Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🚗 | Mahindra to absorb EV division

Photo Electric three-wheeled "Treo Zol" = Mahindra Electric

Mahindra to absorb EV division

If you write the contents roughly
By simplifying the organization, it promotes technological innovation and efficiency, and can be expected to have economies of scale.

Mahindra & Mahindra (M & M), a major automobile in India, announced on the 26th that Mahindra in the electric vehicle (EV) division ... → Continue reading

 Indian watcher

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Economy of scale

Economy of scale(Economy of scale,British: economies of scale) IsProduction functionRefers to the change in production volume when all the production factors of are changed at a constant rate.In a narrow sense, described belowIncreasing returns in terms of scaleRefers to.

Production function for simplificationY Is laborL And capitalK Assuming that it depends only on two variables ofY =F (L , K ).At this time, the production function is the production amount when the scale of production is multiplied by λ.F (λL , λK ) Original productionY Depending on the magnitude relationship with λ times

  • Increasing returns on scale:  If holds
  • Constant harvest with respect to scale:  If holds.That is, the production function is the first order of labor and capital.Homogeneous functionCan be expressed by.
  • Diminishing returns on scale:  If holds

It is classified into four types.

Theoretical analysis often assumes a constant yield in terms of scale to avoid complicating the discussion.In general, the production function is increasing returns in terms of scale up to a certain level, but after thatDiminishing returnsIs believed to be.

Related matters


Innovation(British: innovation) Means "new combination", "new innovation", "new approach", "new way of thinking", and "new usage" (act of creating).Generally newTechnology OfinventionOften misunderstood to mean, but not only newideaから社会Significant newvalueA wide range of voluntary people, organizations, and societies that create and bring about major social changesChangeMeans.In other words, it refers to creating new value by incorporating completely new technologies and ways of thinking with respect to existing products and mechanisms, and causing major social changes.


In EnglishinnovationIsverb"Innovate" (innovationTo (renew)nounEnding"-Ation" is attached, and "innovate" isLatinVerb "innovare" (リ ニ ュ ー ア ルTo do)DoneParticiple formFrom "innovatus" (renewed)Origindoing.Furthermore, "innovare" indicates the direction of "in-" ("inward").prefix) And the verb "novare" (to renew).The verb "novare"adjectiveIt is derived from the "novus" (new) of.

An example of the word "innovation" itself1440It is a Latin or Italian noun that exists from (Schumpeter was fluent in several European languages).

In addition, of "innovation"TranslationAsJapaneseOften used in "InnovationIs closermeaningSay "technical innovation" or "technological innovation" in English[1].


A search of the literature on innovation reveals a wide variety of definitions. A 2009 study by Baregheh et al. Found about 60 definitions in various scientific treatises, and a 2014 study found more than 40.[2].

Innovation is1911ToオーストリアFromeconomistIsJoseph Schumpeter[3]Was defined for the first time by.Schumpeter defined innovation as "a new combination of means of production, resources, labor, etc. in economic activity in a different way."[4].

How to use in Japan

1958of"Economic White PaperInnovation is "InnovationThis recognition has been established in Japan.[5].. 1958 was a time when the Japanese economy was developing and the discovery of new technologies, technological innovations, or technological improvements were vital and important.

In the mature Japanese economy that followed, "technological innovation" that was too limited to technology led to technological development that ignored and neglected social needs, and hindered new economic growth.[5]..For this reason, "technological innovation"MistranslationMay be criticized[6].

Small Business AdministrationIn the "2002 White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises" published byManagement innovationIs written in parentheses for innovation.[7].

2007In his "White Paper on Economy", he goes back to Schumpeter's definition and describes innovation as "a general concept that includes the development of new business models."[6].

For example, if you think that a marketing concept that overturns the conventional social convention is an unexpected "new combination" between the social convention and the new concept, it will lead the social needs and even include advertising. Ingenuity in general management can be called innovation[8].


There are various known methods for classifying innovation.

Schumpeter states that there are five types of innovation:[6].

  • Production of new goods, that is, goods that are not yet known among consumers, or goods of new quality- Production innovation
  • Introduction of new production method- Process innovation
  • Development of new sales channels- Market innovation
  • Acquisition of new sources of raw materials or semi-finished products- Supply chain innovation
  • Realization of a new organization- Organization innovation


Several frameworks have been proposed that define the types of innovation[9][10].

Sustainable and disruptive innovation

Clayton ChristensenIn the framework proposed bySustainable innovation (Sustaining innovation)Destructive innovation Make a distinction between (Disruptive innovation)[11]..Sustainable innovation is the improvement of a product or service based on the known needs of current customers (eg, faster microprocessors, flat screen TVs).Destructive innovation, on the other hand, refers to the process by which new products and services create new markets (eg transistor radios, free crowdsourcing encyclopedias, etc.) and ultimately replace established competitors.[12][13]..According to Christensen, disruptive innovation is essential to the long-term success of a business[14].

Destructive innovation is often achieved by destructive technology.Marco Ian City and Karim R. Rakani define underlying technology as having the potential to create a new foundation for global technology systems in the long run.Underlying technologies tend to transform the business as completely new business models emerge over the years, innovation is gradually and steadily adopted, andTechnology,systemWave of change is happening[15]..The packet-switched communication protocol TCP / IP was originally introduced in 1972 to support a single use case for US Department of Defense electronic communications (email) and became widespread in the mid-1990s with the advent of the World Wide Web. The basic technology adopted[15].

4 types of models

Another framework commonly learned in innovation management courses is proposed by Henderson and Clark.They divide innovation into four types[16][17].

  • Innovative innovation (Radical innovation)-"Establish a new dominant design, and therefore a series of new core design concepts embodied in the various components tied together within the new architecture."
  • Gradual innovation (Incremental innovation)-"It is an improvement or extension of an established design, where individual components are improved, but the underlying core design concepts and the way they work together change. Absent."
  • Architectural innovation (Architectural innovation)-"Rebuilding an existing system to connect existing components in new ways."
  • Module innovation (Modular Innovation)-"Innovation that changes only the core design concept of technology."

While Henderson, Clark and Christensen talk about innovation, there are other types of innovation, such as service innovation and organizational innovation.

Innovator theory

Innovator theory is1962ToStanford University OfSociologistIsEverett RogersAdvocated by, also known asDiffusion of innovationAlso called.In the process of fashion after innovation has occurred, the members that make up the society are "innovators" and "Early adopterIt is classified into five types: "Early Majority", "Late Majority", and "Laguard".


Several indexes are known.

RiceBloombergThe news agency publishes the Innovation Index by country every year.In Japan, it is called innovation ranking, etc.Research and DevelopmentInvestment amount andhigh techConcentration of listed companies,Higher educationIt is based on the productivity of.

(English edition) Is the country's annual ranking by innovation capacity and success.Published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization in collaboration with other organizations and institutions, subjectivity obtained from several sources, including the International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank, and the World Economic Forum. Based on objective and objective data.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Yoshio Koine ed.Research society New English-Japanese Dictionary "(5th edition) Kenkyusha, 1980, p. 1089. 
  2. ^ Edison, H., Ali, NB, & Torkar, R. (2014). Towards innovation measurement in the software industry. Journal of Systems and Software 86 (5), 1390–407.
  3. ^ Joseph Schumpeter,Yuichi Shionoya-Seiichi Tobata-Ichiro NakayamaTranslation "Theory of Economic Development" Iwanami Shoten. [1]
  4. ^ Hiroaki Itakura "Business Studies Lecture" Keiso Shobo, 2010, 223 pages.ISBN 978-4-326-50334-6. 
  5. ^ a b Akira Kojima (May 2014, 5). “"Innovation" is not "technological innovation": "earning power" deteriorated by misunderstanding". Japan Economic Research Center. 2017th of February 8Browse.
  6. ^ a b c Kenzo Fujisue (October 2007, 10). “Japan's too heavy issues pointed out by the white paper". Nikkei BP. 2017th of February 8Browse.
  7. ^ "Section 1 SMEs that develop and grow through management innovation". Small Business Administration. 2017th of February 8Browse.
  8. ^ ""Understanding Advertising as Social Innovation: Analysis and Consideration from 30 Cases in American Advertising History", Bulletin of Faculty of Sociology, Kansai University 42 (1), 93-128, 2010-11". 2020th of February 1Browse. - CiNii
  9. ^ Blank, Steve (February 2019, 2). “McKinsey's Three Horizons Model Defined Innovation for Years. Here's Why It No Longer Applies.”. Harvard Business Review. ISSN 0017-8012. https://hbr.org/2019/02/mckinseys-three-horizons-model-defined-innovation-for-years-heres-why-it-no-longer-applies 2020th of February 8Browse. 
  10. ^ Satell, Greg (June 2017, 6). “The 4 Types of Innovation and the Problems They Solve”. Harvard Business Review. ISSN 0017-8012. https://hbr.org/2017/06/the-4-types-of-innovation-and-the-problems-they-solve 2020th of February 8Browse. 
  11. ^ Bower, Joseph L .; Christensen, Clayton M. (January 1995, 1). “Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave”. Harvard Business Review (January – February 1995). ISSN 0017-8012. https://hbr.org/1995/01/disruptive-technologies-catching-the-wave 2020th of February 8Browse. 
  12. ^ Christensen, Clayton M .; Raynor, Michael E .; McDonald, Rory (December 2015, 12). “What Is Disruptive Innovation?”. Harvard Business Review (December 2015). ISSN 0017-8012. https://hbr.org/2015/12/what-is-disruptive-innovation 2020th of February 8Browse. 
  13. ^ "Disruptive Innovations”(English). Christensen Institute. 2020th of February 8Browse.
  14. ^ Christensen, Clayton & Overdorf, Michael (2000). “Meeting the Challenge of Disruptive Change”. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2000/03/meeting-the-challenge-of-disruptive-change. 
  15. ^ a b Iansiti, Marco; Lakhani, Karim R. (January 2017). “The Truth About Blockchain”. (Harvard University). https://hbr.org/2017/01/the-truth-about-blockchain 2017th of February 1Browse"a foundational technology: It has the potential to create new foundations for our economic and social systems." 
  16. ^ Henderson, Rebecca M .; Clark, Kim B. (March 1990). “Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms”. Administrative Science Quarterly 35 (1): 9. two:10.2307/2393549. ISSN 0001-8392. JSTOR 2393549. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393549. 
  17. ^ Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation (2007), (Author) Robert A. Burgelman, Stephen C. Wheelwright, Clayton M. Christensen, Shoeisha (7/31/XNUMX), ISBN 4798106550
  18. ^ "kex Data Findings Bloomberg Innovation Index" published by datawrapper, reviewed 10. September 2019
  19. ^ "GII 2020 Report". Global Innovation Index. 2020th of February 10Browse.
  20. ^ "Innovation Indicator 2018, PDF 2,7 MB" Published by the BDI and ZEW, reviewed 10. September 2019

Related item

Concepts, disciplines



Revolution of society due to technological innovation

外部 リンク


Back to Top