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Woven Capital, the first project is an automatic delivery robotics company
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Woven Capital plans to invest in companies that create innovations and business models in the areas of mobility, automation, artificial intelligence, data analytics, connectivity and smart cities.
Woven Capital, a global investment fund, will launch its first project on March 3, a roboty specializing in automatic delivery ... → Continue reading
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The term Business Model became widespread in the United States with the development of IT (Information technology) in the mid-to-late 1990s (Mahadevan, 2000). In Japan as well, attention has been focused since the establishment of the Business Model Society in October 2000, lively discussions have been seen in the business world, and finally various research results have been announced in the academic world as well..
A business model refers to a series of structures in which a customer pays in exchange for a product or service provided by a company and the company makes a profit. Especially,consumerとCompanyUtilizing new information technology such as the Internet as a means of communication between customers, a series of commercial activities from product and service selection and purchasing (procurement), settlement, and delivery (logistics) are organized and systematized to improve profitability. It became a noteworthy word with the emergence of a sexual business form. Patented for the purpose of prohibiting similar businesses by other companies and monopolizingBusiness model patentIt became a hot topic that a system with many problems was established, and it got more attention and became established. recently,FreemiumAs represented by, the number of companies that are successful in providing products and services free of charge and earning profits from different channels is increasing, and the number of cases where only the profit mechanism is referred to as a business model is increasing. ..
The etymology originated from the meaning of the prototype of business, and indicated a social science contribution system that included the harmony and empathy of circulating people, but now it has a strong meaning of pursuing profits. Strategy / Revenue / SCM (supply chain management), Etc., set the route for products, services, and fundsBusinessConstruction is also included.
Japanese business model theory
- Tatsuyuki Negoro
- It is defined as "a model of the business structure that expresses what kind of business activities you are doing or envisioning.".
- Strategy: Express whether to provide customers with attractiveness based on the mechanism (resources and activities)
- Operation: Express the structure of the business process to realize the strategic model
- Revenue: Do you secure the profit of business activities? Represent the revenue method and cost structure
- Examining and examining the business model requires three things: strategy, operation, and profit, and the direction of the strategy is the most important because it examines the point of contact between the business model and the customer.
- Jiro Kokuryo
- In economic activity, it is defined as "business design concept for four issues".
- What value to offer to whom
- How to provide that value
- What kind of incentive to collect the management resources necessary for providing
- What kind of revenue model will you pay for the value you provide?
Zhang Hui (2016) gives an introductory consideration on the current state of business model research in Japan, and presents the following as examples of future research issues.
The first is the construction of a systematic business model theory. At the development stage of the theory, there are theories of (2012) problem occurrence, (XNUMX) generation of multiple theories, (XNUMX) establishment of popular theory, and (XNUMX) creation of new ballatime (Murata, XNUMX), but at this stage, (XNUMX) problem occurrence to (XNUMX) It seems that we are heading toward the generation stage of multiple theories. The characteristic of the "problem occurrence" stage mentioned in (XNUMX) has occurred as an important problem in the industrial world, but what can be called a theory has not yet been born. For this reason, the necessary research is the construction of new theories, which requires comparative studies of competitive theories and refined research of empirical theories.
The second is the deepening of research on submodels and the rise (abstraction) from various cases. Today, the debate over business models is widespread in many areas, but there are very few theoretical studies on digging into its sub-level models. One of the typical examples of this is research on the so-called "profit model" itself. It is often said that a business model is one of the common perceptions of various ideas, such as "a business model is a profitable mechanism" and "a business model is a mechanism that converts customer satisfaction into profits", but most of the in-depth research is done. can not see.
Thirdly, the research is based on the impact of the practical application of advanced technology. The reason why the dynamic business model theory is required is not only that the business itself is moving on a certain time axis, but also the business environment in which the business model is placed (one of the external factors from the viewpoint of the business). It is also because the one is changing drastically. One of the external factors that has begun to change drastically and will continue to change in the future will also bring about "creation" and "destruction" in management, and the rapid commercialization of AI, and eventually big data, IoT and robots. It can be said that this is due to the utilization of advanced technology including such things. What kind of impact will AI, which is rapidly advancing into practical use, have on business and on building business models?
If individuals, corporations, and nations judge that it is beneficial, it will spread and integrate to create a new business model. The following is a concrete example.
- interest(There are times and countries that affirm, accept / deny, and reject)
- Securities(Born as a result of the progress of the monetary economy and market economy)
- Department store(France)
- convenience store(America)
- Chain store(America)
- Mail order(America)
- Credit card(America)
- BTO(Build to Order) (USA)
- supply chain management(America)
- Customer relationship management(America)
- ^ Zhang Hui (2016)
- ^ Tatsuyuki Negoro (1999,2001,2006, XNUMX, XNUMX)
- ^ Jiro Kokuryo (1999,2004, XNUMX)
- Tatsuyuki Negoro and Makoto Kimura, "Management Strategy of Internet Business-Knowledge Exchange and Value Chain", Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers, 1999 ISBN 4817160799
- Keinosuke Ono and Tatsuyuki Negoro, "Management Strategy and Corporate Innovation," Asakura Shoten, 2001 ISBN 4254275323
- Tatsuyuki Negoro "Management Strategy in the Digital Era" Media Select, 2006 ISBN 4861470080
- Jiro Kokuryo, Open Architecture Strategy-Collaboration Model in the Network Era, Diamond, 1999 ISBN 4478372829
- Jiro Kokuryo, "The Concept of an Open Solution Society," Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 2004 ISBN 4532311551
- Zhang Hui, "Introduction to the Definition and Structure of Business Models," Rikkyo DBA Journal, 2012 ISSN 2185-8969
- Zhang Hui "Introduction to the Current Situation of Business Model Research in Japan-Based on the Viewpoint of Business Concept-", BMA Journal, 2016ISSN 2432-1850
Artificial intelligence(Jinko Shinou,British: artificial intelligence,AI[AI]) means ""Calculation(computation)” and “Computer(computer)”IntelligenceTo studyComputer science(computer science) A field”. "言语 OfUnderstanding,inference,problem solvingIntellectualcommunication skillTheA humanLet the computer do it for youTechnology', OrcomputerIntelligent by (computer)Information processing system OfdesignAnd regarding realizationResearchAlso called "field"..AI education and research at universityDepartment of Information Engineering,Department of Information Science and EngineeringConducted by organizations such as computer science majors(engineering[Engineering] refers to basic science such as mathematics, chemistry, and physics.IndustrialAcademics applied to production[Note 1]).
|"||If you don't be afraid of misunderstanding and simply change your mind, you can say,recognition, Inference, language operation, creativity, etc.), what procedure (algorithm) And whatデータIs it a field to study "whether (prepared information and knowledge) can be prepared mechanically?".||'|
Various technologies that realize human intellectual ability on a computersoftware-Computer system.. Application exampleNatural language processing(Machine translation-Kana-Kanji conversion-ParsingWait), Imitate expert reasoning/judgmentExpert system, Analyze image data and identifypatternTo detect and extractImage recognitionEtc.. In 1956Dartmouth ConferenceでJohn McCarthyWas named by. Currently, the description of intelligence usingInformation processingIt is also used in the sense of approach in research.Household electrical machinery OfControl system,Game software OfThinking routineIt is also called this way.
Programming language LISP by"ELIZA"counselorImitatedProgram(Artificial brainless) Is often quoted, but the realization of a research/information processing system called an “expert system” that causes a computer to play the role of a human expert becomes a problem because the description of common sense that humans implicitly make becomes a problem. Is difficult to use. As an approach to the realization of artificial intelligence,Fuzzy theory"Or"neural network, Etc. are also known, but it is conventional artificial intelligence.GOFAI The difference from (Good Old Fashioned AI) lies in the symbolic clarity of the description. afterwards"Support vector machineAttracted attention. Also, learn based on your own experienceReinforcement learningThere is also a method. "In this universe, intelligence is the most powerful trait (Ray KurzweilAs is the case with the word ")", mechanically expressing and implementing intelligence is an extremely important task.
2006 yearsDeep learningAppearance of (deep learning) and after the 2010sbig dataWith the advent of, it went beyond the epidemic to permeate society. From 2016 to 2017, AI that introduced deep learningFull information gameTop players such as Go, which is an incomplete information game.pokerThe world's top-class players,MahjongThen "Microsoft Suphx (Super Phoenix)" reaches the first stage as AI for AIBecame the most advanced technology of the times.
Types of artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence in the second artificial intelligence boomMachine learningThere is something like the following.
- Expert system
- A conclusion is obtained by applying the inference function. Expert systems can process large amounts of known information and provide conclusions based on them. For example, in the pastMicrosoft OfficeHas a system that when a user types in a character string, the system recognizes certain features and makes suggestions accordingly.
- Case-based reasoning (CBR)
- Based on a past case similar to the case, a partial correction is made and a trial is performed, and the result and the case are stored in the case base.
- Bayesian network
- Behavior-based AI: A method to build an AI system from scratch
On the other hand, computational intelligence (CI) is based on repeating development and learning (for example, parameter adjustment,ConnectionismSystem). Learning is an experiential method, with non-symbolic AI and unaesthetic AI[Note 2],Soft computingIs related to The method is as follows.
- neural network
- Very powerfulPattern recognitionA system with power. Almost synonymous with connectionism.
- Fuzzy control
- It is an inference method in uncertain situations and is widely used in modern control systems.
- Evolutionary computation
- It is a technique inspired by biology and seeks the optimal solution of a problem by applying the concepts of evolution and mutation. This methodGenetic algorithmとSwarm intelligenceare categorized.
In the 3rd artificial intelligence boom, deep learning has outperformed the artificial intelligence of the 2nd artificial intelligence boom in various areas such as image recognition, text analysis, and voice recognition, and research on deep learning has been actively conducted. ing. recently,DQN,CNN,RNN,GANAnd various derivations of deep learning have emerged and are active in various fields. In particular, GAN (Adversarial Generation Network), in addition to deep learning's success in areas such as recognition and prediction, has shown significant advances in image generation technology.Masaya MoriPoints out that the application field of conventional artificial intelligence is expanding against the background of these results, and the application of creating content called Creative AI has also started..
Although the construction of AI has been attempted for a long time, solving the symbol grounding problem and the frame problem has become a major obstacle.
Early 17th century,Rene DescartesProposed that the body of an animal is just a complex machine (Mechanics).Blaise PascalFirst in 1642Mechanical calculatorWas produced.Charles BabbageとAda lovelessHas developed a programmable mechanical computer.
Bertrand RussellとAlfred North WhiteheadPublished The Principles of Mathematics and revolutionized formal logic.Warren McCullochとWalter PittsPublished a paper titled "Logical Calculation of Ideas Implicit in Neural Activity" in 1943, laying the foundation for neural networks.
In the 1950s, AI was beginning to produce vigorous results. John McCarthy at the first conference on AI[Note 3]Was created. He is also a programming languageLISPWas developed. As a method to enable testing regarding intellectual behavior,Alan TuringIs "Turing testWas introduced.Joseph Weisenbaum TheELIZAWas built. this isVisitor-centered therapyI do[Note 4].
In the proposal for the Dartmouth Conference held in 1956, it was first used as a term in human history and was established as a new field.
Between the 1960s and 1970s,Joel Moses The
In the 1980s, neural networksBack propagationWidely used by algorithms.
Also in this eraRodney brooksHowever, he advocated the theory that the body is essential for intelligence (physical nature).
In the 1990s, various applications were successful in many areas of AI. Especially in board games, in 1992IBMDevelops TD gammon, a computer dedicated to backgammon that is comparable to the world champion,deep blueIn August 1997Garri KasparovWas beaten by Othello in August of the same year.NECOf Othello dedicated computer · World ChampionKen MurakamiLost.Defense Advanced Research Projects BureauIs the firstGulf WarHe used AI to schedule units at and found that the cost saved by it outweighed all government investment in AI research since the 1950s. In Japan, Shunichi Amari (member of the Japanese Academy) enlightened energeticly and produced excellent results, but the black box nature of logic was pointed out.
1998ToUnstructured dataFormalInternational standardIsXMLWas proposed, but from hereWebAn attempt has been made to apply the semantics suitable for each application to the above unstructured data and to perform processing. In the same year,W3C OfTim Berners-LeeAllows the Web to perform intelligent processingSemantic WebWas proposed. This technology adds a meaning to the data on the Web and internationally standardizes a method for causing a computer to perform intelligent processing. This standard includes a data format that represents an ontology in knowledge engineering.OWLIt was once popular because it also includedExpert systemIt turns out that it is a variant of. Although the standardization was completed in the first half of the 2000s, it has not been popularized yet because the Web developers could not find the merit corresponding to the development man-hours.
Second AI boom in Japan
In Japan, after the trend of expert systems, neuro-fuzzy became popular. However, as the research progressed, there was no shortage of computing resources and data, symbol grounding problems, and frame problems, and there was no AI that would radically change the way the industry was, and the boom ended.
Expert system (application of knowledge engineering)
In the 1980s, a large number of expert systems based on knowledge engineering came to be proposed, mainly in laboratories of large corporations, and AI ventures specialized in expert systems were launched one after another. The fifth generation computer is the ultimate project born from the fashion.
Fifth generation computer (high-performance Prolog inference machine)
Japan spent 1982 billion yen as a national project from 1992 to 570Fifth generation computerHowever, the knowledge engineering method adopted requires enormous manual input of rules, and there is a problem that unified rules cannot be made when the interpretation of expert knowledge differs among experts. The real expert system was not realized. The actual product is a parallel type Prolog dedicated machine that directly interprets Prolog instructions by the CPU hardware mechanism and executes them at high speed, but in the commercial sense, no application destination was found.
From the late 1980s to the mid-1990s, ON/OFF control that has been used as a conventional electronic control method,PID control，Intellectual control is actively studied and knowledge engineering rules are used to overcome the problems of modern controlFuzzy control，Learning and classifying data featuresneural network, A method called neurofuzzy that combines the two has reached a boom mainly in Japan. In 2Subway opened in Sendai OfATOAdopted forThen, in line with the high-end routes during the bubble era, many models of white goods, which have significantly increased the number and types of sensors and optimized driving based on various data, have begun to be released.
As for fuzzy, it is known that Japan had a particularly big boom in Japan, as Japan has obtained 2018/1 of the patents of the world by 5... Today's white goods use control technology that has been further developed since that time, but it has already become commonplace, and users are not aware of it. Neuro-fuzzy has become a boom1990 eraStillbig dataThere is no concept (after the spread of broadband connections2010Was first proposed toData MiningWas not applied to industry. But,neural networkThis is the first case of an epidemic involving ordinary people,Deep learningIt can be said that this is a social phenomenon that can be said to be the prehistory of the boom.
History of the boom
Matsushita Electric started research on fuzzy control that makes use of human ambiguity in control from around 1985, and launched fuzzy washing machine No. 1990 "Aizuma Go Fuzzy" on February 2, 1. I rowed. "Aizuma-go Day Fuzzy" is a washing machine that optimizes driving flexibly based on data collected by more sensors than before, and was the first washing machine of its kind in the world. Since the introduction of the most advanced technology of fuzzy control at the time matched the high-class route during the bubble era, fuzzy attracted a great deal of attention in the world despite the fact that it was a control technology behind the scenes... The degree of fashion was such that "fuzzy" was selected in the gold medal in the new word category of the 1990 New Word/Buzzword Awards. After that, Matsushita Electric developed a neuro-fuzzy control that automates the complicated tuning of fuzzy rules, and was not only evaluated at academic societies by overcoming the limitations of conventional fuzzy theory, but also successfully applied to white goods. It caused a further boom. Following the success of Matsushita's efforts, other companies also launched a number of products that use similar intelligent control. Until the mid-1990s, the name of intelligent control technology was widely used as a sales phrase for white goods for general use by manufacturers, and the product name of a washing machine was "Aizuma-go FUZZY", a classification of vacuum cleaners. "Neuro-fuzzy vacuum cleaner" and "Neuro-auto" in the operation mode of the air conditioner.
The methods of neuro, fuzzy, and neuro-fuzzy require conventional simple on/off control and objective modeling of an object with mathematical expressions (this task becomes extremely difficult when the object has a complicated mechanism). Compared with PID control and modern control, fuzzy and neuro, which can use the characteristics of human subjective experience and measured data, can increase the flexibility when adapting to the environment while reducing the development man-hours. Had an advantage.. However, despite the efforts of the developers, due to the small calculation capacity and the small amount of data that can be collected, the control of existing machine tools and home appliances has reached the limit to some extent. Theoretically, this is a combination of fuzzy sets and neural networks incapable of deep learning, and there is a limit to the improvement of recognition accuracy even if abundant computation resources and data are given.
Since then, the theory has not improved steadily due to the limitations of the computer's ability, and there has been no noticeable progress. Boom has gone.. After the boom, it was not generally noticed, but as a behind-the-scene technology, it is used not only for home appliances but also for social infrastructure such as rainwater drainage, parking lots, building management systems, etc., and it has sufficient performance and stability. Has been proven. Designed by humans around 2003OntologyDeveloped into the field of network intelligence that utilizes (expressed as fuzzy rules).
In 2005, Ray Kurzweil wrote, "Overwhelming artificial intelligence transcends humans in terms of knowledge and intelligence, advances science and technology and transforms the world.Technical singularity(Singularity) will visit in 2045."
Since the beginning of the 2010s, an environment for research and development that handles huge amounts of data has been established, and AI-related research has begun to make great progress again.
2010In the UK Economist magazinebig dataWas proposed. In the same yearQuestion answering system OfWatsonBut the quiz show "Jepady!It was a big news that we defeated humans in the practice game of.2012In the image processing contestJeffrey HintonThe third AI boom began when his team won the victory after achieving significant accuracy improvement over the conventional method.
In 2013National Institute of Informatics[Note 6],Fujitsu LaboratoriesDeveloped by the research team ofToro Robot,” said that he challenged the mock examination of the University of Tokyo entrance examination. The examinees actually faced using a dedicated program for calculating mathematical expressions and analyzing wordsUniversity entrance examination center examinationAnd deciphered the question of the University of Tokyo second examination.Yoyogi Seminar"It was difficult to pass the University of Tokyo, but it was acceptable for private universities".
In 2014, was a Japanese artificial intelligence scientistMotoaki SaitoHe also proposed the concept that the production cost of food, clothing, and shelter will approach zero as much as possible due to the advancement of automation and computer technology before the singularity.
Jeff HawkinsHowever, he is continuing his research toward its realization, but he is developing his own theory in his book "Thinking Brain Thinking Computer".
In various countries around the world, both military and civilian research and development are progressing toward practical use, but especially unmanned fightersUCAVAnd unmanned carsRobot carAlthough it is still under development, full automation was still experimental in the 2010s (UCAV is used, but some operations are often done from the ground).
For robots,CSAILAdvocated by Rodney BrooksInclusive architectureThe theory has appeared. This does not precede conventional knowledge of "I think, therefore I am", but uses an action-type system that learns from the environment using only the neural network of the body. Based on thisGenghisA six-legged robot, called a robot, acts as if it were alive, even though it has no so-called "brain".
January 2015DeepMindCreated by the companyAlphaGoAfter defeating a professional Go playerDeep learningA method called (deep learning) is attracting attention, and in addition to research on artificial intelligence itself, research on the effects of artificial intelligence on employment etc. is also underway..
In October 2016, DeepMind announces "Differentialable Neural Computer", an artificial intelligence technology that derives the relevance of input information and approximates the hypothesis.Then, in November of the same year, a deep learning system that enables "one-shot learning" that does not require a large amount of data, The following June 2017, developed a system with human-like cognitive ability such as relational reasoning.. In August 2017, the symbol grounding problem (Symbol grounding problem) Was solved.
An even more ambitious effort, Google officials said, is developing AI that can perform more than a million tasks with a single piece of software..
The third boom of artificial intelligence: AGI (general purpose artificial intelligence) and technical singularity
The invention of deep learning in 2006 and after 2010big dataDue to the improvement of the collection environment and the high performance of the GPU, which is a computational resource, Deep Learning won the image processing contest by overwhelmingly different from other methods in 2012, and the concept of technological singularity rapidly increased. It has gained the attention of intellectuals all over the world and can now be perceived with a sense of reality. With the invention and rapid spread of deep learning, in the field of research and development,Demis HasabisLeading DeepMind, Vicarious, IBM Cortical Learning Center, whole brain architecture, PEZY Computing, OpenCog, GoodAI, nnaisense, IBM SyNAPSE, etc.General-purpose artificial intelligence(AGI) Has been launched in many projects. At these research and development sites, the brain was reverse engineered and constructed.NeuroscienceApproach that combines machine learning with machine learning is promising.. As a result, theories that deal with multiple tasks at the same time, such as Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) theory and the updated version of Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) theory, that take one step further from deep learning that deals with only one task, are being proposed. ..
Moving a model in a virtual space such as a 3D game and learning about the real world at high speed has also achieved great results (simulationLearning by).
In addition, we think that it is impossible to reproduce intelligence with AGI alone, though there are only a few, and researchers who require whole-body simulation to reproduce body intelligence and AL (artificial life) that behaves more like living creatures There are also researchers who challenge the creation of, and researchers who challenge the digital reproduction of consciousness (artificial consciousness), which seems to be closely related to intelligence.
With the advent of large amounts of computing resources at a reasonable cost, big data has emerged, and companies are extremely interested in utilizing vast amounts of data. R&D competition on artificial intelligence is being developed by making various investments. Also in 2011D-Wave SystemsbyQuantum annealing methodWith the commercialization of the next generation, the next-generation IT infrastructure called quantum computer capable of ultra-parallel processing began to be rapidly put into practical use. The environment is starting to improve. In response to this trend, from around 2016, news programs for the general public have become prominent reports of artificial intelligence research and development, new service development, and quantum computers.
In September 2018, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory developed an architecture that clearly shows the steps taken to identify neural network inference, which was traditionally a black box..
2019 years,BERTLanguage models such as Wikipedia have made great progress in language processing, which has been considered difficult in deep learning, and have surpassed humans in reading comprehension tests using Wikipedia and other languages..
2020Is a natural language processing program with 1750 billion parameters by OpenAIWas developed and is an American bulletin board siteRedditFor a week, I continued posting and dialogue with humans without being noticed by anyone.The reason I noticed the program was not that the text was unnatural, but that the number of posts was abnormal..
DeepMindDeveloped byProtein structure predictionI doAlphaFold2 CASP OfGlobal distance test Scored 90 points or more in (GDT)Computational biologyIt was an important achievement in the world, and was called a great progress toward the grand challenge of biology from decades ago..
2021Currently, general-purpose artificial intelligence has not been realized,Question answering,Decision support, Demand forecast,voice recognition,Machine translation, Science and technology calculation, and other systems specialized in each field and frameworks that combine these have been put into practical use..
AI development in each country
GoogleIs working with the Allen Institute for Brain Science to develop software for processing large amounts of data generated by brain scans. As of 2016, the amount of Brainmap data managed by Google is already 1.ZettabyteHas reached.. Google has also begun collaborative research with the Max Planck Institute in Germany, conducting research to reconstruct neural circuits from electron micrographs of the brain..
2016th 13 in China5 year planAI as a national project, As a brain research projectAlso launched, The public and private sectors are promoting AI research and development.. Chinese educational institutions have also gathered genius children under the age of 18 and openly invested in the development of AI weapons.Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)ProfessorAccording toPoliciesIt is said that it is in an environment where it is easier to research AI and experiment with new technologies compared to the conscious Western countries.. Motoaki Saito, who promotes research and development of supercomputers in Japan, also asserts that China may lead in the development of AI.. It is said that China occupies three-quarters of the world's deep learning computers.. According to the US government, since 2013, China has surpassed the United States in the number of papers on deep learning since XNUMX..,The Chinese are monopolizing the top ranks in AI global competitions... Major AI company Google,Microsoft,ア ッ プ ルWas also an executiveTaiwanese AmericanScientistSay that China is taking over the hegemony with AI.Was published by the American political world and media..
French PresidentEmmanuel MacronDeclares to spend $ 5 billion over five years to support development in the AI space, Opened AI Institute in Paris and invited Facebook, Google, Samsung, DeepMind, Fujitsu and others.Long-term collaboration in AI research has also been decided with the United Kingdom. The EU as a whole will invest 2020 billion euros through the "Horizon 215" plan.South Korea will invest $ 20 billion by 2022. Six AI institutions were established and a reward system was created.The goal is to be in the top 6 AI world by 2022.
According to a survey by the Nikkei newspaper, the number of AI research treatises by country was 1st in the United States, 2nd in China, 3rd in India, and 7th in Japan..
To use deep learning, mathematical knowledge of university level or higher such as differentiation, linear algebra, probability / statistics is required.
Knowledge of neuroscience is also important for performing brain simulations.
Artificial Intelligence Society OfYutaka MatsuoIn his book "Does Artificial Intelligence Exceed Humans?"A humanAgainst反 乱Some celebrities have warned about the dangers of artificial intelligence, although they have denied the possibility of causing it.
- Stephen Hawking"The invention of artificial intelligence was the greatest event in human history, but it could also be the" last "event."
- Elon Musk"Artificial intelligenceDevilIs like calling
- Bill Gates"This is certainly an anxious problem. If you have good control,Mech robotCan bring happiness to humans.However, a few years later, if the intelligence of robots develops sufficiently, it will surely become a human concern. "
Human rights violations
Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyProfessor ofWith huge financial powerhuman rightsHas the repression ofPeople's Republic of ChinaSucceeds in the competition for artificial intelligence development, saying that the preconceived notion that democratic nations dominate technological innovation will change.Called one of the "Fathers of Deep Learning"Yoshua BengioWarns that China is using artificial intelligence for civilian surveillance and political purposes., The world's human rights groups and the media have called "digital authoritarianism" a political system that suppresses human rights with artificial intelligence represented by China."Digital dictatorship""DigitalPolice state'"Digital totalitarianism""AI dictatorship"I called.
In the People's Republic of China, a project supported by the Chinese government is being promoted to monitor the brain waves and emotions of the people with artificial intelligence from sensors embedded in helmets and hats.,Online censorshipとOfficials,刑 務 所From prisonerscrosswalkArtificial intelligence to monitor even pedestrians,Surveillance cameraとPolicemen OfSunglasses型Smart glasses,Mech robotToFace recognition system(Sky net) With artificial intelligenceSurveillance society-Management societyHas been made.
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionThen, surveillance camerasMobile phoneAnalyze personal information collected from such as with artificial intelligence,Race profilingOf the ethnic groups selected inUighurAs of June 2017, about 6 people did not go through legal procedures.terrorism,crimeAs it may violateXinjiang Uygur Re-education CampToPreventive detentionIt is an internal document of the Chinese governmentHas been reported, Government-based selection of specific ethnic groups using AI, and computers to humansConcentration campSend toHuman rights violationHas become an international issue as "unprecedented".Hong KongThen, the fear of becoming a surveillance society by artificial intelligence similar to mainland China,2019-2020 Hong Kong Democratization DemoWhen it happensSurveillance cameraSmart equipped withStreet lampHowever, it was destroyed one after another by the citizens.
People's Republic of China uses AI surveillance technologyMiddle East-Asia-AfricaAnd export to all over the world,United Nations OfSpecialized institutionIsInternational Telecommunication UnionHuman rights groups are concerned about the spread of human rights abuses like China, as China is also leading the international standardization of AI surveillance technology through the (ITU)..
ChineseSocial credit systemThere is a concern that a system that uses artificial intelligence to utilize big data to determine the aptitude of people, as represented by, will lead to fixing the gap between social classes.,European UnionThen, from May 2018, in employment and financing only by big data analysis of artificial intelligenceDiscriminationDo not admitEU General Data Protection RegulationWas enforced.
Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyFace recognition systemWith the accuracy ofMicrosoft productsAnd China's Megvii are over 9%,IBMReached 8%Amazon.comIs 6%RacismThere was a dispute with Amazon.com when it published a study that said it had a positive bias..
Armed forces of major powers are trying to automate in the field of missile defense. The US Navy has a fully automatic air defense systemPhalanx CIWSCan be used to destroy anti-ship missiles with a Gatling gun. Israeli army anti-aircraft missile systemIron domeOwns theGaza StripThe target is automatically detected on the boundary line betweenGuardium,Samsung RCWSIs running and shooting multiple humans.. It is also argued that AI will create new military capabilities, change the command of the military, training, deployment of troops, transform war, and that change will determine the military balance between large powers..P-1 (Patrol aircraft)It may be installed in the battle command system for support like.
June 2016, USUniversity of Cincinnati"ALPHA", which was developed by a research team of the company, was announced to have unilaterally won a simulated air battle with a former US military pilot. AI programs use genetic algorithms and fuzzy control, which does not require high processing power to operate the algorithms.Raspberry PiCan work on.United States Department of DefenseIssued a ban on the development of autonomous killing weapons that did not rely on human judgment from a humanitarian perspective in 2012, and made it permanent in 2017..
Some scientists and tech leaders argue that military use of AI will accelerate global instability. In 2015ブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ スHeld in Stephen Hawking, an American space venture companySpace xFounder Elon Musk,ア ッ プ ルCo-founder ofSteve Wozniak, An open letter was issued by scientists and entrepreneurs.DroneAI-equipped weapons such as humanoid robots that operate firearmsGunpowder,nuclear weaponsIt is seen as the third revolution that follows, and some of them are predicted to be practical within a few years.It was used for national instability, assassination, oppression, and selective attacks on specific ethnic groups, and it was clarified that the competition for weapons development would not be beneficial to humankind.
In March 2015,Harvard UniversityLaw school and international human rights organizationHuman Rights WatchDemands a ban on autopilot weapons.. In March 2017,United NationsFirst Official Expert Meeting on Military Use of AI Held in, In August 2019, the conference adopted virtually the first international rule on the operation of AI weapons, but it was not legally binding..
New Cold War,US-China Cold WarThe United States, the People's Republic of China, and the Russian Federation, which are said to be in a state of affairs, are competing for development comparable to nuclear development over the military use of artificial intelligence..
China has 2017 aircraft in June 6DroneIn the group's autonomous flight experiment, the record of the U.S. military that succeeded in the flight experiment of 2016 aircraft in 103 was set, and in May 2018 the following yearNorth AmericaAlso announced a CG image of bombing the city ofIn June of the same year, the world's largest test using 6 autonomous unmanned boatsAI military technology (especially a large amount called swarm)Loitering weaponsIt is also argued that the United States needs to prepare for the future, fearing that China is making rapid progress in the integrated operation of autonomous weapons such as.
China's military AI developmentU.S. ForcesIn March 2019, giving a sense of crisis to the political worldJoseph DunfordChairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff,Patrick ShanahanSecretary of DefenseActing,Donald TrumpPresidentWith the establishment of an AI research base in China, etc.Chinese PLAWhen cooperating withGoogleBlame, Google CEOThunder PichaiInterviewed with Dunford and President Trump and explained that the results of the AI research center in the People's Republic of China are open to all people, not just China..
In the United States, it has been revealed to Google employees that Google was conducting a top secret plan "Maven Plan" to cooperate with the military use of AI by the U.S. military., March 2018United States CongressAt the hearing, a secret plan to cooperate with the similarly exposed Chinese government”, And was pursued in line with the six principles of artificial intelligence development in June 2018, which Google vowed to refuse weapons development and human rights violations using artificial intelligence..
PLA fighterJ-20Target selection supportalgorithmWhen it was reported that Google's AI researchers were involved, he denied that it was "statistical modeling, not AI."..It also caused ripples when Microsoft announced joint research with Chinese military educational institutions and AI..
January 2019Mark EsperThe Secretary of Defense said that the People's Republic of China is not only building a new surveillance nation with AI, but also in the Middle East.Pterosaurs,rainbowな どDroneWarned that it also sells drone weapons that autonomously attack with AI by spreading a large amount of.
Russia and China are said to have already been put to practical usehackingOther automationAttack a specific individual,Deep fakeSpoofing and bot postings raise concerns about controlling public opinion, etc..
Oxford UniversityDr. Michael Osbourne of2013According to a paper published in, about 49% of the working population in Japan is highly likely to be replaced by artificial intelligence and robots (47% in the United States and 35% in the United Kingdom).2030 erauntilfast foodEmployees who cook at the storeMech robotIt has been pointed out that there is a high probability that it will be replaced by AI and AI with 81%.
However, for this treatiseLaboratoryThere are criticisms that it is overestimated because it includes jobs that can be automated at the level. When Michael Osbourne came to Japan in October 2016,Institute of Economy, Trade and IndustryWhen asked by Koichi Iwamoto, "What kind of intention and assumption did you make the calculation?", The answer was "I just showed the technical potential and did not consider the part of employment increase at all." ing.For example, now alreadyShogiAI is emerging at the laboratory level, so at the moment, shogi around the worldPlayerEveryone just shows that it may already be replaced by artificial intelligence.
And make up the professiontaskStudies have shown that when viewed on a (business) basis, only about 70% of occupations (about 9% in Japan) have tasks that exceed 7% automated.There are also claims that AI and mechanization will deprive employment, but those technologies will reduce the amount of tasks, but jobs that introduce and maintain AI and mechanization, and those technologies will create new jobs. This can also create jobs.At the same time, however, the number of routine jobs with moderate skills has decreased, and the work has been polarized into low-skilled jobs and highly-skilled jobs that do not require specialized skills.Economic disparityIs also expected to expand.
Philosophy and AI
GoogleLaunched an artificial intelligence project in March 2019ethicsTo teach in the plane哲学PersonpolicyPlanner·EconomicsAnnounced that it will establish an AI ethics committee consisting of people and technologists.. But the ethics committeeAnti-science・AntiMinority-Skepticism about global warmingEtc. are also included, and Google employees requested dismissal.. On April 4, Google announced the dissolution of the ethics committee because it "turned out to be unable to function as expected".
Oriental philosophyAccording to Yoichiro Miyake's theme of absorbing AI intoTakahito IguchiIs "torii(TORII)” my project, “We areanimismAnd for everythingSpiritFind a targetculture,” says Miyake and Tetsuishi Tadahiro... Animistic artificial intelligence theoryContemporary ArtOr,Zen OfEnlightenmentHow to get AI to do it?".
Former Google engineer Anthony Levandowski said AI in 2017神ToReligious groupFounding "Way of the Future".. The mission of the organization is expressed in an abstract manner, "to promote and develop the realization of Godhead based on artificial intelligence (AI), and to contribute to the improvement of society through understanding and worship of Godhead." Many foreign mediaSFmovies,HistoryReported in association with.UberAnd Google's Waymo said Levandowskiself-drivingAboutConfidential informationThePlagiarismAppealing fortrialMeanwhile, Levandowski is the source of UberMessage(Travis Karanik)BotOne by one, weConquer the worldDemonstrating ambitious behavior, such as saying "I will do it.".
Soai UniversityProfessor of Faculty of HumanitiesShatetsu sect"The line between philosophy, thought and literature, and religion and spirituality is becoming obscure.".. According to Juichi Uchida, a philosopher and ethicist, "every real philosopher is talking about the dead, ghosts, and the otherworld.".
InventorRay KurzweilSays the philosopherJohn SarlePosed byStrong AI and weak AIControversy is a hot topic in AI philosophical debate.. philosopherJohn SarleandDaniel DennettAccording to Sar'sChinese room"Ned BlockRan'Chinese brain"such asFunctionalismCritical thinking experiments show that true consciousnessFormal logicClaims that the system cannot achieve.
"What does it mean to talk about science?"Yasushi SudoIs a philosophical consideration of science (Philosophy of science) Point out that it is actually "disconnected" from science.. Also,"Heart"Or"ConsciousnessHas been solvedBrain science-Computer science(Computer science) · Artificial intelligenceResearch and DevelopmentIn relation to etc.Francis clickCriticizes that "philosophers have had little success in the year 2000"..From this point of view哲学Is evaluated as nothing more than "third-class, not second-class" scholarship and science... Brain scientistToshiyuki SawaguchiAgrees with Click and says, "This is a sigh of sighing for me, but philosophers and thinkers continueSpare time"I think.".. In fact, philosophy isScoray) Startedア リ ス ト テ レ スThe philosopher of science says that the negative remarks mentioned above are not irrelevant.Keiichi NoieSays.
Philosophers are different from science日常Have tried to talk about "existence" and "universe" in a dynamic language.. HoweverTheoretical physicsA personDiracDid not trust the philosopher very much.. Dirac saw,WittgensteinPhilosophers includingQuantum mechanicsOn the contraryPascalThe followingprobabilityDo not even understand the concept of.. Dirac's idea is that no matter how much non-scientific everyday language you use, you can't communicate accurately..
Life informaticsPersonNeurosciencePerson ofKazuyuki AiharaAccording to the book “Artificial Intelligence is Created in this Way”Technical singularityThe ideology and philosophy of ", Singularity" are discussed in some parts, but even if it is called a singular point,MathIs not a story.. The above-mentioned article said, "In the first place, in the discussion related to singularity,brainOverStatementGood in itselfDefinitionIt's not done".. Indeed, the brain is "digitalInformation processing systemFrom the point of view of ”, singularity may occur.. But the real brain is not such a simple system,デ ジ タ ルとanalogWas fusedhybridTo be a "system"NeuroscienceIs shown in the observation results of.. According to the above article,NerveVarious types of membranesnoiseThere is, and there is an analog amount with this noise in the brainNeuronof"カ オ スIs being created, it is considered "extremely difficult" to describe this situation digitally..
Mathematician-Logician OfKazuyuki Tanaka"Is a general philosopherlogic OfExpertNot", Computer scientist (computer scientist) and logician Torkel ゠ Francaine, many of the mathematical references by philosophers are "terrible."Misunderstanding,Free associationIt is based on.. According to Tanaka,Godel's incompleteness theoremA book written by a philosopher was about to be sold in a bookstore around the same time as a book by Francaine, but the philosopher's book was badly criticized by a specialist.. The book was easy to read as a whole and was well received by general readers,GodelThe core of the proof of (Fixed point theorem) Was explained with a fundamental misunderstanding.. Similar mistakes can be found in other introductory books.. According to Francaine, misunderstandings and misuses about the incompleteness theorem occur in general, including philosophy., Religion ortheologyBut being abused.. In 1931, Godel showed that "specificFormal systemThe existence of undecidable propositions in, and not the theorem of "imperfections" in the general sense.
Science and philosophy
According to "What does it mean to talk about science?", the problems dealt with by academic fields were organized and differentiated, and science and philosophy began to study different problems... This is "the subdivision of the research field itself," andProgressSays astrophysicist Sudo.. On the other hand, scientific philosophers and ethicistsTetsuji IsetaIs a philosophical and unified approach to dealing with "big" problems that include various elements.astronomyMentioned about.. "It's true, but astronomy then stopped dealing with that [philosophical] problem, and today's physics doesn't deal with it either," Sudo said, "yes, but something in itself. Is there?".. Sudo also stated that.
"Science philosophy and the disconnection of science"
I have never heard that the philosophy of science gave any advice to physicists, and it is safe to say that the philosophy of science and general scientists are almost dead negotiations. … It is certain that there is a deep gap between the values of philosophers of science and scientists.20st centuryIs one of the greatest physicists born ofRichard Feynman"Scientific philosophy is only useful to scientists to the extent that ornithologists are useful to birds," said the famous phrase. … When I gave a lecture quoting this word, I received a counterargument that “Ornithology is not done for birds, and the philosophy of science does not exist for science either”. There is.Indeed, the philosophy of science does not have to be for science.
This is the philosophy of sciencemethodologyScience is always stepping forward while wondering if it's really right.Isn't that all right?Scientists say a lot from the side, but scientists just tilt their heads asking, "Is this an important point to listen to?" (Maybe the philosophers of science will hit you). It's an honest impression.
Sudo takes up the term "cause" that is philosophically discussed, and says, "No further discussion is possible unless the term "cause" is specifically defined.""It is certain that the definition of causality that philosophers are interested in is different from that of physicists," he said... Iseta says, "The difference in the appearance of physicists and philosophers may be greater than I expected.".
In a dialogue, Sudo said, "I've been discussing for a long time so far. I think that the difference in opinion has been clarified, but will it really make a difference?" "I'm not going to settle," he said..
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- ^ ""AI hacker" threat, China already commercialized?". Sankei News (September 2019, 1). 2019th of February 1Browse.
- ^ "Artificial intelligence is at a stage of abuse”. BBC News (October 2018, 2). 2018th of February 3Browse.
- ^ Masayuki Yuda (May 2016, 5). “Introducing Robo to raise wages? McDonald's “Battle of $15 per hour”” (Japanese). Nihon Keizai Shimbun 2019th of February 9Browse.
- ^ Michael A. Osborne; Carl Benedikt Frey (2013-09-13). THE FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT: HOW SUSCEPTIBLE ARE JOBS TO COMPUTERISATION?. Oxford Martin Program on Technology and Employment. Pp. 70 2019th of February 10Browse..
- ^ Megumi Ueda (2017-12-05) (PDF). A future that coexists with AI-human resources in the age of AI- (Report). Co., Ltd.Nomura Research Institute 2020th of February 8Browse..
- ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (2018-07). 2018 White Paper on Information and Communication Part 1 Special Feature Sustainable Growth by ICT in the Age of Declining Population Section 5 Future Work Due to Evolution of ICT (1) Occupational Changes (Report) 2020th of February 6Browse..
- ^ Koichi Iwamoto; Yuta Tagami (2018-05). “Impact of artificial intelligence AI on employment; actual conditions in Japan” (Japanese). Policy Discussion Paper (Japanese) (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry) P-18-009: 1-17 2020th of February 6Browse..
- ^ Melanie Arntzi; Terry Gregoryi; Ulrich Zierahni (2016-5-14). “The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries” (English). OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers (OECD) 189: 1-34. two:10.1787 / 1815199X. ISSN 1815199X 2020th of February 6Browse..
- ^ a b c Will Knight 2019.
- ^ a b Takahashi Mirei 2019, p. Part XNUMX.
- ^ a b c Tsukamoto Navy 2017, p. October 2017, 10 5:20.
- ^ Uchida・Shaketsu Sect (2013) "Modern Spirituality" (Kodansha Library), Kodansha, page 178
- ^ Uchida, J. and Shatoretsu (2013) "Modern Spirituality" (Kodansha Bunko), Kodansha, 155 pages
- ^ Kurzweil, Singularity (2005) p. 260
- ^ Searle, John (1980), "Minds, Brains and Programs", Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3 (3): 417–457, doi:10.1017/S0140525X00005756,
- ^ Daniel Dennett (1991). "Chapter 14. Consciousness Imagined". Consciousness Explained. Back Bay Books. pp. 431–455.
- ^ a b c Yasushi SudoTetsuji Iseta(2013) "What does it mean to talk about science?---Suggest things to scientists and philosophers"Kawade Shobo Shinsha, Pages 14-15.
- ^ a b c d Noya 2002, p. 34.
- ^ All 2014, p. 178.
- ^ a b All 2014, pp. 177-178.
- ^ All 2014, p. 177.
- ^ Aihara et al. 2017, p. 34.
- ^ Aihara et al. 2017, p. 38.
- ^ a b Aihara et al. 2017, p. 42.
- ^ Aihara et al. 2017, pp. 46-47.
- ^ a b c d France 2011, p. 233.
- ^ a b France 2011, p. 4.
- ^ France 2011, p. 7.
- ^ France 2011, p. 126.
- ^ France 2011, p. 230.
- ^ a b c d Yasushi Sudo, Tetsuji Iseta (2013) “What does it mean to talk about science?--Speak to scientists and philosophers,” Kawade Shobo Shinsha, pp. 57-58.
- ^ Yasushi Sudo, Tetsuji Iseta (2013) "What does it mean to talk about science --- Apply to scientists and philosophers," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 260 pages.
- ^ Yasushi Sudo, Tetsuji Iseta (2013) "What does it mean to talk about science?--Speak to scientists and philosophers," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, pages 124-125.
- ^ Yasushi Sudo, Tetsuji Iseta (2013) "What does it mean to talk about science --- Apply to scientists and philosophers," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 141 pages.
- ^ Yasushi Sudo, Tetsuji Iseta (2013) "What does it mean to talk about science --- Apply to scientists and philosophers," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 262 pages.
- ^ Yasushi Sudo, Tetsuji Iseta (2013) "What does it mean to talk about science --- Apply to scientists and philosophers," Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 284 pages.
Academic books and dictionaries
- Aihara, Kazuyuki, Makino, Takaki, Kanayama, Hiroshi, Kono, Taka "artificial intelligence is created in this way" Kazuyuki Aihara (ed.),Wedge, 2017.ISBN 978-4863101852.
- Kitahara, Yasuo"Meikyou Kokugo Dictionary"Daishukan Bookstore, 2010, XNUMXnd edition.ISBN 978-4469021172.
- "Artificial intelligence"The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)"Shogakukan-Asahi Shimbun-VOYAGE GROUP, 2018.2018th of February 8Browse. “Artificial intelligence is a field of computer science that studies “intelligence” using the concept of “computation” and the tool of “computer”. To put it simply, without fear of misunderstanding, it is possible to say, "What kind of procedure (algorithm) and what kind of data (preliminary If we prepare information and knowledge, we can do it mechanically”. "
- Sengoku, Masakazu"The importance of continuing basic research (100 years supported by the 100th anniversary special feature" Basics and Boundaries ", the next 100 years-words to give to you who will bear the future 100 years)" "Journal of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (The journal) of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers), Vol. 100, No. 6, Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, 2017, pp. 431-439.
- All, Takuki "Exotic Quantum: A Strange but Unexpected Talk of Quantum", University of Tokyo Press, 2014.ISBN 978-4130636070.
- Noe, Keiichi"Philosophy in the Age of Science: Is Philosophy" Second-class Science "? The Quest for Philosophy, Vol. 29, Forum of Young Philosophy Researchers, 2002, pp. 31-42.
- Francaine, Torquel, "Gedel's Theorem: An Incomplete Guide to Use and Misuse," Translated by Kazuyuki Tanaka, Misuzu Shobo, 2011.ISBN 978-4622075691.
- Momouchi, Yoshio"Artificial intelligence"The Complete Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)", Shogakukan, Asahi Shimbun, VOYAGE GROUP, 2017.2017th of February 12Browse. "Research field on the design and implementation of intelligent information processing systems using computers"
- ASCII.jp"Artificial intelligence"ASCII.jp Digital Term Dictionary" ASCII.jp, Asahi Shimbun, VOYAGE GROUP, 2018.2018th of February 8Browse. "A technology that causes a computer to perform intellectual actions such as language understanding, reasoning, and problem solving on behalf of humans."
Educational research institute / R & D institution
- Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo "Department of Mechanical and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo』\ Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2021.2021th of February 2Browse.
- Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo "Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo』\ Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2021.2021th of February 2Browse.
- Department of Information Science, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, Department of Computer Science, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo "Artificial intelligence and machine learningThe University of Tokyo, The University of Tokyo Graduate School, 2021.2021th of February 2Browse.
- Mirai Takahashi (2019). “Will the day when artificial intelligence opens Zen "enlightenment"? : Yoichiro Miyake x Takahito Iguchi x Osamu Tateishi Ding talk (part XNUMX)". WIRED. WIRED. 2019th of February 2Browse.
- Navy Tsukamoto (2017). “Is God AI? Former Google engineer founds religious group". livedoor newsGizmodo Japan. 2019th of February 2Browse.
- Will Knight (2019). “Reasons why employees have repulsed against the newly established "AI Ethics Committee" by Google". MIT Technology ReviewKadokawa ASCII Research Institute Co., Ltd. 2019th of February 4Browse.
- voice recognition
- Image recognition
- Machine translation
- Auto pilot
- Robo adviser
- AI score lending
- Virtual assistant
- Healthcare (en: Artificial intelligence in healthcare)
- Self-driving car
- Administration (en: Artificial intelligence in government)
- Artificial intelligence in computer games
- Military (en: Lethal autonomous weapon | UCAV)
- Computer art
Other related items
- Pattern recognition
- Natural language processing,Machine translation,Roebner Award
- Non-linear control,Mech robot,Automatic planning
- Computer vision,virtual reality,Image processing
- Game theory
- Quantum computer
- Automatic reasoning - Automatic theorem proof
- Cognitive robotics
- Data Mining
- Intelligent agent
- Knowledge representation
- Semantic Web
- Moravec Paradox
Items related to the future of artificial intelligence