high speed on curved rails with steep slopes and angles, and sometimes making one revolution while enjoying the thrill of turning upside down.

How it works

In a roller coaster, there is basically no power in the train itself with passengers, and in general, a chain lift is used to wind the vehicle up to the highest point on the rail and run downhill from here.Potential energyThePhysical energyTurn to and increase speed. Then, when it falls to some extent, the slope is run up again to convert kinetic energy into potential energy. During this time, the kinetic energyfriction,Air resistanceSince it is attenuated by such factors, the summit is gradually placed at a lower position after the second mountain. By repeating this operation, the roller coaster went on, and finally the metal plate attached to the vehicle was installed on the rail.Brake padBetween them, causing friction, and mainly kinetic energyHeat energyTo release and stop.

These days, not the chainFlywheel,Linear motorIt is common to use compressed air or the like to appropriately add kinetic energy at the start or during running. By this method,catapultIt gives a sense of acceleration that is ejected in, and unexpectedness due to acceleration in a section where the conventional type does not accelerate, and it is also possible to give a speed that can not be realized with the chain method. In addition, the chain method requires a considerably large amount of hoisting to increase the speed of the coaster, and the land and construction costs will be enormous. In that respect, the linear motor system is also advantageous. As for the braking system,permanent magnetUsedEddy currentBy introducing a non-contact type, such as smooth deceleration and stop, it became possible to significantly reduce the noise during brake operation.

The roller coaster course has mountains, valley bottoms, and left and right curves.Centrifugal forceIt takes. Roller coasterspecAs the centrifugal force on the passengers重力 OfHeli TheG(Acceleration of gravity) May be expressed in multiples of that. thisPowerOne of the great things about roller coasters is that they are used to evaluate ride comfort in addition to height and speed. However, the force applied to passengers is a burden on the body,Clothoid curveSuch asRelaxation curveTo shorten the time it takes a strong force,CantBy adding (tilt of rails) and dispersing centrifugal force in the lateral direction of passengers in the vertical direction, the influence of the force applied to passengers is adjusted to reduce the burden on the body.

in Japan,1959(Showa34 years) roller coasterBuilding Standards LawIt is now treated as a "workpiece", and safety standards and regular inspections are implemented based on laws and ministerial ordinances. What is treated as a "workpiece", that is, a building, and not treated as a vehicle, is that the passengers have the same boarding point and exit point, and the boarding and exit points are different. Is believed to be from.

As an application of a roller coaster, paying attention to the fact that there is no drive unit on the vehicle side, a gently sloping rail is provided on the road etc.New transportation systemResearch of "eco-ride" to be used as2006From (18) degree to 2009 (Heisei 21) degreeNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO)2009(21) From degree2010(22) up toMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryIt is carried out as a consignment business of[1][2].

Types

There are many combinations of the following several elements.

Course structure
  • Camelback-the basic structure. Proceed through a mountainous course, like a camel's spine. You can feel the floating feeling while crossing the mountain while keeping the speed, and the floating feeling at this time is called "air time".
  • Cyclone-A structure that passes through the rail inside the structure that supports the rail. You can enjoy the thrill of hitting a structure.
  • Horizontal Loop / Helix-A high-speed horizontal turn of a spiral course with a cant attached. Some descend from top to bottom and some climb from bottom to top.
  • Vertical Loop-A structure that "rotates 360 degrees vertically" to make somersaults.
  • Corkscrew- Wine OfCorkscrewIt has a structure that "rotates 360 degrees in a spiral" like.
  • Mouse-As the name implies, it moves like a mouse. There are many small single cars that can hold 2 to 4 people, and there are curves without a cant. In some cases, there is a 360-degree vertical loop, and there is a vehicle that rotates 360-degree horizontally.
  • Wooden-Structures such as stanchions that hold rails are made of wood. Due to its unique appearance and creaking and bending due to the characteristics of wood, it has a unique vibration different from that of steel. In addition, many of them run in a timber frame.
  • Hybrid-Wooden rails, iron poles, or vice versa. Vibration is less than that of wood, but a complicated course structure that is impossible with wood is possible. Overseas, construction is underway to hybridize existing wooden coasters. In Japan, the wooden coaster "White Cyclone" from Nagashima Spa Land was hybridized and opened on March 2019, 3 as "White Whale."
  • Bobsul-One that runs through a half-pipe shaped course, like a bobsled. Since there are no rails to fix the vehicle, the feature is that the vehicle swings left and right while traveling on a curve. It was seen all over the world in the old days, but since 2000 it is rarely created new and the number of operating vehicles is decreasing.
  • Racing-A type that allows two vehicles to run side by side.
Vehicle structure
  • Standing-Those that are fixed while standing on the ride. in JapanYomiuri Land,Washuzan HighlandSome examples.
  • Suspended-As the name implies, a structure in which the vehicle hangs at the bottom of the rail, the difference from Inverted is that there is a scaffolding. It's kind of like a gondola. The seat is not fixed to the rail surface, and it is characterized by being able to swing left and right like a pendulum due to centrifugal force in a curve. Therefore, there are no rotating elements such as vertical loops.
  • Inverted-The name "inverts", meaning that the vehicle is suspended on rails, there is no scaffolding. It's like a ski lift. Since it is difficult to fix the body except for the limbs, it can withstand complicated rail structure, so it is easy to install loops and screws. In Japan, they were introduced one after another starting in Himeji Central Park in the 1990s.
  • Floorless-The rails are similar to the existing type below, but the foothold disappears with the departure, and the feet run loose.
  • Flying-Seats face down with departure and always run prone. You can feel as if you are flying in the sky.
  • Diving-Sudden vertical drop after a pause at the top facing down. The vehicle has seats for 8 to 10 people, and both ends are completely protruding from the rails. Not introduced in Japan.
  • Wing-A seat that extends outside the rails, like bird wings. There is nothing that obstructs the field of view, and there is a sense of openness. Although it has not been introduced in Japan, there is a four-dimensional type, which will be described later, that is similar to the ride shape.
  • 3th Dimension-Coaster developed by American Arrow Dynamics. Regardless of the behavior of the rails, the seat itself makes its own machine-controlled rotary movement. As a result, it has become possible to perform movements that were impossible to achieve with any type up to now. The 4th dimension comes from the addition of the XNUMXth new seat rotation to the XNUMXD movement of the coaster that follows the shape of the rail and moves vertically and horizontally.
  • New 4D / XNUMXD Spin-SwissInterminA coaster developed by the company and S & S in the United States.In the fourth dimension, the controlled rotational movement is not controlled and changes depending on the weight balance of the front and rear seats.Therefore, every time you get on the train (the combination of passengers changes), not only the rotation but also the speed is different, and the movement is always unpredictable.In Japan, it appeared as "2017D Spin Coaster Arashi (ARASHI)" in Nagashima Spa Land on March 3, 10.

History

There are various theories on its origin (America OfDollyAndロシアDeveloped from the ice slides). The basis of the current roller coaster is(English edition 1884ToConey IslandIt was built inPatentTo get. Early roller coasters were made of wood, and today there are a few wooden coasters in existence and in operation.

JapanThen.1890(Meiji"Automatic railway" (roller coaster) landed for the first time at the 23rd Domestic Expo (Ueno) in 3) and was relocated to Imamiya Gyuryukan in Osaka in the fall. In 1925 (Taisho 14)TamagawaenA permanent "shore wave ride" (roller coaster) was installed in. In 1935 (Showa 10)Ayame Pond Amusement ParkWas installed in[3].

1952(Showa27 years)12The Takarazuka Shin Onsen Amusement Park (laterTakarazuka Family Land) Was permanently installed for the first time under the name "Wave Coaster". This is also said to be a coaster imported from the United States[4].. The first roller coaster made in Japan,Sadaichi Yamada[5]Was manufactured by Toyo Amusement Machine, and the oldest existing one isAsakusa HanayashikiIt is a "roller coaster".

1955(30)May 7Opened inKorakuen YuenchiThen.JetIt is named after the roller coaster and becomes popular. This design and developmentShinmeiwa Industry(Kawanishi Aircraft) Made the best use of aircraft development technology from prewar days[5][6].. From here, the name "roller coaster" became commonly used, and this day was designated as "roller coaster day".

1977(Showa 52) (May 3From the start of business)Yatsu YuenIntroduced Japan's first 360 degree rotating coaster "Corkscrew". With this as a trigger1980 eraから2000 eraTo the present (now), large-scale roller coasters will be installed in various places as the main attraction of the amusement park.

2007(Heisei19 years)May 5ToExpolandIn the standing coaster "Fujin Raijin II", the axle ruptured during commercial driving, and the car body tilted significantly after derailing, resulting in the death of one passenger woman and serious and minor injuries to other passengers.[7][8]..Due to poor maintenance (also known as structural defects such as durability), coasters at other amusement park facilities will also be thoroughly inspected, and there will be situations where they will be suspended for a medium to long term. did.

Well-known coasters outside Japan

This section describes prominent roller coasters outside of Japan, where the Japanese version of Wikipedia has an article about Park Coaster alone or where the source is specified.

America

Top thrill dragster(Top Thrill Dragster)
Location:Ohio"Cedar point] / Material: Iron / Open: 2003
Drag racingCoaster with the theme of. At the time of opening, it was certified by Guinness with three items of height 128 m, head 121.9 m, maximum speed 193.1 km/h, until then the highest speed in the world "Do Donpa" (Fuji-Q Highland) and the highest in height and height in the world It surpassed the record of "Steel Dragon 3" (Nagashima Spa Land). Currently, second only to Kinda Ka, the top speed is third in the world, and the height and head are the second highest in the world.
Magnum XL-200 (Mugnum XL-200)
Location: "Cedar Point", Ohio / Material: Iron / Open: 1989
The world's first coaster to exceed 200 feet (about 60 m) in height. It drops from a height of 62.5m at an angle of 60 degrees and reaches a maximum speed of 116km/h. Tunnels are installed at each point of the course. This coaster is a model of the "Titan (currently Titan MAX)" (Space World) that opened in Japan in 1994.
Millennium Force
Location: "Cedar Point", Ohio / Material: Iron / Open: 2000
The first coaster in the world to exceed 300 feet in height. It drops at an angle of 90 degrees from a height of 94.5m. The head is 80m and the maximum speed is 91.4km/h. It features less vibration overall and features smooth running. At the time of its appearance, it boasted the world's highest specs in height, head, and speed, but the "Steel Dragon 149.7" that surpassed those specifications appeared in the same year, so it is currently the second largest roll-up coaster in the world.
Steel Vengeance
Location: "Cedar Point", Ohio / Material: Hybrid / Open: 2018
The original wooden coaster "Mean Streak" has been hybridized. It is the best hybrid coaster in the world in terms of height, head, maximum speed, fall angle, rotation speed, etc., and the total air time (floating time) of all coasters in the world.
X 2 (X2)
Location:California"Six Flags Magic Mountain] / Material: Iron
Initially opened in 2002 as the world's first four-dimensional coaster "X (X)" with a mechanism to rotate the seat in the front-back direction. After that, we changed the color of rails and columns, introduced vehicles equipped with audio functions, added special effects such as flames, and reopened in 2008. "Ekay?" (Fuji-Q Highland) is the successor to this coaster.
Superman: Escape from Krypton
Location: California "Six Flags Magic Mountain" / Material: Iron
SupermanCoaster with the theme of. Originally appeared in 1997 under the name "Superman The Escape". It was a coaster that accelerated by a linear motor to a maximum speed of 7 km/h in 161 seconds, climbed a tower towering vertically with its momentum, and fell backward from 100 m in height in a weightless state to return to the original course.
Renewed to the current name in 2011. We changed the coloring of the rails and columns, and changed the vehicle that was accelerating in the forward direction to the backward direction this time. It became the world's first rearwardly accelerating coaster.
July 2012, 7, is a villain of SupermanRex luther"Lex Luthor: Drop of Doom", the world's largest free fall at the time (122 m in height) with the theme of "Lex Luthor: Drop of Doom," was opened by sharing the tower part of the coaster.
TATSU
Location: California "Six Flags Magic Mountain" / Material: Iron
It is a flying type coaster in which the seat tilts as soon as it departs and the rider is crawling. With a height of 51.8m and a maximum speed of 99.8km/h, it is the largest flying coaster in the world. The name Tatsu isJapaneseComes from the "dragon".
Full Throttle
Location: California "Six Flags Magic Mountain" / Material: Iron / Open: 2013
Immediately after the start, the linear motor accelerates to 112.7 km/h and passes through a loop of 48.8 m in height and 38.75 m in diameter. At the time of opening, it had the highest speed and loop diameter in the world as a pure loop coaster. Other points include a point where you stop halfway, accelerate backwards and then move forward, and a camelback that passes over the above-mentioned loop.
Riddler's Revenge
Location: California "Six Flags Magic Mountain" / Material: Iron
バ ッ ト マ ンAppear inRiddlerCoaster with the motif. It is the largest standing coaster in the world that runs on a course with huge loops and twists.
Twisted Colossus
Location: California Six Flags Magic Mountain / Material: Hybrid / Open: 2015
A hybrid of the original wooden coaster "Colossus". As the name suggests, it turns over in two places in the course. Also, since the two courses that originally ran side by side were linked into one, the overall length is longer.
Revolution
Location: California "Six Flags Magic Mountain" / Material: Iron / Open: 1976
The world's first vertical loop coaster, renewed in 2006, it continues to operate as The New Revolution, riding while wearing VR goggles.
Matterhorn Bobsleds
Location: California “Tokyo Disneyland] / Material: Iron
as its name suggestsBobsledSit side by side in a vertical row likeMatterhornSprinting in the mountains, the climax lands on the pond. The one that opened1959And of the worldDisney parkIt is the oldest roller coaster.
California Screamin'
Location: California “Disney California Adventure] / Material: Iron
Large coaster. The vehicle is equipped with speakers, and music and sound effects are played. The course is equipped with a linear acceleration that reaches 4km/h in 88.5 seconds and a 360-degree loop along the sun symbol. Previously not the sun,Mickey MouseWas the silhouette of his face. In 2018Mr. IncrediblesWith the motifIncredible coasterWas renewed.
Xcelerator
Location: California “Nuts berry farm] / Material: Iron
World's firstIntermin・Introduced as an accelerator. The hydraulic motor produces a sudden acceleration of over 2.3 km/h in 130 seconds, and immediately after that, it vertically ascends and vertically falls. Then, turn into a figure eight and drive.
Kingda Ka(Kingda Ka)
Location:New Jersey"Six Flags Great Adventure] / Material: Iron / Open: 2005
New Jerseyof"Six Flags Great AdventureCoaster in.2005The height of 139m, the drop of 127.4m, and the maximum speed of 206km/h.GuinnessCertified by. Although the highest speed was the second highest in the world, the height and the drop are still the highest in the world. It takes 2 seconds to reach the maximum speed.
On July 2014, 7, the tower part of the world's largest (height 4m)Free fall"Zumanjaro: Drop of Doom" has opened.
Cyclone
Location:New York State"Coney Island" / Material: Wooden / Open: 1927
It is said to be particularly old among roller coasters.
Incredible Hulk
Location:Florida"Islands of Adventure/ Material: Iron / Open: May 1999
Opened when the park openedHulkA large coaster with the motif. When it starts, it slowly rises in the darkness, but it accelerates suddenly from the middle, jumps out, and at the same time rotates 360 degrees. After that, it will run on a course with various loops and twists.
Dragon Challenge
Location:Florida"Islands of Adventure] / Material: Iron
Inverted coaster. There are two courses, the red rail "Chinese Fireball" and the blue rail "Hungarian Horntail", each with different loops and twists.
Originally, it opened under the name "Dueling Dragons" at the same time as the park was opened. The course names were "Fire Dragon" and "Ice Dragon". New area in June 2010Wizarding World of Harry PotterIt became an attraction in "and was renewed.
Expedition Everest
Location: Florida "Disney Animal Kingdom] / Material: Iron
Large coaster. As the name implies, it is the highest mountain in the worldEverestIs a motif, and everywhereYetiAppears. Also, run backwards on the waySwitchbackHas been introduced. The total construction cost is $1 million, the highest of any Disney Park coaster.
Hollywood Lip Ride Rockit
Location: Florida "Universal Studios Florida] / Material: Iron / Open: 2009
A speaker is built into the ear of the seat so that you can listen to music while riding. For music, you can select one of the preset songs. The course is equipped with vertical winding that rises while looking up at the sky, and a "non-inverted loop" that does not turn upside down at the top of the world's first loop.

Asia

Gravity Max (fr: Gravity Max
Location:Taiwan"zh: Reitarakuen] / Open: 2002
The rail is cut in the middle, and when the coaster rides, the rail tilts and becomes vertical, it connects with the lower rail and it falls. Made by Vekoma.
T Express
Location: South Korea"Everland/ Material: Wooden / Open: 2008
It falls from a height of 56m at an angle of 77 degrees. At that time, the angle of fall was the best for wood in the world. Of the Korean investorMobile phoneThe name of the brand is "SK Telecom" because it is used.
Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Cars
Location:Hong Kong"Hong Kong Disneyland/ Material: Iron / Open: July 2012, 7
Opened at the same time as the new theme land "Grizzly Gulch"Disney parkThe newest large coaster in the world.Big Thunder MountainSimilar to that, there is a common point of running in a mine by train, but the theme isGrizzlyIt is a living area for people, and there are switchbacks and sudden acceleration on the course.
Formula Rossa
Location:United Arab Emirates-Abu Dhabi"Ferrari world/ Material: Iron / Open: July 2010, 11
It reaches a maximum speed of 4km/h in 240 seconds from the start and runs a course with a total length of about 2km. As of 2020, it is the fastest coaster in the world. It is mandatory to wear special goggles to protect the eyes from wind pressure and dust during acceleration.

Oceania

Tower of Terror II (Tower of Terror II
Location:Australia"Dream World" / Material: Iron / Open: 1997
All over the worldDisney parkIt is in"Twilight Zone Tower of TerrorOrTokyo Disney SeaIt is inAttractions of the same nameUnrelated to
At the time of its opening, it was named "Tower of Terror" and was a coaster with the same system as "Superman the Escape" (Six Flags Magic Mountain). In 2010, it was renewed to extend the length of the tunnel of the acceleration part to just before the tower, and became the current name. In 2011, as with Superman, the seat was changed to face backward. In addition, the tower part is shared with the 120m-high free fall "The Giant Drop".
Green Lantern Coaster
Location: AustraliaWarner Bros Movie World] / Material: Iron / Open: 2011May 12
DC ComicsIs the hero ofGreen lanternIs used as a motif. The maximum fall angle was 122.4 degrees, which was the best in the world until thendomineering(Fuji-Q Highland) was expected to exceed 121 degrees, but it was not updated because it was actually 120.5 degrees.

Europe

Ring racer
Location:Germany-Rhineland-Palatinate"Nürburgring] / Material: Iron / Open: 2013
It reached a maximum speed of 2.5km/h in 217 seconds from the start due to air lunch, was scheduled to open in 2009 as the fastest coaster in the world and the second fastest after Dodonpa (Fuji-Q Highland), but troubles have taken place 4 years before opening Not only did it take more time, but the acceleration power also dropped significantly to 2km/h in 160 seconds from the start.

Prominent roller coaster in Japan

This section describes prominent roller coasters in Japan, which have their own articles about park coasters in the Japanese version of Wikipedia, or whose sources are specified.

Those in operation

All over the country

Describe models with the same name and the same layout in Japan.

corkscrew
Opened: 1977
Japan's first 360-degree revolver coaster. It features two consecutive twist rotations. In 2Yatsu YuenIt was installed in various parts of the country, starting with the introduction inToshimaenThe vehicle was changed in 1993[9]..In addition, after the Yatsu Amusement Park is closed, it will be in Hokkaido.Rusutsu ResortIt was relocated to and is still in operation.Now there are othersYagiyama Benny Land,Nagashima Spa LandIt is installed in.
Ultra twister
Opened: 1985
Domestic manufacturer,ト ー ゴA coaster developed by.Unlike conventional coasters, a 6-seater single vehicle runs with it sandwiched between rails on both sides.It is first rolled up vertically, facing straight up, then turns at the top and falls at an angle of 85 degrees.Over the camelback, rotate 360 ​​degrees and stop.After thatSwitchbackThe rail tilts backward in the same way as in, and rotates backward for two consecutive times to finish.Korakuen Yuenchi (currentlyTokyo Dome City Attractions), And now Nagashima Spa Land,Washuzan Highland,GreenlandExists in.
Rusutsu ResortThe layout is different only for the ones that exist in, and it is a "twist dive" that falls immediately after the switchback part is flipped 180 degrees.Therefore, before vertical windingTurntableIs installed.

East Japan

Roller coaster (former rocket coaster)
Location:Asakusa Hanayashiki / Open: 1953
The oldest roller coaster in operation in Japan.It is also the first domestic coaster[10].
Family coaster
Location:Arakawa Amusement Park
Hornworm type coaster.Age limit 3 years or older, height limit 80 cm or more.Make two laps of 138m in total length[11].
Raging Spirits
Location:Tokyo Disney Sea
A coaster with the image of an archaeological site.Tokyo Disney ResortFor the first time, a 360-degree vertical loop was installed.
Thunder Dolphin
Location:Tokyo Dome City Attractions OfLaQuaInside
Large coaster. Big wheelBig oThe feature is that it passes through the center of the car and runs smoothly. Height 80.5m, drop 66.5m, drop angle 74 degrees, maximum speed 127km/h are the best specifications in Tokyo. It features a steep winding angle of 45 degrees and a high speed. In December 2010, a bolt that dropped from a vehicle bounced and hit a customer who passed by[12]Has been suspended since the occurrence of the accident, but resumed in August 2013[13].
Kingfisher
Location:Hybrid Leisure Land Tobu Zoological Park / Open: 2008
Also known as "Shin Glide Water Coaster". Driving is very smooth. Many large and small camel bags are arranged on the course, giving you a strong floating feeling. There are two types of camel bags, one is straight and the other is twisted at the top.
F2
Location:Nasu Highland Park
Kanto's only inverted coaster. Various loops and twists are available throughout the course. The name comes from "Fright" which means fear and "Flight" which means flight. The same model is currently used in Rusutsu Resort and Greenland, and each has a different name.
Big burn coaster
Location: Nasu Highland Park
The feature is that the angle of the first drop is 40 degrees even if the height is less than 75 m, and it drops as if it is dragged in to get a run-up before further falling. Height, head and speed are the highest specs for coasters in the park. There is also a 360 degree vertical loop. Although the total length is short, it takes a long time to wind up, so the riding time exceeds 3 minutes.
Mega coaster four dimensions
Location:Lake Hamana Pal Pal
"First drop" with a maximum inclination of 60 degrees, "Boomerang turn" with a maximum speed of 82km/h, "Twist dive" that falls immediately after the body bends, "Heartline roll" with fir tree rotation, and maximum cant angle of 85 degrees There is a turning "double spiral". Maximum acceleration 4G. Height 38m, total length 800m. The name was decided by open call for participants.
King of Coaster FUJIYAMA
Location:Fujikyu Highland / Open: 1996
At the time of opening, it was recognized by Guinness with four items of height 79 m, hoisting height 71.5 m, drop 70 m, maximum speed 130 km / h and became a hot topic. The maximum inclination is 4 degrees and the total length is 65 m. A major playground equipment manufacturer that is now closed,ト ー ゴThis is the last large coaster made by Togo, and it is said to be a masterpiece of Togo alongside the aforementioned surf coasters and bandeds. Despite its large size, it has a vehicle with a low backrest and simple equipment.
Come on, it's ok
Location: Fuji-Q Highland / Open: 2006
Large coaster. It is a "four-dimensional coaster" in which the seat rotates in the front-back direction, and is certified by Guinness with a total of 2 rotations, including 5 rail loops, 7 rail twists, and 14 seat rotations. No matter how many times you ride, the position and number of rotations are the same. The same type of coaster has the "X2" (Six Flags Magic Mountain), but the overall specs are higher. The above-mentioned two overseas coasters are colored like black pillars and red rails, but it's not as of 2.Mount Fujiworld HeritageIt is a black rail due to the landscape regulation by registration. The bolt was dropped from the vehicle in April 2012, and the operation had been suspended since the accident in which a passenger walking there was injured, but the operation was resumed in July of the same year. Ranked 4nd in the most scary coaster ranking in the world.
domineering
Location: Fuji-Q Highland / Open: July 2011, 7
Large coaster. There is a linear acceleration by a linear motor that reaches a maximum speed of 2 km/h in 100 seconds and a fall from a height of 43 m due to winding. In particular, the latter has a maximum fall angle of 121 degrees and falls so as to engrave inside. The fall angle was certified by Guinness. By the time it falls, it is rolled up vertically, and when it reaches the top, it makes a pause while facing downward. In addition to this, indoor dark driving and 7 types of twisting rotation are available for the course of 1004 m in total length.
De dodonpa
Location: Fuji-Q Highland
Japan's fastest coaster. In 2001DodonpaAppeared as. The business was temporarily closed in 2016 and renewed in 2017. It uses an air launch that uses compressed air for acceleration, and is characterized by accelerating all at once with air pressure. Therefore, the maximum speed reaches 1.56km/h in just 180 seconds from the start. There is also the world's largest vertical loop with a diameter of 39.7 m.
Aero 5
Location:Yagiyama Benny Land
Hanging coaster.The slowest coaster in Japan.
Surf coaster leviathan
Location:Yokohama / Hakkeijima Sea Paradise
It features a part of the course protruding to the sea and three horizontal loops. A strong wind blows on a daily basis, and there is a feeling of plunging into the sea when gliding. After the sunset, the area around the course becomes dark, and another fear appears.
On March 2014, 3, the new vehicle "BLADE" was introduced, and the water column, light and sound were added, and it was reopened under the current name.
Bandet
Location:Yomiuri Land / Open: 1988
It recorded the highest speed in the world at the time of opening, and is still second in Japan due to the difference in elevation. What is a bandit?BanditMeans a dense forest (Tama Hills). So far, as a limited-time event, a "reverse run bandet" that runs backwards on the course, a "splash bandet" that splashes water during riding in the summer only, and a "fire bandet" that installs a device that raises the pillar of fire during the course During night hoursLEDA "starlight banded", in which a vehicle equipped with a car runs while shining, is being held.
Loop coaster MOMOnGA
Location: Yomiuri Land / Open: 1979
Japan's first vertical loop coaster. In 1982, it became the world's first standing coaster by retrofitting a standing vehicle. Therefore, basically, a seated vehicle and a standing vehicle are alternately driven on the same course. The rail painting was changed in 2002, and the name was changed. Due to the impact of the Fengjin Raijin II in 2007, the standings were suspended, but then resumed.

West Japan

Steel Dragon 2000
Location:Nagashima Spa Land
The largest coaster in the world. Guinness certification at the time of opening, 4 items of height, head, total length and maximum speed. Currently, only the full length is the best in the world, but it is the best roll-up coaster in the world. It had been closed since August 2003 due to the injured in an accident. After repeated test runs, operation resumed on September 8, 2006. Height 9m, maximum head 3m, maximum inclination 97°, total length 93.5m, maximum speed 68km/h.
The vehicle was renewed in 2013. Thrills have doubled as the seats are exposed and open so that the feet do not reach the floor.
Flying coaster acrobatics
Location: Nagashima Spa Land / Open: July 2015
As the name implies, the seats lie face down. The course is equipped with a pretzel-shaped loop, three rounds of kiri-momi rotation, and the production of a fountain that rises as soon as it passes the surface of the water. This is the first appearance of a large flying coaster in Japan.
Hybrid coaster Hakugei
Location: Nagashima Spa Land / Open: March 2019, 3
The first hybrid coaster in Japan that combines wood and steel with the renewal of the wooden coaster "White Cyclone". It is characterized by a course screw made of steel and a 90-degree bank in which the vehicle leans to the side. The maximum point is 55m, the maximum speed is 107km/h, the maximum inclination is 80°, and the total length is 1530m.
Shuttle loop
Location: Nagashima Spa Land / Open: 1980
A reciprocating coaster that accelerates at the start and rises, falls, and loops forward and backward. For acceleratorFlywheeluse. In 1979Yokohama DreamlandIt was first introduced in, and was introduced at the same time as the year when the Loop Coaster was first introduced in Japan. Next yearToshimaen, Yu Koenchi,Nagashima Spa LandHowever, it was removed due to closure and aging, and currently exists only in Nagashima Spa Land. It can be said that it is a pioneer of the linear acceleration coaster that is now popular.
Pyrenees
Location:Parque Espana
Inverted coaster. At the time of its opening, it boasted the world's longest, fastest and highest degree as a suspended (inverted) coaster. Even today, the spec is the best in Japan for the same type coaster in Japan. Pyrenees is located on the border between Spain and Franceピ レ ネ ー 山脈That.
デ ィ ア ブ ロ
Location:Himeji Central Park
Inverted coaster first introduced in Japan. It features a lot of spirals and twists. What is DiabloSpanishDevilThat.
The Flying Dinosaur
Location:Universal Studios Japan / Open: March 2016, 3
Large coaster. It is the world's largest flying coaster with a seat of 1,124 meters and a maximum head of 37.8 meters.
Hollywood Dream The Ride
Location: Universal Studios Japan
Japan's first and Asia's first mega coaster by B & M.In camelbackWeightlessnessYou can enjoy a feeling close to. The world's first system to select music to listen to while riding. The vehicle is also equipped with 350 LEDs, which shine like a shooting star at night. In 2013, the "Backdrop" vehicle, which runs backwards, appeared.
roller coaster
Location:Misaki Park
It is the oldest coaster in western Japan since it opened in 1957, and the second oldest coaster in Japan after Asakusa Hanayashiki. The front of the vehicle isSLImitates.
Back nanger
Location:Washuzan Highland
The world's first reverse coaster with a loop, it is a roller coaster that goes backwards. The origin of BacknangerOkayama dialectFrom. In 2001, two passengers continued to ride on the roller coaster for 2 times, 1050 hours and 35 minutes, and were certified by Guinness.[14].. By the way, there is also a "standing coaster" that runs on the same course as the backnanger in a standing position (this is positive).
Milky Way Coaster "Milky Way"
Location:Greenland(Former Mitsui Greenland)
Two vehicles, a sitting "Orihime" and a standing "Hikoboshi," run side by side. Initially, it was called "Fujin Raijin", but after being dismantled and inspected, it was renamed and restarted after being affected by the accident at the brother "Fujin Raijin II" in Expoland.
Dinosaur coaster "GAO"
Location: Greenland
The longest coaster in Kyushu. Due to the length of the course and speed, the boarding time exceeds 4 minutes. In March 2008, the vehicle and the course were extensively renewed.
Jupiter
Location:Jojima Kogen Park
The first wooden coaster introduced in Japan. The length is also the longest among the wooden coasters, and it is one of the leading coasters in the country with continuous camel backs.

Coasters closed

Cyclone
Location:Toshimaen
A vehicle imitating a log repeatedly goes up and down, and runs in a dark tunnel at the end. It first appeared in 1965, and at that time, it was marked with the catch phrase "The largest coaster in the Orient." Another feature is that the seat is made of brushed material. In the 1970sFuji TV affiliateWas being broadcast onStar's clear (secret) reportIt has also been used in interviews while riding. Closed on August 2020, 8 due to Toshimaen closing.
2WAY roller coaster
Location: Coasterland in Korakuen Yuenchi (now LaQua in Tokyo Dome City Attractions)
Two cars facing forward and two cars facing backward are connected and run in the coaster land. Winding is done twice, the first and the middle.
Introduced in 1955. The name "roller coaster" was used for the first time. In 1993, it was renewed to a vehicle that was connected forward and backward.
Linear gale
Location: Tokyo Dome City Attractions Parachute Land / Open: 1998
The world's first hanging type linear coaster. Repeats vertical ascent and descent in forward and backward directions. Closed at the end of October 2010 due to parachute land renewal.
Spinning coaster Maihime
Location: Tokyo Dome City Attractions Tower Land
Mad mouse type coaster. For the first time in Japan, we adopted a seat that sits back to back. The feature is that the seat rotates sideways 360° while driving. A fatal accident occurred on January 2011, 1[15]However, the operation was stopped. It was removed while Tokyo Dome City Attractions was closed.
Hayabusa
Location:Tokyo Summerland
One of the few suspended coasters in Japan. The feature was that the vehicle was shaken greatly when traveling on a curve.
White canyon
Location: Yomiuri Land
The third wooden coaster in East Japan, the first in Japan. The biggest feature is the world's largest horizontal G, which is 3G when curved.重力Takes. At the first descent, twist to the left and fall. It is also characterized by the fact that there are many parts that run in a wooden structure. Closed on January 2013, 1.
Twist coaster robin
Location: Yomiuri Land / Open: March 2014, 3
In addition to a first drop with a falling angle of 93 degrees, a 360 degree spiral, a twist dive that reverses and falls, there is also a reverse cant curve that tilts outward and turns for the first time in Japan. By the way, what is Robin?RobinThat is. On the day of the opening, the train was suspended due to an accident in which the vehicle running backwards in the winding section collided with a vehicle that was stopped behind. The layout of some courses was changed, such as loosening the angle of the first drop, and we were considering restarting it, but it was dismantled in January 2016 without restarting operation.
Mount Rocky Coaster
Location:Tobu Zoological Park
Coaster running on the pond. It looks like a wooden coaster but is actually made of steel. Closed in 2003. A kingfisher opened on the site in 2008.
Water wooden coaster Regina
Location: Tobu Zoological Park / 2000-2019
The world's first floating wooden coaster. The total track length is 1334m. What is ReginaItalianqueenMeans On the fourth fall写真photographwas there. For a limited time, there was an event called "Dark Regina" running in the darkness at night.
Gambit
Location:Odakyu Gotemba Family Land
Inverted coaster.The layout was similar to Diablo in Himeji Central Park, but it was symmetrical.
Dangai
Location: Odakyu Gotemba Family Land
As the name suggests, somersault coasters facing the cliffs in the park.There were sitting and standing.
Giant coaster
Location: Fuji-Q Highland
At the time of its opening, it was recognized as Guinness, the world's longest course. Closed by replacing FUJIYAMA.
World Butch Gili Coaster Dodonpa
Location: Fuji-Q Highland / Open: 2001
Japan's fastest coaster. It uses an air launch that uses compressed air for acceleration, and is characterized by accelerating all at once with air pressure. Therefore, the maximum speed reaches 1.8km/h in just 172 seconds from the start. There was also the first 52m high vertical tower in Japan. The highest speed was certified by Guinness in 2001. Although the maximum speed was exceeded, the acceleration power of the air lunch was the best in the world. Business will end on October 2016, 10 due to renewal. After changing the course layout, it reopened as Do Do Donpa in July 2.
Flying Coaster Birdmen
Location: Fuji-Q Highland
The first coaster in Japan to lie on its stomach. It is a two-seater, with a total length of 480m, which is one-fifth that of FUJIYAMA. Suspended due to an accident caused by a sudden stop in the brake zone in May 5. The ride is changed to a sitting type and business is resumed as a "fluffy sky adventure". The only coaster in Fuji-Q Highland that was closed due to an accident.
Moonsalt scramble
Location: Fuji-Q Highland
Reciprocating loop coaster. It has a unique element called "pretzel knot" and boasts the strongest G of 6.5G in the world. It was so radical that the age limit was less than 50, the toughest of the park. Removed in 2000 to build Dodongpa.
White cyclone
Location: Nagashima Spa Land / Open: July 1994
The world's largest wooden coaster in total length and altitude. Height 45m, maximum inclination 50°, total length 1715m, maximum speed 102km/h. Closed in January 2018 due to renewal[16].. It was renewed as a hybrid coaster Hakugei in March 2019.
Blackout
Location:Suzuka Circuit
Inverted coaster. In September 2007, a user fractured and an operation was suspended. Removed in January 9.
Mad cobra
Location: Suzuka Circuit
Coaster that adopted a linear motor as the first accelerator in Japan. After linear acceleration, the course runs in a complicatedly intertwined course. After closing in September 2003, it was sold to an amusement park in Dalian and is now operating as a crazy cobra.
Delpis the Coaster
Location:Festival gate
Designed by incorporating it into an urban building, the feeling of suddenly seeing the city or entering the building is unique. It was the fastest indoor coaster, but it stopped driving due to the accident at Expoland.
Orochi
Location:Expoland
Inverted coaster of the longest class in Japan. Closed due to the closure of the park. Removed in August 2009.
Daedalasaurus
Location: Expoland
Osaka World ExpositionIt appeared in 1970 when was held, and there were five courses prepared. There were two courses left by 5, but the two courses were combined to commemorate the 1999th anniversary of the Expo in 2. As a result, the total length was 2000 m, the second longest after Steel Dragon, but the speed was not so fast for the total length, the riding time was 30 minutes, and it was the longest in the world than in Japan. Removal started from May 2, 2342. Currently, the removal has been completed.
Wind God Raijin II
Location: Expoland
Standing coaster. Due to a fatal accident on May 2007, 5, operation was suspended. Removal started on March 5, 2008. After the removal was completed, the garden closed in February 3.
Munich autobahn
Location:Kobe Portopia Land
The only bobsle-type coaster in Japan without rails. At the time of its appearance, it was a hot topic. The course looks like a waterslide and blocks the view, so you can hardly see the scenery.
ASKA
Location:Nara Dreamland
Wooden coaster. It was the only wooden coaster in Japan to have a very high reputation as a top regular in the roller coaster ranking wooden section by a US magazine, and the park was known overseas. The operation was terminated when the park closed.
Titan MAX
Location:Space world
Large coaster. It appeared in 1994 under the name of “Meteor Liner Titan” and boasts the highest altitude and fastest speed in Japan until FUJIYAMA appeared.
In 2007, it was renewed to "Titan V", and the element of the treasure hunt "Adding three hidden keywords while driving" was added. Accident on December 3, 2007[17]Due to long suspension. Operation resumed on May 2010, 5. Due to vehicle renewal, temporary suspension of operation on January 1, 2015.
Reopened as "Titan MAX" on March 2015, 3. The vehicle has changed drastically and there is no surrounding wall, giving it a feeling of openness. In addition, the seats in the front row of each vehicle are hard to reach and have a fear. In addition, the seat is equipped with a speaker, you can choose one of the five preset songs to listen to while riding. The song can be changed while riding. By the way, the name "MAX" is meant to mean the highest (MAX) coaster that can fly through the air (X) while listening to music (Music). The operation was completed when the park closed.
Venus GP
Location: Space World
space shuttle"DiscoveryIs a symbol coaster. Appeared in 1996 under the name "Spiral Comet Venus". Said to be the god of the coasterAnton SchwarzkopfDesigned by. Beginning with a huge vertical loop, various curves continue. It was renewed in 2007, and the staff began to scream before departure, adding the effect that the time will change depending on the size of the passengers screaming. The operation was completed when the park closed.
The turn
Location: Space World / Open: April 2006
The 8th in the world, Japan's first linear acceleration coaster using a hydraulic motor. After the start, it accelerates to about 2.5 km/h in about 130 seconds, and ascends and descends while twisting a tower of about 65 m in height at an angle of 89 degrees. The operation was completed when the park closed.

ACCIDENT

An accident may occur on a roller coaster (roller coaster), and safety management may become a social problem.

DateFacilityAt the time of an accident
Situation of
Accident contentCauseRemarks
2007th of February 5Wind God Raijin II
(Expoland
open for businessThe vehicle tilts 45 degrees and collides with the handrail. 1 dead, 19 injured[18].Breakage due to metal fatigue of axle[7][18].Removed in March 2008
2010th of February 12Thunder Dolphin
(Tokyo Dome City Attractions)
open for businessA part was dropped from a running vehicle and bounced off the ground, hitting a girl walking underneath and injured slightly[12]
2011th of February 1Spinning coaster Maihime
(Tokyo Dome City Attractions)
open for businessCustomers fall from a height of about 8 meters and die[15]The safety bar appears to have been inadequately lockedRemoved in 2011
2011th of February 3Brewer engine
(Toshimaen)
open for businessA woman is seriously injured with her left foot caught between the roller coaster and the platform part of the platform[19]
2012th of February 4Come on, it's ok
(Fuji-Q Highland)
open for businessA bolt dropped from a running vehicle and hit the forehead of a woman walking down, causing minor injuryIt is considered to be metal fatigue due to local force being applied to the bolt of the reverse run prevention device of the vehicle[20]
2012th of February 6open for businessA boy falls from a roller coaster and is seriously injured[21]
2012th of February 9Koriyama Culture ParkUnder inspectionWorkers were killed by being pinched between the coaster and the track during on-orbit inspection[22]
2013th of February 2Shuttle loop
(Nagashima Spa Land)
Under inspectionEmployee dropped because safety bar was not locked during commissioningSafety bar check error[23]
2013th of February 4Space coaster
(Wonderland)
open for businessA boy falls and is seriously injured[24]A mistake in checking the belt. Suspected that the belt itself was not working. The coaster has had three accidents in the past[25].Order to prohibit use of 5 playground equipment next month
2013th of February 10Titan V
(Space World)
open for businessDue to an emergency stop around 50 meters above the ground, 23 passengers evacuated through the stairs attached to the rail (no one was injured)[26]
2015th of February 5Thunder coaster
(Nasu Highland Park)
open for businessA part of the parts fell and hit a man in the vicinity[27]
2015th of February 5Lady bird coaster
(NEW Reoma World
open for businessFracture accident occurred[28]
2015th of February 6Lady bird coaster
(NEW Reoma World)
open for businessA serious injury that an employee was shaken by a sharp curve and hit the body strongly inside the vehicle and broke a rib[28]
2015th of February 8Raptor
(Cedar point)
open for businessA man who entered a fenced-out restricted area collided with a coaster and died[29]
2016th of February 3domineering
(Fuji-Q Highland)
open for businessStop for 121 minutes at a point about 40m above the ground just before falling at 7 degrees (no injuries)[30]Air leak from brake release parts[30]
2017th of February 7De dodonpa
(Fuji-Q Highland)
open for businessWhile running, with 7 passengers on it, it could not go around the loop and went backwards, then stopped sideways at the curve[31]One of the tires is flat while driving[31]
2017th of February 8Ultra twister
(Washuyama Highland)
open for businessThe safety bar that restrains the body comes off, and one passenger who has lost his posture contacts the structure of the facility and burns[32]  
2017th of February 8Jupiter
(Kijima Kogen Park)
Under inspectionTwo workers were hit and one died during commissioning[33]  
2017th of February 10Bandet
(Yomiuri Land)
open for businessEmergency stop at a height of 51 meters above the ground When the passenger girl became scared and turned to the father who was riding next to him, a part of his body was about to slip through and the staff stopped it to ensure safety. 
2018th of February 6roller coaster
(Daytona Beach Boardwalk)
open for businessAfter derailment, two passengers fell to the ground about 2 m below[34]  
2019th of February 5Standing coaster
(Washuyama Highland)
open for businessNo part of the seat at the end fell off and no injuries[35]  
2019th of February 8Surf coaster

(Hakkeijima Sea Paradise)

open for businessA minor injury that two men and women hit the thighs after hitting an unmanned vehicle that was stopped

Manufacturing company

List the prominent companies that have manufactured roller coasters.

Domestic

Overseas

  • S & S Worldwide(S & S Worldwide, America)-Acquired by Sansei Technologies
  • Arrow Dynamics (USA) --Bankruptcy in 2001, acquired by S & S the following year
  • Morgan (USA)
  • CCI (Custom Coasters International, USA)-Mainly made of wooden coasters
  • The Gravity Group, USA-Founded by a former CCI employee
  • RMC (Rocky Mountain Construction, USA)-Focusing on hybridizing wooden coasters
  • Intermin(Intamin AG, スイス
  • B & M (Bolliger & Mabillard, Switzerland)
  • Anton Schwarzkopf(Anton Schwarzkopf, Germany
  • Maurer Söhne, Germany
  • Gerstrauer (Gerstlauer, Germany)
  • Mack (Mack Rides, Germany)
  • (Vekoma, Netherlands)-Acquired by Sansei Technologies

Trivia

Roller coaster is afraid of the seat behind
When a vehicle starts to dive, a vehicle in front starts to descend first, and a vehicle in the rear descends while accelerating so as to be pulled by it. At that time, a zero G or a negative G occurs, so that passengers feel strongly drawn in or jumped upward, so that the rear seat is generally scared. The longer the vehicles are connected, the greater the fear. Many thrill-seeking enthusiasts prefer rear seats.
Roller coaster speed changes depending on the season and temperature
On the wheels of the roller coaster,greaseと 呼 ば れ るlubricantIs painted. When the temperature is low, such as in winter, the grease becomes hard and it becomes slow because it becomes a resistance of the wheel. On the contrary, when the temperature is high such as in summer, the grease becomes softer and the speed is higher than in winter. Even in the same season, the speed tends to increase after noon when the maximum temperature reaches morning and evening. For this reason, Fujikyu Highland's FUJIYAMA is taking measures to put special wheels in the winter and heat them with a heater on the platform.
Roller coaster loops and turns are scarier the smaller the diameter
If you pass through the loop at the same speed, the smaller the diameter, the more you rotate without slowing down and the stronger G is generated, so the thrill becomes higher. Even in the case of horizontal turning, the smaller the diameter, the slower the speed and the tendency for G to become stronger.

Source

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  2. ^ Will Dream Vehicle "Eco Ride" Realize? -ITmedia Business Online, August 2018, 5
  3. ^ Roller coaster postcard #XNUMX Tamagawaen's land wave glue[Source invalid]
  4. ^ "Mono magazine559 (2007/4/16) p.96 "Chapter 100 of Tansu"
  5. ^ a b A story that you can enjoy the amusement park a hundred times NHK History Story
  6. ^ [1][Source invalid]
  7. ^ a b Kenji Iino (October 2017, 10). “Yearbook of Failure 2007 Expoland, roller coaster accident (all figures displayed public version)". Association for the Study of Failure.As of August 2020, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021th of February 4Browse.
  8. ^ "Mr. Ogawara who died, a coaster accident to give up a seat to a family". Asahi Shimbun (February 2007, 5). As of February 9, 2007オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021th of February 4Browse.
  9. ^ Only vehicles due to the closure of ToshimaenYagiyama Benny LandTransferred to, and has been in use since March 2021. (Old vehicle of Benny LandRusutsu ResortTransferred to)
  10. ^ roller coaster Asakusa Hanayashiki
  11. ^ Vehicle open space Arakawa Amusement Park
  12. ^ a b "Bolt drops at amusement park, minor injury to a girl = from a roller coaster while driving-Tokyo Dome"Asahi Shimbun. (April 2010, 12). http://www.asahi.com/national/jiji/JJT201012050061.html [Broken link]
  13. ^ Roller Coaster "Thunder Dolphin" Reopening Tokyo Dome City Attractions[Broken link]
  14. ^ Guinness record of Highland! ! Washuzan Highland
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  17. ^ [2] West Japan Newspaper[Broken link]
  18. ^ a b Japan Broadcasting Corporation “NHK Yearbook 2008” Japan Broadcast Publishing Association, 2008, 43 pages.
  19. ^ “18-year-old woman caught in a coaster and seriously injured”. Fukui newspaper(July 2011, 3). http://www.fukuishimbun.co.jp/nationalnews/CO/main/429518.html 2013th of February 8Browse. [Broken link]
  20. ^ ""Fujikyu bolt drop" metal fatigue is estimated to occur". Article: Nippon Television / Distribution: Yahoo News(July 2014, 12). http://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/videonews/nnn?a=20141202-00000017-nnn-soci 2014th of February 12Browse. [Broken link]
  21. ^ "Coaster operation after the accident Gunma's amusement park with serious injury to boys". Fukui newspaper(July 2012, 6). http://www.fukuishimbun.co.jp/nationalnews/CO/national/589995.html 2013th of February 8Browse. [Broken link]
  22. ^ “Worker died between coasters, inspecting on orbit”. Fukui newspaper(July 2012, 9). http://www.fukuishimbun.co.jp/nationalnews/CO/main/620574.html 2013th of February 8Browse. [Broken link]
  23. ^ “Nagashima Spa Land Coaster Falling Documents XNUMX Employees, Accidental Accident Injury”. Ise Shimbun(July 2013, 6). http://www.isenp.co.jp/news/20130626/news07.htm 2013th of February 8Browse. [Broken link]
  24. ^ "Order for prohibiting coaster use in case of a fall accident: The amusement park side did not respond to the prefecture's inspection report request". Fukui newspaper(July 2013, 5). http://www.fukuishimbun.co.jp/localnews/politics/42531.html 2013th of February 8Browse. [Broken link]
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