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From there, transfer to the Yosan Line regular train departing from Imabari at 10:07 and arrive at Yawatahama at 13:46.
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Wikipedia related words
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local train(Usually)Passenger trainInTrain typeIt is a kind of.一般的にはIn generalFareRefers to a train that stops at each station that can be boarded only byLocal trainThere are also businesses that guide you.
Japan National Railway(JNR) ・JRIn terms of passenger business rules,Special express trainBroad sense includingExpress trainRefers to trains other than, in this caseRapid trainIs also included in the concept.市販のCommercially availableTimetableThen fine print[Note 1]Represents the train displayed by.
Unless otherwise specified, this section focuses on ordinary trains in Japan.
For the types of trains that stop at each station, there is a guide for "local trains" in addition to "ordinary trains".Generally, it is unified to one of the terms, but some companies use both train types.As a typical example where both are usedMultiple linesIn the sectionExpress line / slow line(OrTrain line) There are trains that stop at all stations where passenger platforms are installed.SomeSeibu RailwayIn some cases, the official train type name was changed from "normal" to "local train (local)"..
Japanese National Railways / JR
Basically, trains that stop at each station (or pass through some stations) are guided as regular trains.
In terms of fares and charges, trains other than "express trains" are defined as "ordinary trains" in the passenger business rules., In this concept "ticket(Ticket Book-Commuter PassIncluding)Express charge-Express chargeIs an unnecessary passenger train. "この場合は快速列車も含む概念であり、フリーきっぷなどで「普通列車（快速含む）」とあるのはIn this case, the concept includes rapid trains, and the term "ordinary train (including rapid trains)" in free tickets etc.[Note 2]According to this rule. JRにおいて快速列車を含む普通列車はRegular trains including rapid trains at JRStandard-sized car OfUnreserved seatIf,ticketOr you can get on with a commuter pass.全車座席指定列車やAll car seat reserved trainsHome linerな どReserved seat ticket-Seated numbered ticketEven trains that require (liner tickets) can be boarded by using them together with a ticket or commuter pass if you purchase them separately.[Note 3].
Basically, trains that stop at each station (or pass through some stations) are guided as regular trains.事業者によっては国鉄・JRと同様に料金不要の速達列車（快速列車相当）を運行しているが、優等列車として扱うのが一般的であるSome operators operate express trains (equivalent to rapid trains) that do not require a charge like the Japanese National Railways and JR, but they are generally treated as excellent trains...ただし、料金不要列車も優等列車の範疇に含めるかどうかは事業者によって異なるHowever, it depends on the operator whether or not toll-free trains are included in the category of excellent trains.[Note 4].
Double track (when there is no platform in the first place)
Multiple linesPlatforms are installed at all stations in the sectionSlow lineHomes are set up only in a few stationsExpress lineIf (fast lines) are managed separately, ordinary trains running on express lines will pass through multiple stations for slow lines.
- Tokaido Main Line-Tohoku Main Line OfOfuna Station - Tokyo Station - Omiya Stationwhile,Yamanote Line OfShinagawa Station - Tabata Stationwhile,Joban Line OfKitasenju Station - Toride stationSee the internal link above for more information on the interval.
- Tohoku Line (Utsunomiya Line)・Takasaki Line OfSaitama Shintoshin StationThen,(I.e.-TokyoDirection(Ueno Tokyo Line) Ordinary trains stop,Shonan Shinjuku LineRegular trains pass.これは、湘南新宿ラインの列車が走行するThis is the Shonan-Shinjuku line trainTohoku Freight LineBecause there is no home installed in.. 2013年3月15日まではUntil March XNUMX, XNUMXUrawa StationPassed for the same reason, but a platform was set up when it was elevated.
- Keio Line OfShinjuku Station - Sasazuka StationIn betweenKeio New LineWhen the Keio Line (main line / old line) openedHatsudai Station-Hatagaya StationSince the abolition of the service, only trains via the new line (including regular trains and express trains) will stop at both stations, and regular trains (local trains) via the Keio Line (main line / old line) will stop at both stations. It will pass.
- Tokyu Corporation OfFutakotamagawa Station - Mizonokuchi StationBetweenDenentoshi LineとOimachi LineAre running in parallel and are on the wayFutako Shinchi StationとTakatsu StationSince there is no platform for the Oimachi line, basically only trains on the Denen-toshi line stop, but some stations on the Oimachi line (trains with blue type display) stop on the Denen-toshi line in the same section. It runs on the railroad track and stops at both stations.
- Tokyo Metro OfOmotesando Station - Aoyama-itchome StationBetweenGinza LineとHanzomon LineAre running in parallel and are in the middleGaienmae StationThe Ginza line trains stop, but the Hanzomon line trains also pass by regular trains (local trains). Until June 2008, 6Kotakemukaihara Station - Ikebukuro StationEven in betweenYurakucho Line New Line(Currently Fukutoshin Line) regular trains (local trains)Yurakucho Line Main LineStopChikawa StationとKanamecho StationWas passing through.The problem was resolved when the Fukutoshin Line platforms at both stations were set up on the 14th.
- JR Tokai OfNagoya Station - Kanayama StationIn between, the Tokaido Main Line and the Chuo Main Line run side by side, in the middle.Ogashirabashi StationSince there is no platform on the Chuo Main Line side, only trains on the Tokaido Main Line will stop.
- JR West JapanThen.Fukuchiyama Line(JR Takarazuka Line) In the morning time on a regular trainOsaka StationFirst and last trains and Osaka Station- Amagasaki StationBetweenOutside lineThe train that runs onTsukamoto Station(Because the safety fence at the station does not correspond to the stopped train).Since the branch of the Fukuchiyama Line at Amagasaki Station used to be connected only to the outside line, all trains on the Fukuchiyama Line were running on the outside line between Osaka Station and Amagasaki Station.Therefore, all trains passed through Tsukamoto Station,JR Tozai LineDue to the wiring improvement work accompanying the opening of the line, it has become possible to enter the inner line, so many trains now stop at Tsukamoto Station, mainly directly on the JR Kyoto Line.
- Hankyu Corporation OfKyoto Main LineThen, including ordinary trainsNakatsu StationPass through. this isUmeda Station - Juso StationIn between1959(34) This is because there was no space to set up a platform on the Kyoto main line side when the triple track was adopted in March. Before thatTakarazuka Main LineHowever, it did not stop at Nakatsu Station because the trains that entered the train were mostly limited express trains and express trains.Tenjinbashi StationFold back).. As of April 2018, 4, the Kyoto Main Line also passes regular trains as mentioned above, but the Takarazuka Main Line has regular trains as well as semi-express trains only during the weekday morning rush.
- Nankai Electric Railway OfNamba Station - Kishizatamade StationBetweenNankai Main LineとTakano LineAre running side by side and are on the wayImamiya Ebisu StationとHaginochaya StationSince there is no platform for the Nankai Main Line, only trains on the Takano Line stop. Even if the train stops at all stations, the stations are different, so on the Nankai Main Line, "normal (normal)Standard-sized car) ”, On the Takano Line, it is distinguished from“ local trains ”. However, both stations belong to the Nankai Main Line, and in the past, the Nankai Main Line local trains that stopped at both stations and the Takano Line that passed through both stations were also operated.
Shared section (when there is a platform but it passes as a route)
Within a section where multiple lines are parallel or shared, there is a station where only trains on a specific line stop and all trains on other lines pass through. However, because the line is different, it is not considered as a transit station and is treated as not a station on that line.
- Hokuso Railway Hokuso LineとKeisei Narita Airport LineIs shared byKeisei Takasago Station - Inba Nippon Medical School StationOf the stations on the way in the section betweenHigashimatsudo Station-Shin-Kamagaya Station-Chiba New Town Chuo StationEach station exceptHokuso RailwayIt is a station onlyKeiseiAll trains (Skyliner Access Limited Express) pass through.
- Iida LineとMeitetsu Nagoya Main LineIs shared byToyohashi Station - Hirai JunctionIn the section betweenShimoji stationとFunamachi StationThere are, but both stationsJR TokaiIt is a station onlyMeitetsuAll trains pass. Fares are also separate because the companies are different. Even on the Iida line during the dayToyokawa StationOnly trains departing and arriving stop. In addition, there is no platform on the Tokaido Main Line, which runs in parallel, so this will also pass.
- Past cases
- Osaka Loop LineShin-Imamiya StationWas originally a train on the Osaka Loop Line when it opened in 1964 (Showa 39).Kansai Main LineThe train (diesel train) was passing through this station, but only the train on the Osaka Loop Line stopped and the train on the Kansai Main Line (diesel train) was passing. In 1968 (Showa 43), a platform dedicated to the Kansai Main Line was created due to the double tracking, but at this point the trains (diesel trains) on the Kansai Main Line did not stop, and only in 1972 (Showa 47) the Kansai Main Line Trains (diesel trains) have come to a stop. Also next to the westImamiya StationWas a single station on the Kansai Main Line until the platform of the Osaka Loop Line was built in 1997 (Heisei 9). From these circumstancesTennoji StationWhile Imamiya Station belongs to the Kansai Main Line, Shin-Imamiya Station, which is sandwiched between the two stations, belongs to the Osaka Loop Line.
Stations with few passengers
Even if it is a regular train, there are trains that pass through stations with few passengers.
- Current case
- Old HokkaidoTemporary boarding / alighting area(Muroran Main LineKoboro,Rumoi Main LineKita-ChippubetsuSuch)
- Ou Main LineAt
- Uetsu Main Line OfAkita - SakataOn a regular train in betweenKatsura Station-Oriwatari Station-Mega StationThere is a train passing through.
- Kitakami Line OfHiraishi stationとYabitsu StationThen, all trains will pass only during the winter from 2016.
- Banetsu West Line OfKitakata Station - Aizuwakamatsu StationOn the way except for 5 round trips of the regular train betweenDojima Station-Oikawa Station-Ubadou Station-Aizu-Toyokawa StationPass through.
- Takayama Main Line OfTakayama Station - Gifu StationThe first and last trains that run betweenGero Station ――Gifu station stops at each station, but Takayama station ――Gero stationKuguno Station-Hida Kosaka Station-Hida Hagiwara StationStop only.
- Hakubi LineNunohara Station TheGeibi LineOnly direct trains stop, and Hakubi Line trains are not treated as customers even if regular trains stop.
- At the time of the timetable revision on March 2014, 3JR Shikoku OfNaruto LineThere is a regular train that does not stop at the station on the wayHowever, as of January 2018, 1, on weekday morningsNarutoOnly one departure for Iketani.
- Dosan Line OfTsubojiri StationとShingai StationThen, due to the wiring inside the station, some ordinary trains pass through.
- In JR KyushuNippo Main LineRyugamizu StationThere are trains that pass even ordinary trains.In addition, trains operated by Series 415 will not be treated as customers even if they stop.Kagoshima Main LineTaharazaka StationBut half of the regular trains during the day pass.Fukukita Yutaka LineKurobaru StationBut some of the regular trains pass.
- Aomori Railway LineThen,AomoriDepartureHachinoheThe first train isNishihiranaiと千曳Pass through both stations[Note 5].
- Tsugaru Railway LineThen, some trains pass through Bishamon, Kawakura, and Fukagoda stations, as well asTsugaru NakasatoDepartureTsugaru GoshogawaraThe last train on the line passes through Gonoko-mae Station and Togawa Station in addition to the three stations mentioned above..
- Konan RailwayKonan LineTambo Art StationThen, trains from night to early morning from spring to autumn and all trains in winterPasses.
- Past cases
- Once existedKeisei Main LineMuseum Zoo Station-Meitetsu Kawawa LineMukuoka Station-Kobe Electric Railway Arima LineKikusuiyama StationSome ordinary trains sometimes passed..神戸電鉄有馬線Kobe Dentetsu Arima LineShin-Arima StationIt can be said that it is in the middle of a no-man's land, and the trains that stop are limited to one round trip a day, and even that train will pass like a fixed-route bus unless you tell the crew in advance that you will get off. It was said that he sometimes did.
- Tohoku Main LineThen,
- Tsugaru LineThen from AomoriKanitaThe first train going down and down was passing through some stations.
- On the Ou Line
- Kamiijima StationThen, once on the Ou LinePassenger carlocal trainWas passing. Also,Yamagata - ShinjoEven in the meantime, there were regular trains passing through some stations.
- Akaiwa StationThen, all regular trains pass only during the winter period from 2012 to 2015However, stations that pass all year round after the 2016 winter seasonBecame2021May 3It was abandoned due to the revision of the schedule.
- On the Uetsu Main Line
- Shin-Etsu Main LineThen, in the JNR eraMinamitakada StationとKita-Arai StationSome regular trains were passing at both stations.
- JR West Kita Kinki DistrictThen, at the time of the timetable revision on March 2012, 3, it was set that some ordinary trains would pass, but the train was changed to a rapid train by the timetable revision the following year..
- On the Aoimori Railway Line, the first train from Hachinohe to Aomori passed through some unmanned stations, but the train was changed to an express train with the passing station as it was due to the timetable revision on March 2016, 3.[Note 6]..Furthermore, until March 2021, 3, the first train from Aomori to Hachinohe will be available.Karibasawa StationWas passing through.
- Tobu RailwayKinugawa Line OfTobu World Square StationAt the time of openingTobu World SquareIt was open according to the opening hours of the park, and all trains passed through at other times even if it was a regular train... 2020年6月6日のダイヤ改正より、営業時間外に運転する列車に関しても停車列車が設定されているFrom the timetable revision on June XNUMX, XNUMX, stopped trains have been set for trains that operate outside business hours..
- Tokyo Monorail Haneda Airport LineThen until June 1992, 6Showajima StationThe some trains[Note 7]Was passing.
- Yoro Railway Yoro LineOf the predecessor ofKintetsu Yoro Line OfOtoba Station,Kintetsu Kashihara Line OfFamily Koemmae StationThen, in the past, regular trains passed through some time zones[Note 8].
Direct trains from other lines
Hokuetsu Express Hokuhoku LineThen, the regular trains that operate directly to JRJoetsu LineIshiuchi Station-Osawa StationPasses all trains. Also,Joetsu International Ski Resort Station(Winter only) ・Shiozawa Station-Shin-Etsu Main LineKuroi StationAlso partly passes. It is pointed out that the Hokuhoku Line train, which operates one-man with a short train, cannot meet the sudden demand on the JR line..
Tokaido Main LineSeta StationUntil the 1985 timetable revisionKusatsu LineA regular passenger car train that goes directly from to Kyoto Station was passing by. There are quite a few users of Seta Station, but Seta Station opened in 1969.Kusatsu Station - Kyoto StationNew compared to other stations in betweenThat is said to be one of the reasons why passenger trains were passing by.
Hakodate honsen OfNanae StationとOnuma StationSome of the regular down trains that connect the trains run on a detour line dedicated to down trains called the Fujishiro branch line to avoid crossing with the up trains. There is no station on the Fujishiro branch line, so it is in the middle of the main line.Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto StationとNiyama StationLooks like it's passing through.
Sections where regular trains are not operated
- JR lines (Shinkansenexcept for)
- Regular regular trains are not set on the following routes. In addition, it is limited to routes for which business kilometers are set (business kilometers are not set).Short circuit wireEtc.).
- In addition, even if the business kilometers are set, there are no regular passenger trains and the routes are not listed in the timetable (Freight lineEtc.) are excluded.
- Regular trains do not operate in the relevant section, In the relevant section, you can board the unreserved seats of limited express and express trains with only a ticket.
- Tokaido Main Line : Ogaki Station -(Shin-Tarui)- Sekigahara StationBetween (down main line, commonly known as Shin-Tarui line)
- Currently, all regular regular trains running between Ogaki and Sekigahara are operated via Tarui Station, even if they are down trains, and passenger trains that pass through the route via the former Shin-Tarui Station are limited to limited express trains.
- Tokaido Main Line Branch Line:Shin-Osaka Station - Fukushima Station(Common nameUmeda Freight Line..This section does not have a passenger company's operating kilometers, but only a freight company's operating kilometers. )
- The passenger train that operates this section is "HALCAOnly limited express trains. (Due to the timetable revision on March 2018, 3, the rapid trains that had been operating one late at night and one early in the morning were abolished.)
- Hakata Minami Line[Note 9] : Hakata Station - Hakata Minami Station
- Joetsu Line : Echigoyuzawa Station - Gala Yuzawa Station[Note 10]
- JR West JapanIs the first-class railway business,Noto RailwayIs a section where operating kilometers are set in duplicate because is a type XNUMX railway business.In this section, JR West operates only limited express trains, and Noto Railway operates only ordinary trains, so JR West does not operate ordinary trains.In addition, it should be notedYouth 18 ticketYou can take a regular train on the Noto Railway.
- Private railway lines
- Keisei Electric RailwayNarita Airport Line(Narita Sky Access):Keisei Takasago Station - Narita Airport Station
- 1999Since then, "normal" has not been set, and limited express trains and limited express trains stop at each station and operate (both can be boarded only with a ticket).
Expression at the time of guidance
To stop at each stationDeparture markAnd trainsCurtainEven if it is displayed as "normal" in the broadcast, it may be announced as "local train".日本のJapaneseMajor private railwayThen,Keisei Electric Railway,Tobu Railway,Kinki Nippon Railway[Note 15],Keihan Electric Railway,Hankyu Corporation,Hanshin Electric RailwayIs applicable.
Type curtainAnd stop station information is unified for each company, so the type will be changed at the boundary station for direct operation.例えばFor exampleTokyo Metro Yurakucho Line-Fukutoshin LineAnd with themDirect operationI doSeibu Ikebukuro Line-Tokyu Toyoko Line-Yokohama High Speed Rail Minatomirai LineThen it is "local"[Note 16]WhereasTobu Tojo LineThen it is unified as "normal"[Note 17]..ほかにも停車駅によって2種類の「各停」に区別して運行している例としてAnother example is that the trains are divided into two types of "local trains" depending on the station.Tokyu Oimachi LineThere is.
JR EastChuo Main LineThen,Tachikawa Station - Otsuki StationBetween the regular trains on the Chuo East LineChuo Line Rapid TrainHowever, since all the rapid trains going down are guided as "local trains", "normal" and "local trains" are mixed only in that section.
JR WestLake Biwa Line-JR Kyoto Line-JR Kobe LineThen, the train that stops at each station is "normal", and the train that has a passing station is "rapid".Takatsuki Station-Kyoto Station - Yasu Station-Maibara StationAnd betweenNishi Akashi Station(Up train only. Down trainAkashi StationFrom)- Kakogawa Station-Himeji StationThe rapid train stops at each station, so it is said to be "normal".However, in the station timetable, trains that operate at high speed from stations on the way are shown in orange, which is the color of high-speed trains.
Regular trains and local trainsStandard-sized carThere is also a company called.多くの私鉄ではOn many private railwaysGreen carIn this case, it is said that it is customarily used not as a vehicle but as a regular train for a superior train such as a limited express train because it does not own a special vehicle such as a limited express train.
In the Kansai area, there were many companies that used the expression "ordinary car" as a convention.Nankai Electric Railway(Nankai Electric Railway)Sanyo Electric RailwayAt (Sanyo Electric Railway), it is still used for guidance broadcasting, etc..
At Nankai Electric Railway,Namba Station - Kishizatamade StationAmongMultiple linesWest 2 linesNankai Main Line, East 2 linesTakano LineIs using, but on the wayImamiya Ebisu StationとHaginochaya StationThere is no platform on the two western lines where the Nankai Main Line trains run. For this reason, trains on the Nankai Main Line that pass through both stations are "ordinary cars," and trains on the Takano Line that stop at both stations are "normal cars."Local trainI use it properly.. Until 1968, the Nankai Main Line trains also run on the east side 2 lines and stop at both stations, and until 1970, the Takano Line trains also run on the east side 2 lines but pass through both stations. "was there.
Nickname of ordinary train
Unlike limited express trains and express trains, trains cannot be nicknamed.
On the Japanese National Railways / JR, for trains to which reserved seat cars and sleeping cars are connected1974(49) After JulyReserved seat ticketing systemDue to the convenience of issuing reserved-seat tickets and sleeper tickets, train names were given in addition to the types. I hit this first on a regular train, butNagasaki"Hayama"San'in"Larch". Prior to that, reserved-seat cars and ordinary trains with sleeping cars were not nicknamed because the demand for purchasing reserved-seat tickets and sleeping cars was limited to areas along the railway lines, and tickets were issued manually..
Incidentally,Hokuriku ShinkansenWas operated as a train connecting to the Shinkansen train in the era when was called "Nagano Shinkansen"MyokoBecause there was a reserved seat in "", it had a train nickname.
道路Is not well maintainedTrainOther thanPublic transportWhen was underdeveloped, railroads were the mainstay of medium- and long-distance transportation. In addition, there was a certain amount of passenger demand even at midnight, so it was a major factor.Main lineThen.NocturnalMany ordinary trains were also in operation.
Also, to support the use of intercity communicationSleeperThere are also trains that were connectedMars systemでSleeper ticketIn 1974, when it became possible to issue tickets, such as "Nagasaki," "Hayatama," "San'in," and "Karamatsu."Train nicknameSome trains were marked with.
Night trains may be used throughout the entire section or only in some sections, and the same section may be run in parallel.Limited express-Express-Sleeper trainIn some cases, such as is complemented by the terminal part. EspeciallyExpress trainIf you want to arrive at a station that does not stop early in the morning, you can change trains from express trains.
Japanese National Railways / JR
1872Since the opening of the railway in (Meiji 5), passenger transportation has beenLocomotiveTowPassenger carThe train was in charge.Electric train,RailcarThis situation has not changed even after the practical application of the train, and trains are mainly operated in the suburbs of metropolitan areas, diesel trains are not used for long-distance driving due to restrictions on the number of connected cars, and relatively short distances in non-electrified sections. It was only used for trains. 1950(Showa 25)80 seriesWith the start of operation of long-distance trains by1953(Showa 28) Liquid diesel railcar capable of overall controlled operationKiha 45000 seriesWith the start of mass production ofPower distribution methodWas promoted. as a result,New performance trainSince the 30's when semi-express railcars were put into practical usePower modernization planIs decided, and quietness is pursued for new passenger carsnight TrainLimited to use, new trains and railcars will be built for ordinary trains. The introduction of diesel trains into non-electrified sections has been very well received, and diesel trains with modified passenger cars to meet the desire to introduce more than the number of cars manufactured (Kiha 08 series diesel train) Was also made.
At the time of the founding of the railway, the vehicles used were connected to high-class and middle-class cars, but after that, third-class cars equivalent to the current ordinary cars[Note 20]Trains composed only of trains became common, and second-class cars and second-class combined cars were connected only in some lines and trains. After the transition from the third grade system to the second grade system, after the latter half of the Showa 30's, many first-class passenger cars were downgraded to second-class cars (current ordinary cars), and nowGreen carThe number of regular trains connecting first-class cars equivalent to is further reduced. After the JNR division and privatization, JR East has expanded the operation line of green cars in the Kanto area.
SleeperThere is a case where the B sleeper was used for a specific night train until the 50s.
Of ordinary trainsWCAs for, it costs money to modify the vehicle, etc.High growth periodEven after that, the free fall and dripping method of filth continued.1970 eraToYokosuka/Sobu Rapid LineMass-produced forJNR 113 seriesFor the first time, a circulating toilet was installed from the new car stageHowever, in rural areas, there was no improvement until new cars and limited express / express trains were downgraded and deployed for ordinary trains.
Classification by guest room structure and seating arrangement
Vehicles (ordinary cars) used for ordinary trains of the Japanese National Railways are classified as follows according to the seat arrangement..
- Commuting type-A vehicle type that has an entrance and exit in the guest room, has vertical seats (long seats), and has performance suitable for commuting transportation.
- Suburban type-A vehicle type that has an entrance and exit in the guest room, is equipped with a horizontal (long seat) and vertical seat (cross seat), and has performance suitable for operation in the suburbs of the city.
- General type-A vehicle type that has an entrance and exit in the guest room, is equipped with a horizontal type (long seat) and a vertical type seat (cross seat), and has performance suitable for commuting transportation.[Note 21].
In addition, some old passenger cars, some old national trains, and vehicles for extremely cold regions have a passenger compartment structure with an express train compartment.
The old national train (former performance train) had a 3-door long-seat car, a 4-door long-seat car, a 3-door semi-cross-seat car, and a 2-door cross-seat car, and vehicles with seat arrangements suitable for the character of the line section were used.
As with passenger cars, trains are also connected with second-class and second-class combined cars (currently green cars after first-class cars) depending on the line section. The seats are often box seats with wide seat spacing on the old national trains, and there are reclining mechanisms depending on the type of new performance trains, but all are rotating cross seats.
Incidentally,New performance trainAfter the commercialization of, it is basically operated for each series and model with some exceptions.
On the Japanese National Railways, even for ordinary trains, due to differences in maximum speed and in-car equipment, etc.Commuter type vehicleとSuburban vehicleThe usage was divided into two, and the operation was also distinguished,East Japan Railway(JR East)E231 seriesFor the first time in abolished the formal distinction between commuting and suburban,General trainAlthough the format and classification were unified as, E231 seriesE233 seriesThere are commuting type and suburban type, and there is also an operational distinction.
In rural areas, the suburban type is the mainstream, but there is a tendency that the type of vehicle to be introduced is basically undecided, and there are also line sections where the limited express type is used as described later. In the past, some lines used the express train. Regarding the commuting form, during the JNR eraSengoku LineIt was used only in some lines such as, but after the inauguration of JR, the number of lines introduced has increased (Commuter vehicle (railway) #Introduction in local metropolitan areasSee also). In JR East107 series-701 series-E127 seriesThree-door long-seat cars such as are introduced, and these are classified as commuting type on the official website of JR East., The 701 series was sometimes used for operations exceeding 200km one way... In JR Hokkaido, 731 series, 733 series, and 735 series are classified as commuter type, but they are basically operated in common with 721 series, which is a suburban type, and unlike JR East, they are commuting although they are separated by vehicle type. There is no operational distinction between form and suburban form.
During the JNR era, the metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Osaka were prioritized when replacing vehicles, so old-fashioned national trains were used for a long time in rural areas (especially DC electrified lines) until the mid-1980s, and after that, large cities were used to replace old-model cars. Among the aged vehicles used in the area, vehicles in relatively good condition were diverted to rural areas. Even after the inauguration of JR, this system has continued in JR East and JR West. For example, in the 1990s in JR West, in the Sanyo area, the 115 series, which had a relatively large number of air-conditioned cars, was diverted to replace the 103 series non-air-conditioned car. After 2008Kure LineIt was replaced with the 113 series used in the Keihanshin area except for some vehicles used in, but the 103 series operated on the Kure line was also replaced.2015With the timetable revision on March 3th227 seriesWas replaced with, and the operation was withdrawn. Even in JR East, the 233 series, which became a surplus due to the introduction of the E209 series train on the Keihin Tohoku line, was diverted to the Boso area (excluding the Kururi line in the non-electrified line section), replacing the 113 series and 211 series, and the model for ordinary trains. It is unified to 209 series.
Long-seat cars (1990 series, especially in Tohoku and Kyushu) during the 701s815 seriesEtc.) were introduced, but there are cases where the successor vehicle was returned to the semi-cross seat (E721 series,817 seriesな ど[Note 22]).
JNR diesel railcars, including steam railcars, were for ordinary trains until liquid railcars were put into practical use. Liquid typeRailcarVehicles manufactured for ordinary trains are of general type (Kiha 10 series,Kiha 20 series), Commuter type (Kiha 35 series), Suburban railcars (Kiha 45 series), And these vehicles for ordinary trains are sometimes collectively called general-purpose diesel railcars., The classification of vehicle types differs depending on the materials and literature, and it was difficult to strictly specify the vehicle type for diesel railcars for ordinary trains during the JNR era, and it was not classified as a formal classification. In actual operation, in addition to this, semi-express and express trains were also used, so a wide variety of types with different paint colors, forms, door positions and numbers, and seat arrangements will be used in combination. Such a train was described as "Hyakki Yagyo". This is because the liquid diesel railcars of the JNR era emphasized compatibility except for the limited express type, and any vehicle with a liquid transmission could be operated in a linked manner. However, depending on the line section, there were cases where the same series and the same format were centrally arranged and operated in a unified organization.
Some of the cars that have been added after the inauguration of JR have adopted electric command brakes and close-fitting couplers, and their performance has improved to the same level as trains, but these cars cannot be combined with the cars of the JNR era. , The operation is distinguished from the conventional vehicle.
When the railway opened, some cars had a private room structure without a corridor, but from the Taisho era after the integration of private railways, cross-seat cars with a manual hinged door at the end of the car and a cabin partition (deck) were available. It has become the standard for third-class vehicles. Although there were cases where special trains were manufactured for limited express trains before the fixed trains, starting with the 20-series passenger cars, the second-class and third-class cars of the honor train and the ordinary train were basically the same. However, due to the nature of the honor trains, vehicles in good condition were always selected and used, so the latest models, renewal construction vehicles, etc. were preferentially used, and the vehicles for ordinary trains were replaced with successor vehicles. It was operated on older vehicles, including those for honor trains. As a result, there was a difference in riding comfort between the cars for superior trains and the cars for ordinary trains due to the difference in the type of seats and bogies.
There is a commuter type passenger car that is different from these standard passenger cars. The interior was remodeled into a long seat to accommodate the commuting and school transportation that was required even in the passenger car train operation line section.1963It was remodeled after (Showa 38).
In addition, as anomalous vehicles, war-damaged recovery vehicles that were provisionally used to deal with downgrade vehicles and shortage of vehicles after the end of the war.70 series passenger car[Note 24]There is.
The downgrade is an old-fashioned honor car as a third-class car (currentlyStandard-sized car) Has been downgraded. The downgrade of the honor car itself was carried out in response to the obsolescence and deterioration of the equipment inside the car, but the honor train was abolished due to the strengthening of the wartime system and the first class car (second class car in the third class era) was carried out in the 1960s. Many vehicles were downgraded under the XNUMXs. In the latter case, the seats were the same as in the first-class era, so they became so-called rideable vehicles, but they were remodeled and disappeared in a few years. As a similar example, the seats of the limited express era were sometimes left as they were in the case of the conversion of the limited express third class car (special express) to the ordinary train.
In addition, passenger cars before 10 series are sometimes called "general type passenger cars", "conventional type passenger cars", "old type passenger cars", but they were used in comparison with passenger cars after 20 series passenger cars. , Not a formal name in the regulations[Note 25].
It has been used for a long time since the mid-1970s, and its aging has become noticeable.Old passenger carSince 1977 for replacement of50 series passenger carWas manufactured and used mainly for AC electrified lines and non-electrified trunk lines. The old passenger car had a two-door cross seat with a deck, which made it difficult to commute to work, and there was also a problem with safety due to the manual door, so the 2 series was made automatic after expanding the door width. Although guest room partitions have been installed, semi-cross seats are used for the seating arrangement, and long seats are used near the doors to accommodate congestion.
The seating arrangement of semi-cross seats with long seats near the door has already been adopted by Maha 1940 and Suha 29 in the 36s as a measure against congestion, and in the 1960s, some 60 series passenger cars were remodeled into semi-cross seats. ing.
In addition, the 12-series express passenger car was also put into a regular train by making modifications such as "suburban remodeling" with semi-cross seats.
On the other hand, the replacement of passenger trains with trains and diesel trains is progressing, and regular trains by passenger cars will stop at each station on the Kagoshima Main Line in October 2001.Chikuho Main LineFinally, the rapid train was finally abolished in November 2002 in the "Strait".
In this way, ordinary passenger trains, which used to operate on most of the Japanese National Railways,Power distribution methodIt disappeared due to the transition to, and as of 2016, regular trains for passenger cars have not been set.
Use of express and express trains
Express vehicleWas originally used for ordinary trains as well as its progenitor general third-class passenger cars (current ordinary cars), but also for express trains.OperationThere were also cases where it was operated as a regular train in some sections. From the viewpoint of effectively utilizing surplus vehicles when the number decreases due to the abolition or reduction of express trainsDowngradeIt was used in the local line section in the form of. The express train was used until the endHokuriku Main LineWith the revision of the schedule on March 2015, 3, all cars were withdrawn from operation except for the two Kuha 14 type 413 series, which are organized with the 455 series..
Limited express vehicleWas not used for regular trains in principle because it was a special existence until the mid-1970s, but after the mid-1970s, regular trains were operated by limited express trains in some areas due to the upgrade of express trains. And trains that operate as ordinary trains in some sections are set,185 series,373 seriesVehicles that are supposed to be used for ordinary trains have also been introduced.
In some cases it was used in the form of a downgrade. As an example, on the Shikoku Railway Company (JR Shikoku)Kiha 185 seriesA downgraded modified car is used.in the pastJoban LineIwaki Station - Tomioka StationFor some regular trains in between651 seriesWas allocated, andShin-Etsu Main LineNagano Station - Naoetsu StationOrdinary train betweenMyokoBecause of the nature of the Shinkansen connecting trainReserved seat carIt is a limited express train from the viewpoint of setting183/189 seriesWas being used.
On private railways, unlike limited express trains and some express trains[Note 26], Basically other rolling stock (general rolling stock) is used, but private railways that operate excellent trains that do not require tolls may use rolling stock for excellent trains due to warehousing and delivery. In addition, if a vehicle that was a vehicle for an honor train leaves the operation of an honor train, it may be used for a regular train in the form of a downgrade, and some vehicles may be remodeled into a form similar to a commuter train. ..
As an exceptional example of using a dedicated vehicleHanshin Electric RailwayThen, on the main line, a dedicated vehicle with performance suitable for ordinary trains (Jet car) Is used. Long time agoKeihan Electric RailwayHowever, it is a dedicated vehicle with performance suitable for ordinary trains and section express trains.2000 seriesHad. As a similar case, Keio Teito Electric Railway (currentlyKeio Electric RailwayIn)Keio LineIn the system, each station stop was painted green for a long time2010 seriesPrevious vehicle (Green carWas used). This is because vehicles in good condition were used for express trains, and vehicles that were created by adding successor vehicles were used for local trains. It is also for its replacement7000 seriesUntil the timetable revision in March 2001 changed the operation policy of the vehicle, it was supposed to be a vehicle used for local train operation, but unlike Hanshin, in terms of performance6000 seriesThere was no big difference.Tokyu Toyoko LineAlso in8000 series 8090 seriesAfter the introduction, it was operated exclusively for local trains for a long time, but the express and limited express operations have been revived by the timetable revision in March 2001, and it will be used without restrictions until the total abolition in 13. It was. Since March 3, the number of cars is limited to 2007-car trains due to the effective length of the platform at each station.
On the other hand, there are private railways for which the types of trains used for honor trains and ordinary trains are not specified.Toyama regional railwayIn, two-door conversion cross-seat cars and rotating cross-seat cars are used in consideration of the fact that they are tourist routes and excellent trains, but there is no clear classification. However, as a general rule, the 2 type long-seat car is not used for limited express operation..Nagoya RailwayHowever, until 1975, 2-door conversion cross-seat cars were introduced on the premise of seated commuting and use for superior trains, and although the series used was not limited to each type, only the latest trains were limited express trains. There was no concept of use classification such as "limited express" and "general" because it was gradually used for ordinary trains as the number of successor cars was increased.[Note 27]But,1975Introduced a full-scale commuter vehicle in (50),1984(Showa 59)8800 seriesDue to the introduction of limited express trains with reserved seats such as (Panorama DX) and changes in limited express measures, the usage is divided, and if the formation including the reserved seat vehicles is now in normal operation, the reserved seat vehicles will be treated as a deadline.
Train type equivalent to a regular train outside Japan
It is difficult to unequivocally apply Japanese train types to trains outside Japan. Some countries have different fare systems for each train type due to differences in express delivery and customer service facilities, and some trains do not fall under the Japanese train type. Still, the types with cheap fares andStop at each stationThere is a tendency to treat the type of train as a train similar to Japanese ordinary trains.
Taiwan OfTaiwan Railway Management Bureau(Taiwan)Ordinary carとLocal trains / local trainsIs the type equivalent to a regular train. Local trains and local trains are local trains, and local trains are rapid trains. Taiwan Railways uses a different fare system for each train type, but for regular carsAir conditioningWithoutRailway car(Non-air-conditioned cars), because the section cars use air-conditioned cars, there is a difference in fare between the regular cars and the section cars / section cars. These trains are called non-paired trains and all seats areUnreserved seatIt has become. For trains that use the same fare as local trains and local trainsRevival issueThere is a pair train (all seats)Reserved seat(Train)Honor trainIs treated as.
Korea Railway Corporation(KORAIL, oldRailway Agency) Of the routesWide area electric railwayIn the section, a slow train is operated as a train equivalent to a Japanese short-distance train, and it has 4 doors.Long seat OfCommuter type vehicleIs used.Ticket gateAlso electric railways and other routes (High-speed line・ It is divided by (general route).
On the other hand, on general routes2014From May except for a few sectionsHonor trainIt is only operated. Once nationwidePidurgi-TonilWas operated as a type equivalent to a regular train, but both2004It was completely abolished by March. After that, in the suburbs of local citiesCommuter trainHowever, it is an excellent train on other routes.MugunghwaIs in effect responsible for regional transportation. However, commuter trains will be closed in multiple sections by the end of April 2014 due to the end of operation due to a decrease in demand and replacement with other train types, and from May 4.2019Until the end of MarchGyeongwon LineEnd section of2020After MayGwangju内 のGwangju LineIt is operated only by. In addition, the Mugunghwa-ho did not stop at all stations, and became a de facto stop station where all trains passed.stationNot a few.
Since the former Korean National Railroad and KORAIL have set different fare systems for each train type, changing the train type from Pidurgi, Tonil, and commuter trains to Mugunghwa is a de facto increase in fare.
China Railway CompanyIn the operation route ofと, And commuter trains correspond to ordinary trains. Among them, the passenger trainStop at each stationTo do. Eilzug trainLong-distance trainでSleeper,Dining carIs also connected. The fare is graded according to the hardness of the seat, and an additional fee will be charged depending on the presence or absence of air conditioning. In addition, it is operated in ChinaIs JapaneseExpress train,What is JapanLimited express trainEquivalent toHonor trainIs the type of.
Indonesia OfKRL JabotabeckThen,2013UntilAir conditioningThere was a difference in fares depending on the presence or absence of equipment. However, the fare was unified because all trains were equipped with air conditioners.
Other Southeast Asia
Railroads in Southeast Asian countries have a fare system, and trains with lower grades are regarded as ordinary trains. On lower trains, woodenseatVehicles without air conditioning are used.
EuropeRegular trains in each country have been around for a long timePassenger carIs the mainLocomotiveThere are also passenger cars with cabs that do not require replacement. But on the other handPower distribution methodSome countries are shifting to trains. Vehicle2-story vehicleIs the mainstream, and both commuting transportation and suburban transportation are compatible.
- ^ It is in the black in the Kotsu Shimbun "JR Timetable".
- ^ On the free ticket page of the timetable, for free tickets for regular trains, please refer to "You can get on and off the non-reserved seats of ordinary cars on rapid and ordinary trains in the free area.Is guided.
- ^ On the other hand, express tickets and special express tickets required for boarding express trains and special express trains are generally not allowed to be used in combination with commuter passes, and are more than regular train reserved-seat tickets and home liner seating numbered tickets. It is expensive.
- ^ MoreHonor train #private railwaySee.
- ^ From March 2016, 3 to March 26, 2018, the transit station was operated as a rapid train. Until March 3, 16, it passed through Karibasawa Station instead of Chibiki Station.(PDF) --Aoimori Railway
- ^ The relevant train was changed to a regular train by the timetable revision on March 2018, 3.
- ^ At that time, only ordinary trains were in operation.
- ^ See the articles at each station for details.
- ^ Opened to become a passenger train by a local petition for a train running on a forwarding line to a depot.
- ^ Opened as a route to Gala Yuzawa Ski Resort by an in-car project of JR East employees.
- ^ National Shinkansen Railway Maintenance LawBecause it deviates from the definition of.
- ^ Officially, this section isTokyo Skytree Station --It is treated as an increase in the number of lines between Hikifune Station. Tokyo Sky Tree-"Normal" is set between the towing boats.
- ^ However, in parallelHokuso RailwayHokuso Line(Keisei Takasago Station- Inba Nippon Medical School StationBetween) andMain line(Some trains between Airport Terminal 2 Station and Narita Airport Station) operate "normal".
- ^ At Nagoya Railroad, unreserved cars that do not require tolls are called "general cars"..
- ^ On the Kintetsu Railway, "local trains" are called "local trains" within the jurisdiction of the Osaka Transportation Control Department, and within the jurisdiction of the Nagoya Transportation Control Department.
- ^ Seibu RailwayRenamed the train type to "local"Revised June 2008, 6After that, it was "normal" like Tobu before that. Before this revision, the Ikebukuro Line direct train from Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line was the first train.Shinkiba Station-New Line Ikebukuro Station(Currently Ikebukuro Station on the Fukutoshin Line) was guided by type within the Ikebukuro Line, but with this revision, semi-express trains on the Metro Yurakucho Line and express / commuter express trains on the Fukutoshin Line have been set to distinguish them from the trains concerned. Therefore, even if the train is bound for the Ikebukuro Line, the type will be changed at Kotake Mukaihara Station. After that, the semi-express train on the Metro Yurakucho Line is now abolished.
- ^ With TobuTokyo Metro OfBorder stationIsWakoshi StationNow, switch the display of "normal" and "local". This is also Tobu (Isesaki Line・ Tobu Sky Tree Line) and Tokyo Metro (Hibiya Line) Boundary stationKitasenju StationBut the same is true.
- ^ Even within the Kosei Line, there is one round trip a day that runs between Kyoto Station and Omi Maiko Station and displays "Rapid", and only this train will be a special rapid service from Yamashina Station (from Osaka Station to Kyoto Station). ..
- ^ At Yasu Station and Himeji Station, there are trains that switch between special rapid service and ordinary trains.
- ^ Lower cars during the railway's founding period, second-class cars with the implementation of the second-class system from 1960 (Showa 35), and ordinary cars with the abolition of the grade system in 1969 (Showa 44).
- ^ However, it is hard to say that Kiha 10 series and 20 series diesel railcars have narrow entrances and exits and are suitable for commuting, and suburban diesel railcars have been developed as a solution. In addition, some of the types that are actually classified as general types are equipped with cabin partitions, such as the 50 series passenger cars and the Kiha 48 type diesel railcars.
- ^ However, the 817 series was later manufactured as a long-seat car.
- ^ The exception is the Ohani 63 series (later the Ohani 36 series).
- ^ Due to poor customer service facilities, it was quickly converted into luggage cars and business cars as the original passenger cars were added or replaced.
- ^ Seiichi OkadaExplains that (at the time of the time when the old passenger cars were manufactured) it was not explicitly called the express type, general type, etc. in the formal sense..
- ^ Due to the nature of vehicles for excellent trains (especially limited express trains), comfort and express delivery are emphasized, and vehicles with dedicated equipment and performance will be introduced..
- ^ 1982After (57), a white belt was added.7000 series / 7700 seriesOnly (commonly known as "white belt car") was allocated to the limited express train.
- ^ a b Electric Vehicle Study GroupRailway pictorial] No.844 p.11
- ^ usually? Local train? Each company is disjointed, too complicated train type --Yomiuri Shimbun. Published at 2018:12 on December 22, 7, viewed on January 2019, 1.
- ^ For example, JR East Passenger Business RegulationsTravel Regulations Article 3 (5), JR East
- ^ JTB Publishing "JTB Timetable" March 2013 issue p.3-1015
- ^ As an example,December 12 (Sat) Hokuso Line timetable revision - Hokuso Railway 2015/10/22
- ^ In the timetable, it is indicated by a check mark indicating passage.
- ^ Umeda Station, published in "Timetable of Transportation Corporation Convenient for Traveling from Keihanshin", Spring 1955, Nihon Kotsu Corporation Kansai Branch, p.48-49Keihanshin Kyoto Station・ Each timetable of Tenjinbashi Station
- ^ Tokyodo Publishing Jun Umehara "Mysteries and Wonders of Railways and Vehicles" p.117-118
- ^ (PDF) --JR East Akita Branch, released on December 2017, 12
- ^ (PDF) --JR East Akita Branch, released on December 2018, 11
- ^ (PDF) --JR East Akita Branch, released on December 2016, 11
- ^ (PDF) --Shikoku Railway Company, December 2013, 12
- ^ Naruto Line timetable --JR Shikoku Homepage
- ^ (PDF) --Aoimori Railway ・ December 2017, 12
- ^ (PDF) --Aoimori Railway
- ^ Tsugaru Railway Timetable --Tsugaru Railway Homepage
- ^ However, during the "Winter Rice Field Art" period in mid-February, trains other than early morning will stop.Winter Rice Field Art 2019 will stop at Rice Field Art Station 02 / 08-11 (Konan Railway: Konan Line) --Konan Railway
- ^ Tokyodo Publishing Jun Umehara "Mysteries and Wonders of Railways and Vehicles" p.110-116
- ^ Reference material ː Published by Kotsu Publishing Co., Ltd. March 1964 issue Tohoku Main Line page of large timetable.
- ^ 日本交通公社1982年9月号・1986年11月号・1987年12月号の大型時刻表及び弘済出版社発行JR時刻表（大型）1991年2月号のそれぞれ東北本線(上り)のページから。なお、先述の通り、2021年3月13日から、千曳駅では、青森発八戸行First trainPasses.
- ^ From the pages of the Tsugaru Line in the September 1982, November 9, and December 1986 issues of the Japan Transportation Corporation and the JR timetable (large) published by Kosai Publishing Co., Ltd. in February 11.
- ^ Passenger trains directly connected to the Oga Line (normally north of Akita)ExtraordinaryNocturnalExpress train(Excluding "Oga")RailcarAll regular trains were stopped.
- ^ It was abolished by the timetable revision in March 2016Yamada LineOshida Station-Asagishi StationFor the same reason, all trains passed during the winter. The description of winter passage is from page 2015 of the appendix of the December 12 issue of the small national timetable published by Kotsu Shimbunsha.
- ^ (PDF) --JR East Sendai Branch, released on December 2016, 12
- ^ (PDF) --JR East News ・ Released on January 2021, 1
- ^ "JR Timetable published by Kotsu Publishing Co., Ltd. (currently Kotsu Shimbunsha) February 1991 issue" pp. 2-618 "Uetsu Main Line / Hakushin Line" page.
- ^ "Timetable of December 1987 issued by Nihon Kotsu Kogyo (currently JTB)" pp. 12-470 "Uetsu Main Line" and "Hakushin Line"
- ^ 『日本交通公社発行1982年9月号時刻表』284頁～286頁(下り)と287頁～289頁(上り)の信越本線の項及び同公社発行『1986年12月号時刻表』402頁～405頁(下り)と406頁～409頁(上り)の信越本線の項から。
- ^ (PDF) --West Japan Railway Company Fukuchiyama Branch
- ^ "(PDF)”. Tobu Railway (February 2017, 2). 2017/7/23Browse.
- ^ "The timetable will be revised on Saturday, June 2020, 6! Tobu Sky Tree Line, Isesaki Line, Nikko Line, Tobu Urban Park Line [Limited Express Train, TH Liner, SL Taiki Outline Determined]" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), Tobu Railway, (February 2020, 2), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 6. 2020/6/9Browse.
- ^ Takashi Tsuru, "High Standard Third Sector Railway Hokuetsu Express Hokuhoku Line Real Face", "Railway Journal" No. 368, Railway Journal, June 1997, p.6
- ^ Of the stations in the same section, Minami-Kusatsu Station was not open at that time.
- ^ In the timetable of the station, the train is displayed as via Fujishiro instead of via Insan, and in the timetable on the market, it is indicated by ||, which indicates that the train does not pass, rather than the passage.
- ^ JTB Publishing "JTB Timetable" March 2013 issue p.3
- ^ "Encyclopedia for reading, knowing, and enjoying the Shinkansen" Nihon Jitsugyo Publishing Co., Ltd. 2005 p.337
- ^ Kotsu Shimbun, an unknown temporary station
- ^ JTB Publishing "JTB Timetable" March 2013 issue p.3
- ^ What are special cars and general cars? -Nagoya Railway
- ^ Tokyodo Publishing Kazumi Tanigawa "Mystery and Wonders of Ordinary Trains" p.10-11
- ^ Sogensha Hideki Shozawa "Basic Knowledge of Railways" p.104-105
- ^ Railroad Trivia (282) Why are both "normal" and "local" running on Nankai Electric Railway? -Mynavi news
- ^ Icarus Publishing"J-Train" Vol25 p.48-49
- ^ "Airport NaritaThe train formation itself was common to the Yokosuka Line and Sobu Rapid Line, so some cars had unreserved seats for Green Cars, but there were no reserved seats.
- ^ "JNR Yellow Damage, Serious To Prevent Circulation Toilet First, Tokaido Line Express, etc." Asahi Shimbun, October 44, 1969, morning edition, 10th edition, page 28.
- ^ Cat publishing"JR All Vehicles Handbook 2009" p.15
- ^ (PDF) -East Japan Railway
- ^ Ikaros Publishing "E231 / E233 Hyper Detail" p.108
- ^ Koyusha "Railway Fan" No.539 p.36
- ^ Railroad Journal "Railway Journal" No.403 p.72
- ^ Railroad Journal "Railway Journal" No.492 p.33
- ^ Railroad Journal "Railway Journal" No.517 p.46
- ^ Railroad Journal "Railway Journal" No.547 p.22
- ^ JR East: Vehicle picture book> Conventional line 107 series
- ^ JR East: Vehicle picture book> Conventional line 701 series
- ^ JR East: Vehicle picture book> Conventional line E127 series
- ^ Electric Vehicle Study Group "Railway Pictorial" No.844 p.49
- ^ Electric Vehicle Study Group "Railway Pictorial" No.883 p.60
- ^ (PDF) --Hokkaido Railway Company
- ^ Rapid Airport (721 series, 733 series) | Vehicle introduction | JR Hokkaido Train Guide --Hokkaido Railway Company
- ^ JTB Publishing Yukitaka Ishii "Kiha 47 Story" p. 36 --37
- ^ Koyusha "Railway Fan" No.413 p. 50
- ^ JTB Publishing Seiichi Okada "JNR Passenger Car I" p. 239
- ^ Neko Publishing "Rail Magazine" No.336 p. 9
- ^ Series 475 retires from Hokuriku Main Line --railf.jp
- ^ PHP Institute Jun Umehara "Trivia 3-minute visual illustration series All about limited express trains" p. 78
- ^ Toyama Chihō Railway's all-stainless steel car will start operation from November 11rd ... Flower train will be extended --Response
- Tokyodo Publishing
- JTB publishing"JTB Timetable" issues
- Kotsu Shimbun"JR timetable" each issue
- Icarus Publishing"JR Ordinary Train Yearbook"
- Sogensha Hideki Shozawa "Basic knowledge of railways"ISBN 9784422240671
- Electric Vehicle Study Group"Railway pictorial』No.844 Special feature: Regular train