Photo Sakura Morning Cruise Vol.107
More than 100 cars such as Lotus Europa and Seven gathered ... Sakura Morning Cruise [Photo Report]
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Among them are the full-tuned Austin "A35" that won the British historic car race, the individual that made the van a countryman specification, and the world's first mass-produced front-wheel drive car Citroen "11CV" "Traxion Avan" Also rare cars.
"Sakura Morning Cruise" was held on April 4th at the Kasleen Park parking lot in Kazo City, Saitama Prefecture, and more than 4 cars ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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mass production(Mr. Tairyosei,British: mass production Mass production) Is a limited varietyProductProduction form for mass production. For shortMass production(Ryo-san)mass productionAlso called.
Mass production is a form of mass production in which a limited number of products are mass-produced.Line production systemTo mass produce.
The production method of mass production isautomationProduction in advanced production equipment that utilizesProcessBy simplifying and rationalizingcostReduction of products品質Contributes greatly to the improvement of.
The mass production method was first used exclusively in the era before mass production appeared.Made to order individuallyIs contrasted with.
In 1801 Marc Isambard Brunel used the assembly line to make pulleys for the Royal Navy in England. In 1859, Thonet mass-produced bentwood chairs in Austria. In 1901, Oldsmobile produced the assembly line. →#history
- Market factors and social factors that have developed mass production
The reason why the mass production method was developedMasses OfincomelevelWith the improvementMass consumptionDue to the change in the market structure of the world from a make-to-order market to a "market-productive market"..In an era when the production of production goods was centralプ ラ ン トEquipment / heavy machinery /shipbuildingEtc. Custom-made market (Made-to-orderThe weight of the market) was high, but when the era of mass consumption (increased economic power of the masses) came,Consumer goodsThe mass production method was developed around.For example, in the United States in the 1910sFord motorThe company didT type FordMass production andAfter World War IIThe mass production of home appliances and automobiles, which started in Japan, took place in this way..
The aim of mass production is as follows.
- [Source required]Improve production efficiency by reducing various losses such as setup time during switching of production equipment.
- [Source required]Low due to simplification and simplification of each process by subdividing workwage OfLabor forceTo be able to utilize.
- [Source required]Worker'sskillReduces the part that depends on and is uniform品質Make a lot of products.
As a result, it is possible to reduce the production cost per product.However, it is a large scale line that assumes mass production.investmentTo goProduction lineTo buildFixed assetSuch asFixed costIt takes a lot.Therefore, when the production volume is small, etc.工場 OfOccupancy rateIf is lowManufacturing costJumps up.In order to produce the effect of mass production, it is necessary to secure a certain amount of production or more.On the other hand, even if the products are mass-produced, the unsold mass is large.stockThere may be a situation in which this occurs, and the issue of how to resolve this also arises.
In the final assembly process, according to customization and product switchingStall methodAs a result, a method in which one worker thoroughly joins modules is becoming widespread.
1859ToオーストリアでThonet OfMichael ThonetBut,BeechmaterialBend and make曲木chairTo sell to the worldAssembly lineStarted mass production using.The product once made is disassembled, and parts for 1 chairs are put in a 36 mXNUMX box and shipped all over the world.Reassemble it locallyKnockdown productionSwept the market.About 14 million legs of the representative product "No. 19" were produced and sold in the 5000th century.
AmericaThen.Started production on the assembly line in the 1890s.Pope in EnglandBicycleAfter observing the manufacturing, he founded the first bicycle manufacturing company in the United States.Further the American bicycle industryPatentIn a struggleMonopolyHe is a person called "American Bicycle Emperor".
The first assembly line in automobile production in the United States1901,Ransom E. OldsByOldsmobileMade in, Olds patented.The second issue isThomas B. Jeffery 1902Rambler C typeFordWas early in 1903Type A FordFollowed by.Ford continued to make improvements, making timely improvements in the T-type manufacturing that began in 1908.1914ToOn the assembly line of the chassis insidebelt conveyorWas introduced, and this point is later referred to as the "year of completion of the basic form of mass production for assembly."Ford Vice President contributed to this"The facts came first, and the ideas and principles came later," he later said. (this isToyota OfKanban methodIs the same. ) Also, Ford mass productionHenry FordWas not led by Ford executivesengineerMany years of trial and error (en: trial and error It was the result of trial and error).
History of mass production and problems
Mass productioneconomic growthIs closely related to.Age of DiscoveryOr later,Commodity economyAs the shift progressed and the production / consumption cycle expanded, profits and shares became strongly related.Do more production with less effort,ProductivityHigh-quality industries were able to grow and make a profit.
In the 18th century, in the British clothing market, which was being swept by Indian cotton fabrics, the capitalist introduced a machine invented and started a business of import substitution by domestic production.
The machine enabled mass production and produced homogeneous cotton yarn, cotton cloth and cotton fabric.The low-cost production method will soon be in IndiaComparative advantageIt was decided to reverse the sex and grow Britain as a cotton fabric exporter (Industrial revolution).
Eventually, mass production was applied to all commodities, and a society was born in which mass production was consumed.Especially in the United States, this method developed and supported the development of a vast land.
Increased production is itselfGDPThis means an increase in the number of people, but in due course various problems will emerge.
- Physical aspect
- Mass production is mass productionresourceIt means consumption, and various resources have disappeared in large quantities.wood,coal, In modern timesoilIs consumed in huge quantities.
- In addition, a large amount of pollution occurs in the process of mass production.Oxides of fuel used for power, chemical substances and sewage generated in the process of cleaning products.
- Furthermore, mass-produced products will be consumed in large quantities.In a culture where mass purchases of products are possible, "disposable" and frequent "replacement" become easier, and huge amounts of garbage are discarded.
- Economic aspect
- Due to mass production, the economyneedI was forced to create.Even in large quantitiesvalueIf was consumed, there was no problem with the production level.However, mass production itself cast a shadow over its consumption.
- Mass production is generally earlyinvestmentis required.This initial investment isMultiplier effectMass production itself will bring a saucer for mass production in order to generate greater demand.However, when the expansion of production was completed, the investment was over andDepreciationBegins.Depreciation means the loss of credit money from the market and has the opposite multiplier effect.Thus, mass productionConstructionDemand shortage.
- User aspect
- Mass production means that products with the same specifications are mass-produced.In this respect, unlike single-item production and build-to-order manufacturing,consumerIt becomes difficult to deal with individuality (become a user after purchasing the product), A large number of products will be produced based on the average specifications.as a resultNiche marketConsideration for was lost.Senior citizens,handicappedAssuming the use ofUniversal designThe movement of is based on this reflection.There are also vendors that customize for niche layers.However, a product that you can freely choose your favorite option that once existed (Mazda Roadster"Web tune factory"Mitsubishi ColtIn some cases, "Customer Free Choice") disappeared shortly afterwards.
Ford production method
The Ford production method has the following three features.
- Product standardization- Ford Model TOnly one model and its variations will be produced for a long time
- Standardization of parts- Henry LelandWas led by and popularized in Detroit
- Subdivision of manufacturing process (Work flow), Adoption of belt conveyor method-No need for skilled workers
These weren't all done by Ford first, nor were they all shaped at the same time.The main points that Ford did are that it was narrowed down to one model called the Ford Model T and that the belt conveyor system was adopted to further improve the efficiency of the assembly line, and the other points are individual. Was already done by another company.However, by further refining these individual production technologies and concentrating on one model, the production efficiency has improved significantly compared to the past, and it has become possible to provide products at low cost. It was almost formed in 1906, but the Ford production method was completed with the introduction of the belt conveyor when the T-type production from 1908 and the construction of the new factory in 1914 due to the strong sales.By this time, Ford even owned a steel mill to obtain good quality iron.
(This was an improvement in the production efficiency of only Ford Motor Company, but this caused Ford to dominate the market for a while, and the industry was motivated to counter this, and the "industry" aimed at improving efficiency as an industry. It led to the creation of a "standard". Ford had little to do with other companies in the automotive industry, including parts companies, so the US automotive industry, with the exception of Ford or in conflict with Ford. At the same time, it promoted widespread standardization and standardization. Specifically, it was in conflict with Ford in the automobile patent.ALAMAfter that, small and medium-sized automobile manufacturers such as Hudson Motor Company, which was in a crisis situation due to the bankruptcy of parts manufacturers due to Ford's monopoly and recession, took the leadSAE (Section "Standardization of Parts: Countering Fordism")It was realized in. )
The extremely simplified manufacturing process forced workers to work inhumanely.thisHuman alienationAs a satire of the situationチ ャ ッ プ リ ンof"modern times] Is mentioned.However, Henry Ford himself (overwhelmed the opposition of his relatives) guaranteed a daily allowance of $ 5 per diem to workers at the time, ensuring good quality workers and at the same time providing them. He was actively returning profits.
In the 1940s, these mass production technologies reached a high level throughout the American industry.Second World WarRapid in their production infrastructure in the second halfMunitionsHigh mechanical reliability due to the conversion toweaponMass production (Ford itselfM4 medium tank,ジ ー プ,B-24 bomberInvolved in the production ofAlliesIt was supplied to each country and greatly contributed to the victory of the war.
- ^ Daijisen "Mass Production"
- ^ a b c d Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia
- ^ However, in the case of highly homogeneous products, there is no alternative production method to mass production.As such a productMaterial,fuelEtc. can be raised[Source required].
- ^ One of the examples where support for special specifications was refusedType 73 light truck OfCar air conditionerThere is a story about.Originally planned without air conditioning, this vehicle was produced.Manufacturer sideHe said, "It is necessary to build a production line for air conditioners, but it is difficult, and it will be expensive, so please turn on the air conditioner."In addition, it should be notedThis vehicle factoryThen.Base consumer productsIs also producing.