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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Automobile(Jishasha) isPrime moverBy the power ofWheelRotateRail,Overhead wireWithout usingRoadRun on(I.e..EnglishThen, "cars","motorcar","motor vehicle","car"And so on.
Generally, cars do not need rails (railroads), but in addition, cars that can run even off roads (Off-roadThere is also a car)道路It is convenient to move to places that are not well maintained. Off-road vehicle (en: Off-road vehicleA lot of)Four-wheel driveIs. The photo shows an off-road vehicle crossing a river.
Cars at DaijisenPrime moverBy the power ofWheelRotating, without using rails or overhead linesRoadRun on(I.e., Is explained. Kadokawa's 1989 Japanese dictionary states that it is a four-wheeled vehicle that runs without a track with the power of the engine..
自動車は、18世紀に蒸気機関を用いた蒸気自動車として登場し、19世紀にはイギリスやフランスで都市間を移動するためのバスに用いられるようになっていた。19世紀後半、1870年代から1880年代にかけてはオーストリアやドイツでガソリンの内燃機関を用いた自動車の制作や特許取得が行われた。1896年に米国のヘンリー・フォードもガソリン自動車を開発し、1903年に自分の名を冠したフォード・モーター社を設立し、まずは2気筒エンジンの小さな車の製造・販売を開始、1905年には4気筒エンジン車を販売開始、1908年には改良し（価格も比較的安く設定した）フォード・モデルTを発売し、大人気となり、1909年の1年間だけでも1万台を越える台数が売れ、米国で急速に自動車が普及してゆくことになり、米国ではそれまで街の大通りを走る車と言えば（裕福な人々が所有し、Lord(With)CarriageAll that was happening, but in the next decade or so, horse-carriage owners replaced it with cars, and the landscape of the streets in the United States changed. Inexpensive mass-produced cars began to spread in the 10s and 1910s. →#history
Cars are basicallyPeople,cargoIt is used as a practical tool for carrying and is one of the means of transportation.Commuting-Commuting to schoolCustomer transfer, customer visit,JourneyMay be used in the case of. With regard to carrying freight, a wide variety of luggage is carried using trucks, etc., and while railroads can only be transported from station to station, automobiles are from door to door (= building to building). It has the characteristic that it can be transported.. →#Using a car
In addition, automobiles have become a target of attachment, apart from their practicality.HobbiesOwned byUsed to enjoy driving (sports driving),MaintenanceSometimes used to enjoy doing ("machine messing"). Alsoluxury carin the case ofStatus symbolThere are also cases where it is used as. →#Car culture
As cars have become so popular around the world,Air pollutionCaused by the consumption of the oil resourcesOil crisisIt is a risk factor of time and causes problems such as overcrowding of cars on the road.. Efforts are being made to resolve the issues, with the government implementing emission regulations to prevent air pollution, and automakers reducing oil consumption,Fuel efficiencyHas been improved (development of low fuel consumption engine)Electric car,Hybrid car,Hydrogen carAre also being developed and sold).
DedicatedOrbitSince it does not require, there is a feature that the degree of freedom of the course is high. Moving and manipulating carsoperationIn most countries, driving licenses on public roads (general roads) are licensed (Driver's license) Is needed. Accidents in which driving was already mistaken since the earliest stages of the car (Traffic accident)There has occurred. The people and their families who are injured or lose their lives by carsvictimOccurs and at the same time the driverPerpetratorIt is one of the serious problems that the society after the spread of automobiles has to face. Recently simpleSelf-driving technologyWith full-scale artificial intelligence and advanced sensors, it can run without human helpSelf-driving carIt has also been studied, and it is expected that AI will drastically reduce the accident rate compared to human driving, and some have already started (experimental) introduction, and in the world The time for the full-scale spread of is approaching. →#Negative impact
Since the production of automobiles is possible only when there are various industrial products as parts, it is related to the promotion of various other industries and the production of primary industrial products... Depending on its size and impact, automobile manufacturing could be an important industry for the (national) economy for the government. At present, a handful of developed countries are producing carsMonopolyI'm in a situation like.. Governments in many developing countries are working hard to make automobiles (eg negotiating with automobile manufacturers and governments in developed countries to not only import cars but We continue to make efforts to establish.. →#Automobile industry
English cars TheFrenchIs the etymology.Japanese OfAutomobileThe word is cars(Automobile),auto Is "from itself"mobile devices Was created by having the meaning of "moving things". Note that the sameKanji culture areaButChineseThen another wordcar(繁体字)/car(Simplified characters), the word carSelf-driving carMeans Also in englishMotor vehicle(Motor vehicle)OrbitRunRailway carIs not included, just car In case ofCarriageIncluding railway carsvehicle全 般Refers to.
First carSteam engineMove withSteam carso,1769ToFrench armyTechnical CaptainNikola-Joseph CunyoProduced byCunyo's artilleryIs said to be.. The front wheel load of this car was so heavy that it was difficult to turn, so although it was only able to drive about 3 kilometers per hour,ParisColliding with a fence during a test drive in the cityCar accidentBecame the first of.
The United KingdomThen.1827From aroundRegular busWidely used in urban areas and between cities,1860AroundFranceBut it has come to be used. Developed in 1885 by Leon Cerbole of France1887Flash mounted on the carboilerThe steam car was shortened to 2 minutes by the start.1900AroundThe United States of Americaso,coalInstead ofoilThe steam car using was made and became more popular. At that time, steam cars were less noisy and easier to drive than gasoline cars. Steam cars were on sale in the United States until the late 1920s.
1865In EnglandRed flagWas enforced. Steam cars, which were becoming popular at the time, were viewed as hostile when they damaged roads and surprised horses, and the "red flag law" was established to control this due to the pressure of residents. Under this law, steam cars areSpeed4Miles(6.4 km / h), the city was limited to 2 mph (3.2 km / h), and pedestrians with red flags had to take the lead to warn people and animals.As a result, the Locomotive Act will be abolished in the manufacture and development of steam cars in the United Kingdom.1896It will be stagnant until, and in the subsequent development of gasoline vehicles,GermanyFrance will take the lead.
1870,JewishAustrian OfSiegfried MarxFirst by (Siegfried Samuel Marcus)gasolineThe automobile "Daiichi Marx Car" was invented.1876,German OfNicolaus OttoIs efficient to work with coal gasInternal combustion engine OfOtto cycleInventedGottlieb DaimlerUses liquid fuelgasoline engineIt was improved to and attached to a motorcycle or carriage, and a running test was conducted.1885Issued by Daimler. 1885, GermanCarl BenzMade a three-wheeled vehicle designed from the car body by improving the engine separately from Daimler..Mrs. Benz drove the car on her own and proved that it was a vehicle that even non-manufacturers could drive with training.Mercedes-Benz created the first car dealership and sold hundreds of cars it produced.Daimler also started an automobile company.Currently, the inventors of gasoline-powered vehicles are often referred to as both Daimler and Benz.
Proof of the superiority of early car racing and gasoline cars
Cars of the 19th century are handmade, so they are very expensive,貴族,wealthy classIt could only be owned. And they thought of racing in their own car. What was active in the early car race around this time,Renault,Peugeot,Chevrolet,FordThese are the brands that remain today. At this time, not only gasoline cars but also steam carsElectric carThere were quite a few cars running and none of the cars were mainstream,1897 OfFranceGasoline cars beat steam cars in a car race in1901To the AmericanTexasWhile the oil field was discovered in Japan and the supply of gasoline became stable, electric vehicles and steam cars at that time could not surpass gasoline cars due to structural problems, and they rapidly declined in the early 20th century..
Privately owned and shared
- Shared history
Initially, only a few aristocrats and wealthy people owned cars. The idea of utilizing the existence of a vehicle that costs a lot of money to the owner without owning it has been around for a long time.For example, in ancient Rome there was also a method of using a horse-drawn carriage in a metered manner like a modern taxi. Also called[Note 1].. In 1620, the horse-drawn wagon industry appeared in France (so to speak, a modern-day rental car), and in 1662Blaise PascalIs the first everbusIt is assumed5 sol carriageInvented and started business in Paris. In 1831 Goldsworthy Gurney, Walter Hancock in a steam carShared busStarted operation.
In 1871Wilhelm BruenInvented the taximeter by 1897Gottlieb DaimlerHas the world's first meterTaxi(Gasoline car) Daimler Victoria was manufactured.Car rentalAlthough its earliest history is unclear, it is sometimes said that the first car rental agency in the United States operated from 1916 using the T-type Ford, which was the first mass-produced car. Nebraska man Joe Saunders, the first car rental agent, said he would rent a car with a meter installed at a rate of 1 cents per mile..
- Mass production and mass ownership
1908 in the United States,Ford Ford T typeReleased.. Ford by flow workmass productionWe succeeded in reducing the price of automobiles by adopting the method. This made it possible for the masses to own cars that were owned by the wealthy.automotive industryBecame a prelude to a major development. In Europe, around 1910, to meet the public's desire for cars,MotorcycleSmall and lightweight cars manufactured using the parts and technologies ofCycle carWas becoming popular. In 1922, a small mass-produced car using the same production method as Ford was released, and the car became popular in earnest. In addition, the cycle car will disappear along with it.
With the popularization of popular cars, it becomes possible for the general public to own cars,Private carWith the widespread use of (private cars), a society centered around automobiles will be formed along with it, and automobiles will become essential daily goods.motorizationHappened. The world’s first motorization happened1920 era OfThe United States of AmericaAnd thenWestern EuropeIt happens in many countries1970Around this time, full-scale motorization has begun. The spread of personal cars is due toPublic transportCompared with the time when it relied on, it provided users with overwhelmingly high degree of freedom and greatly expanded the radius of action of individuals..
- Refocusing shared vehicles
In the 1970s in Switzerland etc.Car sharingAlso began to take place. Car sharing and then spread all over the world, paid for by private carRide shareThe form of using a car without owning it is diversifying, with some countries accepting.
Impact of machine production methods and people's labor
The method of mass production adopted in automobiles isLine production systemThis efficient method has become popular not only in the automobile industry but also in various manufacturing industries. This was a convenient method for business owners, but at the same timeDivision of laborThe result is that many workers in the factory are treated as if they were just machines and tools, forced to repeat the same monotonous work, and it becomes difficult to find pleasure in working. It also caused the negative consequences of causing mental unhappiness to workers. For a period of time, too much emphasis was placed on efficiency and the work was subdivided too much, which was a terrible method in which one worker repeated the work of tightening one to a few bolts, which was a mental issue for workers. Adverse effects will become too great and will be pointed out by scholars and others, and over a long period of time thereafter, we will give a certain range of tasks so as not to subdivide the work too much The number of factories has increased. For example, one person in charge can at least put together the engine part in a responsible manner and assemble it by himself so that he or she can feel that he has "finished his work".
Trends in technological development in the 2000s
ChugokuDue to economic growth and population growth in emerging countries, the number of automobiles sold worldwide is increasing. With thisFossil fuelConsumption ofAir pollutionBecame a problem, and governmentsExhaust gasStrengthen regulations such as. Car manufacturersGreenhouse gasSaves petroleum resources with low or no emissions of air and air pollutantsLow pollution vehicleFocus on the development and sales of.
In recent years,Pollution,Global warmingAs a measure ofElectric car,Fuel cell vehicleEtc.Zero emission vehicleIs being developed. Especially in 2015VolkswagenAfter the harmful effects of diesel engines were revealed by the illegal exhaust gas discovered by the group, many countries are in favor of a bill to ban the sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles in the near future in Europe. Such bills are beginning to be submitted for enforcement in 2025 in the Netherlands and Norway and in 2030 in Germany.
Information and communication technology (ICT) has made rapid progress in recent years. For this reason, automobile manufacturers and major ICT companiesインターネットConnected to the outside withConnected carAndArtificial intelligenceApplied (AI)Self-driving carR&D is also in hurry.
Long time agoSF"It was in the workFlying carIs also being developed.in Japan,ToyotaVolunteer organizations receiving group supportCARTIVATOR(Cartivator) was aiming to complete the prototype in 2018.
There are many car classification methods, but roughly speaking, there are classification by structure (hardware) and classification by purpose of use (software)..
In theory, there are many combinations of purpose and structure like a matrix (horizontal and vertical tables), but not all combinations are actually used, but the structure suitable for each purpose is (all structures It will be focused on a structure that is suitable for some purpose (and not) and there will be some kind of typical combination or trend that many users and purchasers appreciate, but it is quite fixed. However, it has a history of undergoing a gradual transition with the times.
Basically, the classification not limited to a specific country is, for example, "passenger car (car for carrying several people) / freight car (car for carrying freight) / special car (other than that) depending on the purpose. There is a way to separate it from the target car). Also, for example, there is basically a method of separating “small cars/medium-sized cars/large-sized cars” by size.
In the era of horse carriages before the appearance of cars, horse carriages were classified according to their shape (shape), and the classification method and its classification terms had already been established. Also has a history of adopting taxonomies that follow it. The classification methods such as “sedan”, “coupe”, “wagon” etc. originally inherited the classification method for horse-drawn carriages. →#Classification of ordinary cars
According to the regulations in each countryDisplacementIt is categorized according to the size of the car, the size of the car body, and transportation capacity. That is tax classification and traffic classification,Driver's licenseIt is used as the standard for classification.
In Japan,Road Traffic LawAccording to Article XNUMX,Large car,Medium-sized car,Semi-medium-sized car,Ordinary car,largeSpecial car, Small special cars,Large motorcycle,Ordinary motorcycleThere are 8 types ofRoad Transport Vehicle ActAccording to Article XNUMX, ordinary cars,Small car,Light car, Special large vehicles and small special vehicles.
- ト ラ ク タ ー(87.01)-Wheeled or tracked vehicles for towing or pushing other vehicles, equipment or cargo..
- Motor vehicles for transporting more than 10 people (including driver) (87.02)-motorizedbus, Passenger car,trolley busas well as the Gyro bassincluding.
- Passenger cars and other cars (except those of 87.02) (87.03)-Passenger cars (Limousine,Taxi,sports caras well as the Racing car), special carrier (ambulance, Prison convoy andhearseEtc.), mobile home car (Camper vanEtc.) etc..
- Lorry(87.04) - dump truck, Including shuttle cars.
- Special purpose automobile(87.05)-Rescue vehicle,Mobile crane,Fire truck,Concrete mixer truck, Street sweeper,Sprinkler, Including work vehicles and X-ray vehicles.
- Motorized chassis (87.06)-for carsChassisIncludes automobiles that do not have a vehicle body and are equipped with a prime mover on the frame of the vehicle or the frame of the chassis body that is connected.
Classification of ordinary cars
Classification by figure
Originally, it is a classification term based on the shape of the carriage. After that, there is a history of adding taxonomies that were not found in carriages.
In addition, the car manufacturerDifferentiation(Added value) As the product name (商標) Is not limited to this, 2 box shape sedan, 4 door/5 door coupe, hatchback shape wagon,One boxThere are many different shapes such as wagons that are different from the shapes below.
- sedan : Low end OfPopular carThere are often two doors, but in principle a four-door car.bonnet+cabin+trunk roomThree-box car composed of.
- coupe: Originally a basic sedan "Kupe" in French, that is, the sedan is a little "cut" and shortened. (Reduce from 4 doors by 2 doors)2 doorsThree-box car. For two people in the trunk roomAuxiliary seatSome were equipped with. At present, it is not possible to distinguish by length and number of doors.
- Wagon: (originallyWagonen: WagonCars whose main purpose is the luggage compartment.
- Cars used mainly for carrying luggage areバ ンCalled the United StatesMinivanAre classified as passenger cars.
- Station Wagon: A two-box car with a passenger seat and a separate luggage compartment at the rear (although it is a kind of wagon car), which is mainly used to carry people. Some luggage compartments have a retractable auxiliary seat (jump seat) for two people.
- hatchback:A car that has a cabin and luggage compartment integrated with the trunk room omitted, and has a flip-up back door. The result is 3 or 5 doors.
roofThe classification method by is as follows.
- Convertible : A car without a roof. Cabriolet,Drop head coupe,spider, Roadster,Speed starThere are trademarks such as.
- Hard top : Originally a "removable and hard roof" for roof roofspartsIt was a word pointing to. After that, in the three box mainly the window pillar in the center of the side (B pillar) To a term that refers to a car that does not have.
- Soft top : roofWith a car.PhaetonThe name was abolished,sports car,Cross countryStill seen in the car.
- convertible : Cars that have a movable roof and can run with the roof open or closed. It used to be the name of a soft top car,Coupe cabrioletWith the advent of, hard tops have become mainstream.
- Open top : PillarThe window frame of each door, the basic skeleton, etc. are the same as ordinary cars, only the roof is openableHoodAnd what. Known for trademarks such as canvas tops.Open top busSome have no cover.
- Glass top : Large open top topガ ラ スA roof.Some open and closeThere are also things.
- Detachable top : Only part of the roof is removable, which can be considered as a type of hardtop. In the trademarkTarga top,Transformer top,T-top,T bar roofSuch.
Classification by space
As a result of automobile manufacturers developing various shapes of passenger cars (ordinary cars) to satisfy consumers, after the 1980s and 2000s, cars that could not be classified by conventional classification methods and classification terms, Or, the number of vehicles that fall into multiple categories has increased, consumers, automobile manufacturers, automobile magazines, etc. are increasingly confused by the conventional classification method and category names, and communication between manufacturers and sales companies and consumers is confused. Came to occur. In order to avoid such confusion and confusion, a method of roughly classifying a wide variety of ordinary cars into the following was devised, and it was increasingly adopted.
- One box car(Monospace car): A car that is in the shape of one large box. Internally, the car looks like a big box, even if it has an engine room, a cabin (=indoor space), and a luggage room.
- Two box car(FastbackCar, Comeback Car): A car that looks like the cabin and luggage compartment are one big box, and the engine compartment is popping out as another.
- Three box car(Notch backCar): A car with a large cabin in the middle, with boxes in the engine and luggage compartments (lower than the cabin) protruding forward and backward from it.
Various structures have appeared in the history of automobiles, and the transition has been repeated. Here, a typical automobile currently on the market is shown. Therefore, some cars have exceptions, especiallyCompetitionForSpecial carThere are also cases where the structure is very different.
Car body structure
Of the car bodyStrengthThe materials used for the members aresteelIs the mainstream, and in recent yearsUltra high strength steel plateThere are a wide range of parts to use,Aluminum alloy,Carbon fiber reinforced plasticSuch asComposite materialThose using are also becoming commercially available. For panel parts other than frame membersSynthetic resinThe number of examples using is increasing.
The structure is roughly dividedFrame formatとMonocoqueIt is divided into form. The frame type is a structure in which a vehicle compartment is placed on an independent skeletal member, and has been used as a car body structure for a long time,LorryHas been adopted mainly. The monocoque type is a structure in which the outer shell that constitutes the vehicle interior is made as a strength member,20st centuryFrom the middle of the year, it began to spread as a body structure for automobiles, and today's passenger cars and small sizeCommercial vehicleIt is used in most of (LCV).
CurrentlyInternal combustion engineOrElectric motorThe one that uses is the mainstream. In an internal combustion engine,pistonThe reciprocating motion ofCrankshaftConvert to rotary motion and outputdiesel engine,gasoline engineSuch asReciprocating engineIs common. each4 cyclesと2 cyclesHowever, there are currently four cycles in the mainstream.
Spark ignition internal combustion engineGasoline is used as the main fuel for fuel cells, but due to environmental performance and unit price,Liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) andLiquefied natural gas(LNG),ethanolEtc.Alcohol fuelMay be used. XNUMX. Description of the Related Art In recent years, hybrid cars, electric cars, etc., which combine an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, have become popular.
Hybrid car (Honda Insight) Engine
In the case of gasoline vehicles, power is changed from the rotational speed at which the prime mover efficiently produces output to the rotational speed suitable for running.transmissionIs decelerated or accelerated by. The driver operates the transmission by selecting from multiple reduction ratios.Manual transmission(MT) and automatically select or changeAutomatic transmission(AT). MT is basically used when switching the reduction ratio etc.clutchIt is necessary to operate, but the one that automates this clutch operationSemi-automatic transmissionCalled. In recent years, clutch operation and shift operation have been automatically controlled while having the basic structure of MT,Automatically controlled manual transmission (AMT)Is also becoming popular.
Electric carIn the case of, because the range of effective rotation speed of the prime mover is wideReduction ratioIn most cases, it does not have a reverse gear because it employs a transmission that does not switch and the motor can be rotated in reverse.
Automatic transmissionTorque converterとPlanetary gearThe combination of is widely used. Called CVT in Japanese passenger carsContinuously variable transmissionThe number of adoption cases of is increasing. In either method, a mechanism that limits the range of the reduction ratio such as "L range" by the driver's operation, or any reduction ratio called "manual mode", "hold mode", "sport mode", etc. It has a mechanism that can be fixed to.
Steering is generally a front-wheel steering method that changes the direction of the front wheels to turn the vehicle body.SteeringCall. The operation unit is called a "handle" or "steering wheel". The rotation of the handleBall nut,Rack and pinionIt can be changed to the action of pushing the wheel to the left or right through such a mechanism. In recent years, assisting the driver's steering wheel operation using hydraulic pressure and electric motorPower steeringIs widespread.
If each wheel is oriented in the direction in which it is moving at each moment of turning, the steering angles will differ between the left and right front wheels. For example, if the steering wheel is turned to the right, the right tire has a larger steering angle. The mechanism for thisAckermann mechanismCall.
mainbrakingOperation is foot-operatedpedalDo inFoot brakeIs most. The force applied to the pedalhydraulic,air pressureTo the braking device viafrictionPress the material against the rotating part,Physical energyTheHeat energyConvert to and slow down. Most commercial carsAir brakeOther than hydraulic type,Intake pipeNegative pressureReduces pedal effort using hydraulics and hydraulicsBoosterhave.
If you rely too much on the footbrake, such as on a downhillFade phenomenonThe braking force is significantly reduced,Vapor lock phenomenonThe pedal effort may not be transmitted at all. To prevent theseEngine brakeCan be usedDriving license trainingBut I am being taught,Vehicle total weightIs large, it is difficult to obtain speed-up and deceleration effects only with engine braking.largeIn the lorries ofExhaust brake,RetarderMany models are equipped with.
Excellent heat dissipation for braking from high speedDisc brakeIs effective, but when braking a heavy vehicle or parking on a slope, the self-boosting action causes a large "restraint force".Drum brakeWill be advantageous.
ParkingSometimes restrain the car body so that it does not moveParking brakeAre often wire or pneumatic. In the case of passenger cars, most of the structures share the braking device with those for braking, but there is a restraint on the inner circumference of the disc brake for braking.Drum brakeSome are equipped with. Conventional freight vehicles are equipped with a drum brake at the transmission output.Propeller shaftThe center brake that restrains the car was common, but due to the revision of the law, we have shifted to a method that directly restrains the wheel, called "wheel park type" / "maxi brake" that also serves as a regular brake.
Most of the driver's seats are chair-shaped with a seat and a backrest. In front of the driver's seat there is a steering wheelAccelerator pedalとbreak pedalOrClutch pedalIs equipped with a standard automobile structure. HandleYenThe shape is common,Auto three wheelThen.オ ー ト バ イ,scooterThere was also a rod-shaped handle like. In addition, some models have an elliptical handle that increases the space around the thigh. Most of the devices that operate the parking brake are those that raise the lever, but old trucks andOne box carThen, there is also a method of pulling a cane-shaped lever from the front of the vehicle body to the front. In recent years, a foot-operated type and an electrically operated push-button type have also been adopted. If the transmission control lever is MT,shift lever, AT is called the select lever. In either case, most of the floor shifts are located on the floor near the center of the vehicle, beside the driver's seat. oldTaxiAnd trucks and one-box carsSteering columnThere were also many column shift MTs equipped with shift levers. It was not uncommon for AT cars of one period to have a select lever on the steering column centering on minivans, but in recent yearsinstrument panelMany have select levers.
Use of car
Use as a passenger car
Cars can transport people and goods, and can go to various places as long as roads are maintained. This was onceCarriageIt was also a continuation of the application that was being done in. Nationwide road maintenanceDeveloped countryIt can also be said to join the group.
AmericaWas in 1908Popular carIs a pioneer ofFord T typeLaunched in 1911MotorwayPioneeringParkwayHas been maintained.イタリアThen in 1924MilanからVareseUp to about 50km, width of 10m without intersectionAutostradaHas completed.GermanyNazi party OfAdolf HitlerIn 1933, "On holidays, low-income people get into carspicnicSuggesting that a "living out" is necessary.motorizationDeclaration of promotion.AutobahnMaintenance and legendary mass carsVolkswagen beetleWe started the development of. In Japan, road maintenance was difficult due to the immature carriage culture., After the warShuto ExpresswayWas built, and showed momentum comparable to the West.
Use as a commercial vehicle
On the other hand, there are various service industries using automobiles, which play a major role in the lives of citizens. There are two main types: "do something in the car" and "do something in the car".
As an example of the former,Passenger transport,Freight transportationTo do general servicesTransportation industryCall. If you are a passengerTaxi,Higher,AlsobusIt is operated as such, and since many buses can transport many people, depending on the formTransit Bus,Sightseeing bus,Express Bus,Regular sightseeing busThere are various things such as. For freight transportation, the transportation company uses trucks. Rent a car, not a direct transportation serviceCar rental,Car leaseThere is also.
Use as an emergency vehicle/special vehicle
There are examples of using a car to maintain the safety and security of the people.
Patrol car (Patrol car)crime,Traffic violationUsed for crackdown on. It also has an important merit that patrols lead to curbing crime..Fire truckIt is,火災OtherdisasterIt is used to suppress and protect the situation. This application has been used for a long time sincerickshawIt was carried by.ambulanceIt is,diseaseOr it is possible to treat the victims caused by disastersMedical facilityUsed to transport quickly to. Citizens' cooperation is important because they have to arrive at their destination as soon as possible while using a general road..
またSpecial vehicleAs used for national peace and securityArmored carAndConstruction workUsed forMobile crane,BulldozerUsed for transportationTank truck,trailerThese are all indispensable automobiles for the people to live a healthy and culturally minimal life.
There are various types and shapes of automobiles, and various automobiles are used depending on the application. Even if you simply say that you are driving, there are various ways to enjoy as there are roads and routes that are not in good condition as well as roads and routes that have been maintained. AlsoDesignAnd functionality,enginePerformance,mechanicalCars possess various attractions such as various aspects, so many people like to ride and collect cars. Especially when traveling to a distant destination, traveling by car is one of the main purposes, or a round trip that simply drives a car without deciding the destination is generally called "drive".[Note 2]It is also called "distance riding" and is the most standard way to enjoy a car.
Here, we will explain the charm of cars and the culture created by their enthusiasts.Car cultureI will define it as and describe the contents below (for car lovers, "Car maniaSee).In this section, we will focus on cultural comparisons between "Western countries" and "Japan," which have a long history of automobiles.
"The appeal of cars"sports car,Super car,Hyper car such asHigh endThere is a tendency to focus on various types, but the car culture is so diverse that it cannot be described by these categories alone. actuallyEnthusiastMany are interested in different types of cars.. However, since the above-mentioned automobiles are based on the concept of use as a hobby, it is a fact that they are the main items for automobile lovers. Also, choosing a car is like a "mirror that reflects your own lifestyle", just like any other hobby..
Formation of automobile culture
EuropeEach country (The United Kingdom,Italy,France, Germany, etc.)Royal car club,British sports carAs represented by20st centuryFrom the beginning貴族,wealthy classAs a result, the aspect of treating automobiles as hobbies and entertainment has been developed (formerly).horse riding,EquestrianIt was an extension of), and later had its aristocratic taste to the general public,High cultureThe car culture that should be called has penetrated. that is,18st centuryFrom the second half19st centuryBorn in England, a wealthy new generation polishes itself to be more aristocratic than nobles.Dandyism(≒Aristocratic spirit) ”Is based on the idea.Car racingIn the early days,circuitIs like thatgentlemanHad become a social gathering place..However, even though they are aristocratic hobbies, they are the price of a car (popular car /luxury carEtc.) and also arise from themstatusIt goes without saying that we were not looking for cars, but purely seeking cars for hobbies and entertainment..
On the other hand, "In Europe,Parallel parkingThe idea that cars are divisible as "a tool of transportation" is so strong in Europe that there is a public opinion that "When you do it, you hit and stop.".. Most of the cars that are actually running tend to have dirty car bodies compared to Japan, and this idea isCycle car(Voiturette)Bubble car,Micro carCan be said to be the extreme ofRationalismIt also appears in a simple structure. By the way, this culture is very difficult for car enthusiasts in the area, and there is a story that in France, due to the insecurity in urban areas, it is necessary to pay particular attention to parking places..
AmericaIt is,FordIt became more casual because the car quickly became popular withCommercialismTraditional culture stands out.. In particular, that tendency began to appear notably after the war, in the 1940s-1950s,Drag racing,Stock carThe birth of a car race with such a simple rule is a good example. Another feature is that many car cultures from various regions are mixed due to the diversity of races. that isカ ス タ ムIt is very visible in the culture,WhiteOf originHot rod,MexicanOf originLowrider,AsianOf originSports compactand so on.. Contests and exhibitions for the beauty of automobiles are also held on a global scale. However, it is certain that they are all conscious of popularity and entertainment,AuthoritarianismThere are few aspects. Alsomass productionBorn of a methodIndustrial designWill become the core of the later automobile design, and will give birth to the concept of "car consumption".
Japanese automobile culture is from the Meiji era to the Taisho eraEuropeanismOf the remnants of, and until the mid-20th centuryEthnic systemWas also there, and also popular cars were not popular until the mid-20th centurySome layersBecause of the fact that he could only own a car, he inevitably followed a path similar to the cultural formation in Europe. This is not limited to cars,Golf,Tennis,VillaAll Western-origin high culture imported at the time went through the same process. As a prewar car enthusiast,Arisugawa Miyanomiya[Note 4],Naoyasu NabeshimaThe Marquis, Baron Kishiro Okura,Takamitsu MitsuiBaron,Motoharu KobayakawaBaron,Fukuzawa Komakichi,Jiro Shirasu,Ichiro FujiyamaAre known. Both imported so-called Western hobbies into Japan at the time, so-calledHigh colorIt was us.For this reason, even in postwar Japan, there were often people who sought a traditional Western-style automobile hobby.Sokichi Shikiba,Fukuzawa YukioIn addition to racing drivers such asTokudaiji Ari Tsune,Yosuke NatsukiA celebrity such as is a person whose name is mentioned in such a case.. Above allCar critic OfShotaro KobayashiIs a businessman himselfLionAlthough he is from the family of the founder), he has a career as a car critic, and in 1962 the magazine "CAR Graphic (currentlyCar graphic) ”Is launched.By actively disseminating the appeal of imported cars, which were the flowers of the masses at that time, and by practicing the British-style automobile hobby, he contributed to the spread of automobile culture in Japan..
After the war, when cars became popular with the general public,sub cultureThe side as Above allTuning car,VIP car,ItashaCustom cultures such as are now evolving to impact around the world.. Also, while this culture is very unique, overspeeding,Illegal modification,Street racing,Motorcycle gangThere are not a few associations with various illegal acts such as, or annoying acts such as noise and bad driving manners (this is also becoming a kind of culture), and from that point of view, for automobilesbadMay be associated with a different image("VIP car # negative imageSee also).For the formation process of these cultures, see "Tuning car # history in Japan, Etc.
Japan started car production from the beginning[Note 5], Also from the beginningForeign carImported a relatively large amount ofDomestic carThere were many opportunities to come into contact with automobiles due to the spread of automobiles, and it was in an environment where automobile culture was easy to take root next to Europe and the United States. .. Therefore otherAsiaEach countryAfricaIt can be said that the culture has reached the stage of full maturity compared to other countries.Light carAnd tuning cars, (as a spectacle)DriftingEtc. originated in Japan and in the 1970sSuper car boomHas also arrived. As mentioned aboveCar maniaThere are also many automobile magazines and TV programs targeting ("Category: Japanese car magazine","Category: Car programSee).However, it has also been pointed out that in Japan in recent years, the difference in interest in automobiles between car enthusiasts and the general public has become extremely large..
Culture Convenience ClubChairman'sMuneaki MasudaWants "premier ages (wealthy people over 60)" to enjoy cars, Frequently holds automobile-related exhibitions and events in the commercial facilities of the company. The company alsoCar suppliesshop"AUTOBACSWe are also creating stores that incorporate the concept of a lifestyle-proposing commercial facility. In this way, in the automobile-related industry in Japan in recent years,CafeBy installing a car or setting up a store in a place where it can be expected to attract more customers, there is a tendency to take in people other than those who are interested in cars..
ToyotaThe presidentAkio ToyodaAs a reason to stick to "My car","Of all the industrial products, the only thing that gives "love" is a car."To be.. For example, the refrigerator is not called "love machine", the house is called "my home (my home)" instead of "love home", and "love" is not attached..
The importance of car design has always been recognized since the birth of automobiles, and has played a major role in the formation of automobile culture. The transition is due to the development of manufacturing technologyAerodynamicsIs strongly involved in the development of.
It is important to note that the changes in the designs listed below are merely general and mainstream, and that cars with designs and eclectic styling contrary to these can be seen in any age.
Car design before the 1960s
It can be said that the early days of automobiles1900 eraThe design up toStraight lineとflatIt was characterized by extremely old-fashioned and simple styling, which consisted of only chisel. Most of themCarriage-BicycleBecause it was a simple structure that can be said to be an extension of ","Horse-drawn carriageWas also called.. However in 1891Panhard LevassolWith the establishment of the front engine (system Panhard) system, the design gradually changes to a car-like design... Shortly afterwards, I continued casting from the age of the carriageCoach builderby貴族Luxury car with unique decoration (=luxury car) Was born,AlsoMotor sportsDue toRacing carBy being born, the foundation of a full-fledged automobile culture was laid.
1920 eraWhen you enter, "Streamlined designWith the birth of ", car design will make great progress. The origin was the world of motor sports, which was becoming more and more radical due to improvements in engine performance.AerodynamicsDesigns that were conscious ofSpeed recorderHas already begun to be seen from).It is "pointed tail" or "ボ ー トIt is represented by the narrowed rear shape called "tail" (Bugatti Type 35Is famous).inside thatEdmund Lumpler,Paul YalaiWhen a body structure that reduces air resistance is established by1930 eraSince then, teardrop-shaped bodies similar to those of general passenger cars have begun to be actively appointed... It was also installed as a mudguard functionfenderAlso, with the development of press molding technology, it is more elegant and three-dimensional.SwirlIt has been transformed into a shape design, and a modern styling that covers the entire tire has also appeared (Fender skirt), They began to function as an important factor in impressing the curvilinear beauty.In particular, the end points of the fenders before and after that fall so that they flow diagonally downward, impressing the entire body with a styling that goes down.Due to these series of features, the automobile design composed of roundness and curves is "streamlined design (Streamliner, Streamline Moderne) ”, And became a design style that was very popular in this era.(It will also contribute to the development of industrial design).
The birth of this stylingFluid mechanicsBased on theoryAir resistanceOf the ItalianFuturismoby"The beauty of speedAnd the FrenchArt decoDecorative art by style,モ ダ ニ ズ ム"Fusion of artistry and rationality" based on. that isMechanizationIt can be said that it is one of the perfect forms of the result of exploring new artistry in the wave of, and the sense of speed and dynamism created by its curvaceousness became a major opportunity for automobiles to be regarded as art objects...Therefore, this era was the heyday of coachbuilders, and many designers competed for beauty in the body of a car (luxury car).Some luxury cars (mainly) designed in the 1930s where luxury, avant-garde, and elegance lived togetherFrench car) Is called "Art Deco Automobiles" or "Flamboyant" and was once an upper classSocial circleReigned as a flower-shaped existence inAestheticismRecognized as a group of dynamic works of art.. Among those who were fascinated by the beautyAesthetician,ArtistIs also included in JapanTokutaro HamaBut in Europe and America,"Andre DoranIs more than any work of artBugattiIs beautiful,"Man RayNodded deeply."There are still some anecdotes such as.
The name "streamline design" mentioned above is no longer used.1940 eraEven at the time, it remained the mainstream of car design as curved and rounded styling. However in 1947Chisitalia 202And 1949Ford 1949"Flash side[Note 6]The body was featured extensively and was adopted by many automakers... With this change, the car will have a more modern design, and the styling that makes the whole body look cohesive1950 eraIt will be the mainstream after that.HeadlightThe fender is integrated with the body, and the body side has a smooth shape without bumps or irregularities. This feature is the mainstream form as of 2020.
1960 eraPreviously, many cars, especially in the 1920s and 1960s, had simple shapes with few press lines and dynamic styling with curved lines, as mentioned above, and these were exhibited as highly artistic car designs. Meeting andauctionHas received a high evaluation..Among them, luxury cars and sports cars in Europe until the 1960s have a long history of automobile culture in the wealthy market, which is their main customer.Conservative layerBecause it was still limited to, The design is obviously authoritarianAdartismIt was rich in (= aristocratic hobby).Therefore, its styling is often "elegant","紳士Is also described as "target"..This was a design that existed as the mainstream in prewar American luxury cars and sports cars, although it was not as pure and clear as in Europe.In addition, "" held in various countries around the worldCompetition DeleganceIs a classic car event closely related to this aristocratic culture and design.Before lifeEnzo Ferrari "LA CORSA PIÙ BELLA DEL MONDO (the most beautiful car race in the world)"Described asLegendaryPublic road car race,Mille Miglia(1927-1957) is also a sports car / racing car with the styling of this era.That's because racing cars have been around since the late 1960s.prototypeBody structure leaned toward circuit specifications in earnest due to the ease of productionIt was until the 1960s that racing cars, which had been competing for the championship in car races, had the level of design and practicality that they loved as a hobby (this also has a great impact on asset value). ).for that reason"Targa Florio"Or"Tour de France AutomobileOther prominent public road races also flourished during this period (both later revived as classic car rallies).Audi OfchiefWas a designerStephan GiraffeIt is,"Today, car designs are dominated by intricate shapes and lines, which is what makes customers interested, but their interest quickly diminishes... A good design is one that is elaborate in detail but simple overall, if you can design one car with two lines and planes, it is called a future masterpiece. It will be something."Has saidAlso, while continuing to make such masterpieces brilliantly while adapting to the changes of the times,Porsche 911Is also talking.. Porsche 911 has a design concept of 1948356Known to inherit from, There are many people who are fascinated by its universality.
From the 1960s onward, the image and concept of luxury cars and sports cars in Europe will change and the design will be greatly shaken by the rise of new customers (wealthy people) who are always looking for new things regardless of tradition. become(= Casual. In the United States, for the same reason, a full-scale design change will occur earlier than in Europe in the 1950s, but this change succeeded in establishing an identity as an "American car". doing(Later)).for that reason,1990 eraSince then, increasing interest in classic cars manufactured before the 1960s and rising prices worldwide have given rise to the old days when people still lived in a gentleman's life.ノ ス タ ル ジ アSome say it was due to.British royal familyHad a classic design before the 1960s, rather than the current model, when using a car at an important ceremonyBritish carAre often selected.Rolls-Royce Phantom IV(Made in 1953, custom madeLandolletStyle) for over 40 yearsQueen ElizabethUsed for public affairs,Prince WilliamとPrincess CatherineAt the weddingAston Martin DB6(Made in 1969,Prince Charles(My car),Prince henryとPrincess MeganIn case ofJaguar E type(Made in 1968,EVVehicles that have been modified) were used.
Car design since the 1960s
In the early 1950s, American car brand executives sought to move away from traditional, conservative designs, fueled by the post-war boom and popularization of cars... So, from the mid-1950s to the latter half,Full sizeIt is a unique luxury car group that is categorized as.. These are low vehicle height, wide, long and edgy body,Tail finIt was different from the mainstream design so far (however, regarding the initial design, the front mask still had a classical taste such as the fender peak and the bonnet ridge).Many of its features were also applied to cheaper passenger cars in the country, but later the tail fins were removed from them, and the front nose also had no fender peaks and was made into a "flat deck". , Shifting to a completely modern box-shaped design with no bumps or roundness.. These styling epidemics in the United States had a great impact abroad, especially the latter boxy box design became the mainstream worldwide since the 1960s... The reason for this is that in addition to the technical reason that it has become possible to secure sufficient strength even with angular design due to the evolution of manufacturing technology, it has become possible to treat the car as a status symbol due to the booming economy. It was because of the psychological reason that he began to seek strength and size... It is said that these series of designs established the image of the so-called "American car"., American cars of the tail fin era,Vietnam WarAs a symbol of "the fun era of spending time for entertainment" in America before the mudAlso, American cars in the flat deck era are used for custom and movie such as lowrider.Car chaseSturdy and toughOutlawAs a car (Muscle carSuch)Or, because of its profound sense of consistency,American dreamIs embodied as.
From the latter half of the 1960s, the disappearance of minor coach builders began to be noticeable. This is because around this time, the monocoque structure began to spread to sports cars and luxury cars, and the concept of body mounting was disappearing... Or 1960D from the latter half of the 3sCADHas entered the automobile manufacturing industry,digitalizationIs gradually becoming visible.
1970 eraTo become and,Giugiaro,Gandini"Wedge shape" design by the spotlight.. "Flash surface" for the purpose of reducing air resistance[Note 10]Can be said to be the establishment ofnear futureThe sharp and sharp styling swept the sports car industry. The feature is that the whole noseWedge shapeIt has a smooth forward leaning nose with a (triangle) shape and a forward leaning posture in which the waistline is lifted backward.Down forceIn addition to improving the high speed performance, the styling like a battle posture with the center of gravity added to the back had the effect of creating a sense of speed and dynamism.. AlsoHeadlightIs stored in the bodyRetractable headlightsWas the perfect structure for achieving a flash surface and fortifying the nose, it blended nicely with the wedge shape design, accelerating both trends... In Japan, this styling became very popular with boys in the 1970s and caused a "supercar boom." By the way, the name "supercar" was born at this time, so it is rare to call it "supercar" for high-performance cars before this era..
1980 eraAfter that, the two 1970sOil shockbygasolineSoaring pricesExhaust gas regulationsDue to the fact that the importance of aerodynamics has begun to be recognized in mass-produced cars as well, as press molding technology has evolved, "round" and "corner" can be combined to allow a wide interior design while considering air resistance. The entire automobile industry will gradually shift to design.. As a result, the rectangular box-shaped design began to disappear, and the wedge shape became smooth without using the sharp edges as before. Also鉄-platingBefore and after being madebumper TheResinIt will be made, and the sense of unity of the whole body will be further increased... In the late 1990s,ATEasy drive due to the spread ofBlack boxIn order to accelerate the shift, we began to pay close attention to "product semantics" in the design, and the headlights were organically designed (product semantics).A humanThe eyes ofBird of prey(Design with the motif of the eyes).. In addition,standardizationThe commonization of platforms and platforms has been accelerating since the 1990s..
2000 eraIn addition to accelerating the shift to wedge shapes in mass cars and mass-produced cars,, The trend of the whole industry such as "round" and "corner" has disappeared, and the diversification of design has progressed... However, due to the increase in safety rules, the front part or the whole body has a bulge and thickness, and it has become difficult to find a free design as before... in addition,ComputerDue to the significant development of aerodynamic analysis, this led to the narrowing of the design... In addition, atypical headlight[Note 11]The enormous size of the headlight that was stretched vertically by the sophistication ofLEDAs a result of increased flexibility in the design of lighting, manufacturers havetaillightThen, we began to discover the individuality of the car, and the attitude to focus on the former body shaping had to be relatively small..
2010 eraOnce you enter, it is possible to give the body a three-dimensional and complicated shape with depth without using a simple linear press line so far, but it is a simple molding but each part of the body Local wavy shadows now appear.. Or since the 1990sEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Low technologySigns of watching are beginning to be seen in each field,Pike carIn the 2010s, the design of luxury cars and sports cars, which is reminiscent of the image of a traditional classic car, has become a trend..2020 eraLater,self-drivingWith the practical application ofinterior designThe possibility that the modeling ofHowever, if a car accident cannot occur at all by fully autonomous driving, there is a possibility that the degree of freedom for car design will increase dramatically., Is about to enter a new design era in which the significance of the existence of automobiles is affected.
In the carinterior designIn the pursuit of solidity, functionality and rationality created by the effective use of decoration and the texture of materialsミ ニ マ リ ズ ムOrDashboardEmbedded aboveInstrumentMechanical charm by type,Steering wheelYou can find the free expression power such as curvaceousness. In recent years, safety and durability have also become major indicators in design design. In addition, since automobiles are mainly used for driving, interiors occupy an even more important position than exteriors, and harmony with the scenery outside the car is also considered.
Driving a car and aiming for a faster score time is recognized as a type of sport,Motor sportsCalled. Anyway, it's a sports car for running fast.Formula carIt's not all about running in a car, racing in a commercial or home-built car, or driving for a long timeEndurance race, Done on public roadsRallyOr run through a harsh, untamed roadRally raidVarious things are held around the world.Formula 1(F1) andIndy 500,24 Hours of Le Mans,Dakar RallySuch is an especially famous international competition. Among them, from 1929Principality of MonacoF1 race being held atMonaco Grand Prix"Monaco Duke HouseIt is known as a tournament that maintains the old tradition of automobile racing, and its formalities, as it is sponsored, viewed and trophies are given directly by the Duke.
The development of motor sports in Japan was the first permanent circuit in Japan in 1936.TamagawaRiverbedToTamagawa Speedway』Starts from the founding. At the first tournament, including Bugatti and Bentley imported by Baron Mitsui,HondaBefore the establishmentSoichiro HondaParticipated in the race with his own car,NissanFounder'sYoshisuke AyukawaIt was a race that could be said to be the beginning of the Japanese automobile race, such as watching the race on the stand.. Then 1957GunmaKita KaruizawaAtAsama Kogen Vehicle Test Course] Following the opening, in 1962MieSuzukaFull-scale racing course "Suzuka Circuit] Has appeared. Next year at this circuitXNUMXst Japan Grand PrixWas held, and this was the beginning of a full-scale automobile race in Japan. In 1965ChibaFunabashiToFunabashi circuit』But next year in 1966ShizuokaOyama TownToFuji Speedway] Has been established. At the Funabashi Circuit,Ukitani Tojiro,Toru Ikusawa,Motoharu KurosawaThe famous drivers tried to make up for it, but since it closed in just two years, it has come to be called a "legendary circuit"... Also in 1965, the F1 World ChampionshipMexican grand prixThen HondaFerrari,LotusIt was also the year when the first victory was suppressed.
My hobby is not limited to running a car,Plastic model,Miniature carSuch as an elaborate carミ ニ チ ュ アProduction and collection of写真There is a wide variety of shootings. As for hobbies related to running cars, I like to ride various cars andRemodelI sometimes make maintenance as a hobby. As the form of the modified car, lowrider with a focus on artDecorator, There are various types such as tuning cars and sports compacts that focus on speeding up (for details, see "Category: Modified car formSee).
In addition,Classic car or old car・Vehicles manufactured in the past, called vintage cars, etc.復 元・Some lovers save it. Cultural, historical, and asset values can be recognized for classic cars, and exhibitions and running events using them are based on close cooperation between enthusiasts and local governments.Regional activation(Of course, at events that run on public roads, cooperation with the government is essential).In addition, there are various classic cars that have been particularly valued.auctionMay be traded at extremely high values such as (Japanese yenIn some cases, a value of tens of millions of yen to billions of yen may be added. For more information"List of expensive cars sold at auctionSee). It is said that Europe has a deep knowledge of classic cars,, Year by yearExhaust gas regulationsHas become strict,ParisFrom 2016, "cars manufactured before 1997 (so-called classic cars)" will be completely banned from running in the city on weekdays.The circumstances surrounding automobiles are changing every moment.
Store carsgarageOf the carmaintenanceAlso used as a place. Since it is sometimes used alone as a hobby base, it is also described as a "hiding place" and is often the target of men's admiration.Entertainment shows"Tokoro's Setagaya base] Is a program that brings these charms to the forefront. Also recentlyリ ビ ン グBuild-in garage, where you can see the car through the glass from the living space, has become a hot topic..
ResortIn addition to the good driving environment such as beautiful scenery and cool climate, people visitInfrastructureThere are many events related to automobiles because they are well maintained. Drive was the main purposeTourist road,toll roadAre often scattered. Italian in EuropeLake ComoAnd FrenchBiarritz, SwissLeman lakesideEtc. in JapanCapital AreaIt is a villa area in the suburbsHakone,Karuizawa,sunlight,Fuji Five LakesThe surrounding area.. Each of these areas was once a place where nobles and upper class people enjoyed their vacations.TributeClassic car events are often held as.. Also, in Japan, there are many automobile exhibition facilities in the above-mentioned areas, which has become very popular. Of global car collectorsYoshiho Matsuda"Karuizawa Classic Car Museum" in 1980Former KaruizawaFounded in the following yearSengokuharaTo the "Porsche Museum" and thenGotembaOpened "Ferrari Museum" in(Currently all closed).Lake KawaguchiIn the vicinity, a private collection of Nobuo Harada, who was also a car collector,Kawaguchiko Automobile MuseumIs published as(Open only in August every year).Needless to say, there are other automobile museums all over the country (""Category: Japanese automobile museumSee).
In this way, automobiles are more than just transporting people and goods. However, youths "away from cars[Note 12]In recent years, "" has begun to appear prominently not only in Japan but also in Europe (for details, see ""Youth away from carSee).
Car and fashion
A car is essentially a tool for transportation derived from a horse-drawn carriage, but during its long history, it developed independently while gaining a motif from various other cultures and things. It could be aristocratic culture, dandyism, subculture, oraircraft,ShipAnd so on. Wear these when riding, even in modern timesAccessoriesIt may be left as a remnant in. On the contrary, the car may affect the clothing,腕 時 計Is a particularly prominent example. In addition, the exterior of the car is sometimes compared to women's fashion,Event companionIs a typical example.
With car brandsClothing brandSometimes collaborate to produce works,motor ShowHas been shown at.. Many driving gloves and driving shoes used during driving are also sold under clothing brands in European countries.DentsBut in shoesTods,Salvatore FerragamoIs famous. AlsoPorscheBut"Porsche designIndividual fashion brands called "," Ferrari and BentleyperfumeCar brands may also launch a clothing department separately.. For Japanese cars,Toyota OfGR,Lexus,Nissan,HondaHave entered.
スイスKnown for luxury watchesChopardHas been an official sponsor of Mille Miglia since 1988, releasing limited models every year.. Of the company presidentKarl Friedrich ScheufeleIt is,"Quality car enthusiasts love and favor quality timepieces, and vice versa, because in both cases, highest precision and sporty elegance are the most important factors."To say.. Also of Swiss luxury watchesTag HeuerHad long been focused on racing spirits, but in 1971Scuderia FerrariWe formed a partnership withLe Mans of GloryDuring the production ofSteve McQueenWears the company's model "Monaco", becoming a rapidly popular watch brand in the automobile industry.. Ralph Lauren mentioned above is a famous car in the "Art Deco Automobiles" era.Bugatti Type 57SC AtlanticI am making a wristwatch with the concept of.. Other,A. Lange & Söhne,IWC,Cartier,Jaeger-LeCoultre,Girard-Perregaux,Breguet,Richard Mille,RolexMany watch makers have a relationship with automobiles.
Jiro Shirasu,Herbert von Karajan,Mifune Toshiro,Miles Davis, Steve McQueen,James DeanWas an enthusiastic car enthusiast and also attracted attention as a fashion leader due to his sophisticated outfit.
Car and status
Not only automobiles, but “things” and status have a mutual relationship since ancient times. Once people were innateSocial statusSince the was fixed, the social status naturally occurred with respect to the "things" used by people of each class. This isStatus symbol(brand) Will be recognized by the general public.
Middle classBut in modern Europe, where wealth has become possible, many emerging wealthy peopleupper classI imitated the lifestyle of and learned the principal and culture according to the status. thisAristocratic spiritThe British car is a typical example of a status symbol born from the culture of. Because they maintain traditional BritishnessRoyal WarrantWas awarded,Land roverOr Bentleyluxury carBrand, orジ ャ ガ ー,Aston MartinIs a classic sports car brand such as..However, in this culture, we take a careless position that "the" thing "that we were using naturally turned into a status symbol", and it is a shame to "intentionally show off the status to the surroundings". ("Dandyism" thought, "Sloan"Principle).
HoweverCompetitive societyWhen we enter and everyone is able to gain social status acquiredly, we ignore the former principles and cultures and openly change our status in order to visibly reflect our differentiation from others. Become proud ("MoneyThought).. in JapanHigh economic growth periodからBubble periodAnd the idea of seeking a symbol of social status as a “thing” was excessively amplified... It is reflected in the automobile industry,Specialty Car,High carContributed to the birth of supercars.
By the way, it is said that in modern Japan, the status is not "buying things" but "empathizing with friends.".. In any case, the fact that the populace is dedicated to the pursuit of status has long been unchanged.
Car and video work
On the other hand, even in movies in which automobiles are not the direct subject, there are some types that effectively utilize the attractiveness of automobiles. A prominent example is "007 series』(1962-)Bond carAnd "Death row elevator』(1957)Mercedes-Benz 300SL,Taxi driver』(1976)Checker yellow cabAnd so on.. There are many such examples in the drama.Detective colombo(1968-2003)Peugeot 403And "PartnerSeries ”(2000-)Nissan GT-R,Nissan skylineand so on. AlsoMusic video,CMEven in such cases, there are many works that effectively utilize the appeal of automobiles.
Car and sound/music
gasoline engine OfInternal combustion engineThe more naturally generated engine sound has attracted many car fans due to its unique mechanism in which physical technology creates an artistic sound. As a result, many car brands are also positive about engine noise.tuningHas been given. Above all, represented by FerrariV12 engineOrF1 carThe high-pitched engine sound emitted from the world has always been attractive... However, in recent years, engine sound is becoming quieter due to changes in regulations and technological improvements in recent years, and some people have negative opinions about this change in sound..
It is a recent trendElectric carSince there is no engine sound, more and more brands are trying to create attractive engine sounds using electronically synthesized sounds... Among them was announced in June 2019BMWEVConcept car "Vision M Next"So, the composer to produce the engine soundHans ZimmerHas been appointed, The notion of engine sound is changing.
The inside of the car has a certain space, but it is also closed,MusicIt is a suitable environment for enjoying. for that reason,Car AudioOccupies an important position among automobile-related products.
Music producer/ Car criticMasatoshi MatsutoyaAbout music and cars"Music issubscription, The carCar sharingThe situation is common, and it is said that the change of business model has a sense of crisis, but this is because music and cars areCommoditizationI think it's different from doing it. I think that music and cars will be created with passion even if the situation changes. "It has said.. For music works on automobiles, see "Category: Music about automobilesSee. As an automobile movie that emphasizes the existence of music,Chiki Chiki Bang Van(1968) andWild speed series(2001-), "Baby driver(2017) and so on.
Cars offer many benefits to users, but they can also harm human health and even kill lives.
The most serious adverse effects of automobiles on society areTraffic accidentThen, it creates victims such as injured people, dead people and their families, and perpetrators who were driving the car that caused the accident. Traffic accidents should be as close to zero as possible, especiallyFatal accidentIt is said that they should do their best to approach zero. The Japanese police will post the number of people injured or dead in traffic accidents every day in the area, such as police boxes, to alert people, change their consciousness, and be careful when driving. I am trying hard.
Even if classified as injured, the victim is actually heavyObstacleIncludes those who suffer for a lifetime. If the victim were to die, the sadness of the bereaved family would be immeasurable. If the deceased has a child, the child becomes a traffic survivor and must live the rest of his/her life as a "parentless child", a life that a parent could not have been able to do. .. Those who became the perpetrators alsoLiability insurance,Voluntary insuranceIt's not as easy as financially compensating for the victim. For example, when drivingWhile drivingIf you did, even though you were able to foresee the danger, you would be guilty of neglecting the duty of caution stipulated by the Road Traffic Act, but even if you weren't, just be careful for a moment. I mean I have neglectedNegligence driving fatal injuryMay apply and the driver (perpetrator) may have to serve in prison. In addition, even if the vehicle insurance was used to compensate the victim financially, and even if the driver was imprisoned in prison, the parents who were important to the orphan were not revived, resulting in the perpetrator. For the fact that the person has derailed the victim's life for the rest of his lifeMoral responsibilityWill have to continue to feel. The assailants began to suffer, saying, "I have killed a person," "I have also destroyed the life of my remaining family."The life of the assailant will also change greatly. Traffic accidents, which are often caused by cars, go far beyond just monetary and economic problems, and continue to derail and afflict people's lives.
((Some people disregard human life, or even let people convert their lives into money, but it is generally very unscrupulous in the first place.) Even if the loss related to traffic accidents is limited to Japan,6.7 trillion yen every yearSpans.
In Europe and the United States, where horse-drawn carriages prevailed before automobiles, it is understood that cars (horse-drawn carriages) are extremely dangerous, and complete separation of pedestrian and car travel locations (pedestrian separation) is horse-drawn carriages. Since the times, the distance between the roads on which cars travel and the sidewalks for pedestrians are many times longer, resulting in fewer accidents. In Europe, "pedestrian priority" is strictly enforced, and if there are pedestrians, car drivers almost stop. However, Japan was suddenly introduced into a country where it was a backward country, where even horse-drawn carriages were not widespread, that is, roads where there were only pedestrians (and carts pulled by people), so that cars could infringe on human leads. In addition, in Japan, where people who do not know the driving conditions in Europe live, the principle of "pedestrian priority" is not fully understood, and car drivers are arrogantly obstructing the walking of pedestrians. It has been left unattended. Recently, the number of Japanese people who understand the traffic situation overseas has increased, and even in Japan, awareness of pedestrian priority is given, or absolute adherence to the principle of pedestrian priority and severe penalties for drivers who do not adhere to that principle. Is becoming desired. Road infrastructure development such as expansion of sidewalk guards and securing bicycle lanes of sufficient width is required.Tomei drunk driving accidentPreviouslyDrunk drivingWas also rampant. Traffic such as overspeeding, illegal parking that causes accidents, or obstruction of pedestrianscrimeThere is a widespread situation. In addition, due to the spread of smartphones, etc.While drivingSince the number of serious accidents caused by the accident increased sharply statistically, the Japanese government made a stricter penalty for accidents caused by ``while driving'' by the Cabinet decision on May 2019, 5 and submitted it as a bill..
In addition, the aging society such as Japan (Aging society), the ratio of elderly drivers to all drivers has increased, and the "pedal mistake" of the brake pedal and accelerator pedal and the roadReverse accidentIs becoming more frequent. Despite the fact that the elderly are actually objectively measured and their driving skills have fallen, they have come to say that they are absolutely confident in their own driving. It is becoming clear that more serious and serious accidents are occurring due to overconfidence caused by.
On the contrary, the horrifying data that older drivers with less driving skills have more "confidence" in their own driving has been revealed, and they can no longer expect the "awareness" of elderly drivers, or (voluntary) licenses. It has been pointed out that it is impossible to expect voluntary returns, and that expectation of the elderly results in leaving the environment causing an accident. In Japan (including information programs on Fuji TV), the aging of the population has progressed and the number of tragic accidents has already increased rapidly. It is pointed out that legal and administrative measures such as forcibly changing to a license for automatic braking vehicles (currently, and in the future "licenses limited to self-driving vehicles") are necessary. It is supposed to be done.
In the latter half of the 2010s, leading automakers and IT companies in developed countries took the lead in the development of self-driving cars and advanced self-driving cars that utilize many AI (artificial intelligence) and high-performance sensors. However, it is already experimentally started to drive in some areas, and it is expected that it will be sold in earnest in the 2020s and will spread, and if it is a self-driving vehicle using AI with good performance There is also a prediction that the accident rate can be reduced to one hundredth or one thousandth of that of human driving, and the spread of self-driving cars will reduce the number of people suffering from traffic accidents. Is desired.
Air pollution and environmental destruction
Internal combustion engineAutomotive (ICEV)Fossil fuelBurn,carbon dioxide(CO2) AndNitrogen oxide(I have notx),Sulfur oxides(SOx),Black smokeA large amount of is emitted, which has a great adverse effect on the environment and people's health.
Air pollution TheAsthmaIt also causes lung diseases and causes lung cancer. Also, along a road where a large number of automobiles run,noiseIt also causes various problems such as vibration and vibration.
Large scale by the governments of developed countries since the 1970sCar emission regulationsCame to be done. As a result, car manufacturers have finally made serious efforts to develop engines with less harmful substances in the exhaust gas and fuel-efficient engines. In addition, in order to fundamentally solve the air pollution problem,Electric carSuch asZero emission vehicleThe number of electric vehicles sold in earnest increased in the 2010s, and exhaust emission regulations became more stringent in Europe and China in the 2020s. It is planned to be made mandatory) under the initiative of the European Parliament and European governments, and various preferential measures will be taken for the development, sale and purchase of electric vehicles that are friendly to the environment and health. It has become (already done as of 2012), and each automobile manufacturer is competing with "degasoline engine" and "electric vehicle development".
- Mass consumption of oil
It is predicted that the number of vehicles produced will reach 2018 million units in 1, but if we calculate with 1.36 liters of a 984 ton vehicle, the required energy would be equivalent to 984 billion liters of gasoline, which is 55 million annual gasoline consumption in Japan. 550 kiloliters (XNUMX billion liters)It is about twice.
Car use crime
When automobiles were not intimately related to life, the criminal's residential area and the criminal area were in close contact, but with the spread of automobiles, this assumption is broken. Although it is possible to escape from the area where the crime was committed by other means of transportation, public transportation has a limited travel time, (a railway with a camera installed at the station, a driver witnessed It is announced every year that cars are increasingly being used as a means for criminals to leave the area where they commit crimes because of the difficulty of maintaining anonymity (such as taxis). You can check it from the white paper. This problem also includes travel on highways and travel by stolen vehicles. For this problemAutomatic vehicle number readerAlthough measures such as installation have been taken, the installation location is limited because it is an expensive device, and there are people who put on covers and counterfeit numbers that make it difficult for criminals to see numbers. As such, it is not a complete measure.
- Roads and other infrastructure development that cannot keep up with the increase in automobiles and trafficTraffic jamIncrease in exhaust gas due to idling/slowing, decrease in energy efficiency, and economic/personal loss due to loss of time
- A tight supply and demand for fuel. To meet the increasing demand for gasolineOil sandDevelopment is underway,Environmental loadincrease of
- Biodiesel,Biomass ethanolSuch asAlternative fuelDue to increased demand forImpact on food supply
- Roadside storeDue to the decline in the shops in front of the stationShopping refugeesOccurrence of
And so on.
Popularization of automobiles
Changes in automobile production
In the 20th century, from the release of Ford Model T (sales 1908-1927)米 国Began to spread inEuropeBut a relatively inexpensive car was released.Second World WarLater, automobile production started by companies engaged in the war, especiallyAdolf Hitler OfNational car conceptIs a product ofVolkswagen(1938-2003) set a mass production record. In the 1970s, popular cars became popular in JapanJapanese carOverseas exports began and production volume began to grow, and at the same time South Korea,MalaysiaBut automobile production has started. The production volume described below is not based on the manufacturer's nationality, but on the geographically produced countries.
The number of automobiles produced will be about 1950 million in 1058And about 8% of that was due to the United States, which had escaped the war damage of World War II.Big threeThe United States, which was the hometown of Japan and was later expanded by Japanese and German manufacturers, was the largest producer in the world for the latter half of the century. In the sixtiesWest Germany-Buddha-British-YiProduction started in 1960 and the number of vehicles produced in 1649 reached 70 million. In the 1970s, the production of automobiles in Japan began to increase, and the production volume in 2942 was 1980 million units, and in 3856 XNUMX million units.In the 90's, following KoreaChugokuProduction increased to 1990 million units in 4855 and about 2000 million units in 58372010 million units in 77582013 million units in 8730And continues to increase. It is predicted that it will reach 2018 million units in 1..
Before the Second World War, automobile production in Japan was based on the so-calledAmerican car OfKnockdown productionAfter the war, the production of trucks and buses was prioritized in order to prepare a logistics system that failed in the war. It was in 1968 that passenger car production outpaced trucks and buses. World production in 1960 was 1649 million units, but Japan produced about 76 units (breakdown: 17 passenger cars, 59 trucks, 8 buses). By 1960, companies such as Suzuki Motor, Fuji Heavy Industries, Daihatsu, Toyo Kogyo, Honda, which had been producing tricycles and motorcycles, had begun to produce automobiles... 1966 million in 229 when it was said to be the "first year of a car"(Of which, 98 passenger cars), of which about 26 were exported... In 1980, it reached about 1 million units, surpassing the United States.. Japan's automobile exports in 1980 were 597 million.. In 1991, it produced a record high of 1325 million units, but since then it has remained around 1 million units... Exports peaked in 1985 with 673 million units.
In 2009, China was second with 1379 million units, far behind Japan's 2 million units, and became the world's largest automobile producer. In 793, China had 2013 million units, the United States 2212 million units, Japan 1105 million units,Germany572 units, South Korea 452 million units,India388 millionBrazil374 millionメキシコ305 millionThailand253 millionカナダ238 millionロシア218 million .. Regardless of the nationality of the automobile manufacturer, the number of cars produced is outstanding in China. One in four cars produced in 2013 was produced in China.
By region, the EU27 countries produce 16 million units in 1618 countries, and the majority are 572 million units in Germany,スペイン216 million units, France 174 million units, United Kingdom 160 million units,チ ェ コ113 millionEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euWith these 98 units, 6% of EU production was produced in these six countries. Other countries with production of about 82 million units areトルコ113 millionIndonesiaIt is 121 million units.BRICsIs a member ofRepublic of South AfricaThen there was about 50 production.
Number of cars owned (spread)
The number of registered vehicles in 1946, the year after the mass destruction caused by World War II, was approximately 5 million.で、1955年に1億台を超え、1967年には2億台、1979年には4億台、1986年には5億台となり、24年後の2010年には10億台を超えた.
During this time in each countryPeople-Transportation of goodsThe subject ofTrainSince then, the number of registered automobiles has increased dramatically due to an increase in the total population and an increase in the vehicle penetration rate.
|年度||Number of registered vehicles||World population||Per unit|
|1945||0.5 million units||23.5 million||47||The population is|
World population in 1945by.
|1955||1 million units||27.7 million||27.7|
|1967||2 million units||34.2 million||17.1||Population value in 1966|
|1979||4 million units||44.5 million||11.1||Population value in 1980|
|1986||5 million units||48.6 million||9.7||Population value in 1985|
|2002||8 million units||62.4 million||7.7|
|2010||10 million units||69 million||6.9|
|2030||20 million units||83 million||4.2||There is also a forecast of 17 billion units. In that case, one in 4.9 people.|
The figures for the population per vehicle are rough figures, except for those in 1 and 1960, where the number of significant digits of the number of registered vehicles is calculated as a single digit.
With the economic growth of China at the end of the 20th century, automobile production began in China, and in the beginning of the 21st century, it became the second largest car-owning country after the United States. Although the number of registered automobiles in China in 2010 showed a significant increase of 27.5% year-on-year,, The per capita penetration rate in China is still low, and further increase is expected. Even in India, which has a population as large as that of China, economic growth is remarkable and the number of registrants is growing, but the number of vehicles owned is about one-third of that of China. Brazil is the country with the largest number of cars following China, with an increase of 3 million in 1..
2012年末における世界の乗用車、トラック・バスを含む四輪車保有台数は約11億台で、6.3人に1台の保有率となっている。11億台の内訳は乗用車が7億7332万台、トラック・バスが3億4123万台で、乗用車の普及率は9.1人に1台となっている。自動車の普及の著しい北アメリカ、西ヨーロッパ、日本、AustraliaIn China, the penetration rate of passenger cars is about one in two, but in China, which is the second largest car-owning country after the United States, the passenger-car ownership rate per population is about one in 2 people..
For reference, motorcycle (BicycleThe number of vehicles owned (excluding the above) (2011 or 2012) is about 2 to 4 million units worldwideIt is estimated that about 1 million units in China (1 persons per unit, hereinafter the same), about 13 million units in Indonesia (7598 persons/unit), 3 million units in Thailand (1924 persons/unit),Taiwan1514 million units (1.5 people/unit[Note 13]), Japan has 1199 million units (11 persons/unit), Malaysia has 1059 million units (3 persons/unit), Italy has 858 million units (7 persons/unit)..
The following table shows the number of automobiles owned by region.
- In addition, in the 2013 report of ICCT, automobiles are categorized into Light-duty and Heavy-duty for two minutes. US Environmental Agency (EPA-registered household disinfectants) Light-duty classification is vehicle weight 8500lb(About 3.8 tons) The following car, It is almost equivalent to a car that can be driven with an ordinary license in Japan. Heavy-duty can be regarded as a commercial vehicle such as a bus or heavy truck. Note that the classification of passenger cars and trucks/buses by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association is different.
|Number of vehicles owned in 2010||2030 forecast||Decrease rate over 10 years|
|Lightweight car||Heavy vehicle||Total||share||lightweight||weight||Total||share||lightweight||weight|
|27 EU countries||239||35||274||27%||313||41||354||21%||31%||17%|
|Outside the EU Europe||28||6||34||3%||60||8||69||4%||116%||40%|
|Asia and others||40||18||58||6%||89||34||123||7%||122%||89%|
|Middle East (including Egypt)||26||7||33||3%||68||17||85||5%||161%||142%|
According to the 2010 data,EUTwenty-seven countries are the regions with the two largest automobiles. Most of the EU27 countries are Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and the West (=Spain), and 2% of new car registrations come from these five countries... The EU27 had 27% of the world's 2.7%, and the United States had 24%, 2.4 million. Following this are China and Japan, which are not comparable in terms of land area and population. The shares were about 76% with 75 million units and 7 million units, respectively. Next, Japan has more than 1% more population and the largest land areaロシアThe number of vehicles owned was about 4 million.
By 2030, it is estimated that the EU27 countries and the US will increase by 2% to 3 million units and 3.5 million units respectively, China will triple about 3.0 million units, and India will increase about 3 times to 2.2 million units. There is. Next are Russia with 6 million units, Japan with 1.2 million units, which is expected to decrease slightly from 87, and Brazil, which is 2010 times as large as 73 million units. In Korea, where economic growth is remarkable, the penetration rate is expected to double by 1.8 million units by 53, along with Japan and other advanced automobile countries.
Current status of the automobile society Los Angeles
Among the United States, which has the largest number of vehicles owned (4 people for each four-wheel vehicle), the ownership rate is high.Los AngelesIs. Looking at the penetration rate in the United States only for passenger cars, the penetration rate is low compared with 1 people per car and almost 2.6 people or less in other car popular countries... This is not classified as a passenger car in the USPickupThis is because the so-called truck is widely used for private use.
It is a car societyLos Angeles CountyHas an areaTokyoThe total population is about 4.6 times the population of about three quarters of Tokyo, which is about 1 square kilometers.There are about 700 million registered vehicles (end of 2008).. Considering the young people who cannot drive, the average number is about one in one person. Once in Los AngelesTramWas running, but was abolished in the middle of the 20th century (American tram scandal) The Pasadena Freeway of 1940 (Arroyo_Seco_Parkway) started as a highway and was transformed into a car society. As a result, the city itself was developed on the assumption that people would be moved by cars, and it was equipped with a vast parking lot.supermarket,Shopping centerIn the suburbsRetail tradeI have been forced to drive away even with a little shopping, and I have to move by car. In the 1990s, subway (Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority) Has started, but the status of maintenance is limited.
In Los Angeles CountyhighwayThe freeway is also stretched around, and many ordinary roads are also around three lanes on each side, but when leaving the commute in the morning and evening, both highway and general roads are heavily congested. Road development is progressing compared to other states in other states of the United States,subway,busSuch asPublic transportAbout 84% drive passengers for commuting due to their immaturity, and only 6% of users use public institutions, which is regarded as the worst traffic congestion in the United States.[Note 14].
CaliforniaSo gasoline prices are higher than the US average,Exhaust gas regulationsIt also has its own stricter specifications, and there is a stronger tendency to select smaller cars and hybrid cars than other states.
Japanese car ownership
Cars began to be imported into Japan from around 1898 (Meiji 31),Road lawWas established in 1919 (Taisho 8), the number of vehicles reached 5000.Taisho era OfGreat Kanto EarthquakeThe number of units increased sharply across the year, reaching 1926 in 15 (Showa 3), and exceeded 2000 in 1932 (Showa 7)... In 1945 (Showa 20), the number of vehicles owned excluding motorcycles and small special vehicles was slightly less than 14, and the ownership rate was only 0.2%.After the war, the spread of automobiles was remarkable, reaching 1950 in 25 and 35.9 in 1955... In 1956 (Showa 31), after the postwar reconstruction, it was said that it was no longer postwar, and in 1955 the previous year.MITIAnnounced the "National Car Plan". In 1958 (Showa 33)Subaru 360Was released and in the first half of the 60s, light vehicles were released by various companies. In 1960 (Showa 35), it was 230 million units, and in 1965 (Showa 40), it was 724 million units... 1966 (Showa 41) is called "My car first year"Toyota Corolla-Nissan SunnyPopular cars were released and cars began to spread.
1966年（昭和41年）のトラック・バスなどの大型車も含めた自動車保有台数は約884万台で、翌1967年には1095万台、1971年（昭和46年）に2045万台、1982年（昭和57年）に4130万台、1997年（平成10年）に6984万台となった以降は微増となりSince 2004, it has been around 7500 million, and in 2014, the number of vehicles owned excluding motorcycles was 2 million, and the ownership rate was 7721%... This is the third largest country by country after the United States and China, and the number of vehicles owned per capita is almost the same as in the United States and Western European countries. It will continue to increase overseas by 3, but is expected to decrease slightly in Japan..
Road maintenance was behind the rapid increase in automobiles from the latter half of the 60s, and the increase in traffic congestion and traffic accidents became a problem in various places. In addition, air pollution caused by exhaust gas became serious in the 70s. In Japan, the development of highways (high-standard highways) began in the 1970s, but it has not caught up with the rapidly increasing number of owned cars, and Japan's highways are not only in the United States but also in Germany, France, China, Lower level than Britain and South Korea.
For motorcycles,scootersExcluding 125cc, the number of motorcycles over 1966cc was about 88 in XNUMX,In 2013, over 125cc was quadrupled to about 4 million units, and the first type of moped was 354 million units and the second type was 666 million units, for a total of 163 million motorcycles..
In 2013, the total number of automobiles and motorcycles was 8791 million, which was a penetration rate of 1.4 in 1 people.
The number of registered vehicles in Japan has peaked since the end of the 20th century, but small cars, especially mini cars, have been increasing their share. In addition to technological advances, mini vehicles have been steadily increasing in number since the 90s because they are less vulnerable to conventional maneuverability and economy.
Car prevalence by prefecture
Japan's vehicle penetration rate in 2013 was 1 per vehicle per population and 1.7 per passenger car, which is 2.1 and 100 per 59.7 people... The above figures are for personal use, business use, light to large.
Looking at the penetration rate of private passenger cars (including minicars) per household in 2013, the Japanese average is 1 per household, which is almost one per household. In 1.08, the maximum number of households was 1 in Yamagata prefecture, and the lowest.HokkaidoWas 2.27 and the national average was 2.59.
Looking at each region on a household basis, the prefectures with the largest number of owned vehicles are the top 10 regions: Fukui prefecture (1.77 units), Toyama prefecture (1.73 units), Gunma prefecture (1.68 units), Yamagata prefecture (1.68 units),Gifu（1.65台）、栃木県（1.65台）、茨城県（1.63台）、長野県（1.59台）、福島県（1.56台）、新潟県（1.56台）などで、その他の大半の県で1台以上となっている。1台を切るのは5地域のみで、少ない方から東京都（0.48台）、大阪府（0.68台）、神奈川県（0.75台）、京都府（0.86台）、兵庫県（0.94台）と、当然ではあるが、公共輸送機関の発達したThe population densityHigh (Population city concentrationThe number of vehicles owned is decreasing in prefectures.. Following these 5 prefectures, Hokkaido (1.008 units) and Chiba prefecture (1.02 units) were the next few. The large number of households in a vast Hokkaido, which accounts for more than 2% of the total land area, is also affected by the fact that the number of households is the smallest.
Registration number prediction
Forecasts of future vehicle registrations have been issued by several institutions, and it is estimated that the number of vehicle registrations in 2030 will be 17 billion to 20 billion... By 2030, automobiles will be widely used in China, the Middle East, and India, and the total number of vehicles is expected to reach 17 billion... It is predicted that the number will reach 2050 billion by 25..
It is estimated that the number of motorcycles will reach about 2010 million in 4 to 2030 million in 9..
The number of automobiles produced in the world is very large, and in order to manufacture the many parts that make up a vehicle, a large number of personnel are required, making the car huge.industryIs. Competition among companies in the automobile industry is fierce, and intensification of price competition, deterioration of management content, selection, etc.Multi national companyConsolidation into groups is progressing.
Tens of thousands of parts (steel,ガ ラ ス,seat,Electronics,screwEtc.) and companies that are not directly visible to consumers (steel industry,ガ ラ スindustry·Synthetic resinManufacturer,ElectronicsIt also affects the sales of countless companies, including manufacturers and software manufacturers, and often requires large-scale capital investment for manufacturing. Not only those companies and factories, but also cooperating companies gather. Come onCastle townIt can be said that the economic effect around the location of automobile companies and factories is extremely large.
In recent years, global competition has become fierce, exhaust gas and safety standards have become stricter year by year, and it has become difficult for individual companies to deal with them, such as research and development of autonomous driving and electric vehicles. As a result, the number of cases of M & A and alliances is increasing.
Car brand group
For more information about car brands and manufacturers,
Representative automobile group
2020Currently as follows.
|group name||Company/Brand||Companies/groups that do not belong but have a strong capital relationship|
|Toyota group||Toyota/Lexus/Hino Motors/Daihatsu industry||SUBARU/マ ツ ダ/Japanese sea bass|
|Renault/Nissan/Mitsubishi Alliance||Renault/Nissan Motor/Mitsubishi Motors/Infinity/Datsun|
|Volkswagen group||Volkswagen/Audi/Porsche/Lamborghini/Skoda Auto/Seat/Bentley/Bugatti/Scania/MAN|
|FCA||Fiat/Alfa romeo/Abarth/Lancia/Maserati/Chrysler/ジ ー プ/Dodge/Ram Tracks||Ferrari|
|GM group||Chevrolet/Buick/Cadillac/GMC/Holden/GM Daewoo||SAIC Wuling Motor|
|Hyundai-Kia Group||Modern car/Kia/Genesis|
|Tata Group||Tata Motors/Jaguar land rover/Tata Daewoo/Tata Hispano||Marco Polo|
|auspicious||Geely Automobile/Shanghai Huawei Motor/Volvo Cars/proton/Lotus Cars/ Terra Fusia / London EV Company / yuan cheng auto||Daimler|
World share of passenger cars
- 1 bit Renault/Nissan/Mitsubishi Alliance - 11.3%
- 2 bit Volkswagen group - 11.2%
- 3 bit Toyota group - 10.9%
- 4 bit Hyundai-Kia Group - 7.3%
- 5 bit GM - 6.6%
- 6 bit Ford - 6.0%
- 7 bit Honda - 5.3%
- 8 bit FCA - 5.0%
- 9 bit PSA - 4.8%
- 10 bit Japanese sea bass - 3.5%
- 11 bit Daimler - 2.9%
- 12 bit BMW - 2.5%
- 13 bit auspicious - 2.3%
- 14 bit SAIC Motor - 2.2%
- 15 bit マ ツ ダ - 1.8%
- 16 bit Changan Automobile - 1.6%
- 17 bit Tata Group - 1.4%
- 18 bit Dongfeng Motor Group - 1.3%
- 19 bit SAIC Wuling Motor - 1.2%
- 20 bit Beijing Motor - 1.1%
- 1 bit Toyota - 9.2%
- 2 bit Volkswagen - 7.1%
- 3 bit Ford - 6.8%
- 4 bit Nissan - 5.4%
- 5 bit Hyundai - 5.3%
- 6 bit Honda - 5.2%
- 7 bit Chevrolet - 4.5%
- 8 bit Kia - 3.6%
- 9 bit Renault - 2.6%
- 10 bit Mercedes-Benz - 2.5%
- 11 bit Peugeot - 2.2%
- 12 bit BMW - 2.2%
- 13 bit Audi - 2.0%
- 14 bit マ ツ ダ - 1.7%
- 15 bit Fiat - 1.7%
- 16 bit Buick - 1.6%
- 17 bit ジ ー プ - 1.6%
- 18 bit Japanese sea bass - 1.5%
- 19.Changan Automobile - 1.5%
- 20 bit Maruti Suzuki India/ - 1.5%
- ^ en: taxiSuch.
- ^ Similar actions with motorcyclesTouring"By bicycle,"Cycling"Or"potteringIt is.
- ^ The secretariatImperial HotelPlaced in theOhte Shigenobu, Members Kishiro Okura,Daiji Ito,Masateru Terauchi,Shinpei Goto,Eiichi Shibusawa,Yukio OzakiCelebrities in the political and business circles were listed. The club is a big one with the participation of British, German, Austrian and Dutch ambassadors and ministers.salonBecame.. Most car owners at that time had a lot of influence, so their influence was great,Automobile taxHe was also engaged in administrative work such as the decision.
- ^ Arisugawanomiya is known as the person who took the first drive tour in Japan.
- ^ In 1907, a practical domestic gasoline car was developed.
- ^ Also known as Slabside, Full Wise,Ponton body.. A structure in which the fender and the body are not independent but are integrated.
- ^ From the frontBMW 328,Alfa Romeo/8C.
- ^ In frontJaguar C type, Left backJaguar XK120, Right backPorsche 356.
- ^ From the frontAlfa Romeo/TZ,Maserati 250S,Ferrari 250GT SWB,Aston Martin DB4.
- ^ A structure that improves the aerodynamic characteristics and appearance by minimizing protrusions and irregularities from the body surface. It began to be noticed with the wedge shape in the 1970s, and has been popular in mass-produced vehicles since the 1980s. It has been the mainstream until 2020.
- ^ Headlights with shapes other than round and square shapes that have been popular since the 1980s. Until the 1980s-1990s, mainly in landscaperectangle,TrapezoidOrellipseThere were many designs like shapes. Headlight coverガ ラ スFrom manufacturedResinBy changing to manufacturing, more complex shapes can be seen.
- ^ The "car" in this case is a "car" used as a hobby or entertainment.
- ^ Since there is no description in the source, it is calculated from the number listed and the population on the page of Taiwan.
- ^ If you look at the traffic on the Google Map from 6am to 9:3am and 7pm to XNUMXpm in Los Angeles, you'll see congestion on most highways during peak times.
- ^ a b Shogakukan"DigitalDaijisen』.“Automobile”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b Sanseido"Daijirin3rd edition. “Automobile”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b Hitachi Digital Heibonsha"World Encyclopedia2rd edition. “Automobile”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b "Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia ”.“Automobile”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b 平凡 社"Encyclopedia mypedia』.“Automobile”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Takashima Shigeo,Kazuhiko Ito, Shogakukan "Complete Encyclopedia of Japan(Nipponica) ”.“Automobile”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ a b c d "Automobile". Koto bank. 2020/5/4Browse.
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- ^ a b Hideo Kobayashi "How a car was driven in Japan"Asia-Pacific Study" No. 25, Waseda University Asia-Pacific Research Center, December 2015, pp. 12-29, ISSN 1347-149X, NOT 120005694993.
- ^ "Kishiro Okura Pioneering Japanese automobile racing and automobile culture". Japan Motor Hall of Fame. JAHFA. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Debut of the production replica of the Takuri (first domestically produced gasoline car)”. NPO Kunitachi City Tourism Town Development Association. 2020/8/26Browse.
- ^ ""Great car wise men that Terry fell in love with" (Terry Ito's car column 12th)". Sarai.jpShogakukan (July 2018, 5). 2020/7/9Browse.
- ^ "Motor journalist Kotaro Kobayashi". Japan Motor Hall of Fame. JAHFA. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "A modified car scene that makes its own evolution in the UK!". Red Bull. Red Bull.com (October 2016, 10). 2020/7/10Browse.
- ^ "～BOSOZOKU～ Wrong Japanese automobile culture spread and beautified in the US". ON THE ROAD MAGAZINE webOn the Road Co., Ltd. (September 2018, 9). 2020/7/5Browse.
- ^ "Compared to the mature Japanese car culture, Japan is still immature in search of Ments". Serchina. Morningstar Japan K.K. (July 2017, 7). 2020/7/5Browse.
- ^ "The Road to Carmania Human Treasure No. 91: Does Japan's unique view of cars change the world?". web CG.WebCG Co., Ltd. (July 2018, 5). 2020/7/5Browse.
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- ^ a b "Ichiro-san also appears! "WE LOVE CARS 2017" where Morizo talks about "car love"". GAZOO. Toyota Motor Corporation (April 2017, 11). 2020/7/5Browse.
- ^ "Mamoru Ishii's Design Theory "5th Transition and Outlook of Japanese Car Design (Part XNUMX)"”. Miki Shobo. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b "[Footsteps of technological innovation] Dessorting airflow: shaping air (1934)”. Toyota Motor Corporation. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "[Journey aiming for the fastest on the ground] History of maximum vehicle speed record". Red Bull. Red Bull.com (October 2020, 5). 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "The streamlined type that cuts through the wall of air is the speed of the car [GALLERIA AUTO MOBILIA] #014". CARS MEET WEBNeko Publishing Co., Ltd. (August 2019, 8). 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Bugatti T35”. Toyota Motor Corporation. 2020/8/18Browse.
- ^ a b c "Art word "streamline design"". Art scape. DNP Dai Nippon Printing. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Sculpted in Steel: Art Deco Automobiles and Motorcycles, 1929–1940”. The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "[Japanese automobile painter who was active in Paris] Mourning Hideki Yoshida Auto Galleria Luce Special Exhibition”. AUTOCAR JAPAN. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "A beautiful and high-class sports model that changed the flow of automobile design CISITALIA 202SC”. Car sensor. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "The last one in the traditional Rolls-Royce style Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud III". recruit. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Crazy about classic”. A. Lange & Söhne. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b "Rolls-Royce & Bentley History Post War: Post-WWII Chapter 19 "Silver Shadows and T Series"”. WAKUI MUSEUM. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b "Ferrari Roma's "Timeless Elegance"”. Men's Precious. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Just elegant. "Bentley S2 Saloon" (1960/UK), in love with the classic appearance | The reason why I keep riding in a classic car.”. Man's hideout digital. 2020/8/23Browse.
- ^ a b "Mechanic, try Jaguar”. THE LAKE JAPAN. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Mille Miglia ”. Brescia tourism. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "The history of the 917-917 │ until the birth of the legendary Porsche 001”. Classic PORSCHE. 2020/8/23Browse.
- ^ a b "The Fastest, Most Beautiful | What is Bentley's legendary "best answer" model? Page 5”. Octane. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "A photo gallery showing the timeless design evolution of the famous Porsche 911”. WIRED. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Porsche style”. Porsche Japan. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b "The image of the American car is established, and the big 3 makes a big breakthrough”. American car MAGAZINE.com. 2020/8/26Browse.
- ^ "Rolls-Royce with the Queen of Britain expected to win the auction at XNUMX million yen”. CNN. 2020/8/19Browse.
- ^ "THE BEST ROYAL WEDDING CARS OF ALL TIME”. AI Global Media. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "The Hundred Million Dollar Look: Chrysler for 1955-56”. Allpar. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "50's American Car Golden Age (1959)”. Toyota Motor Corporation. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Car magazine "6th turning car design into a "flat deck", where boys were distracted"”. Miki Shobo. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "CHRYSLER HISTORY”. FCA Japan. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b c "Why are cars so round these days? Is the angular car a relic of the past?”. CarMe. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ a b "Let's talk about cars and music.". Net TAM. Toyota Motor. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "A muscle car that symbolizes American cars! There was also a large displacement engine such as 7200cc”. Kotsu Times Sha. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Beyond the German car? The latest situation of the long-cherished Cadillac luxury car”. Best Car Web. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "026 Rolls-Royce / Kiyoharu Wakui Fascinated by the wind of Rolls-Royce Bentley”. Eyes. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ Masakazu Taguchi "Utilization of CAD / CAM / CAE / CAPE in automobile development" (2010, Industrial Technology: Toyo University Industrial Technology Research Institute Report p.5-8)
- ^ "There are things that can be understood from the side of the car [CAR STYLING VIEWS 3: Side view]". ClickerSan-ei Co., Ltd. (September 2011, 5). 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "[Repeating times] Why did the number of cars with a design that lifted the rear part of the car body increase? Three pages of movement to return to the horizontal tone”. AUTOCAR JAPAN. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Pop-Up Headlights – Seventy Years of Hidden History”. Heacock Classic. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "When was the supercar born?”. CarMe. 2020/8/17Browse.
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- ^ "JAMAGAZINE 2013 October # 47”. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ Michi Uyama, "A Study on the Path of Standardization of Automobile Parts" (1, Kyushu Sangyo University, "Business Studies", Vol. 2016, No. 26, pp. 3-1)
- ^ "Nissan's design revolution, de-platform sharing strategy”. Nikkei BP. 2020-08–17 Viewed.
- ^ "[Repeating times] Why did the number of cars with a design that lifted the rear part of the car body increase? Three pages of movement to return to the horizontal tone”. AUTOCAR JAPAN. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Mamoru Ishii's Design Theory "6th (Final) Transition and Prospect of Japanese Car Design (Part XNUMX)"”. Miki Shobo. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Cars with a bonnet design, why has it increased? Why old and thin and new and thick”. Media Vague. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Aerodynamics Part 2”. HONDA. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Is the headlight "functional" or "decorative"? (Part 2) [CAR STYLING VIEWS XNUMX]”. Clicccar. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "The key to creating touch points with new customers is Ferrari Japan's answer to sales strategy for the latest model "Rome"”. Forbes Japan. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "New Ferrari What is a “sweet life” to enjoy in Rome?”. GQ Japan. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "The simple design is now popular due to its complicated design. The reason why the unevenness on the car body has decreased”. Media Vague. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "World trend of car design by Satoshi Wada”. LEON. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Interior and HMI development that changes with automatic driving”. Nikkei BP. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "A fusion of home and car. "Honda House Mobi Concept" at the Tokyo Motor Show 2017”. D365. 2020/8/17Browse.
- ^ "Tamagawa Speedway: The Age of Car Racing (1936)". GAZOO. Toyota Motor Corporation (April 2017, 1). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "If you like cars, you should know the automobile cultural heritage "Funabashi Circuit"". WEB CARTOPKotsu Times Sha Co., Ltd. (July 2015, 7). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "What was the "difference between the two values" that you found when you first visited Germany?". Carview!Carview Corporation (December 2019, 12). 2020/7/5Browse.
- ^ "Will old cars produced over 20 years ago disappear from the streets of Paris?". Huff Post Japan EditionThe Huffington Post Japan Co., Ltd. (June 2016, 6). 2020/7/5Browse.
- ^ "Garage over the glass. A superb time to spend in the living room while looking at your car". Man hideout digitalSan-ei Co., Ltd. (September 2020, 5). 2020/7/18Browse.
- ^ a b "The car oyaji has no eyes on beauty". LEONShufu to Seikatsusha (October 2015, 9). 2020/7/10Browse.
- ^ "A classic car rally only for beautiful and tough women". Octane. SHIRO Co., Ltd. (June 2018, 8). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Classic Japan Rally 2017 in HAKONE". Classic Japan Rally. IM: PRES: SION. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "What is "Marronnier in Nikko" that continues for 30 years? A gathering of adults who love classic cars". CAR CARE PLUSEid, Jacy Resonance (April 2019, 4). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Run through with a car. Yoshiho Matsuda, a model of such a way of life". Octane. SHIRO Co., Ltd. (June 2020, 6). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Kawaguchiko Automobile Museum". Navi nationwide.Japan Tourism Promotion Association. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Automobile x fashion Creativity is nurtured What is playfulness?". NIKKEI STYLE Art & ReviewNihon Keizai Shimbun (March 2013, 5). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "What are the trends of cars that you can see in the leading cities of fashion?". LEONShufu to Seikatsusha (October 2019, 11). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Not just a companion! Women flapping with cars [Tokyo Auto Salon 2016]". GAZOO. Toyota Motor Corporation (April 2016, 1). 2020/7/26Browse.
- ^ "Ralph Lauren shows off his proud supercar! What's the picture of a Luxe show in your private garage?". VOGUE JAPAN. Condenast Japan (June 2017, 9). 2020/7/10Browse.
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- ^ "The 5 best driving shoes proposed by Kentaro Matsuo, editor-in-chief of THE RAKE JAPAN". Mondo Alfa.Alfa Romeo Japan (January 2020, 1). 2020/7/10Browse.
- ^ a b "Welcome to the world of Mille Miglia". Chopard official website. LE PETIT-FILS DE L.-U. CHOPARD & CIE SA. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "What controls the time controls the time: TAG Heuer has evolved motorsport". GQ Japan. Condenast Japan (June 2016, 11). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "The story of cars and watches spun by Ralph Lauren". GQ Japan. Condenast Japan (June 2015, 8). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Why is the design of Jaguar changing so much? In search of the latest Britishness". GENROQ WebSan-ei Co., Ltd. (September 2020, 2). 2020/7/18Browse.
- ^ "There is no doubt if it is a style born in the UK [Part XNUMX] Consider adult fashion". Lady pictorialHearst Fujingaho (December 2019, 12). 2020/7/12Browse.
- ^ "Who called Seikin a "new aristocrat"? Just earned gray gold, no courtesy/culture-Chinese newspaper". Record ChinaRecord China Co., Ltd. (August 2009, 8). 2020/7/12Browse.
- ^ "Status is important anytime!? Who was the “momentary aristocrat” that was talked about 30 years ago?". @ DIMEShogakukan (July 2019, 12). 2020/7/12Browse.
- ^ "The car becomes a status symbol again! Are you a trend follower? A school that sticks out?". Car sensorRecruit (July 2020, 1). 2020/7/12Browse.
- ^ "Showa pick-up master purveyor! 3 dating cars that will make a mark in history". carview!Carview Corporation (December 2019, 6). 2020/7/12Browse.
- ^ "Status changed during Heisei! Young people who "want to sympathize with their friends" rather than "buy things"". FNN Prime Online. Fuji News Network (April 2019, 4). 2020/7/12Browse.
- ^ "Cars in the movie-Part.1". OPENERS.SmartMedia Limited (May 2015, 5). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ a b "Why is the Ferrari engine sound so beautiful?". LEONShufu to Seikatsusha (October 2020, 4). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "Be quiet enough to talk without earplugs. The engine sound of F1 this season also looks great.". Sports Graphic Number WebBungei Shunju (February 2014, 3). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "The latest trend of "Sonic Branding", where branding is becoming more and more emotional with sound,". AMPBrave Media (February 2020, 2). 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ 
- ^ Science Council of Japan "Toward a Society with Zero Traffic Accidents"
- ^ 
- ^ 
- ^ Japan Energy Economics Research Institute Oil is now 2013 OIL NOW
- ^ a b US DOT Table 1-23: World Motor Vehicle Production, Selected Countries
- ^ Figures from 1950 to 1990 are in Englishen: List_of_countries_by_motor_vehicle_productionThan.
- ^ The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) End-of Life Vehicle Recycling in the European Union
- ^ International Organization of Motor Vehicle (OICA) 2000 Production Statistics
- ^ OICA 2010 Production Statistics
- ^ OICA 2013 Production Statistics
- ^ The Wall Street Journal http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304858104579262412636884466 Global Car Sales Seen Rising to 85 Million in 2014]
- ^ a b c d Hiroshi Ono, "Postwar Japanese automobile industry development"Research on Economics," Vol. 1995, No. 45, 1, p.68-76, Faculty of Economics, Hokkaido University
- ^ Sone, "History of foreign investment policy in the Japanese automobile industry: From the early days to the postwar reconstruction period"Research on Contemporary Society and Culture," 2007, 39, p.109-124,ISSN 1345-8485, Graduate School of Contemporary Society and Culture, Niigata University
- ^ a b Source: Hokkaido University, Niigata University, JAMA-There is a difference in numerical values at Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association.
- ^ "Promotion of national car concept and motorization"[Broken link]
- ^ Ministry of education"Progress of technological innovation and its results"
- ^ International Automobile Manufacturers Association(OICA)
- ^ Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "Four-wheel vehicle production in each country/region"
- ^ en: UNEP / GRID-Arendal Historic and Future Trends
- ^ a b c d United Nations Environment Program UNEP Vehicle Population and International Trend Sep., 2012
- ^ Unless stated otherwise, the population is from the World Population page.
- ^ a b c Joyce Dargay et al, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds Vehicle Ownership and Income Growth, Wroldwide: 1960-2030
- ^ Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "Number of automobiles in the world (end of 2012)"
- ^ a b c Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "Availability of automobiles in major countries"
- ^ a b c d e f International Council on Clean Transportation European Vehicle Market Statistics-Pocketbook 2013
- ^ Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "Number of motorcycles owned by countries/regions around the world"
- ^ EPA-registered household disinfectants Vehicle Weight Classification
- ^ US Census Bureau Los Angeles County, California
- ^ Los Angeles Almanac Vehicle Registrations
- ^ USA Today Ten cities with the worst traffic
- ^ Takebe Kenichi (2015), p. 163.
- ^ Takebe Kenichi (2015), p. 172.
- ^ a b c Ken Asai (2001), pp. 260-261.
- ^ Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "National car concept and motorization"
- ^ Agency for Natural Resources and Energy White Paper on Energy 2006 "212-3-12 Changes in the number of vehicles owned by vehicle type"
- ^ a b Automotive Inspection Registration Information Association "Vehicle ownership table"
- ^ Ken Asai (2015), p. 57.
- ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Current situation of logistics" November 24, 11"
- ^ Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "Number of motorcycles owned"
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "From the results of the National Lifestyle Basic Survey (22)"
- ^ Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association "Number of privately owned passenger cars owned by 100 households by prefecture (as of March 2013, 3)"
- ^ Huffingtonpost Number of cars worldwide surpasses 1 billion.
- ^ Renault Nissan Aliance Finaly Tops The World' Ranking
- ^ World Car Brand Ranking in 2016-Top50 Focus 2 move
- ^ Shogakukan "Digital Daijisen". "Regular passenger car”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- ^ Shogakukan "Digital Daijisen". "Ordinary passenger car”. Kotobank. 2020/5/4Browse.
- Ken Asai (cf. PHP) "Dictionary that understands roads and roads: read, know, have fun"Japan Business Publisher, November 2001, 11, first edition.OCLC 122921520.ISBN-4 534 03315-X-,ISBN 978-4-534-03315-4.
- Kenji Asai "Dictionary that understands Japanese roads The more you know, the more interesting" Nihon Jitsugyo Publisher, October 2015, 10, first edition.OCLC 931928195.ISBN-4 534-05318-5,ISBN 978-4-534-05318-3.
- Kenichi Takebe (cf. Japanese studies.com) "Japanese history of roads"Central public opinion new company〈Chuko Shinsho 2321>, July 2015, 5.OCLC 1041276556.ISBN-4 12-102321-8,ISBN 978-4-12-102321-6.
- Structure, basic performance, etc.
- Car of the Year
- motor Show
- Automotive parts production system exhibition
- Motor sports
- Segment (class division)
- Car dealer
- Auto loan(My car loan, auto credit, etc.)
- Transportation business by car(transport）
- Legal regulations
- By country
- Various list
- Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)
- Japan Automobile Federation (JAF)
- Japan Motor Hall of Fame (JAHFA)