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✈ | [Indonesia] Domestic airlines carry out free corona antigen test [Transportation]

Photo Garuda Indonesia will carry out a free antigen test campaign for domestic passengers during March (from the company's website)

[Indonesia] Domestic airlines carry out free corona antigen test [Transportation]

If you write the contents roughly
Passengers who purchased tickets from Garuda Indonesia's official website, mobile app, reservation center, and directly managed stores from March 3 to 2 are eligible.

Indonesia's state-owned Garuda Indonesia will test the antigen of the new coronavirus for domestic passengers on the XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

 NNA Asian Economic News

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Airline ticket

Airline ticketWhat is (Kouken)?Passenger planeOf boarding passes issued in connection with the carriage of passengers and their baggage[1].. Tickets include passenger tickets and baggage tickets[1].


Airline tickets to airlinersBoardingNecessary when doingticket(Of land transportationticketIs equivalent to)AirlinesBetween passengers and passengersShipping contractDocumentary evidence of[2].. The name of the person boarding, the flight segment, flight number, seat class, applicable fare amount, validity period, etc. are stated on the ticket. An airline ticket for connecting two or more airlines is called a joint transportation ticket.[2].

There are domestic tickets and international tickets, but international tickets areWarsaw ConventionAnd restrictions due to the Montreal Agreement[2].. In the case of passenger transportation tickets that are subject to the Warsaw Convention, it is necessary for the treaty to state the origin and destination, the place and date of issue, the planned place of departure, the name of the carrier and the passenger, and the contents of the carriage.[1].. In addition, an excerpt from the International Travel Conditions of Carriage must be included in the international ticket.[2].. On the other hand, domestic airline tickets are simpler than international airline tickets due to the restrictions of domestic law.[2].. A supplementary ticket may be used to enter the segment fare each time it is transported in a segment with fewer flights and fewer passengers.[2].

All seatsReserved seatDue to the characteristics of the aircraft (or non-reserved seats), the ticket should beBoarding procedureDoboarding passNeed to change to.

Check-in procedures for international flights arepassportAt the same time confirm the destination if necessaryCountry OfvisaCheck[3].. Although passports and visas are checked by the government and airlines do not have the right to examine them, they are checked by the airlines in order to prevent troubles with immigration procedures. The company will be fined[3].

Seat selection is performed after checking the airline ticket, but seat selection is important from the perspective of operational safety, such as preventing uneven loading.[4].. After seat selection, airline will issue boarding pass in exchange for flight coupon of ticket[4].. In the boarding pass, in addition to the items listed on the airline ticket, the seat number, boarding gate number, etc. are described. The domestic flight ticket is a combination of the flight ticket and the boarding pass.

Airline tickets and boarding passes are often confused because the words are similar, and recently there are also integrated types, but airline tickets in English are also called Air Tickets (Airline Tickets, Passenger Tickets) Is a security that represents the right to obtain the service of. In contrast, the boarding pass boarding pass It's a boarding pass.

Characteristics of airline tickets

TrainAs a general rule, unlike tickets for land transportation such as buses and busesSigning ceremonyAnd (for corporationsTicket Book(Some of them are anonymous) and cannot be used or changed by anyone other than the person listed on the ticket. In principle, it is not possible to change to a section other than the one described. If you have more than one ticket in one itinerary, you must use them in order and use them backwards (for example, using a ticket from "Tokyo to Osaka" for flights from "Osaka to Tokyo") Can not. However, in the case of a business ticket or a corporate ticket that has a ticket with a fare that can be changed to the reverse section or the reservation can be changedMulti airportExceptions are permitted in some cases, such as changing the departure and arrival airports within the set city. Tickets improperly obtained at online auctions (tickets obtained by the holder other than the person himself/herself or due to a fraudulent act with a credit card) are refused to board and cannot be refunded.[5].

Many airlines apply the rule that if one of multiple sections of the same itinerary is not boarded (), not only that section but all the remaining sections are invalid (Southwest AirlinesIs an exception, the return trip is valid even if you abandon the outbound round trip ticket). Whether or not the fare for the invalidated section is refunded depends on the ticket class (below).

In general, airline tickets to which a normal fare is applied have a purchase deadline, place of sale, valid period and valid flights, range of seats that can be selected (designated), number of sold seats, priority handling when vacant seats (waiting for cancellation), reservation change and refund ( Cancellation), when there are vacant senior seatsDouble booking(Double sales of the same seat)Involuntary upgradeAlthough the degree of freedom and preferential treatment regarding usage conditions is high, the degree of freedom of an airline ticket to which a discount fare is applied decreases in proportion to the degree of discount.

For example,United airlinesIn the case of, first class with no restrictions on changes and refunds,MileageIt is subdivided into 28 classes including privilege tickets,Economy classThere are no restrictions on changes or refunds, from "first stage" to "13th stage" for cheap group tickets that cannot be changed or refunded (travel companies only, not generally sold).[6].

Type of ticket

Domestic and international tickets

There are domestic tickets and international tickets, and international tickets areWarsaw ConventionAnd international treaties such as the Montreal Agreement[2].

Classification by type of air travel

The types of air travel for determining fares are mainly classified into the following five types.

One Way (OW)
Round Trip (RT)
In this case, the round trip means that the fare amount on the outward route and the return route are the same, and the routes are not always the same.
Circle Trip, CT
The lap in this case refers to the case where the fare on the outbound route and the fare on the inbound route are different.
Open jaw (Open Jaw, OJ)
In round-trip or round trip, it refers to a trip in which either or both of the departure place and the arrival place are different.
Round The World Trip, RTW
大西洋The Pacific OceanA trip that goes back to the place of departure either eastward or westward. A dedicated air fare is set. For more informationRound the World Ticketchecking ...

Purchasing an air ticket

Air ticket issuance

Airline tickets other than airlinesTravel clubBut tickets are issued. Where it was issued is printed on the face of the ticket. In case of normal fare, it is not always necessary to reserve a flight for purchase (open ticket can be issued), but for most discount tickets, a round trip flight must be booked before purchase (round trip FIX Obligation).

Ticketing at a travel agency is performed at a travel agency that has an agency contract with an airline for domestic flights. For international flights, the number of airlines and travel agencies is huge, soInternational Air Transport Association By (IATA) BSP (Billing Settlement Plan) "Bank centralized payment method" called.

In Japan,BSP JAPAN Airline tickets that are members of BSP JAPAN Tickets issued by a travel agency certified byMizuho BankThrough. This travel agency is called an IATA authorized agency.

In addition, some airlines outside JapanBSP JAPAN There are also cases where a ticket is outsourced by contracting directly with a Japanese travel agency without passing through. Both domestic and international flights are contracted and approved by designating stores, so even the same travel agency may or may not issue air tickets.

In recent years, with the spread of the Internet reservation system, ATB tickets are issued at the time of check-in at the airport described later, andElectronic ticketHas been switched toTravel agencySo paper tickets are gone.

When using Japan domestic flights,Travel agency,AirlinesMost of the time, you could check the seat availability and buy an airline ticket at a sales office in Japan.2002 From aroundAirlines OfWebsiteAtインターネットReservations and payments are beginning to be expanded, and in this case, it is possible to use a "ticketless service" in which no air ticket is issued.

*Payment method in this case is partlyExpress BusSimilarly, pay the fare at the convenience store after booking, and use the certificate printed at the cashier as a substitute for the airline ticket,Credit cardIf you choose to pay, enter your reservation number at the airport counter or check-in machine on the day of boarding, or insert the credit card you used at the time of reservation/purchase into the check-in machine to board the airline ticket Often takes the form of receiving a ticket. It is a good idea to print the reservation screen just in case.

In the past, international airline tickets from Japan were mainly purchased at travel agencies and airline sales offices, but recently airlines, including major airlines, have been focusing on selling ticketless services for online reservations. Before the introduction of the ticketing fee, etc., the fee was set to be a little cheaper. Ticketless discount for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines2007 May 9It was finished after the boarding and was abolished. It was applied to most fares that could be booked on the website, and even the discounted fares had an additional 2% discount applied.

Ticketing fees, etc.

In recent years, an increasing number of airlines collect ticketing fees when making reservations, changes, ticketing, etc. through manned channels such as airline city counters, airport counters, and call centers. in Japan,Japan Airlines, ANA earns a ticketing fee for international passengers when booking through the above (free for domestic flights). Even if it’s a domestic flight in Japan,Cheap airlineIn this case, reservation fees, payment fees, seat reservation fees, etc. are often collected. Many airlines around the world also collect fees.

Also, after abolishing the sales fees paid by airlines to travel agencies (zero commission), many companies also collect the ticketing fees specified by the travel agencies when they make reservations and issue tickets.


When purchasing an air ticket, in addition to the air fare (except for free tickets and award tickets),consumption taxAnd immigration taxtaxPay. Also,Airport fee(Passenger service facility feeAnd so on), air insurance premiums, and special fuel surcharges (fuel surcharge) Or special aviation insurance charges may be required. However, taxes and fees are often incorporated into airfares.

For domestic flights in Japan, in addition to airfare,Tokyo International Airport(Haneda)[7],Chubu International Airport[8],Kitakyushu Airport[9]For flightsPassenger facility fee orPassenger handling facility usage fee (PFC / Passenger Facility Charge)Narita International Airport[10],KIXTerminal 2[11]For flightsPassenger service facility fee (PSFC / Passenger Service Facility Charge) is required (except for free tickets and award tickets). Japanese domestic airfares include consumption tax,Osaka International AirportOf (Itami)JetFlightsSpecial landing feeIs included.Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA)2011 May 9Boarding minutes[12]More than airfareFuel special surcharge(Fuel surcharge) is required separately.American terrorist attacksUnder the influence of2001 May 11From domestic flights introduced by major Japanese airlinesFlight insurance special charges The2006 May 10It was abolished from boarding, and the equivalent amount was incorporated into the airfare.

Ticket validity

Validity period of ticket

The contents of the ticket will be validated by the validating stamp of the ticketing airline or its agent.[13].

For regular fare tickets, if there is no reservation for domestic flights in Japan, the expiration date is 90 days from the day after the ticket issuance. However, when discounted fares such as "early discount" and "special flights" are applied due to the liberalization of air fares, only that flight/seat will be valid.

In addition, the international fare ticket for international flights is valid for one year starting from the day after the ticket issuance in the case of ticketing without reservation (OPEN ticketing), but this also applies to the flight or seat when applying the discounted fare. It is valid only for a limited time, and the minimum and maximum number of days required for travel may be set. Some group and round-trip tickets may be valid for months or weeks[13].

Most cheap flights change bookings andStopover(Stopover. Stay in a city other than your destination for at least 24 hours),Open jaw(There are restrictions on one or both of the starting point and the arriving point)

For cheaper tickets,Direct flightsIt has been used for a while (when traveling from Japan to Europe,Seoul,Hong Kong,MoscowFor example, it takes more time than a normal direct flight, and the waiting time for transit may be extremely long.

Changes, etc.

The following are general treatments by airlines when they are caused by personal circumstances other than illness. If you booked/issued tickets at a travel agency,Travel agentas well as the Travel agent agentDetermined byClauseMay follow. Also bad weatherVolcanoeruption-EarthquakeIn case of force majeure or due to airline such as equipment failure, etc., the handling is different from the following, and it is often handled on a case-by-case basis.In this case, the airline that purchased the ticket or I would like to contact a travel agency (Example:Traffic paralysis due to eruption of Aiyafiyatra York in 2010,Boeing 787 battery problem,Flex traveler systemSuch).


There are fare that can change reservation and fare that cannot change reservation. Even if the fare can change the reservationBooking change fee,Exchange issue feeMay be required. In addition, some airline tickets allow you to change the reservation only for the return flight even if you cannot change the reservation for the outbound flight.

For domestic flights of major Japanese airlines, you can change your reservation as often as you like before the departure time of the flight you plan to fly, as long as you have a ticket with a changeable reservation, and cancel your reservation (open ticket) You can also However, if the fare is different from the next flight, you will need to adjust the difference, additional charges will be collected for the shortfall, and excess will be refunded, and the PFC will be treated in the same way. As mentioned above, the name of an airline ticket cannot be changed, and some sectors cannot be changed. In addition, even if the ticket has a fare that cannot be changed, there are some tickets that can be changed only if there is a vacant seat at the departure airport before the reserved flight on the day of boarding.


When refunding, on domestic flights of major Japanese airlinesCancellation feeRefund chargeThe remaining amount deducted will be refunded. For international tickets, if you only charge the cancellation fee or refund fee, whichever is higher, or if it is a combined fee, some tickets cannot be refunded, so please check the refund rules for each fare. I want to make a wish. Also some cheap airlinesMiles-Point,CouponThere are also airlines that offer refunds with in-kind benefits.

The refund fee for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines is 400 yen + consumption tax. HoweverFuji Dream Airlines,Hokkaido Air SystemThere is no refund fee.

Cancellation fees for domestic flights of major Japanese airlines are not refundable by the departure time of the booked flight, but not after refunding the ticket purchased with a fare with a changeable reservation (normal fare, round-trip discount, etc.) Will incur a prescribed cancellation fee. In addition, in the case of refunding a ticket purchased with a fare that cannot be rebooked, cancellation charges are often incurred both before and after the departure time, even if the fare is the same for different airlines these days. Increasing numbers of cases have completely different refund policies.

Credit cardIf you purchase an airline ticket in, you will be refunded through the credit card company, but other than that, it depends on the airline's regulations, the place of payment, and the payment method.accountTransferIn many cases, refunds can only be made at the airline's airport counter or branch. In many cases, refund costs such as transfer fees and transportation expenses are to be borne by the user. In addition, such as travel ticketsgift cardDepending on the payment method, refund may not be possible.

Please note that the refund period is often predetermined.Japanese yenEven if you bought the ticket atUnited States dollar,Localcurrency, The airline is registeredCountryIt may be refunded in the currency of.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Yoshikata Yamanobe"Aviation Industry" Education Company, 1977, p. 265.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 71.
  3. ^ a b Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 90.
  4. ^ a b Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 91.
  5. ^ Please be careful about fraudulent ticket salesJapan Airlines August 2018, 8
  6. ^ United Airlines Fare Chart
  7. ^ Changes to domestic terminal passenger handling facility usage charges - Japan Airport Building
  8. ^ Passenger facility fee - Chubu International Airport (company)
  9. ^ Passenger handling facility usage fee - Kitakyushu Air Terminal
  10. ^ Passenger service facility fee (PSFC)/Security service facility fee (PSSC) - Narita International Airport (company)
  11. ^ Passenger Service Facility Charge (PSFC)/Passenger Security Service Charge (PSSC) - New Kansai International Airport
  12. ^ About setting of special fuel surcharge (PDF) - Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA) Announcements/Press Releases 2011 May 6
  13. ^ a b Kawaguchi Mitsuru "Airline Introductory Revised Edition" Japan Airlines Association, 1983, p. 73.

Related item

Mobile application

Mobile application(English: Mobile application) IsSmartphone,Tablet computer, OtherMobile terminalDesigned and manufactured to work withApplication software(Computer programone of).

"Mobile app""Smartphone appOr simply "AppsIs often abbreviated.


2008 Has appeared fromApp Store,Google Play,(English edition,BlackBerry App WorldBasically likeMobile operating systemApplication distribution operated by the manufacturerplatformIt is common to use through.

PaySome are delivered atFreeDelivered by (depending on the softwareBillingSome applications are (some do).Generally from the platformiPhone,BlackBerry,AndroidTerminal,Windows PhoneDownload to the target terminal, butLaptop(laptop) AndDesktop computerThere are also applications that can be downloaded.

Generally, about 30% of the application price is the distributor (in the name of "commission" etc.iTunesEtc.), and the rest is distributed to the application author[1]..Depending on the average number of smartphone users, the price of the same application may differ on devices such as iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry 10.

"App" (up) Is the term "Application software(WhatsappIt is an abbreviation of "lication software)", and it is a well-established word that is often used.(English edition The2010 To this termWord of the Year(Word of the Year, This year's words)[2].. In 2009, a technical columnist(English editionNames newer smartphones "app phones" to distinguish them from early, unsophisticated smartphones.[3].

Early mobile applications電子 メ ー ル,カレンダー,Contact Information,Stock priceinformation,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIn generalProductivityAnd applications for information retrieval were provided, but due to the expansion of user demand and the development of development tool functions,desktopOther categories of applications provided in application software packages for applications are now available.With the increasing number and types of applications, a wide range of reviews and recommendations,Blog,magazine, Dedicated online application information serviceCurationSources have emerged and application exploration has evolved. In 2014, government regulators began attempts to regulate and curate applications, especially medical applications.[4].

The use of mobile applications continues to evolve and continues to grow among mobile phone users.[5].. April 2012,Com scoreIn the last quarter, 51.1% and 49.8% of mobile users used the application and viewed it in a browser, respectively, according to a study by[6]..Researchers also found that mobile application usage is strongly related to the environment and dependence of users' location and time.[7].

Market research companyGartnerAccording to the company, the number of application downloads in 2013 was 102 billion (91% of which are free applications), and sales also increased 2012% from $ 18 billion in 44 to $ 26 billion.[8]..In addition, some analysts have announced that the growth of the application market has led to application sales in the European Union exceeding € 10 billion, creating 28 jobs in 529,000 European Union countries.[9].

development of

When developing a mobile terminal compatible application, it is necessary to consider the restrictions and characteristics of the compatible terminals.A battery is essential for the operation of mobile terminals, and it is installed.ProcessorIs less powerful than the one for desktop computers, but it has position detection and camera functions.Developers also have to make trial and error in a fiercely competitive environment between screen size, hardware specifications, and mobile software, and have to change specifications for each platform.

In addition, specialized in mobile application developmentIntegrated development environmentMust be used.The first test isemulatorPerform in a development environment using, and then perform a field test.Emulators are an inexpensive way to test your application on your mobile phone and don't require developer physical access[10].

Mobile as part of the development processUser interface(UI) design is also very important for the production of mobile applications.The mobile UI must consider constraints, environment, screen, input, and mobility as an overview of the design.Users are often the key to interacting with the device, and the interface involves both software and hardware components.The user is typing to operate the system, and the display on the terminal allows the system to point to the user's operation results.The mobile UI is limited by limited attention and form factors, such as the screen size of the mobile device that fits the user's hand.The mobile UI context also signals cues from user activities such as location and scheduling that users can see from interactions within the mobile application.Overall, the goal of the mobile UI is primarily a straightforward and user-friendly interface.

Mobile UIs and frontends rely on mobile backends to support access to enterprise systems, which facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, offline work, and service orchestration. There is.This featureMobile application server, (MBaaS),SOAIncluding infrastructureMiddlewareIt corresponds by mixing components.

配 信

Application storeThe two biggest players are Google Play for Android and App Store for iOS.

Google Play

Google Play (formerly known as Android Market) is a worldwide online software store that supports Android devices and is handled by Google. Started in October 2008[11].

App Store

ApplebyiOS対応のApp Storeは2008年7月10日にスタート、2011年1月時点でダウンロード数が10億を突破した。同年6月6日時点で425,000本のアプリケーション数があり、約2億人のiOSユーザーがダウンロードした[12][13]..2012 by AppleWorldwide Developers ConferenceTim Cook said that not only were 650,000 applications available for download on the App Store, but surprisingly 30 billion applications had been downloaded by this date.[14].

Amazon Appstore

Amazon Appstore is one of the application stores compatible with the Android operating system and opened in March 1 with 2011 applications.[15].. The Android application on the Amazon Appstore is also compatible with Blackberry 10 devices.

blackberry world

What is BlackBerry WorldBlackBerry 10BlackBerry OSに対応したアプリケーションストアで、2009年4月にBlackBerry App Worldとしてスタート、2011年2月時点でアプリ1本あたりの最大売上はアップルの6,480.00ドル、Android市場における1,200ドルよりも多い9,166.67ドルである。2011年7月、1日のダウンロード数が300万、総数で1億ダウンロードとそれぞれ突破している[16].. As of May 2013, more than 5 applications are available, but BlackBerry 120,000 also supports Android applications.

Nokia Store

Nokiaのアプリケーションストアは2009年5月から全世界向けに開始された。2011年4月時点で、5万本配信されていて、8月時点で1日900万ダウンロードされていると発表した。2011年2月、Windows PhoneAnnounced that it will be supported as the main OS[17].. To rebrand the Ovi product line to the Nokia brand in May and October 2011[18]Announces Plans to Rename Ovi Store to Nokia Store[19].. The Nokia Store supports past products as a distribution platform, but in January 2014, new distribution and updates of applications compatible with the old Symbian and MeeGo have ended.[20].

Windows Phone Store

What is Windows Phone Store?MicrosoftStarted in October 2010 on a platform compatible with Windows Phone by, October 10 (2012-10 )NowOver 120,000 applications available[21].

Windows store

What is the Windows Store by MicrosoftWindows 8/Windows 10RT WindowsIt is a platform that supports Windows 8 and also supports conventional desktop programs that have been certified as compatible with Windows XNUMX, but it mainly distributes applications compatible with tablets and other touch panel terminals, but it is still For desktop computers and laptopsKeyboard,mouseBut applications that can be used are also distributed[22][23]).

Samsung Apps Store

SamsungAn application store compatible with handset-made terminals started in September 2009[24]As of October 2011, the number of downloads exceeded 10 million, and currently in 1,000 countries Windows Mobile, Android,BadaIt is delivered to the terminal of.

Corporate management

Mobile Application Management (MAM) is software and services for in-house developed and publicly available business mobile applications.ProvisioningAccess controlBy being in charge ofBYODWe are taking measures against.If an employee brings his or her device into the corporate environment, mobile application management is the transfer of necessary applications and control access to business data by the corporate IT technician and if the device is lost or the owner leaves the enterprise. When you leave the terminal, you can delete the business data stored locally on the terminal.

Comparison of application wrapping and native application management using mobile applications

Mobile applications, especially in BYOD environments, pose a significant security risk to businesses as unprotected confidential material can be leaked onto the Internet without the knowledge or awareness of the user.Reports of stolen corporate materials show how quickly information about companies and individuals falls into the wrong hands.Data theft is more than just a loss of sensitive information, exposing the company itself to attacks and intimidation.[25].

Professional mobile application management is involved in protecting corporate materials.Application wrapping is also a method of protecting corporate materials, but it also has drawbacks such as copyright infringement and loss of warranty rights.Functionality, productivity and user experience are particularly limited under application wrapping, and the policy of wrapped applications cannot be changed.Therefore, if necessary, it will have to be created from scratch again, which will incur additional costs.[26].

Alternatively, native applications without limiting the native user experienceEnterprise Mobility ManagementThere is also a way to provide it safely through, enabling more flexible IT management such as easy implementation of applications and adjustment of policies at any time.[27].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Siegler, MG (June 11, 2008), “Analyst: There's a great future in iPhone apps”, Venture Beat, http://venturebeat.com/2008/06/11/analyst-theres-a-great-future-in-iphone-apps/ 
  2. ^ "App" voted 2010 word of the year by the American Dialect Society (UPDATED) American Dialect Society, Americandialect.org, (2011-01-08), http://www.americandialect.org/app-voted-2010-word-of-the-year-by-the-american-dialect-society-updated 2012/1/28Browse. 
  3. ^ Pogue, David (November 2009, 11). “A Place to Put Your Apps”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/05/technology/personaltech/05pogue.html?pagewanted=all 2013/1/22Browse. 
  4. ^ Yetisen, AK, Martinez-Hurtado, JL, et al (2014). The regulation of mobile medical applications. Lab on a Chip, 14 (5), 833-840. two:10.1039 / C3LC51235E
  5. ^ Ludwig, Sean. December 5, 2012. venturebeat.com, study: "Mobile app usage grows 35%, TV & web not so much"
  6. ^ Perez, Sarah. July 2, 2012. "comScore: In US Mobile Market, Samsung, Android Top The Charts; Apps Overtake Web Browsing." techcrunch.com
  7. ^ Matthias Böhmer, Brent Hecht, Johannes Schöning, Antonio Krüger, and Gernot Bauer. 2011. Falling asleep with Angry Birds, Facebook and Kindle: a large scale study on mobile app usageIn: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI '11). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 47-56.
  8. ^ “Mobile apps revenues tipped to reach $ 26bn in 2013”. The Guardian. (October 2013, 10). http://www.theguardian.com/technology/appsblog/2013/sep/19/gartner-mobile-apps-revenues-report 2013/9/19Browse. 
  9. ^ VisionMobile, Plum Consulting, "European App Economy "analyst report", September 2013
  10. ^ Mobile Application Development Guidelines, by hitech, (2013-11-14), http://www.hitechito.com/blog/mobile-application-development-guidelines.php 2011/4/5Browse. 
  11. ^ Chu, Eric (13 February 2009), Android Market Update Support, http://android-developers.blogspot.com/2009/02/android-market-update-support-for.html 
  12. ^ “10 Billion App Countdown”, Apple, (2011-01-14), http://www.apple.com/itunes/10-billion-app-countdown/ 
  13. ^ Rao, Leena (July 7, 2011), “Apple's App Store Crosses 15B App Downloads, Adds 1B Downloads In Past Month”, TechCrunch (AOL Inc), http://techcrunch.com/2011/07/07/apples-app-store-crosses-15b-app-downloads-adds-1b-downloads-in-past-month/ 
  14. ^ Indvik, Lauren (June 11, 2012), “App Store Stats: 400 Million Accounts, 650,000 Apps”, Mashable, http://mashable.com/2012/06/11/wwdc-2012-app-store-stats/ 
  15. ^ Amazon Appstore: Android, SigitArinto.com, (2011-03-22), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 8., https://web.archive.org/web/20110827070545/http://sigitarinto.com/2011/03/22/amazon-app-store/ 2011/4/5Browse. 
  16. ^ BlackBerry App World Generates Highest Revenue Per App, appschopper.com, (February 7, 2011), http://www.appschopper.com/blog/blackberry-app-world-generates-highest-revenue-per-app/ 2011/5/5Browse. 
  17. ^ “Nokia and Microsoft Announce Plans for a Broad Strategic Partnership to Build a New Global Mobile Ecosystem”, Microsoft News Center (Microsoft), (February 11, 2011), http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2011/feb11/02-11partnership.mspx 2011/10/30Browse. 
  18. ^ The evolution of Nokia and Ovi | Nokia Conversations --The official Nokia Blog, Conversations.nokia.com, http://conversations.nokia.com/2011/05/16/the-evolution-of-nokia-and-ovi/ 2011/8/25Browse. 
  19. ^ Fraser, Adam (10 October 2011), “Ovi Store renamed as Nokia Store, now built using Qt”, Conversations by Nokia, official Nokia blog (Nokia), http://conversations.nokia.com/2011/10/10/ovi-store-renamed-as-nokia-store-now-built-using-qt/ 2012/5/25Browse. 
  20. ^ Changes to supported content types in the Nokia Store, The Nokia Developer Team, (October 4, 2013), http://developer.nokia.com/Blogs/News/blog/2013/10/04/changes-to-supported-content-types-in-the-nokia-store/ 2013/11/12Browse. 
  21. ^ Arghire, Ionut (30 October 2012), “Windows Phone Store Has 120,000 Apps Now, More to Come”, Softpedia (SoftNews NET SRL), http://news.softpedia.com/news/Windows-Phone-Store-Has-120-000-Apps-Now-More-to-Come-302992.shtml 2012/11/29Browse. 
  22. ^ Miller, Michael (September 2011, 9). “Build: More Details On Building Windows 8 Metro Apps”. PC Magazine. http://forwardthinking.pcmag.com/show-reports/287736-build-more-details-on-building-windows-8-metro-apps 2012/2/10Browse. 
  23. ^ Rosoff, Matt, Here's Everything You Wanted To Know About Microsoft's Upcoming iPad Killers, Business Insider, オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 1., https://web.archive.org/web/20130122030754/http://articles.businessinsider.com/2012-02-09/tech/31040510_1_steven-sinofsky-pcs-microsoft-first 2012/2/10Browse. 
  24. ^ Basic Information about Samsung Apps Store, content.samsung.com, http://www.facebook.com/SamsungApps/info 2013/3/6Browse. 
  25. ^ Alan Hartwell, Trust, company culture and BYOD security.SC Magazine UK, 2015-1-20. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  26. ^ Subbu Lyer, 5 things you no longer need to do for mobile security. Network World, 2014-7-7. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  27. ^ Simon Yates, Chri Hazelton, Enterprise IT Spotlight: enterprise mobility management. 451 research, 2014-9-12. Retrieved February 13, 2015.

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