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✈ | Takamatsu Airport selected as an "eco-city Takamatsu excellent business operator" for its environmental efforts

Photo Takamatsu Airport, "Eco-City Takamatsu Excellent Business Operator" Award Ceremony

Takamatsu Airport selected as an "eco-city Takamatsu excellent business operator" for its environmental efforts

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We are also calling on travelers to sort the trash cans by introducing notations in the trash can that can be used to distinguish between combustible and non-combustible in English, Korean, and Chinese.

In late March 2021, Takamatsu Airport commended companies promoting environmentally friendly initiatives from Takamatsu City, "Eco-City Taka ... → Continue reading


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Chinese(Chinese,: 汉语/Chinese language/中文 ,pinyin: Hànyǔ/Zhōng wén; British: Chinese) IsSina TibetanBelongs to言语.People's Republic of China(China)·Republic of China(Taiwan)·Republic of Singapore OfOfficial terminologyBesides,世界Live in each countryOverseas-ChineseIt is also used between.

Including each dialectChineseTheMother tongueAbout 13 billion people[1],Second languageIs said to be used by about 2 million people, the world's largestNative speaker populationHave.Also,United NationsIt is also one of the official languages ​​in[2].

Language name

People's Republic of ChinaThen mainly中文Call.

China is a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual nation, and the language of ethnic minorities is inevitably the "Chinese language."Chinese language(HanOften called), is often used as an academic term. ElsewhereChinese,Chinese storyThere is also a way to call it.

In ChineseStandard languageIsMandarin ChineseToMandarin(China),National language(Taiwan),Chinese(Singapore, Malaysia, etc.)#historyAnd each item). When you just say "Chinese" in Japanese, it usually refers to a normal story.[3]..Putonghua is sometimes commonly referred to as "Mandarin", but like the relationship between Japanese standard language and the Tokyo dialect, it is also called Putonghua.Beijing TalkAre not necessarily the same[4].

Generally, in Chinese, the languageCulture(Example:GermanGerman), when referring to a language, dialect or colloquial language/conversation without a clearly defined letterStory(Example:Shanghai story).wordIs used for both of the above (eg Dede (German),Minnan Language).


The characteristic of Chinese is that it is "concise from Chinese."

As an example of simplicity, first in ChinesetenseIs omitted. thereforeNowOrfutureOrPastIt depends on the reader's judgment. AlsosentenceAnd phrase,wordThe relationship between and条件ResultWhenOrderingWhenReverse connectionWhen both areword orderIt is only shown by and is left to the discretion of the reader. Hence the ChinesegrammarIs simple, but has the characteristic that it is understood by common sense. In addition, auxiliary letters (classes of physics, characters, persons, and flames) are also omitted. Chinese has the property that sentences can be established with or without supplementary characters. So this is JapaneseReadingIf you want to"Tenioha"Need to be added.

The reason for pursuing such simplicity is漢字Was used. ThatIdeographIn China, which uses only Kanji, it is possible that the Kanji to be written may not have been prepared, even though it occurs and exists as an oral word. In modern China, the method of writing colloquial language as it is is almost complete, but in ancient times many words did not have the kanji to be written. Therefore, the ancient writing method was to extract only the words that can be written as kanji from colloquial words and write them. Chinese has a property that allows it. In this way, when it was perceived that a written word had a more concise form than a spoken word, the written word consciously concisely and worked up in a concise direction. The text of "rongo" is already in that stage, and it is speculated that there was a considerable difference from the colloquial language at that time.[Source required]

On the other hand, Chinese is sensitive to rhythmPoetryIt always retains such a property, and the basis of its rhythm is often centered around quaternary phrases. Subscripts often work because of the composition of these rhythms. Using the property that a subscript is a word that may or may not exist, it is contrary to conciseness, but by adding a subscript, the rhythm is completed and the sentence is completed. Therefore, the subscripts added to satisfy such a rhythm often make it difficult to pursue a clear meaning. Also, these four phrases are oftenCoupletTypicalrhetoricBecomes In other words, it is a repeating rhythm in which words with the same grammatical conditions are placed in the same place. This couplet is easy to establish due to the Chinese character, and its sprout is "LaoziIt often appears in ancient writings such as. This will soonPoetryFrom Tang to Song中 世The beautiful sentence ofFour and six sentencesGave birth to[5].


Ancient chinese

Old Chinese(15th century BCAround- 3st centuryAround)[6]

  • 漢字Is the original form ofShell character(1899Found) is used and a simple sentence is recorded.
  • InitialsThere were compound consonants sl-, pl-, kl- (example: "supervisor" *klam) in (head consonant).
  • RhymeWas rich in tail sounds (eg "two" *gnis).
  • Word orderタイ 語TypicalSVO typewas. (Example: 吳 defeated Yukio Osho “Kure beat Yue with her husband.” SVO-Adv ⇔ Contemporary: Wu Army Zhuo Zhao Pong Yue Army defeated. Or Wu Army Zhuo Xiaoping defeated S-Adv-OV)[7]
    • The literature around this time was:Moroko HyakuyaThere are still books on the subject.
  • Played a grammatically important roleaffix,InvariantbyModifierWas formed, but began to decline in the latter half.
  • 代名詞ToCasewas there. Still someHakka,ShogoRemains in.
  • Sengoku period OfChu,Is the language ofChinese characterと 呼 ば れ るFontIn kanjiBamboo stripRecorded inBaoshan,Li Ya QinHave been discovered.
  • With the unification of the whole country, the language spread to various places.

Middle Chinese

Used Chinese(4st centuryAround- Generation)[8]

Modern chinese

Old mandarin(yuanTeens,LightTeens,clearGeneration)[11]

  • It is believed that the ancestors used the Han sound since the Tang Song[12][13].
  • In terms of vocabulary and grammar, the difference between sentence words and colloquial words has widened.LightFrom generationclearIn his teens, spokenWhite story novelHas become widely written.
  • In the former and the Qing eraNorthern languageCentered onAltay languagesI had absorbed some vocabulary from. By the wayInterstitial"Grip" isWas already there. Example:Bai Juyi"Mojo Hangzhou sashimi" is included in "Gekijou".
  • In the original daisies, "yes" was often used.
  • A language centered on the language of Beijing, where the capital was, began to spread all over the country. This language was called "Masson," but since the officials mainly used it, "MandarinThe name has come to be established[14].
  • manyNorthern dialectVoice inputDisappears[15].
  • Around the Ming Dynasty, Northern dialectChildhood"Sound" appeared.This is not an influence from the Altaic languages, but a phonological change of the Northern dialect itself.
  • Soft palate OfPalateProgresses. (clearQianlongperiod)[16]

Modern chinese

1895 OfSino-Japanese warLater, focusing on the words that describe things and concepts in Western EuropeJapanese-made ChineseBegan to flow into Chinese,1898ToKei Cho 横 浜 市It started in earnest with the publication of "Seikiho"[17].1905 OfChina AllianceSince the formation, excellent students from JapanWaseda UniversityToStudy abroadHowever, it has already been localized in Japanese and has become established.Japanese-made ChineseAnd touching Western concepts such asNational languageWas strongly influenced by. This large influx of new Chinese is1919Around its peak, after thatSecond World WarUntil the end, it continued while reducing the quantity gradually[18].

On the other hand, in the latter half of the Qing dynasty, the movement to establish standard language also increased in China,1904Requires communicative learning in elementary and secondary education[19].. Up until this time, the word "government" also included the meaning of "standard language" that should be established in the future.1910Is a standard wordMandarinThe name “” has come to be used.[20], Since then, the official language has come to refer to the dialect centered on Beijing and the national language to the standard language.TaiwanThen the name is still inherited.1911Was decided by the government of Qing Dynasty to unify the national language as a standard language.[21].

Happened the same yearXinhai RevolutionAlthough this movement was temporarily suspended by the government, the newly established ROC government emphasized the unification of Chinese and continued the unification of national languages.[22].. In the establishment of the "national language" in the Republic of China, the unification of pronunciation was first emphasized, but there was controversy over whether to use the Beijing dialect or a new pronunciation that was an eclectic mix of local dialects for this pronunciation, and finally1924Stipulated to mainly use the Beijing dialect[23].

1917IsMr. ChenThe magazine published bynew youth] In the magazine,Suitable forThe movement to change the written language from "literal style" (literal text) to "colloquial style"White talk movement) Spreads,Literary revolutionHappened[24].Lu Xunof"A Q MasadenWas created in this movement.1919(8 years in the Republic of Korea),Beijing UniversityProfessor'sSengenBecame a central figure in the New Cultural Movement by contributing to a magazine and appealing for character reform and advocating the abolition of Chinese characters.

Second World Warrear,1949ToMainland ChinaWas established inChinese Communist PartybyPeople's Republic of ChinaIn, the establishment of standard language and language unification continued to be pursued.However, in terms of pronunciation, "Kokugo" had already been established and was already widespread throughout the country during the reign of the Republic of China, so we basically took the stance of following this.However, since "Kokugo" was a loanword from Japanese, "MandarinIt was decided to change the name[25]..In response, the Government of the Republic of China, which fled to Taiwan, continued to use the term "national language."[26].

In terms of pronunciation, the government of the People's Republic of China followed the policies of the Republic of China in terms of pronunciation, but in terms of writing, it has undergone a large-scale reform and simplified the traditional kanji as an orthography.Simplified characters 1956Was adopted by. Also, as a language control agency1954The Chinese Character Reform Commission was established in1985Was renamed the National Language Characters Working Committee[27].

Standard language

In China, text words were unified since ancient times, but colloquial language was different in each region, and the pronunciation of kanji was also different in each dialect. From the beginning of the 20th century to the middle stage, aiming to resolve this situationNorthern languagePronunciation and vocabulary of modern colloquial novelsgrammarBased onMandarin"(pǔ tōng huà) Was made. To facilitate communication among the people,ChugokuThen the central governmentStandard language policyWill positively promote the use of normal talk,Education,broadcastWas introduced inStandard language-common languageIt is said that. It is generally said that about 8% of the total population understands normal talk, and the younger generation of dialect speakersbilingualIt is often. In 2017, about 80% of Chinese people will be able to use Putonghua[28],2000It was reported that it increased significantly from 53% of[29].

TaiwanAlso took control of Japan after the defeat of JapanRepublic of ChinaThe governmentNational language"(guó yǔ) (It is almost the same as "normal talk", and mutual understanding is possible, but there is a difference in voice and vocabulary)Compulsory educationIt is carried out[30].

Singapore,MalaysiaSuch asSoutheast AsiaIn the region of Mandarin, Mandarin, which is similar to ordinary language or ROC, is generally used.Chinese"(huáyǔ).


Many in ChinadialectThere is. For example,Mandarin(Northern languageOne) and Guangzhou (Cantonese・One of the Yukaku)Shanghai(Distributed in the eastern partWuNot only the pronunciation and vocabulary differ greatly, but there is also a difference in grammar,MandarinThose who can only speak can hardly understand even if they hear Cantonese and other dialects.言语There is also a view. However, since the written words are common, it is easy to read the written sentences, so in China, subtitles are often added to dramas, movies, animations, etc. that are broadcast on TV.[32][33].. In addition, since each local language belongs to the Chinese language group and the correspondence is clear, it is common to place normal language as a standard language and rank each local language as a dialect.[34][35].

Dialect classification is controversial, and it depends on the scholar how to divide it. In two categories, east of HunanYangtze RiverIn the north and southIsolinesIs almost equal to (Nantong,ZhenjiangEtc.), and inland areas north and west of thisNorthern language"(andJin Chinese), from which the south can be classified into southern dialect areas (Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2004).

The dialects are based on Proto-ChineseThai languagesSouthern languages ​​such asMongolian language,Manchu languageNorth ofAltay languagesIt is believed that they were differentiated while incorporating features such as pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. As a feature,ToneHas,Isolated wordAnd justsyllableLanguage (Columbia University Press, 2004)Northern language(MandarinIs included)yuanIt has not been isolated or monosyllabic because it has been changed to a great extent since its generation.

Seven dialects

  1. Northern language(Mandarindialect)
    1. Northeast China dialect (Beijing Talk ,Tohoku official story,Ojiro Talk,Liaison talk)- Beijing-Tianjin-Heilongjiang-Jilin Province-Liaoning-Hebei Province-Henan Province-Shandong内蒙古Part of.
    2. Northwest dialect (Nakahara Talk,Ran Gin Talk)- Shaanxi-Gansu-Shanxi ProvinceThe whole area ofQinghai Province-Ningxia-内蒙古Part of Central AsiaDongan peopleResidential.
    3. Southwest dialect (Southwest official talk)- Sichuan Province-Yunnan-Guizhou,Hubei ProvinceMost of, northwestern Guangxi, northwestern Hunan.
    4. Jianghuai dialect (Jiang Huai official story,Nanjing official story)- Anhui Province-Jiangsu OfYangtze RiverNorthern regions (however,Xuzhou-BengbuExcept),Jiangsu OfZhenjiangFrom the westJiangxi ProvinceJiujiangThe southern coast of the Yangtze River to the east.
  2. Wu(Shanghai,Such. )
  3. Refined word(Cantonese
  4. 贛 語(And so on. It's close to Hakka.)
  5. Shogo(Such)
  6. Acronym
    1. Minboku
    2. Min Dong
    3. Minnan Language(Formosan
    4. Min Chinese
    5. Chinese language
  7. Hakka

Ten dialects

It is argued that the following dialects should be independent large dialects. Composed by Australian Academy of Humanities and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences"The Language Atlas of China"Is compiled from this standpoint.

  1. Jin Chinese -In the seven major dialects, it belongs to the northern language.
  2. Tongue -It belongs to Wu in the seven major dialects.
  3. Plain story(Hirai story)-In the seven major dialects belong to the Yuu word.

EthnologueClassifies Chinese into 14 (SIL International, 2004).Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfDonganIt is,CyrillicIs written usingRussian,KyrgyzThere are many borrowed words from such countries, and because they are used in different countries, they are independent languages, and the Dongan language is added to the nine dialects excluding plain language. in this case,Acronym TheMinboku-Min Dong-Minnan Language-Min Chinese-Chinese languageIt is divided into five languages.

In addition, there are small dialects whose classification is not fixed.


Chinese isTonal language.syllableThe difference in the pitch of the sound ofconsonant,vowelIt has the same meaning as in. thisTone(Tone)[36].. For example, "MandarinIs the morpheme {ma}Light voiceThere are 19 including (Matsuoka, 2001).HoweverFlat voice,Yohei voice,High voice,Leaving voiceFour tones[37]Light voiceTherefore, it is actually divided into 5 different morphemes.

An example
  • Yinpei (first voice)- No(; Mom)-high and flat.
  • Yohei (second voice)- hemp(has; Hemp)-A rising tone.
  • Upper voice (third voice)- (I.e.(; Horse)-Keep it low.
  • Forgotten voice (fourth voice)- Taunt(; Abuse)-a sharp drop.
  • Light voice- Gossip(Ma; Questioning particle)-There is no intonation and the height depends on the previous tone.


It is a common character system of Chinese漢字Has a long history. KanjiChugokuOwnTextso,Latin lettersSuch asThe alphabetUnlikeSyllabaryIsIdeographIs. Kanji uses a large number of parts with complicated appearances, and is read irregularly.VariantThere are also many synonymous characters, so it takes a long time to learn, and because of the negative evaluation that it is economically inefficient, the simplification of characters andLatin lettersSince the Republic of Korea period, the movement for the transition to slogan has become popular, which has led to the development of simplified characters and mandarin notation.[38].. actuallyDPR Korea,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThen abolished kanji[39].

With the above movement,Mainland China OfPeople's Republic of ChinaThen.1956In addition, the number of strokes is small and the unity of reading and composition is improved.Simplified charactersWas officially adopted[40].. Simplified Chinese is mandated by the central government to be used throughout China,SingaporeIs also used in Chinese (Chinese) notation. On the other hand, the Republic of China (Taiwan),Hong Kong,MacauSo basically, I kept the font before Simplified繁体字Is used[41].

Traditional/simplified characters are based on the history of political and technological history in each culture.ComputerAnother that is totally incompatible in processingCharacter code-Character setSystem (Simplified region =GB 2312, Traditional Chinese =Big5) Has been used. There are some simplified Chinese characters that are organized into one character (many-to-one), so when converting from simplified Chinese characters to traditional Chinese characters (one-to-many usage is required),hair"(Hair)" for "bullet", "CheersMisconversions such as "(cheers)" to "trunks" are often seen in traditional Chinese pages on mainland China.

ChineseRomajiIn the notation19st centurysinceWade-Giles methodHas been used traditionally and is stillTaiwanUsed for road signs, personal names appearing in English newspapers, etc.[42]..Then in 1913 during the Republic of ChinaBopomofoA phonetic symbol called is developed and widely used.In Taiwan, which is governed by the Republic of China government, it is still common to use Bopomofo to indicate the reading of Chinese characters.[43]..People's Republic of China1956ToChinese soundEstablished a new Roman alphabet notation[44].. This sound is1977ToUnited NationsThe 3thPlace name standardization meetingSo, as the Roman notation for Chinese place names,1982ToISOIt was adopted as the Roman alphabet notation in Chinese.Pinyin also helps foreigners (especially Westerners) to learn Chinese and elementary school students to learn Chinese characters.2009In Taiwan, it also uses Kanji sound.


Word form change(Inflection) Does not occur,word orderIs an important decisive factor in interpreting meaningIsolated wordIs[45].. Other languages ​​with isolated featuresVietnameseand so on. The basic word order isSVO typeIs[46].. However, in modern Northern languages ​​and written languages,To"Or"",""byPurposeThere is a display etc.,SOV typeCan make a sentence ofAgglutinationApproaching.

An example

  • Standard language grammar:I left the bookstore. / I Kyoshoshokan Book.Wǒ qù tú shū guǎn kàn shū. (Go to the library and read a book.)

In modern languages, particles and auxiliary verbs come before and after verbs, as in Japanese. For exampleIs a verbaspectRepresents (completion) and at the end of the sentenceModalityRepresents

In ChinesetenseRepresentsGrammar categoryDoes not exist. On the other handaspectExists and the verb says ""(Done)"Over/over"(experience)"Wear/Author"(Progress)".

  • Yesterdaygo withRyo Film Institute. / Yesterdaygo withRyoden-in.(I went to a movie theater yesterday.)

In addition, CaseThe characteristic of isolated words is that there is no change in word form due to. Therefore, even in Chinesenoun,adjectiveThere is no case change. Case is indicated by word order.

An example First person singularPersonal pronoun"I”(Wŏ)

  • IPast China. / IPassing China.(NominativeI have been to China. )
    • Shanghai:ITo China. / IIt's all over the country.look to Tsoncué chicoughé.
  • I amILearning. / IILearn.(PurposeMy mother lets me study. )
    • Shanghai:I personallyILearning. / My individual accountILearn.ngoghé mama gnian look ghózí.
    • English order by same: My mom made me study.


Chinese is basically a monosyllabic language, but modern languages ​​have a growing syllable of multiple syllables.[47].. One character is used for one syllable in the kanji used for Chinese notation.

An example

  • Home(jiā; House)
  • go(zǒu; Walk)
  • L(from; Big)

ExceptionallyLoanwordFor example, some words have no meaning in monosyllabic.

An example

  • glass(bōli;Glass)

Original ChinesewordIs a monosyllabic, so even ifToneEven if you make a distinction withPolysemy,homonymWill increase. Therefore, especially in Northern languages, "eye" → "eye, "Ear" → "ear, "Nose" → "nose, Etc., to make the meaning clear by using multiple syllables (Hashimoto, 1981).

Also, in the same sense monosyllabicmorphemeMay be aligned to form a two-syllable idiom. For example,verb"Study/study"(Learn) ispinyinIs written as (xué), but there are five homonyms ((Study, hole, 噱, ankle, 泶) So, in order to clarify the meaning of "learning", I made it into a two-syllable word, "Study/Study'' (xué xí) Can also be used.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "The world's languages, in 7 maps and charts"Washington Post March 2015, 4 Read March 23, 2020
  2. ^ "Member States and Official Languages" United Nations Information Center Retrieved February 2020, 6
  3. ^ "Toga Large Language Module|Chinese". www.coelang.tufs.ac.jp. 2020th of February 9Browse.
  4. ^ "Mandarin is not a standard language|Chinese Study Seminar-The secrets of choosing a university". liuxue998.com. 2020th of February 9Browse.
  5. ^ Kojiro Yoshikawa, The Story of Hanbun, Chikuma Publishing, New Edition 1971 (First Edition 1962), pp. 32–74, 177
  6. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p13-14 Wang Zhu Hua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  7. ^ (Hashimoto, 1978)
  8. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p14 Wang Zhouhua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  9. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p14 Wang Zhouhua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  10. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Words, History of Exploration" (Ajia Books) p31-34 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7
  11. ^ "Introduction to Chinese Studies, Revised Edition" p14 Wang Zhouhua, Tatsuhiko Ichiki, Takeyoshi Kamayama Ed. Surugadai Publisher April 2004, 4 First edition issued
  12. ^ CaoGuangshun.and Dandan Chen. 2009. Yuan baihua teshu yuyan xianxiang zai yanjiu [Reexamination of the special features in Yuan baihua]. Lishi Yuyanxue Yanjiu[Historical Linguistics Study] 2:108-123. Beijing: The Commercial Press
  13. ^ Ota, Tatsuo (Tatsuo Ota). Traditional Chinese History Bai Teisha, 1988
  14. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p21 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  15. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p133 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  16. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p122-123 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  17. ^ "Modern Japanese-Chinese Vocabulary Exchange History New Chinese Language Generation and Acceptance, Revised New Edition" p77 Takeshi Shikuni Kasama Shoin August 2008, 8
  18. ^ "Modern Japanese-Chinese Vocabulary Exchange History New Chinese Language Generation and Acceptance, Revised New Edition" p4 Takeshi Shikuni Kasama Shoin August 2008, 8
  19. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p41 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  20. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p22 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  21. ^ “Chinese Communities and Standard Languages: Focusing on South China” p22 Chen Ohua Sanyuansha February 2005, 2 First edition, first edition
  22. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p42 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  23. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p120 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  24. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p45 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  25. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p123 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  26. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p58-60 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  27. ^ "Language Policy in Modern China Focusing on Character Reform" p127 Fujii (Miyanishi) Kumiko Sangensha February 2003, 2 First edition, first edition
  28. ^ "Mandarin Chinese, penetration rate about 8%, about 6% in extremely poor areas”. AFP. 2021th of February 5Browse.
  29. ^ "China, 29 types of characters Putonghua penetration rate to 73%"September 2017, 09 People's Network Japanese version Retrieved July 15, 2018
  30. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p60 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  31. ^ Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2012), p. 3.
  32. ^ "Chinese Subtitles | Study Abroad Guide to Chinese for Beginners”(Japanese). chinaryugaku.com (September 2020, 7). 2020th of February 9Browse.
  33. ^ "In China, Mandarin subtitles appear on Chinese TV programs. The dialect is too different!". zatsugaku-company.com. 2020th of February 9Browse.
  34. ^ “Chinese Communities and Standard Languages: Focusing on South China” p19 Chen Ohua Sanyuansha February 2005, 2 First edition, first edition
  35. ^ JapaneseInMainland dialect(Local language),Ryukyu dialect(Ryukyu) Is similar to the relationship.
  36. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p8 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  37. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p8 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  38. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p15-18 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  39. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p127 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  40. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p17 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  41. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p36 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  42. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p166-168 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  43. ^ "Near and Far Chinese" p168-170 Tetsuji Atsuji Chuokoron-Shinsha Published January 2007, 1
  44. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p9 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  45. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p7-8 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  46. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p6 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition
  47. ^ "History of Chinese: History of Language, History of Inquiry" (Ajia Books) p10-11 Shoji Oshima Taishukan Shoten July 2011, 7 First edition, first edition


Related item

外部 リンク


Japanese(Japanese, Japanese[Note 2],British: Japanese) Is mainlyJapanDomestic orJapaneseUsed between each other言语.. Japan isdecreeByOfficial terminologyHowever, all laws and regulations and other official texts are written in Japanese.[10]Is specified in Japanese,school educationInNational languageIn fact, it is the only subject in Japan, such as studying as a subject.Official terminologyIt has become.

There are no accurate statistics on the population used,JapanThe population inside, and the Japanese living outside JapanNikkeiIs considered to be more than 1 million people, including some inhabitants of the area that Japan once ruled[11].. Depending on statistics, this number may change, but this numberNumber of native speakers of the worldIs the number of people in the top ten.

Most people born and raised in Japan speak JapaneseMother tongueTo[Note 3].. JapanesegrammarSystem orphonemeReflect systemsign languageAsSign language corresponding to JapaneseThere is.

As of 2019 month,インターネットThe number of language users above isEnglish,Chinese,Spanish,Arabic,Portuguese,Malay/Indonesian,FrenchSecond most after[12][Reliability required verification].


Japanese phonologyIs """Hmm"exceptvowelend withOpen syllableThe language is strong, andStandard language(common language) Including manydialect Morahave.accent TheHigh and low accent.

Still originalYamato languageThen, in principle

  • "Ra rowThe sound doesn't start with a word (ShiritoriThis is why it's difficult to find words that start with "Rayuki" in play. "Raku (easy)", "Rappa", "apple", "Rei" are not Japanese words)
  • Dull soundIs not the beginning of the word ("da", "which", "ba", "rose", etc. are changes in later generations)
  • Vowels are not continuous in the same root ("Ao (blue)" and "Kai (shell)" used to be "a / awo /], "Kahi / kapi /])

There were features such as ("系統"and"phonemeSee section).

The sentence is "subject-Modifier-predicate"ofword orderComposed of. The modifier precedes the modifier. Also,nounIn order to show the case ofEndingInstead of changing, add a functional word (particle) that indicates a grammatical function to the end (stick). from these things,Linguistic typologyAbove, in terms of word orderSOV typeIn terms of morphology,Agglutinationare categorized("grammarSee section).

The vocabulary is in addition to the ancient Yamato language (Japanese),Chinese language(Phonetic word),Foreign words, And their mixed words. The syllabary word (meaning the word derived from the on-reading of kanji, commonly called "kanji") isChinese textThrough ancient and medievalChugokuWords derived from or derived from them, which make up the majority of modern vocabulary. Also,"paper(God)""/paintingSome sounds are originally sound but are recognized as Japanese. Furthermore, since the modern times, the number of foreign words centered on Western words has increased ("Word typeSee section).

In terms of treatment expressions, there is a grammatically and lexically developed honorific system that expresses a subtle relationship between the people being described ("ExpressionSee section).

There are various dialects of Japanese in each region, especiallyRyukyu Islands[Avoid ambiguity]The dialect difference is significant (dialectSee section).The early modern periodUntil mid-termKyoto dialectWas in the central language, but in the late modernEdo dialectRaises its position,MeijiIn modern Japanese after thatHands of tokyo mountain OfMiddle classDialect (Mountain hand word) Was used as the basis for forming standard words (common words) ("Standard language"reference).

The writing system is more complicated than other languages.漢字(native scriptincluding.Reading aloudandReadingUsed in) andhiragana,KatakanaIs the main character in Japanese, and is always expressed by combining these three types of characters (("Character type(See section)[Note 4].. Besides,Latin letters(Romaji) AndGreek letters(Most frequently used in medical/scientific terms) etc. are often used. Also,Vertical writing and horizontal writingAre used (For details on the notation system, see "Japanese writing system"reference).

The phoneme is "consonant+ VowelsyllableBased on, the vowel has only five types and has an easy-to-understand structure.NaotoHoarseness, The existence of "1 syllable 2 mora",DevoicingFeatures such as vowels and height accents that move as words are assembled ("phonemeSee section).


Japanese is mainly used in Japan. speakerpopulationThere is no survey on this, both domestically and internationally, but it is common to think based on the Japanese population.[14].

There are no direct regulations in Japan that make Japanese the official or national language. However, the law is written in Japanese,Court law"In court, use Japanese" (Article 74 of the same law),Character/print culture promotion methodIn, "national language" and "Japanese" are equated (Articles 3 and 9 of the same law), and in many other laws and regulations, it is a natural premise that Japanese is the only official language or national language. ing.In addition, not only legal texts but also official texts are all in Japanese, and in school education, Japanese is "National languageIs taught as.

In Japan, TV, radio, movie broadcasts, novels,ComicAlso, in the field of publishing such as newspapers, Japanese is mostly used. Even if a foreign drama or movie is broadcast, it is basically presumed that the recipient understands only Japanese, such as translating it into Japanese and broadcasting it after adding subtitles or putting a voice. Created as. Although there are some that are broadcast/published in their original language, they are intended for publications intended for foreign countries or foreigners resident in Japan, or for a limited number of people such as learners of the original language. It is not for Japanese people.

Outside Japan, mainly Latin America (ペルー-Brazil-ボリビア-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-パラグアイEtc.) orHawaiiUse of Japanese is seen among Japanese immigrants such as[15]However, the fact is that the number of non-Japanese speakers is increasing as the generations go down to the third and fourth generations.[16].. Also, before the end of the Pacific War, it was under Japanese territory or power of Japan.Governor-General of Korea OfKorean Peninsula-Taiwan Governor's Office OfTaiwan・OldManchuriaAnd nowPeople's Republic of ChinaPart ofKarafuto Agency OfKarafuto(サ ハ リ ン)・OldSouth Sea Agency OfSouthern Ocean Islands(Current北 マ リ ア ナ 諸島-パラオ-マ ー ャ ル ル-ミクロネシア 連邦, Etc., some of the people who have received Japanese language education still remember and speak Japanese.[Note 5].. Japanese may be used in conversations between tribes of different indigenous peoples in Taiwan[18]だ け で な く,Yilan CreoleSuch as JapaneseAtayal OfCreole languageAlso exists[19].. Also in PalauAngaurHas adopted Japanese as one of the official languages ​​due to its historical background.[20]However, there are currently no residents in the state that use Japanese for everyday conversation, and it remains symbolic.[21].

According to the 2015 survey, there were 365 million Japanese learners outside Japan,People's Republic of ChinaAbout 95 people,IndonesiaAbout 75 people,South KoreaAbout 56 people,AustraliaAbout 36 people,TaiwanAbout 22 people are ranked high. By region,East Asia-Southeast AsiaIt accounts for about 8% of all learners.Japanese language educationIs being carried out in 137 countries/regions[22].. In addition, Japanese learners in JapanAsiaApproximately 16 people, centering around 19 in the area[23].


"Japanese" rangeMainland dialectIf onlyRyukyuBecame a language of the same system as Japanese, and both becameJaponicTo form. On the other hand, when including Ryukyu (Ryukyu dialect) in Japanese, Japanese isIsolated languageBecomes

The lineage of Japanese (tribe) is not clear, and there is no prospect of elucidation.The overall conclusion of linguistics and phonology is "Isolated language]. There are some theoretical hypotheses, but no consensus has yet been reached[24][25].

Altay languagesThe theory that belongs toMeiji EraIt has received particular attention since the end[26].. As a basis for this, ancient Japanese (Yamato language) In the beginning of the r sound (Stream sound) Does not stand, a kind ofVowel harmony[27]Can be seen. However,Altay languagesThe languages ​​themselves that belong to each other are not proven to be related to each other.[28]Therefore, the fact that the above-mentioned characteristics are seen in ancient Japanese is that Japanese is an “Altai type” language as a type.[29]It has no meaning beyond that.

SouthernAustronesianHas also been pointed out to have similarities in phonological system and vocabulary[30]However, the word examples are not sufficient, and include many examples of estimation and uncertainty.

DravidianAlthough there is a theory that asserts the relationship with, there are few researchers who accept this.Shin OhnoIs Japanese in terms of vocabulary and grammarTamilAdvocate having a common point with[31]However, there are many criticisms due to the methodological problems of comparative linguistics.[32]("Shin Ohno #Creole TamilSee also).

AinuIs similar to Japanese in word order (SOV word order), but its grammar and form are typologically different.Conjugate wordAnd the phonological structure of voiced and unvoicedClosed syllableThere are many differences. Pointing out similarities in basic vocabulary[33]Yes, but not enough examples[33].. Among the words that are generally said to be similar,LoanwordIs likely to be included[34].. At present, there are few materials with systematic relevance.

KoreanHas many similarities in grammatical structure, but their basic vocabulary is quite different.In terms of phonology, there are similarities with the Altaic languages ​​mentioned above, such as no liquid consonant at the beginning of the proper word and a kind of vowel harmony, but there are closed syllables and consonant clusters. There are also differences, such as no distinction between voiced and unvoiced.Korean Peninsula OfDead languageIsKoguryoIs said to have similar vocabulary such as numbers[35]However, the actual condition of Goguryeo is hardly known, and it is difficult to use it as a basis for systematic judgment at this point.

In addition,Lepcha-HebrewThere was a synonym with such things in the past, but most of themPseudo scienceFits in the category of[33].

Ryukyu Islands(OldRyukyu KingdomArea) is one of the Japanese wordsdialect(Ryukyu dialect) And another language with the same systematic as Japanese (RyukyuOr Ryukyu languages), together with JapaneseJaponicHowever, there are different opinions depending on researchers and institutions (see each item).


Phonological system

Japanese speakers usually take the word "Ippon (one)" as the four units of "I, Po, N".syllableIf you put together [ip̚.poɴ] It is about 2 units, but the phonological way of thinking is different.PhoneticsIn distinction from the syllable, which is the unit above,PhonologyNow, let’s talk about units like “I, P, N”.Mora[36](beat[37]) Is called.

Most Japanese mora isKanaCan be systematized according to. "Japanese" and "totally" are phonetics [ip̚poɴ] [mat̚takɯ] However, there is no common phone, but Japanese speakers find a common mora of "tsu". In addition, "n" is phonetically defined by the following sound. [ɴ] [m] [n] [ŋ] However, since Japanese speakers themselves recognize the same sound, it is one kind of mora in phonological theory.

In Japanese, most mora ends with vowels. Therefore Japanese isOpen syllableIt can be said that the character of the language is strong. However, the special mora "tsu" and "n" do not contain vowels.

There are about 111 types of mora as shown below. However, the counting method varies slightly depending on the researcher. "LineIs a nasal (so-calledNasal noise)of"LineThere may be a sound, but "ga" and "LineThe difference is that it does not provide any distinctionAbnormal noiseIt’s just a mistake. Therefore,"LineWhen excluding "," the number of mora is about 103. Besides this,Foreign language notationIf you include other foreign sounds such as "She", "Che", "Tsa Tse Tso", "Thi", "Fa Fi Fe Fo" in Table 1, the number will change again.[38].. In addition, "Va v uv ve vo" used in foreign language notation is often pronounced as a Ba line, but is sometimes pronounced as an independent phoneme. It will be further increased.

\NaotoHoarsenessgood and evil
consonant+ VowelOrCanKuThisKyaKyuImaginary(Kiyone
It wasChiOneOnChaChuCho(Kiyone)
IToUnexpectedI OfNyaNewNyo——
Et al.RiThatReThe filtrateRyaRyuRyo——
CanGuBeardYourGyaGyuGyo(Dull sound
KiKuKeThisKyaKyuKyo(Nasal noise
ZaTheZZeThisSee youJu(I.e.(Voiced sound)
IJiEachWhen(Voiced sound)
IfAndFuAllBOByaByuByo(Voiced sound)
PerfectPuPePoPyaPyuPyo(Half dullness
Half consonant + vowel,Yu——
Special moraHmm(Sound repellency
(Long sound

Incidentally,Japanese syllabaryIs often used to explain the phonological system, but there are not a few differences when compared to the Japanese Mora table above. It is important to note that the formation of the Japanese syllabary dates back to the Heian period and does not reflect the phonological system of modern languages ​​("History of Japanese studiesIn the sectionBefore the Edo periodSee).

Vowel system

vowelIs "A-There-Cormorant-Huh-ContactIt is represented by the character.PhonologyAbove is JapanesevowelIs 5 represented by this letter,phonemeThe symbols are written as follows.

  • /to/, / i /, / u /, /is/, / o /

on the other hand,PhoneticsAbove are the 5 basic vowels

  • [ä],[i̠],[u̜]or[ɯ̹],[e̞]or[ɛ̝],[o̜]or[ɔ̜̝]

It is regarded as a pronunciation close to. ̈ isMiddle tongue, ̠ is the back, ̜ is the weaker lip, ̹ is the stronger lip, ˕ is the bottom, and ˔ is the auxiliary symbol that indicates the top.

"A" in Japanese isInternational phonetic symbols (IPA) in front tongue vowel [A] And rear tongue vowel [ɑ] Midtone of [ä] Hit “I” is a little behind [i̠] Is close. "E" is a semi-narrow vowel [e] And a semi-vowel [ɛ] Is the middle tone of the, and "o" is a semi-narrow vowel [or] And a semi-vowel [ɔ] Is the middle tone of.

The Japanese word "u" means English in the Tokyo dialect. [at] It is a neutral lips that is slightly rounder than the mid-lingual vowel and has a weaker roundness, and it is a neutral lips that is neither a mid-lingual vowel nor a bulging or rounded lip, or sticks out just slightly in front of it. Is a semi-posterior tongue micro-rounded vowel[39].. This is the relationship between the movements of the tongue and the lips. The front tongue vowel is the labial lip, the middle tongue vowel is the flat lip/neutral (However, neutral is the non-circular lip in the current IPA notation, and is included in the same category as the labial lip. The rear tongue vowel fits the law that it is natural to have a round lip[40].. However, “u” still functions as a narrow round vowel after the round lip, as seen in vowel fusion.[41].. Also, the notation [ɯᵝ] is also used.[Source required].

To emphasize the weakness of roundness,[ɯ] Sometimes use[42], Which is a symbol of a narrow vowel of the posterior tongue, like u, which is a full lip like i originally found in Korean, remains rounded while the roundness decreases, and It is different from the voice of the Japanese vowel "U", which is slightly before the tongue. Also, this kind of vowel is out of the relation between the lips and the tongue, so it rarely occurs unless the language has more than 5 vowels. "U" isLip soundMore complete afterRound lip vowel(The details of pronunciation refer to each letter item). On the other hand, in the West Japanese dialect, "u" is more tongue than the Tokyo dialect, and is pronounced with rounded lips.[at] Close to.

In phonological theory, it is represented by a pseudonym such as "coffee" or "hiihii" or "-" or "ayuki".Long soundThere is a unit of / R /). This is an independent special mora that is pronounced in the manner of "drawing the last vowel by one mora".[43].. In many cases, the meaning is distinguished by the presence or absence of a long sound, such as "bird" (bird) and "street" (Tori). However, there is not a specific sound called "long sound" as a voice, but a long vowel sound. [äː] [i̠ː] [u̜̟ː] [e̞ː] [o̜̞ː] Is the latter half of the.

The letters "ei" and "ou" are pronunciationally long vowels like "eh" and "oh". [e̞ː] [o̜̞ː] It is commonly pronounced as "(Kei", "Kou", etc., with the same onset). That is, "satellite", "response", and "party" are pronounced like "ace", "auto", and "seto". However, in Kyushu, southern and western Shikoku, southern Kii Peninsula, etc. [e̞i] Pronounce[44].. "think"[omoɯᵝ], "Ask"[toɯᵝ]Be sure to use words such asDiphthongAnd again, of cartilage fishAFor example, depending on the vocabulary, there may be double vowels, but there are individual differences. If you speak carefully 1 character 1 character [e̞i] Many speakers pronounce it.

At the end of a word or the position sandwiched between unvoiced consonants, such as "a" or "u"Narrow vowelsIs often devoiced. For example, "is" "masu" [de ̞su ̜̟̥] [mäsu̜̟̥] Is pronounced like, and "chrysanthemum", "power", "deep", "release", "autumn" etc. respectively [kʲi̠̥ku̜̟] [ʨi̠̥käɾä] [ɸu̜̟̥käi̠] [hänäʦu̜̟̥] [Äkʲi̠̥] It is sometimes pronounced. However, it is difficult to devoice a beat with an accent nucleus. There are individual differences, and it depends on the environment, speed, and politeness of speech. In addition, the dialect difference is large, for exampleKinki dialectAlmost no vowel devoicing occurs.

"HmmThe vowel beforeNasalizationTend to do. Also, the "n" before the vowel is similar to the vowel before and after.Nasal vowelbecome.

Consonant system

consonantIt is,PhonologyAs distinguished above, according to the current mainstream theory, the consonant of "ka-ta-ta-na-ha-ma-ya-ra-wayuki", the consonant "ga-za-da-ba-yuki" Is the consonant of the half voiced consonant "Payuki".phonemeThe symbols are written as follows. There are some interpretations that the initial consonants of the wa and ya lines are inflections depending on the positions of the phoneme u and the phoneme i in the syllable. The theory that the special mora "n" and "tsu" are phonemes that are phonologically independent, that "n" is an irregular sound according to the position in the syllable of the na consonant n, and "tsu" is a simpleDouble consonantThere is both a theory that it is not a phoneme that is phonologically independent.

  • / k /, / s /, / t /, / h /(Kiyone)
  • / ɡ /, / z /, / d /, /B/(Voiced sound)
  • / p /(Half dullness)
  • / n /, / m /, / r /
  • / j /, / w /(Also called half vowel)

on the other hand,PhoneticsAbove, the consonant system has a more complex appearance. The consonants mainly used are shown below (see below).PalateSound omitted).

Lip soundTongue soundTongue spineThroat sound
Both lip soundsGum soundsSled
Hard mouth
Lid sound
Soft mouth
Lid sound
Drop sound
Glottal sound
Pop soundp  bt  d  k  ɡ  
nasalmn ɲŋɴ 
Repellant sound ɾɽ    
Fricativeɸs  z çɣ h
Approaching sound(β ̞)  jɰ  
Side soundRepellant sound ɺ     
Side approach sound  l     
ɕ ʑGum hard palateFricative
Gum soundsGingival hard palate
Unvoiced soundt͡st͡ɕ
Voiced soundd͡zd͡ʑ

Basically "ka line" [k], "Sayuki" is [s]([θ] Some regions and speakers use[44]), "ta line" [t], "Na row" [n], "Ha line" [H], "Mayou" is [m], "Ya line" [j], "Da line" [D], “Bay” is [B], "Payo" is [p] To use.

The consonant of "Rayuki" at the beginning of the word [ɺ], The line after "n" is in English [l] Some speakers use sounds that are close to. On the other hand, if it appears at the end of a word, such as when saying "Ah?" [ɾ] Or [ɽ] Becomes

In standard Japanese and its parent, the Tokyo metropolitan dialect (common language), the consonant of "wayuki" shares the same basic character as the above-mentioned "u" of the same language, and a little more in the air passage. It is a narrow approaching sound. For this reason,[at] Approach sound corresponding to[w] When,[ɯ] Approach sound corresponding to[ɰ] Slightly in the middle of, or slightly round lips [w] It is said that the main articulation point is a portion slightly before the soft palate (the position of the tongue of the posterior tongue vowel), and both lips are used slightly for articulation.Double articulationCan be called the approaching sound of[45].. Therefore, in the arrangement of the Japanese syllabary, the w row is put in the lip sound (in the item of "Japanese", if there is no special need, [w] Express). The same sounds are used for the foreign sounds "Wie", "We" and "Wo", but there are many speakers who pronounce them with two moras, "Wie", "Ue" and "Woo".

The consonant of "ga" is a plosive sound at the beginning of the word. [g] But in the words nasal [ŋ]("Ga" nasal sounds, so-calledNasal noise) Was commonly used. Currently this [ŋ] The number of speakers using is decreasing, and instead of using the plosive as in the beginning, [ɣ] The number of speakers using is increasing.

The consonant of "zayuki" isSqueal(Combined plosive and fricative [d͡z] Sound), but in the wordFricative([z] Etc.) is often used. Some speakers always use the squeak noise, but since it is difficult to pronounce words such as “surgery”, it is often a fricative. It should be noted that, except for some dialects, the "ji" and "zu" of "dayuki" are all the same as the "ji" and "zu" of "zayuki", and the pronunciation method is the same.

The consonant followed by the vowel "i" has a unique tone color. For some consonants, the front lingual surfaceHard palateGet closer toPalateHappens. For example, the consonant "ka" is generally [k] , But "CanOnly [kʲ] And so on. When the vowels "A", "U", and "O" come after the palatized consonants, the notation is "IdanBehind the kana of "", the kana of "ya", "yu", "yo" is used to write "kya", "kyu", "kyo", "mya", "myu", "myo". When the vowel "e" comes behind, it is written as "ke" using the kana of "e", but it is only used for foreign words.

The consonants of the "Idan" sound of "Sayuki", "Zakou", "Takou", and "Hakou" are also unique tones, but this is not just a palate, but a sound in which the articulation point has moved to the hard palate. is there. The consonants of "shi" and "chi" [ɕ] [ʨ] To use. The consonants of the foreign sounds "Sui" and "Ti" became palate. [sʲ] [tʲ] To use. The consonants of "ji" and "ji" are at the beginning and after "n" [d͡ʑ]In the word [ʑ] To use. The consonants of the foreign sounds "Di" and "Zi" became palate [dʲ] [d͡ʑʲ] and [zʲ] To use. The consonant of "hi" [H] notHard palate sound [ç] .

Also,"ToMost of the consonants of " [nʲ] Is pronounced asHard palate nasal [ɲ] Some speakers use. Similarly, "Ri"ToHard palate repellencyTo speakers usingSilent hard palate pop [c] Some speakers use.

In addition, "ha row"FuOnly the consonantUnvoiced lips fricative [ɸ] Is used, but this is [p][ɸ][H] It is a remnant that has changed. In the Japanese syllabary, phonological/speech p in the Nara era, in the Heian era[ɸ]It is a remnant of that, and it is in the category of lipstick. Foreign words [f] Some speakers use. With regard to this, when the line of "ha" comes after "tsu" in modern Japanese or after "n" in Chinese, the sound of pa line (p) appears, and it changes to ba line (b) even in rendaku. Voice gate fricative[ɦ]Therefore, even in modern Japanese, if the type of words is limited to borrowed words such as Japanese and pre-modern Chinese (Pa lines that do not originate in Ha lines are from modern times), the phoneme of Ha lines is not h but p. Yes, there is also an interpretation that it will change to h except in the cases mentioned above in the fricativeization rules. Contrary to the intuition of native Japanese speakers, it can more systematically and rationally express the reluctance of Ha line and the change of the sound of Ha line after "tsu" and "n".[46][47].

In addition, in "ta line"OneOnly the consonant [t͡s] To use. These consonants are mainly followed by vowels "a", "i", "e", and "o" in the case of foreign words. In the kana, "a", "i", "e", "o" are added, and "fa" It is written like “Tsa” (“Tsa” is also used in “Ototsuan”, “Gottsuan”, etc.). In "Fi" and "Tsu", palatization occurs in consonants. Also, "twi" is often translated into "chi". "To" "Do" ([tɯ] [dɯ]) Is sometimes used in foreign words.

Consonant"" (in phonetic symbols / Q /)andSound repellency"Hmm"(/ N /The sound called) is a phonological concept and was described in the previous section.Long soundAlso treated as a special mora. As for the actual voice, [-k̚k-] [-s̚s-] [-ɕ̚ɕ-] [-t̚t-] [-t̚ʦ-] [-t̚ʨ-] [-p̚p-] It becomes a consonant such as. However, like "Ah", it may appear alone, and at that time, it becomes a glottal closing sound. In addition, "n" depends on the subsequent sound. [ɴ] [m] [n] [ŋ] Consonants such as (but before vowelsNasal vowelWill be). At the end of a sentence [ɴ] Many speakers use.


In Japanese, except for some dialects, it depends on the top and bottom of the sound (pitch).High and low accenthave. The accent is determined for each word, and the height is determined in mora (beat) units. There are many cases where homophones can be distinguished by accents. For example, in the case of the Tokyo dialect, "rain" and "candy" are pronounced with different accents, such as "A\me" (height type) and "A/me" (flat type) (/ is a rising tone, \ Is the fall of the sound). Particles such as "ga", "ni", and "wo" have no unique accent, and the height of the particle is determined by the immediately preceding noun. For example, “chopsticks”, “bridge”, and “end” are individually “ha\shi”, “ha/shi”, and “ha/shi”, but particles such as “ga”, “ni”, and “wa” are added to the back. In this case, "ha\shiga", "ha/shi\mo" and "ha/shiga" respectively.

The common word accent distinguishes where there is a drop in sound within a word, and if so, how many drops below the mora. Where the sound goes downFalling eyesorAccent FallsThe mora just before the sound goes downAccent nucleus[Note 6]orDeclining nucleusSay. For example, "chopsticks" has an accent nucleus on the first beat, "hashi" has an accent nucleus on the second beat, and "edge" has no accent nucleus. The accent nucleus is either one or not in one word, and once it goes down, it never goes up in the word again. Accent nucleus Expressed as, ○○ (without nucleus)○, ○ For 3 types, 3 beat words ○ ○ ○,○○, ○○, ○○ There are four types of accents, and the types of accent types increase as the number of beats increases. Those without an accent nucleus are called flat type, those with an accent nucleus at the first beat are head-height, those at the last beat are tail-high, and those between the first and last beat are middle-high. Type. Head height type/middle height type/tail height type are collectively referred to as undulation type or nucleated type, and flat plate type is sometimes referred to as flat plate type or seedless type.

In the accent of common words, when pronounced only in the form of words or phrases, there is a rise in sound from the first beat to the second beat, such as "shi/rushiga" and "ta/magogoga" ( Except head height type). However, this rise is not specific to a word, and is the beginning of a group of words pronounced indefinitely (called "phrase"), such as "a/kaishirushiga" and "ko/notama\goga" in sentences. Rises in. This risePhrasal tone, And has the function of making it easier to understand phrases and breaks between phrases. On the other hand, the accent nucleus is fixed to the word, and the dash after the "ma" in the "tamago" never disappears. The tone of the common word rises from the second beat of the phrase (if the first word of the phrase is head-height, rises from the first beat), then progresses flat to the accent nucleus and falls after the nucleus. Therefore, no tone such as "low low high high..." or "high high high high..." appears at the beginning of a phrase. Accent dictionaries, etc.Rushiga"OrSometimes it is written as "Goga", but this is when one phrase is pronounced as one phrase, and both the phonic tone and the accent nucleus are written at the same time.[48].


Sentence structure

In Japanese, make sentences in the word order "I read books." Use the word order "I read a book." in English.SVO typeAccording to the explanation called (subject, verb, object), the Japanese sentence isSOV typeIt turns out that. Strictly speaking, however, verbs are indispensable for English sentences, whereas Japanese sentences sometimes end with a verb, and sometimes end with an adjective or a noun + auxiliary verb. Therefore, the basic structure of a Japanese sentence is "S (subject)-P (predicate)" rather than "S (subject)-V (verb)".Main structureIt is more appropriate to think.

  1. I'm the president
  2. I'm going
  3. I'm glad.

All of the above sentences have the same sentence pattern forming the "SP" structure, that is, the main predicate structure.In English, etc., the sentence patterns are "SVC", "SV", and "SVC", respectively, so 1 is sometimes divided into noun sentences, 2 is verb sentences, and 3 is adjective sentences.However, there is no essential difference between these sentence patterns in Japanese.Therefore, Japanese-speaking English beginners, etc.I am a president.""I am happy.In the same tone as ""I am go.I sometimes write the wrong composition[49].

Subject structure

In addition, in the Japanese sentence, apart from the main predicate structure, it consists of "subject-predicate"Subject structureIs often taken. The subject is to clearly indicate the theme of the story (Mikami chapterIs "what we are talking about[50]). It is often confused with the subject, but it is a different concept. The subject is often represented by "ga" and represents the subject of the action or action, but the subject is often represented by "ha", and the sentence clarifies "what to say from now on". Many sentences appear to have "ha" attached to the subject because the sentence describes the subject of the action or action, that is, the subject is also the subject. In such a sentence, "ha" is added to the subject by adding "ha" to the subject. On the other hand, in a sentence describing an object of a motion or action, that is, a sentence in which the subject is also an object, the result is that the subject is attached with "ha". For example,

  • 4. The elephant is big.
  • 5. The elephant was placed in the cage.
  • 6. The elephant feeds.
  • 7. Elephants have long noses.

In the sentences such as, "Elephant is" indicates the subject. "Elephant is" in 4 is paraphrased as "elephant is," and effectively doubles as the subject of the sentence. However, 5 or less cannot be paraphrased as "elephant ga". 5 is for "elephant" and 6 is for "elephant." Furthermore, 7 "elephant is" is something that cannot be paraphrased (also referred to as "elephant's")[51]). These "elephant ha" titles are specific to "ga", "ni", "wo", etc.CaseIt does not represent "," but only has the role of explicitly stating that "I describe an elephant."

In these sentences, the entire part following the subject "elephant" is a "predicate"[52].

Shin OhnoArgued that "ga" and "ha" represent unknown and known, respectively. For example

  • I'm Sato
  • I'm Sato

In the former, the former means "who is Sato (I was unknown until then) is Sato" and the latter is "(already known) Speaking who I am (not Tanaka) It's Sato." Therefore, the question words such as "what", "where" and "when" always mean unknown, so "what", "where" and "when" cannot be called "what", "where" and "when" ..

A language with sentences of the same subject structure as Japanese (Subject dominant language) Is distributed in East Asia and elsewhere. For example,Chinese-Korean-Vietnamese-Malay-TagalogYou can also see the sentence of this structure.

Subject abolition theory

Considering that there are so many sentences that should be regarded as "subject-predicate" instead of "subject-predicate" like "elephant has a long nose." The view that it is not essential is also valid.Mikami chapterChanted the "subject abolition theory" (a proposal to stop the grammatical term "subject") from here. According to Mikami,

  • Introducing Koga Otoni.

In this sentence, "koga", "otoni", and "丙wo" are all necessary elements for explaining the act of "introduction", and there is no superiority or inferiority. What is important is the part of the predicate "Introduction Sita" that puts them together. "Kou", "Otsuni", and "丙wo" are all supplementary words to the predicate. On the other hand, in sentences such as English, the subject is a special entity because it corresponds to the predicate and the person.[50].

According to this idea, a sentence that can only be said to be "subject is omitted" from an English perspective can be well explained. For example,

  • The yellowtail is grown.
  • Here is the news.
  • It's getting warmer day by day.

Etc. are so-called subjectless sentences. However, in Japanese sentences, the predicate is central, and considering that supplements are added as necessary, any of the above can be regarded as a complete sentence without omission.

In today's grammatical theory, the term/concept of the subject is still generally used because it is useful as a working hypothesis. Generally, the grammatical term with the case particle "ga" is regarded as the subject. However, the theory that asserts that the subject is essential in Japanese sentences in the form of Mikami's theory is a school that recognizes the important role of the subject in syntactics, such as generative grammar and Shigeyuki Suzuki's linguistics research group. Except for the minority. Mori Shigetoshi takes the position that the subject relation is the skeleton in Japanese sentences, but the subject and predicate in this case are also quite different from what is generally said.[53].. Grammar in current school education (School grammar), it is common to use traditional grammatical terms based on the subject/predicate, but some textbooks do not treat the subject specially.[Note 7].

Sentence components

Even from the standpoint that a sentence is composed of subjects and predicates, these two elements alone cannot fully explain the structure of the sentence. For the subject/predicate,ModifierElements such as are added to form more complex sentences. These elements that make up a sentence are called "sentence components".

In school grammar (a textbook for junior high school language), the following five components are listed: "subject," "predicate," "modifier," (adjunct modifier, adjunct modifier), "connecting word," and "independent word." "Parallel words (bunsetsu/joint clauses in a juxtaposed relationship)" and "auxiliary words/subordinate words (bunsetsus/sentences in a supporting relationship) are not a sentence component (or a term indicating that) The school grammar stands in the position that it is a concept that expresses the relations between consecutive sentence clauses, and it always becomes a consecutive sentence clause and becomes the above five components.Therefore, the terms (concepts) of "parallel relations" and "assistance relations" Is adopted in textbooks, and the mainstream textbooks do not include the terms (concepts) of "parallel words" and "auxiliary words". Strictly speaking, the “adnominal modifier” cannot be a component by itself, and always forms a sentence clause by forming a modifier phrase with a modificative word.

In the textbooks of the four companies excluding school books, what is made up of simple phrases is called “-word” like “subject”, and those made of continuous phrases are called “-part” like “main part”. I'm calling. On the other hand, in school books only, the concept of the relation between bunsetsu/renbunsetsu is called "-word", and the so-called component (the maximum element of each sentence) is called "-part".

Types and their roles

The types and roles of the components of each sentence will be described below according to the classification of school grammar.


It is the basic ingredient that makes up a sentence. In particular, predicates play an important role in putting sentences together. "It rains." "I have a lot of books." "I am a student." All consist of subject and predicate. Some textbooks place the highest priority on predicates as sentence organizers, while on the other hand, they describe subject as well as modifiers.Subject abolition theory"reference).

Continuous modifier

It is a modifier related to the idiom (for the idiom, "Independent wordSee section). In the sentence "brother teaches younger brother mathematics", the part that expresses a case such as "to younger brother" "arithmetical mathematics" is a continuous modifier for the predicate verb "teach". In addition, the words “tight” and “enthusiastically” in the sentences “teach mathematics thoroughly” and “teach mathematics enthusiastically” are also related modifiers for “teaching”. However, if components such as "to my younger brother" and "math" are lacking, the basic facts are not conveyed, whereas components such as "tight" and "enthusiastically" are so difficult to convey the facts. There is no. From here, the former forms the basis of the sentenceSupplement componentAnd only the latterModifier componentThere is also a theory called[54].. Some Japanese language textbooks also explain these two separately.

Adnominal modifier

It is a modifier related to wording (for wording, "Independent wordSee section). "My", "moving", "red", and "big" in "my book", "moving sidewalk", "red hair ornament", and "big eyes" are adnominal modifiers.Shigeyuki Suzuki-Yasuyuki Suzuki-Taro Takahashi-Suzuki YasushiEt al. give the characteristic to the components of the sentence that expresses things, and regard the adnominal modifier as “a component of the sentence that defines (limits) what it is.Stipulated term"(Or "Adnominal terminology")).

Connection word

It shows a logical relationship with the rest, such as "I'm tired, so I can't move." "I want to buy, but I don't have money." In addition, it is a component that connects the previous sentence to that sentence, such as "so" and "what" in "Today is sunny. So let's go on a picnic." "You are young. Why do you despair?" Is also a connective word. In part-of-speech classification, a part-of-speech that is always a connective word is a connective.

Independent language

"Yes, I understand." "Where are you going, unnie?" "Fresh, that's life." It is something that does not receive parts. When defined from the perspective of dependency, as a result, words that represent impression, call, response, presentation, etc. correspond to independent words. In part-of-speech classification, the part-of-speech used only as an independent word isVerbIt is said that Nouns and adjective verbs are also used as independent words.

Parallel word

The ingredients are organized in a side-by-side relationship, such as "Buy oranges and apples", "Cold and apples are cold in winter in Lake Biwa," and "Cold and apples are cold." In the case of "mandarin oranges and apples"Continuous modification part"Cold and tough."PredicateEquivalent to.

Object and complement

In the current school grammar, it is assumed that there are no components such as “object” and “complement” as in English. In English grammar,I read a book."of"to bookIs an object that is part of the SVO sentence pattern, andI go to the library."of"the library] Is considered a modifier added with the preposition. On the other hand, in Japanese,

  • I read a book
  • I go to the library.

As in the above, both "book" and "to the library" are expressed as "noun + case particle", and there is no distinction so far. These are all "constant modifiers" as sentence components. From here, according to school grammar, "I read a book." is interpreted as a "subject-modifier-predicate" sentence pattern rather than a "subject-object-verb" (SOV) sentence pattern. ..

Target word (complement)

Shigeyuki Suzuki-Yasuyuki SuzukiEt al. recognize that the word corresponding to the “object” in the “conjunctive modifier” is the “object word” that represents the object that participates in the establishment of the movement or state represented by the predicate, and recognizes it as the basic component of the sentence. (Taro Takahashi-Suzuki Yasushi-Mayumi KudoEt al. call the component of the same sentence as the “target word” the “complement” from the viewpoint of the function in the sentence of compensating for the things that participate in its formation, in order to clearly indicate the composition of the subject and predicate. .. )

Situation word

Time, place, cause and purpose (“Because of rain” (“To improve physical strength”, “Tomorrow”, “At school tomorrow”, “At school”) , Etc.) is also referred to as a "situation word" (Shigeyuki Suzuki, "Japanese Grammar and Morphology", Taro Takahashi et al., "Japanese Grammar", etc.). Although included, the (usually used) modifier represents the internal attribute of the predicate, while the context word acts as a "trim" or "frame" that represents the external context. , It is usually placed in front of the part that represents an event or state, and sometimes it is placed in front of the subject. In addition, the term "situation word" refers to Russian, Spanish, Chinese (in Chinese, Although it is also referred to as a "word," etc., the concept does not necessarily match the Japanese "situation word," but it is a concept that includes modifiers.

Modifier characteristics

In Japanese, the modifier always precedes the modifier. "Gungun" and "white cloud" are the modifiers of "advance" and "cloud", respectively. The positional relationship is the same even if the modifier becomes long, for example,

Clouds over the tower of Yakushiji Temple in Yamato no Kuni
Nobutsuna Sasaki

To sayTankaIs a long modifier for "cloud" from the beginning to "Hitohirano".

Even in legal sentences and translated sentences, long modifiers are often sandwiched between the subject and predicate to make it difficult to get the meaning of the sentence. For example,The Constitution of JapanIn the passage of the previous sentence,

We should not ignore any other nation by devoting itself only to our own country, and the law of political morality is universal, and it is not Believe that it is the responsibility of each country to maintain its sovereignty and establish an equal relationship with another country.

However, there is a long modifier between the subject “we” and the predicate “believing” that “any nation is…”. It is hard to understand unless you are familiar with this kind of sentence. This is in contrast to the English translation of "We hold…" (we believe) and the subject and predicate next to each other.

However, even in English where a modifier is postfixed, a sentence whose modifier relation is difficult to understand may appear. The following sentence is "Fukurokoji sentence" (en: garden path sentence).

The horse raced past the barn fell.(A horse ran near the barn fell down.)

In this case, the sentence structure is easy to understand because the adnominal modifier "horse run by the barn" related to "horse" comes in front in the Japanese sentence, but in English, "The horseTo qualifyraced past the barnIs coming later, so it is hard to grasp the structure. Specifically, in the middle of this English sentence "The horse raced past the barnIn the situation where I have read only up to, the verb (subject is "The horse)) isracedIt feels like,fellVerb, which was a component of the sentence, was the only grammatical candidate so far (1).racedIn addition to (2)fellWill appear, and for each candidate (1) "[ (habitually or according to general rules[Note 8]) A horse ran through the collapsed barn quickly" or (2) "A horse ran near the barn collapsed."

Part-of-speech system

Such as nouns, verbs, and adjectivesPart of speechIt is necessary to consider the concept of "" separately from the concept of "sentence component" described above. The noun "dog" can be a subject or a modifier as a sentence component, and can also be a predicate with an auxiliary verb "da" like "dog". Verbs, adjectives, and adjectives can be both modifiers and predicates. Of course, adverbs are often used as conjunction modifiers, adnominals are used as adnominal modifiers, connectives are used as connectives, and verbs are used as independent words. There is no one-to-one correspondence.

The question then is what forms the characteristics of each part of speech, but there are various explanations for this, and it is not constant. It is commonly said that the words that represent things are nouns, the words that represent movements are verbs, and the words that represent situations are adjectives.

Hashimoto ShinkichiWhen classifying parts of speech, they do not go into the meaning of words (whether they represent motion or state), and classify parts of speech mainly by formal characteristics.[55].. Hashimoto's way of thinking is easy for beginners to understand,School grammarIs also based on that idea.

In school grammar,wordOf these, "sun", "shining", "red", "glaring", etc.ClauseWhat can makeIndependent word(Lyrics), such as "Yoda," "Dai," "Ga," "Wo," which cannot be used alone to create a phrase, and which are attached to independent wordsAdjunct(Resign) In Japanese, after the independent wordaffixTo add grammatical roles, etc.Linguistic typologyAbove isAgglutinationare categorized.

Independent word

Independent word isInflectionIt can be divided into those with no use and those with utilization.

Of the independent words that are not used, those that become the subjectnounAnd Out of nouns代名詞-numeralThere is also a way of thinking that makes On the other hand, if it does not become the subject, but becomes a continuous modifier alone副詞, What becomes the adnominal modifierAdnominal(Sub-adjective), what becomes the connectiveconjunction, Which are used only as independent wordsVerbAnd Regarding adverbs and adnominals, there is debate about whether or not each should be a one-part-of-speech.[56]Or a way of thinking that is absorbed by other parts of speech[57]and so on.

Of those that are useful in independent words, those that have imperative formsverb, Which has no imperative form and ends/union form ends with "i"adjective("Adjective" in Japanese education), the one whose adjunct form ends with "na"Adjective verb(In Japanese language education, it is "na adjective"). To recognize an adjective verb as a part-of-speech,Seiji Tokieda[58],Shigeyuki SuzukiSome researchers take a negative view.

It should be noted that the terms "noun" and "hymn" are often confused. In ancient times, when classifying words, words that were not used wereWord of mouth"(Body)"Idiom"(For), and other types of particles and auxiliary verbs were often loosely called "teniha." In the current school grammar, "adjectives" are used in the meaning of independence words that have conjugations (verbs, adjectives, and adjective verbs), and "syllables" are nouns (and pronouns and numbers) among independence words that have no conjugations. Came to point to. In other words, at present, it is safe to regard "syntax" and "noun" as the same thing, but if we focus on the words that are not used, "syntax" can be the subject of sentence components. When paying attention to, it is called a "noun".


Also attached wordsInflectionIt can be divided into those with no use and those with utilization.

The ones that are not used in the attached wordsParticleCalled. "spring Came" "buyOnComeOnlyNo" "OKOrBold parts such as "" are all postpositional particles. Particles express the relationship (case relationship) between a noun and a predicate.Case particle("Noun case) Section), represents the connection relation with the succeeding part for the word to be usedConnection particle, Modifies the following adjectives, etc. for various words, adding meaning such as degree and limitationSub particle, At the end of the sentence, expressing mood or intention such as doubts, exclamation, excitement, or prohibitionFinal particleIt is divided into Shigeyuki Suzuki, Taro Takahashi et al., Yasuyuki Suzuki et al. do not recognize particles as words, and use them as part of words as an adjective (“sticking”). (All of the case particles, parallel particles, particle particles, subparticles, final particles, and connection particles, "shi", "ga", "but", "kara", "so", "noni") or the ending (of the connection particles) About "te (de)", "ba" in the form of condition, and "dori" when lining up.

Some useful wordsAuxiliary verbCalled. "AttractiveTo be"I cryAbsent"The flowers laughIt was"Come on, go outSee"I won't come todayThat's it"" Spring is coming soonで すBold parts such as "" are all auxiliary verbs. The most important role of the auxiliary verb is to add the following information to the verb (and auxiliary verb). That is, the verbState(Especially passive, causative, possible, etc. Voice)・polarity(Affirmative/negative decision. Polarity)tense(Tense)phase(aspect)·LawHas a role to show (guess, assertion, will, etc. mood).Takao YamadaDoes not recognize auxiliary verbs and regards them as endings (compound endings) extracted from verbs[59]. AlsoSeiji TokiedaDoes not use "re (re)" and "seru" as auxiliary verbs, but rather as verb suffixes[58].. Shigeyuki Suzuki, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Taro Takahashi and others do not recognize most auxiliary verbs as words. “Ta” and “u” are the endings of verbs, and “no”, “yo”, “masu”, “ru”, “ru”, “suru”, “suru”, “tai”, “yes”, “yes” Is a part of the word as a suffix. ("Yoda", "likely", and "yes" are "musubi" or "copula" and "junction".)

Noun case

Nouns and verbs/adjectives/adjective verbs indicate in a special form what components they carry in the sentence.

In the case of nouns, such as “ga” “o” “ni”Case particleThe relationship with the verb (case) is indicated by the suffix. Japanese is relatively free in word order because it is not a language that shows case by word order. That is,

  • Momotaro dogTo KibidangoThe Did it.
  • dogTo Momotaro KibidangoThe Did it.
  • KibidangoThe Momotaro dogTo Did it.

, Etc. are different sentences to be emphasized, but they are all sentences showing the same content and are correct sentences.

The main case particles and their typical functions are as follows.

ParticleFeaturesUse case
Represents the subject of action/action.Example: "The sky is blue", "There is a dog"
OfRepresents adnominal modification."My book", "Ideal home"
TheRepresents the target of action/action."Reading a book", "Teaching people"
ToRepresents the point of action/action."Arriving at the station", "Teaching people"
Indicates the direction of action/action."Go to the station" "Go to school"
Represents a partner who performs both actions and effects."Return with friends", "Crash with car"
からIndicates the starting point of action/action."Return from destination", "Start at 6 o'clock"
ThanIndicates the starting point of action/action and the target of comparison."Return from destination", "Beautiful than flowers"
Indicates the place where the action/action is performed."Laundry in the river", "Sleep in the bath"

In this way, the case particle indicates how the noun that modifies the predicate is related to the predicate (however, only "no" is used for adnominal modification and indicates the relationship between nouns). In addition, the above is a typical function to the last, “ga” that does not represent the subject (eg, “I want to drink water”), “o” that does not represent the target (eg, “departed from Japan”), "Ni" that does not represent a goal (eg, subject of passive movement "praised by the teacher", where the position is "Imperified by Emperor now"), "no" that represents subject (eg, "I am I saw him running in a hurry"), etc., and often carry functions that are beyond the above.

Of the case particles, "ga", "wo", and "ni" often drop out in spoken language. In that case, without the help of context, the first part is considered to correspond to the "ga" case. If you say "whale, dad ate it." without the particle, "whale was eaten by the father." .. When I say "I ate chocolate." "Chocolate, I ate." With the help of context, misunderstandings can be avoided. It should be noted that case particles such as "he", "to", "kara", "yori", and "de" do not drop in spoken language.

The sentence structure statement (“Sentence structureIn the section "), certain case particles are replaced by "ha". For example, the sentence "Sky is blue." becomes "Sky is blue." The way the "ha" is attached to the subject differs depending on the case particle as follows.

Untitled sentenceSentence structure statement
Our Sky blue.Our Sky Theblue.
OurTheRead.Our TheRead.
Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularTogo.Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular Thego. (schoolTogo. )
stationGo tostationToGo to
friendGo home.friendAndGo home.
Travel firstからReturn.Travel firstFromReturn.
riverdo laundry.riverThen.do laundry.

The type and number of case particles needed depend on what the underlying verb is. For example, the sentence that ends with the verb "run" requires the case "ga", and "horse runs" is a complete sentence. However, in the case of "teaching", it is an incomplete sentence just by adding the case "ga" and saying "My brother teaches." If you add the "de" case and say, "My brother teaches at an elementary school (= standing on the platform)." In other words, "teaching" requires the "ga-de" case.

However, in the case of the sentence "My brother teaches in the room." A "ga ni ni wo" case is required, such as "my brother teaches mathematics to his brother in the room." Rather, the sentence does not seem to be incomplete, even if it has no "de" case.

That is, even in the same "teaching", "teaching" meaning "to stand on the platform" requires the "ga-de" case, and "teaching" meaning "to explain and understand" means "ga-de". A case is required. In this way, the case that is necessary to make each sentence valid is called "essential case".

Inflection type and type

Nouns show various cases with case particles, whereas nouns (verbs, adjectives, adjective verbs) and auxiliary verbs indicate which component in the sentence is responsible by changing the ending.tense-phaseIt shows information such as, and whether the sentence is continuous or not. This ending change is "InflectionThe word to be utilized is generically referred to as the “utilized word”.

In school grammar, there are sixInflectional formAdmits. The following are examples of verbs, adjectives, and inflected forms of adjectives (bold text).

Inflectional formverbadjectiveAdjective verb
Imperfective formStruckAbsent
StrongCormorantYou're braveCormorant
Continuous typeStrikingMore
HitIt was
StrongIt was
Be strongThere
BraveIt was
Union formstrikeaboutstrongaboutBraveabout
Hypothetical formHitIfBe strongIfIf braveIf

Terminators are commonly used in predicates. "(The player hits the ball)." "This child is strong." "(The firefighter) is brave."

Conjunctive forms are also literally used as modifiers. "Strong (live)" "Brave (rush)." However, the "hit" of "the player hit the ball." is a continuous form, but it is not a continuous modifier, and in this case it is part of the predicate. Thus, the inflectional form and the role in the sentence do not correspond one-to-one.

The hypothetical form isAlready formedCalled. This is because the colloquial word "Utteba" represents a hypothesis, while the sentence word "Utteba" represents "because I have already hit it." Also, adjectives and adjective verbs have no imperative form in colloquial language, but in the literary language, "rehearse is strong." (KazegatadenThere is an imperative form like ).

There are different types of verb use. In the case of colloquialism,Godan utilization-Top one step utilization-Lower one step utilization-Utilization of power conversion(Odd)UtilizationThere are five types of (sa strange).

Verb typesFeaturesAn example
Five-verbThe inflectional ending is "AdanEnds with "sound""buy"
Upper verbThe inflectional ending is "IdanEnds with "sound""See" "Rent"
Lower verbThe inflectional ending is "EdanEnds with "sound""Exit" "Receive"
Ka verb"Come" and "come" as the end element
Syllable"Suru" and "Suru" as the end element


Vocabulary amount by field

In a languagevocabularyIt is not possible to unequivocally look through the system to determine whether the vocabulary in a particular discipline is rich or the vocabulary in another discipline is poor. In Japanese, for example, "it is well-established that there are many vocabularies that describe nature."[60]It is said that this is not more than a reputation that comes from people's intuition.

In fact, the old version "Classified Vocabulary Table"[61]According to the result of comparing the vocabulary amount of each field, 27.0% of the nouns (kind of body) belong to "human activity-spirit and act", 18.3% of "abstract relationship", and "natural object" And "natural phenomenon" is 10.0%, etc., and as far as this is the case, there are more vocabulary representing "spirit" and "action" than "nature".[62].. However, again, this is not that much compared to other languages, and this result does not immediately show the characteristics of the Japanese vocabulary.

Personal vocabulary

JapanesePersonIs not very fixed.The categories of modern and standard languages ​​include "I, I, I, I, I, Uchi, myself, and us" in the first person, and "You, you, you, you, you, you, you" in the second person. Used.This does not apply to dialects, modern languages, and ancient languages, and in the literature, there are other words such as "I, Atai, I, Wai, Wate, My fellow, I, I, I, Wow, Wan, and I."・ First person such as "Washi, Kochitora, Temae, I, I, Itashi, I, I", "You, Mee, You, Ore, We, Home, Nanji, You, That person, You"・ You can find the second person such as "Your brother, you, your feet, you, you, you, you, you"[63].

The above fact is modernEnglishThe first and second person pronouns of are almost only "I" and "you",FrenchThe first pronoun of "je", the second pronoun of "tu" "vous" only,GermanCompared to the fact that the first person pronoun of "ich" and the second person pronoun are only "du" "Sie" "ihr" can be said to be characteristic. However, even in Japanese, the original personal pronouns are only "wa" and "a" in the first person and "na" in the second person (however, "na" was originally the first person). It is also seen, and is also related to what will be described later). Most of the words used in the first and second person today are diversions from common nouns.[64].. It is also possible to use "I" for the first person, "she" for the third person, etc. as the second person, such as "How old are you?" and "Where are you going?". It is an indication that the vocabulary is general noun.

Incidentally,HomageFrom the point of view, the use of the second person pronoun tends to be avoided for the eye. For example, it is common to say "What time do you come?" instead of saying "What time do you go?"

"Kinship vocabulary systemSee also section.

Phonetic vocabulary (onomatopoeia)

Also, phonetic symbols, so-calledOnomatopoeiaThe vocabulary of is also abundant in Japanese (the definition of onomatopoeia is not constant, but here, words that are audible such as onomatopoeia and onomatopoeia, and states that are inaudible like mimetics. Used as a generic term for words that describe the situation).

Onomatopoeia is a copy of the voices of humans and animals (eg, Ogyaa, Gaou, Geragera, Nyaanyaa).Onomatopoeia is a copy of a noise (eg, rattling, cancer, bang, steadily).Onomatopoeia expresses the state of things and psychological movements (eg, Kyoro Kyoro, Suisui, Iraira, Waku Waku).Among onomatopoeia, words that express psychology are sometimes called onomatopoeia.

Onomatopoeia itself exists in many languages. For example, the bark of a cat is "mew, In Germanmeow", in French"meow", in Russian"meow'[65], In ChineseMeow meow'[66], In Korean야옹 야옹'[67]And so on[68].. However, the vocabulary varies depending on the language. It is said that Japanese onomatopoeia is three to five times as many as Western and Chinese.[69], Especially mimetic words are often used[70].

New onomatopoeia may be made. "(Heart) is thrilled" and "Sturdy (eat)" are examples of onomatopoeia made (spread) in recent years.

Onomatopoeia is particularly free to be created in media such as manga. CartoonistOsamu TezukaWrote the manga into English and wrote that the translator "has helped me" in words such as "Duguen" and "Scene".[71].. Also, the president of the manga publisherSeiji HoriuchiAlso stated that the staff were worried about translating a unique onomatopoeia in selling Japanese comics in the US[72].

Amount of vocabulary for each part of speech

Looking at the Japanese vocabulary by part-of-speech, the overwhelming majority are nouns. The relatively large number of the rest are verbs. In the words included in the “New Select Japanese Dictionary”, 82.37% of nouns, 9.09% of verbs, 2.46% of adverbs, 2.02% of adjectives and 1.24% of adjectives[73].

Of these, the most striking is the small number of adjectives. OnceKunio YanagitaPointed out this point and called it “adjective 饉”[74].. In case of English,Oxford English DictionaryIn the second edition, more than half are nouns, about a quarter are adjectives, and about a seventh are verbs.[75]In comparison with English, it can be said that there are few Japanese adjectives.

However, this does not mean that it is difficult to describe things in Japanese. There are few adjectives in part-of-speech classification, that is, there are few words that take the form of "~i" such as "red" and "fun", and there are many adjective expressions in other forms. Adjective verbs that take the form of "da" (including "red") such as "bright red" and "pretty", "noun (+)" such as "introduction (no)" "acidic (no)" Forms, forms based on verbs such as "prominent (color)", "pointy (needle)", "hahaitai (store)", forms with negative auxiliary verbs "no" such as "boring" and "nieikanai" Is used for adjective expression.

Originally, the main form that supplements a few adjectives is the adjective verb. The import of Chinese and foreign words has increased the number of adjective verbs in the forms of Chinese and foreign words + "Da" such as "correct" and "smart". Among the Chinese and foreign words that are treated as nouns in the above-mentioned "Newly Selected Japanese Dictionary", there are many that include the usage of adjective verbs. According to the results of a survey of about 2 modern two-character Chinese words (“world”, “research”, “rich”, etc.), 1% of the total are things (corresponding to nouns) and 63.7% are dynamics ( 29.9% are modalities (corresponding to adjective verbs), and 7.3% are adjectives (corresponding to adverbs).[76]It can be seen that about 7% of two-character Chinese words are used as adjective verbs.

"Increase vocabulary and part of speechSee also section.

Vocabulary system

eachwordDo not exist separately, but form groups that are related to each other in terms of meaning and usage. thisvocabularySystem[77].. The Japanese vocabulary itself can be said to be one large vocabulary system, but it also contains an infinite number of vocabulary systems.

As a typical example of the systematic vocabulary, the vocabulary, the color vocabulary, and the relative vocabulary are taken up and discussed below.

Directive system

In Japanese, the vocabulary used to indicate things is in four series, commonly called "kosoado". theseDirectiveSince the (indicator) is mainly a noun (such as "this, here, Konata, Kocchi"), it is often dealt with in the description of a noun (pronoun) in the category of an outline book. However, since it actually spans adverbs (such as "ko"), adnominals (such as "this"), and adjective verbs (such as "koda"), it is discussed here as a problem of the lexical system.

The system of "kosoado" has traditionally been called "near name, middle name, far name, indefinite name".Meiji EraToFumihiko OtsukiShows the following table[78].

\NicknameMedium nameFar nameUnspecified
What (what)
Izuko (Where) Izuko

Here, it is said that "near name" means the closest thing, "middle name" means a little distance, and "distant name" means a distant thing. However, considering "there" and the like to mean "something far away", it is difficult to explain the case where a person who is far away is asked to "wait there." In addition, there is a drawback in that it is difficult to explain that you should point to something close to you, such as your own arm, and tell a person to "point there." Kanae revises this point: "ko" belongs to "wa (= your) territory", "so" belongs to "na (= your) territory", "a" "Indicates that it belongs to the other range[79].. That is, the system was summarized as follows.

\What is instructed
Interlocutor layerAffiliation layer
speaker(Speaker himself)
(Belonging to the speaker)
Ko system
Opponent(Goal of speaking)
(Thing belonging to the other party)
(Third party) (Anohito)(Hatata's)
A system
UnspecifiedDonata DareDo system

By organizing in this way, the above-mentioned words such as "Please wait there" and "Please point there" can be explained well. Those belonging to the other party will be represented by "the" regardless of perspective. This explanation method is also adopted in the current national language of school education.

However, not all cases are divisible by Sakuma's theory. For example, when asked "Where do you want to go?" on the road, when you answered "A little bit there," this means "Go to a place that is not too far". Is more appropriate. The same is true when you lose something and say, "I'll search for that genius."

In addition, the situation changes depending on whether the user directly points what is in front of him or her (instruction on site) or when he or she points out a word in the sentence that precedes it (context instruction). "It's a matter of life or death, that's the problem" is hard to interpret as "medium" (somewhat distant) or "belonging to the other party". The content immediately before is shown by "it". As described above, the semantic system of the directional words still has a lot of room for research in detail.

The instruction system differs depending on the language. Except for indefinite names, the three languages ​​are Japanese (Ko, So, A) and Korean (,That,)and so on. Meanwhile, English (this,That) Or Chinese (This,that) And so on make up two series. A Japanese English learner says "This, that, that"this,it,ThatI may think by applying "," butitAre not synonymous because they are synonymous with contextual instructions and have different sequences.

Color vocabulary system

in JapanesecolorVocabulary (Color vocabulary) Is ancient, "Red""White""Awo""BlackIs based on 4 words[80].. "Aka" is a bright color (or the origin of light), "Shiro" is a clear color (or the origin of white), "Awo" is a vague color (or the origin of light), Is the generic term for dark colors (the etymology of darkness). Even today, this system is basically unchanged. This is the reason why the color of the leaves, the color of the sky, and the complexion are all expressed as "blue".[81].

According to a study by cultural anthropologists Berlin and Kay, the most widely used basic color vocabulary in various languages ​​is "white" and "black," followed by "red" and "green." To join[82].. It can be said that the Japanese color vocabulary also fits this law.

This does not mean that Japanese speakers only identify four colors. To represent a special color,黄色(The origin is "wood"[83])" "purple""Brown""Suyoshi""Light green, Etc. and other general names such as plants are diverted as necessary. However, these are not basic color vocabularies.

Kinship vocabulary system

JapaneseRelative vocabulary[84][85]Has a relatively simple system. Use the basic English vocabulary to refer to people born of the same parent.brother""sisterIn comparison with the two words "", in Japanese, it is a more detailed system that distinguishes the four words "Ani", "Ane", "Otouto", and "Imouto" depending on the sexes and the children. Distinguishes "Ani" and "Ane" only in the older years, and collectively "Oto" in the younger years[84]). However, for exampleChineseIt is much simpler when compared to the relative vocabulary of. In Chinese, "grandfather""grandmother"Mother's parentsGrandfather""Foreign grandmother", but in Japanese, there is only a distinction between "jiji" and "baba". In ChineseCount""Uncle, My father's sisterMother-in-law, My mother's brotherCane, My mother's sisterAunt, Etc., but in Japanese, there are only "Oji" and "Oba". The children of "Oji" and "Oba" are all called "Itoco". Even in Japanese, words such as “uncle”, “uncle”, “cousin”, “cousin” are sometimes used as text words, but these are Chinese. Is a loanword from.

Fictitious usage to transfer relative vocabulary to others[86]Exists in many languages. For example, Korean ("아버님"Father" Mongolian ("aab"Father) is used by respected older men. Even in English, we refer to parliamentary elders and Catholic priests.father(Father)"mother(Mother)”, a man's best friend or a man of the same denominationbrother(Brothers)," a woman's best friend, a nun, or a strange womansister"(Sisters). For young men and women unknown in ChineseOld brother"(brother)"Eldest sister"(Older sister),"Grandfather"(Husband)"Aunt(Aunt). Japanese also has this usage, and red strangers are sometimes called "dad" and "mother". For example, a clerk says to a middle-aged male customer, "Father, please buy." In European languages ​​such as French, Italian, Danish, and Czech, it is not normal to call a man who is a stranger like this, and it can be rude to call a red stranger "dad" in Japanese. As with, it's even rude.

It is a usage found in each language that sometimes you may call yourself or others by the name seen from the youngest generation in the family. For example, the father may point to himself as "dad" ("Let's do it") or call his mother "grandma" as the child sees it. This usage is found in various languages ​​including Chinese, Korean, Mongolian, English, French, Italian, Danish, Czech, etc.

Word type

If you classify Japanese vocabulary according to origin,Japanese-Chinese language-Foreign words, And they were mixedMixed wordDivided into In this way, the types of words divided by origin areWord type". Japanese is a Japanese traditional Yamato word, Han is a word using the sounds of Chinese characters from China, and foreign words are words taken from other languages ​​than China. However, it is possible that Japanese words such as "Ume (Ume)", "Uma (horse)", "Kami (paper/simplified)", "E (picture/picture)" were originally borrowed from Chinese. There are sometimes ambiguous word boundaries such asVocabulary historySee section).

Japanese words form the core of the Japanese vocabulary. So-called basic vocabulary such as "this", "that", "today", "tomorrow", "me", "you", "go", "come", "good" and "bad" are almost Japanese. Also, auxiliary words necessary for assembling sentences, such as particles such as "te", "ni", "wo", "ha", and most of auxiliary verbs, are Japanese.

On the other hand, Chinese and foreign words are often used to represent abstract concepts and concepts that have emerged with the development of society. Sometimes a word that already has a Japanese name is paraphrased in Chinese or a foreign word. For example, "meshi" is called "rice" and "rice", and "yadoya" is called "inn" and "hotel".[87].. Such synonyms of different word types have subtle differences in meanings and nuances, especially easy or vulgar impressions in Japanese, public and heavy impressions in Chinese, and new impressions in foreign words. Often included.

Generally, it is said that Japanese has a wide meaning and Chinese has a narrow meaning. For example, one Japanese word "shizume" corresponds to a coined word component of a plurality of Chinese words such as "sin", "chin", and "quiet". The various meanings of "Shizumu" have come to be written differently by using Kanji such as "sink", "calm down", and "quiet", and as a result, these "shizumu" are recognized as different words. Until now. The meaning of a Chinese word, which is a combination of two or more Chinese characters, is particularly analytical. For example, the term "weak" is combined with the elements such as "brittle", "poor", "soft", and "thin" to analyze and explain "fragile", "poor", "weak", and "weak". A typical word[88]("Vocabulary historyIn the sectionExpansion of Chinese power"and"Increase vocabulary and part of speechSee).

It's no surprise that the majority of Chinese words are vocabulary that came from China, such as "Academic," "World," "Doctor," etc.Japanese-made Chinese) Is also old. As a modern language, many Japanese-made Chinese words such as “national”, “gate”, “seating”, “ceremony”, “quick answer”, “heat performance” are used.[89].. Chinese isReading aloudBecause it is read in, it is sometimes called a syllable word.

Many foreign words have their own meaning changes after entering Japanese, in addition to those used as they are. "Claim" in English means "to claim as a right", but "claim" in Japanese means "complaint". The English word "lunch" means lunch, but "lunch" in a Japanese restaurant means the type of food.[90].

Words that are unique to Japanese may be created by combining foreign words, such as "popsicle", "side mirror", and "table speech". In addition, word forms such as “panelists” (meaning panelists), “presenters” (presenters, presenters), etc., whose word forms are not found in foreign languages ​​may be created. These are collectively referred to as "Japanese Western, Especially English wordsJapanglish".

Simple and compound words

The Japanese vocabulary is simple in terms of word structure.Compound wordCan be divided into Simple words are words such as "Atama", "Kao", "Ue", "Shi", "Inu", and "Neko" that are thought to be indivisible. A compound word is a word that is considered to be made up of several simple words, such as "Atama Kazu", "Kawa familiar", "Wow lips", and "Inuzuki". In addition,IdiomThe Chinese word, which is generally called, is a combination of the sounds of kanji, but many words are recognized as simple words in Japanese, such as "pencil" and "world". "Word typeThe mixed words mentioned in the section "," that is, words that combine multiple word types, such as "professional baseball," "grass baseball," and "Japan series," are all compound words in terms of word structure.

In Japanese, it is possible to create infinitely long compound words. "Compilation of the Niigata Prefecture Chuetsu Earthquake Emergency Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters" and "Editing Committee for the commemorative collection of retirement of Prof. Shiro Hattori" are also long compound words. International agreementGeneral agreement on tariffs and tradeIs in EnglishGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(General agreement on tariffs and trade), which is a phrase, but in Japanese newspapers it is sometimes expressed in a compound word as "General agreement on tariff trade". This is due in large part to the combined strength of the kanji, and makes similar long compound words in Chinese and Korean. In addition,EuropeanIn Russian,человеконена вистничество"(I hate humans),GermanThen "NaturfarbenphotographieIt has relatively many examples of long words such as "(natural color photograph)"[91], Even in Englishantidisestablishmentarianism(An objection to the Ordinance for the Abolition of National Religion.GladstoneCalled coined word[92]) There are rare examples of words.

The affix is ​​useful for making compound words. For example, "sense" is not only a compound word consisting of two or three kanji, such as "sound", "word", "distance", "anxiety", but also "translucency", "nostalgia", "shaken feeling", and "neatness" Create a compound word with verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, such as "feeling", and even create sentences that look like "feeling like you're using an old name" (= feeling like you're using an old name). Sometimes it is inscribed to make a long compound word.

In Japanese, compound words are often difficult to understand by looking at the notation. For example, in EnglishapivorousCan only be understood by biologists, but the Japanese word "bee eating" can be inferred to be "bee eating traits".[93].. This is a feature of languages ​​that use Kanji for writing.


Modern Japanese is漢字-hiragana-KatakanaUsing,Common kanji-Modern pseudonymIt is general that it is written based on.Arabic numerals,Roman letters (Latin letters)Etc. are also used together if necessary.

Claims that explain the need for orthography[94]And its counterargument[95]Have often been exchanged.

Character type

As of September 2017, the following 9 characters are used for Hiragana and Katakana.

hiraganaA There Cormorant Huh Contact Or Can Ku This Tooth To To Its It was Chi One On I To Unexpected I Of The Hi Fu Ho Or Body Nothing Because Also , Yu Et al. Ri That Re The filtrate The Hmm
KatakanaA Lee Cormorant Eh Oh Mosquitoes Ki Click Co Service Shea A So Ta Chi Tsu Te G Na D Nu Ne Ha Hi Off Ma Mi Mu Me Ya Yu Yo La Re Le Les Russia Wa Wo

Among these, there are also kana which represent "dakuon" or "dakuon" by adding "" (dakuten) and "゜" (semi-daku).phonemeSee section).HoarsenessIs written with small letters "ya", "yu", "yo",ConsonantIs indicated by a small "tsu". There are also sounds such as "tsua" and "fa" that are accompanied by small "a", "i", "u", "e", and "o".Long soundThere is "-" which means.Historical pseudonymIn addition to the above, Hiragana """,” and katakana “ヰ” and “ヱ” exist, and moreKana KanaThere is.

There are 2136 kanji that are needed in daily life.Common kanjiAnd the 861 characters used to name childrenKanji for personal nameIs stipulated by law. In fact, it is said that there are many other commonly used Kanji characters,Japanese Industrial Standard(JIS) isJIS X 0208About 6300 characters (commonly called JIS Kanji) are listed as Kanji that can be processed by computer. In addition, it is the original family of kanjiChugokuThere are similar standards inTable of modern Chinese charactersAccording to this, 2500 characters are defined as "common characters" and 1000 characters are defined as "next common characters". In addition to this,Modern Chinese vocabulary tableIn, 3500 characters have been added.

In general sentences, use the kanji, hiragana, and katakana mentioned above together with Arabic numerals and Roman letters as needed. Basically, kanji is used for kanji, kanji is used for parts of Japanese that represent concepts (nouns, language stems, etc.), and formal elements (particles, auxiliary verbs, etc.) Hiragana is often used, and katakana is often used for foreign words (other than Chinese). Public documents may specify notation in particular[96], The private sector may follow this. However, there is no strict orthography, and variations in writing are widely accepted. Depending on the type and purpose of the text,

  • Cherry blossoms / cherry blossoms bloom / cherry blossoms bloom

There may be a notation such as.

It is pointed out that the advantage of writing with various character systems is that the grouping of words is easy to understand and that the readability is excellent. There is also an advantage that homonyms derived from the simple syllable structure of Japanese are distinguished by the kanji and the number of characters is saved.Computer sciencePerson ofMurashimaPointed out that in Japanese, since it is possible to express ideographic and phonetic characters in double sentences, there are many clues to remember and recall, and the function as a language is high.[97].. On the other handToshio TakashimaIs a Japanese sentence that is overly dependent on the ideological character of KanjihomonymIt is said that the language is "overwhelmed" because it has no choice but to use and often causes problems in practical use.[98].. There has been a claim to abolish Kanji and make Kana or Romaji a national character in history, but it was not widely implemented.[99]("National language"reference). Today, the mixture of kanji, hiragana, and katakana is the standard notation.

Dialect and notation

The Japanese writing system was developed to write the central language,dialectIt is not always suitable for describing the phoneme of. For example, in the Tohoku region, [kagɨ], The "key" [kãŋɨ] Is pronounced like[100], Both of these words cannot be written in ordinary kana (if written approximately in the accent dictionary, "key" and "MosquitoesKi"become that way). However, since the dialect is rarely used as a written word, it is rarely inconvenient in practice.

Kesen dialect of Iwate Prefecture (Qusen)about,Genji YamauraIn some cases, the orthography based on the grammatical form is being tried.[101].. However, this is an academic attempt rather than a practical one.

Ryukyu("系統]) notation system is also applied mutatis mutandis. For example,Ryuuta"Tensego no Hana" (Tin sagunu flower) Is written in traditional notation as follows:

Dye it on the flowers and toes of your tentago

In this notation, for example, "gu" and "go" are both [gu] In many cases, there is a one-to-one correspondence between kana notation and pronunciation. Phonetically,[tiɴʃagunu hanaja ʦimiʣaʧiɲi sumiti, ʔujanu juʃigutuja ʧimuɲi sumiri] Is about to become[103].

In terms of kanji notation,Regional charactersThere is something that should be called. For example, the place name of Nagoya city "Akira"Ki", ​​which is used in "Iri-naka," etc., is the "regional character" of the region related to Nagoya. In addition, "Bae" is read as "Tao" and "Tawa".native scriptSo, it is said to be established in the Chugoku region and elsewhere[104].


Sentences take a variety of different styles, depending on their purpose and situation. This style is written as "Stylistic", and in spoken language (discourse), "speaking body"[105]Called.

In Japanese, stylistic differences are particularly noticeable in auxiliary verbs and particles at the end of sentences. This means "body, body", "body," "body," "body language" (words of prostitutes in Edo and Shinyoshihara), "teyodawa language" (mid-Meiji era) The words of a young woman who became popular since) typically appear. Although there are large differences between the styles/speaking styles, Japanese speakers are always switching between different styles/speaking styles.

Note that the term "stylistic style" applies not only to written sentences but also to discourse.[106], In the following, "stylistic style" will also include "speaking style." Also, for written sentences, colloquial sentences, etc.Style historySection.

Normal body/Polite body

Japanese writing styles are roughly divided into two types: normal (ordinary) and polite (respect). Japanese speakers use both styles appropriately in their daily lives. It is common for Japanese language learners to first learn polite bodies and then ordinary bodies. Ordinary body is called a German style because it is a style that seems to be unaware of the other party, and polite style is sometimes called a dialogue style because it is a style that is aware of the other party.[107].

The difference between a normal body and a polite body appears as follows.

\Normal bodyPolite body
Noun sentenceSpring coming soonI(springIs).Spring coming soonで す.
Adjective verb sentenceQuiet hereI(quietIs).Quiet hereで す.
Adjective sentenceThe flowers of the mountain are beautiful.(The flowers of the mountain are beautifulで す. )
Verb sentenceBirds fly in the sky.Birds flying in the skyMore.

In the ordinary form, when a noun, adjective verb, or adverb comes at the end of a sentence, it is tied in the form with "da" or "is". The former is sometimes called the "body" and the latter is sometimes called the "body".

In the polite style, when a noun, adjective verb, or adverb comes at the end of a sentence, it is tied with the auxiliary verb "da". When the verb comes, tie it with the form with "masu". From here on, the polite body is sometimes referred to as a "masu body." In some cases, a style that uses "dare" instead of "dare" is called "dashiri body". The polite body isHonorificIn terms ofPolite languageIt is a style using. Even when an adjective comes at the end of a sentence, you can tie it with "da", but you may avoid "da" by saying "flower is beautifully blooming" or "flower is beautiful."

Stylistic phase difference

The style of discourse (speaking style) is the speaker's gender, age, occupation, scene, etc.phaseThe part that depends on the difference is large. The polite body of "I have eaten rice" can be transformed as follows, for example, depending on the attributes of the speaker.

  • I've eaten rice. (Stylistic style for children and ordinary people)
  • I've eaten rice. (Social media and student style)
  • I have eaten. (Adult style changed)

So each of these different wordingsTopological wordAnd each difference is called a phase difference.

In story works and media, the phase may be extremely stereotyped to deviate from reality, or the writer may intentionally create a virtual phase. Such wording "Role wordSometimes referred to as[108].. For example, the following writing style does not reflect the general phase of actual gender, doctor, daughter, local origin, etc., but it is a writing style that gives a virtual feeling in novels, manga, anime, dramas, etc. Widely observed as. This did not begin in modern times, and examples of yakuwarigo can be found in modern and modern literature (Kanagaki Robun(For example, foreigner-like wording that appears in "Western Road Knee-chest hair").

  • I've eaten rice. (Superior woman)
  • I've had a meal. (Doctoral style)
  • Let me have your meal. (Lady style)
  • Oh, I've eaten a meal. (Rural style)
  • I've eaten rice, Aryo. (Chinese style.Kyowa(See)


In Japanese,ExpressionForm a grammatical and lexical system. Above all, words that show respect to the other party (Honorific) Is remarkable.

It is sometimes said that "honorifics can only be found in Japan," but as in Japan, as a language in which honorifics form a grammatical and lexical system,Korean-Javanese-Vietnamese-Tibetan-Bengali language-TamilThere is also a distinction between respect, humility, and politeness.[109].. In Korean, for example, the verb "내다(Neda)" (put out) is the honorific form "내시다(Neshida)" (issued) "냅니다It has the shape of (Nemunida)” (will be put out).

Even if there is no honorific system, respect expression itself is widely observed in various languages. Respecting the other person and politely speaking are required everywhere in a developed society. Learning such language is not easy in any language.

Kanesuke IchidaAccording to the above, the following two points are characteristic of the honorifics of modern Japanese.

  • Is a relative honorific
  • Has a grammar system

In honorifics in other languages ​​such as Korean, for example, my father is the subject of respectful expression in any situation, and when talking about him to others, I use the absolute honorific word "My father is...", In Japanese, expressing my respect for one's relatives to others is inadequate and must be expressed as "My father...". HoweverRoyal familyThen there is an absolute honorific, and the Crown Prince describes his father as "His Majesty is...".

Every language has expressions that show respect, but Japanese and Korean have a grammatical system, so a highly organized system has been created for all parts of expression and language behavior.[110].. For this reason, there are preliminarily prepared expression options according to the kind and degree of respect, and it is necessary to always select an appropriate expression from them.

The Japanese honorific system and respectful expressions are described below.

Honorific system

The Japanese honorific system is generally large.Honorific-Humble language-Polite languageare categorized.Cultural CouncilThe Japanese Language Subcommittee responded in February 2007 with the "Honorific Guidelines"Polite languageandBeautification wordShows 5 categories including[111].


Honorifics are expressions that show respect for the subject by increasing the subject of the action. The form in which the verb is attached to "O-go" or the form in which the auxiliary verb is attached to "(Ra)re" is used. For example, as a respected form of the verb "toru", "(teacher) takes toll" and "(teacher) to be taken" are used.

Some words correspond to specific respect words. For example, the honorific word for "say" is "you", the honorific word for "eat" is "eat", and the honorific word for "go/come/is" is "come".

Humble language

The humble word has been a basic expression of respect for the object of motion since ancient times, and in modern times it may be better to interpret it as "to lower the subject of motion." The verbs have the form of "Osuru" and "Oshishimasu" (moderate + polite). For example, as a humble form of "take", "take" is used.

Some words correspond to specific humility words. For example, the humble word for "saying" is "to say," the humble word for "eating" is "to have," and the humble word for "going to the other party" is "ask," "visit," and "wait." ..

It should be noted that there are expressions such as "Iki" of "I'm late at night", but it doesn't mean that I am lowering someone. This shows respect for the listener by politely expressing the topic "evening is late". Hiroshi Miyaji refers to the words used in this expression as "dignified words."[112][113].. Other polite words include "mass", "mass", "know" (mass), "seisei", "shrine", and "our company". The Culture Council's “Honorific Guidelines” also uses the polite language of expressing one's own behavior that is unrelated to the other party, such as “Iki” in “I'm going abroad tomorrow”.

Polite language

The polite language shows respect for the listener by making the end of the sentence polite. End with a verb/adjective endingNormal bodyOn the other hand, nouns and adjectives verb stems with "is" ("I am a student" and "Beautiful") and verbs with "masu" ("Go" and "I understand") Style using polite words such asRespectThat.

In general, it is said that polite language is used for superiors, and polite language is not used for equivalent and current people.However, this is not the case in the light of real language life.When a mother scolds her child, she sometimes uses polite words such as "I don't know my mother anymore."Polite language is often used as an expression of respect or gratitude, but in rare cases it may try to take a step back in psychological distance.

"O" and "go" such as "bento" and "rice" are also included in the polite language in a broad sense, but Hiroshi Miyaji is called "beautification" to distinguish them.[112][113].. It is an expression in which the speaker considers his/her own language, rather than showing politeness to the other party. Therefore, a beautification word may be used even in a sentence that is not polite, such as "Let's eat lunch." The “Council of Culture's “Honorific Guidelines” also provides “beautification words”.


In order to express respect in Japanese, it is still not enough to know the honorific elements of grammar and vocabulary, and appropriate expressions that take into consideration various elements such as time and case are necessary. This is sometimes called a respectful expression[114].

For example, "Do you want to have coffee with your section manager?" uses the respect expression "I will drink," but it is not appropriate as a respect expression. This is because it is rude to hear the other person's intention directly in Japanese. It is appropriate to say "How about coffee?" 22nd periodNational Language Council(2000) replied "respect expression in modern society" based on the importance of such respect expression.

Some euphemisms are also used as honorific expressions. For example, if you want the other person to open the window, you can use the inquiry expression such as "Can you open the window?" Or he may just say, "Hey, it's hot today," to imply the desire to open the window.

When a Japanese person "thinks" in a commercial transaction, it is said to mean refusal. Even in english "Thank you for inviting me."(Thank you for inviting me) is an expression that declines the invitation. Also,京都Then,Kyoto dialectEven though the returning guests didn't feel like that,Ochazuke).RakugoAccording to "Kyo no Bukkake" and "Kyo no Chazuke"[115]). In the sense that these expressions are devised so as not to upset the mood of the other person, they should be called broadly respectful expressions, but there is a risk of misunderstanding with those who do not understand their breathing.


There are various in Japanesedialect, Which can be summarized in several dialects. What kind of dialect area is assumed depends to a large extent on the index used for partitioning.

Dialect division

Tojo MisaoThe words spoken all over the country are largely eastern and western dialects.Kyushu dialectandRyukyu dialectDivided into[116].. Also they areHokkaido-Tohoku-Kanto-Hachijojima-Tokai Higashiyama-Hokuriku-Kinki-Chugoku-Unhaku(Izumo/Hoki)・Shikoku-Good day(Buzen, Bungo, Hinata)Fertilizer(Tsukushi, Hizen, Higo)Satsukumi(Satsuma/Osumi)Amami archipelago-Okinawa Islands・It was divided into the Sakishima Islands. These classifications are still in common use today. Of these, the words of Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima are one of the Japanese words (Ryukyu dialect) and the independent language.RyukyuThere is a position to.

In addition,Kazuhiko KanedaIs the inner ring dialect mainly in Kinki/Shikoku, the central ring dialect mainly in part of the Kanto/Chubu/China/north Kyushu, the outer ring dialect mainly in most of Hokkaido/Tohoku/Kyushu, and the Okinawa region Classified as the South Island dialect[117].. This classification focuses on the fact that accents, phonemes, and grammatical features draw a circle centered around Kinai. In addition, some researchers have proposed a dialect division.

The interior of one dialect section is also varied. For example,NaraBelongs to the Kinki dialect,Totsukawa,Shimokitayama VillageIn the surrounding area, the Tokyo accent is used only in that area, and Shimokitayamamura Ikehara has another system of accent and is surrounded by the Tokyo area.[118].KagawaKanonjiIbuki Town (Ibukijima) Then,Heian periodIt is said that the accent system of[119](There are also objections[120]). These are examples of particularly striking features, but in any small area there is a system of language as its land. Therefore, "every point of the word is equally worth the record.[121]It is something.

East-West grammar

In general, when dialect difference becomes a topic, east-west difference in grammar is often taken up.Eastern dialectWestern dialectThere are the following differences between and.

"Nai" is used in the east, and "n" is used in the west. For the perfect form, use "tel" in the east and "tor" in the west. For the assertion, use "da" in the east and "ja" or "ya" in the west. Millet rowGodan utilization OfverbContinuous typeIn the east, it becomes a "kutter" (buy) and a consonant flight, and in the west, it becomes a "coater" and a woo noise. In the east, the nonadjective form is used like "Hayak (nar)" in the east, but in the west the u consonant form is used as "hayo".[122].

The boundaries of the East-West confrontation in the dialect are not drawn to the eye, and vary considerably depending on which feature is taken up. However, on the Sea of ​​Japan side,NiigataWest endItoigawa, The Pacific sideShizuokaLake HamanaIs often referred to as the boundary line (Itoigawa/Hamanako line). Difficulty to the west of ItoigawaWisdom toothThere is to the southJapan AlpsIt was considered that this was one of the causes of the formation of the East-West dialect, as they were blocking the east-west traffic.


Japanese accents differ greatly between dialects. The Japanese accent system can be divided into several types, but the ones that are widely spoken and have a large number of speakers areTokyo accentKeihan accentThere are two. Whereas the Tokyo accent distinguishes only the position of the descent, the Keihan accent distinguishes the height of the first beat in addition to the position of the descent. In general, the difference in accent is often described as the difference between East and West in Japanese, but the actual distribution is not a simple East-West confrontation, but the Tokyo accent is generallyHokkaido,Tohoku regionNorth,Kanto regionWestern,Koshinetsu district,Tokai regionMost of theChugoku,Shikoku regionSouthwest,KyusyuIt is distributed in the northeast, and the Keihan accent isKinki・Most of the Shikoku regionHokuriku regionIt is distributed in a part of. In other words, the Keihan style accent area spreads out in the Kinki region, with the Tokyo style accent area sandwiching the east and west. Japanese standard and common language accents areMountain hand wordIt is a Tokyo accent because it is based on the thing.

There are two types of molds in southwestern Kyushu and parts of Okinawa.Type XNUMX accentAre distributed,MiyazakiMiyakonojo CityThere is only one type of moldType XNUMX accentAre distributed. Also,IwateShizukuishi Town,YamanashiHayakawa TownNaradaAccents such as discriminate between rising and not falling sounds. In contrast to these accented dialects, the region from southeastern Tohoku to northeastern Kanto, and the region between Kyushu's Tokyo accent zone and Type XNUMX accent zone, the speaker has no perception of accent, There is no rule of where to raiseNo accentThere are areas of (collapse accent). There are various varieties within these accent categories, and there are intermediate types and sects of each system.

Word accents vary from region to region, such as "Hana ga" being pronounced "low high and low" in Tokyo and "high low low" in Kyoto. However, the accent systems of each region are not completely independent of each other. In many cases regular correspondence is seen. For example, "Hana ga", "Yama ga", and "Ike ga" are all pronounced "low high low" in Tokyo, but in Kyoto they are all pronounced "high low low", and "water low" "bird low" "wind low". "Ga" is pronounced "low high high" in Tokyo, while "high high high" is pronounced in Kyoto. In addition, “Matsuga”, “Sora ga”, and “Umi ga” are all pronounced as “high, low, low” in Tokyo, while they are pronounced as “low low high” in Kyoto. Thus, a group of words that are grouped into the same accent type in a certain region (classIt is generally observed that other regions belong to the same type.

This fact means that the Japanese dialect accent has diverged from the same past accent system.[123].Hattori ShiroCall this the primitive Japanese accent[124], It was thought that this branched off and changed in the opposite directions to give rise to the Tokyo and Keihan formulas. The prevailing theory isPeriod OfKeihan accent(NameShiki accent) is the ancestor system of Japanese accent, and most of the current dialect accents are said to have arisen as a result of sequential changes (Kazuhiko Kaneda[125]And Mitsuo Okumura[126]). On the other hand, the theory that accents in various dialects were caused by the contact between the local no accent and the central Keihan accent (Yukihiro Yamaguchi[127]) Is also available.


When the mainland dialect is roughly classified according to the characteristics of pronunciation, the front Japanese dialect,Back Japanese dialect, Satsumi (Kagoshima) dialect can be divided into[128].. The Japanese table dialect has a phoneme system close to a common language. The Japanese-style phonological system is distributed mainly in the Tohoku region, along the coast of Hokkaido, the northern part of Echigo in Niigata prefecture, the northeastern part of the Kanto region (Ibaraki and Tochigi prefectures), and the Izumo region of Shimane prefecture. Its characteristic is the vowels in the I and U stagesMiddle tongue vowelIs that d is narrow and close to a. In the Kanto region, the dialects of Chiba prefecture, eastern Saitama prefecture, and the Noto area of ​​Echigo-Chubu, Sado, Toyama, Ishikawa prefecture are between the back Japanese style and the front Japanese style. In addition, the Satsusumi-style dialect has a large number of vowels dropped.Closed syllableIt is in conflict with the other words in that it has many.Satsumi dialectOther dialects of Kyushu are between Satsumi-style and Omote-Japanese style.

In terms of phonology,vowelof"CormorantIn the vicinity of East Japan, Hokuriku, and IzumoMiddle tongueBy leaningNon-rounded vowel(Does not round lips) [ɯ] or [ɯ̈] So, in western Japan in generalRound lip vowel Of [at] Pronounce with. Also, vowels are produced in East Japan, Hokuriku, near Izumo, and in Kyushu.DevoicingIt is easy to do, and it is difficult to devoice in Tokai, Kinki, China, Shikoku[129].

Apart from this, there are conflicts between Kinki/Shikoku (/Hokuriku) and other areas. The former isKeihan accentIn this region, in addition to accent, in this region, one tree is pronounced in two beats by extending a syllable word such as "tree" for "kii" and "eye" for "mee", and also "red" → There is a common point that fusion of consecutive vowels like "Ake" does not occur. In addition, western Japan (excluding Kyushu, San'in, Hokuriku)vowelStronglyconsonantIs weakly pronounced, and eastern Japan and Kyushu tend to pronounce consonants strongly and vowels weakly.


Phonological history


The number of vowels isNara periodAnd before that, it is thought that there were more than now.Hashimoto ShinkichiIn the Edo periodOld generation special pseudonymRe-evaluate the research[130],WritingAnd "ManyoshuSuch asManyo KanaPointed out that there are two types of pseudonyms in the notation "ki, hi, mi, ke, he, me, ko, so, to, no, yo, yo" (referred to as Class A and Class B) "Momo" is distinguished only in "Kojiki"). Hashimoto believed that the distinction between these kana was based on the phonological distinction, especially the difference in vowels.[131].. Hashimoto's theory was argued by the following researchers: "The number of vowels is not five, but eight in total.[132]8 vowel theory called "," it was established as a theory (Hattori Shiro6 vowel theory[33]and so on). 8 distinction of vowelsHeian periodIt seems that it became 5 vowels as it is now. In addition, in the vocabulary of the old Japanese, the way vowels appear isUral languages,Altay language OfVowel harmonyIs said to be similar to[27].

"Is lineThe consonant ofNara periodPreviously [p] Seemed to have been[133].. In other words, "hana (flower)" is [pana]It may have been pronounced like (Pana).[p] In the early Heian period at the latestUnvoiced lips fricative [ɸ] Had changed to[134].. That is, "Hana" is [ɸana]It was (Fana). In the late Middle Ages,RomajiI wrote Japanese at that time, but many remain, but there is "Is lineThe character "" is transcribed as "fa, fi, fu, fe, fo", and it can be seen that "ha line" at that time had a pronunciation similar to "fa, fi, fu, fe, fo". From the end of the Middle AgesEdo PeriodThe consonant of "hako" [ɸ] から [H] Moved to. However, "FuIs [ɸ] Leave it as "HiIs [çi] Became[135].. It is still pronounced like this in modern times.

In this way, the consonants of "hako" are mostly [p][ɸ][H]Lip soundWas declining. An example of the decay of lip sounds isC line callPhenomenon (“wa row” → “wa row” ie [ɸ][w] Change). Also, pronounce "u" in the Kansai region with curled lips (Round lip vowel), in the Kanto region, pronounced without rounding the lips, but this tooLip degenerationCan be taken as an example.

"Ya line"Of"[I]) Sound existed in ancient times,LineIt is clear from the fact that it was written in a different character from the kana of "e"[136].. It seems that it was established in the early Heian period.Words of heaven and earth"" includes two "e", and is considered to indicate the distinction between "a" and "ya". This distinction10st centuryIt seemed to have disappeared by the time[136]Established in 970,TalkWill be recorded inSong of OtojiIn "," there is only "Eh" of "Ah". Around this time, the pronunciation of "e" in "ayuki" and "yayuki" were both [I] Was (Next sectionreference).

The consonant of "ga" is a so-calledNasal noise(Money nasal) [ŋ] Met. Nasal noise quickly lost power in modern times and is the same as the beginningPop sound Of [ɡ] orFricative Of [ɣ] Is being replaced. Today, when writing nasal dull sounds, add a semi-voiced dot to the word "ka"Kami (mirror)Sometimes it is written like ".

"The-Ji""Z-Each"ofFour kanaIn Kyoto in the early Muromachi period [ʑi], [dʲi], [zu], [of] It was pronounced, but in the early 16th century "chi" "ji"Palate"Tsu" and "zu"SquealAs a result, the pronunciations of "ぢ" and "zu" are [ʥi], [ʣu] Then, the sound of "ji" and "zu" approached. At the end of the 16th century, they were represented by different Roman letters such as “ji · gi” “zu · zzu”, and it can be seen that at that time there was still a distinction in pronunciation, but it was also recorded that confusion had already begun at that time. Are[137].. By the end of the 17th century, the distinction between pronunciations is thought to have almost disappeared in Kyoto (some dialects still distinguish it).[44]). "To・"Ze" is written as "xe・je" and corresponds to the current "She Jae" [ɕe], [ʑe] I also know that it was. Already at the end of the Muromachi period in the Kanto region [If], [ze] , But it eventually spread to western Japan, and became popular in Kyoto in the mid-19th century. Currently in parts of Tohoku and Kyushu [ɕe], [ʑe] Is left.

C line call

Since the Heian era, the "hayuki" sound at the end of the word is "Wa lineIt turns into a soundC line callHappened[136].. For example, "Kaha (river)" "Kahi (shellfish)" "Kafu (buy)" "Kahe (replacement)" "Kaho (face)" [kaɸa] [kaɸi] [kaɸu] [kaɸe] [kaɸo] What was[kawa] [kawi] [kau] [kawe] [kawo] Became. It is known that "haha (mother)" was called "faua" (hawa) in the same way as in other words, such as "faua" (hawa).

By the end of the Heian period,

  1. "I" and ""(And "hi" in the middle and ending)
  2. "Uh"(And "to" in the middle and ending)
  3. "O" and "o" (and "ho" in the middle and ending)

Returned to the same. It is believed that 3 became the same tone at the end of the 11th century, and 1 and 2 became the same tone at the end of the 12th century.Fujiwara Teike"Priest Collection" (13st century), the problem is how to write the kana of “o”/“o”, “i”/“ゐ”/“hi”, “e”/“ゑ”/“he”.

The pronunciation at that time was 1 for the present [I](A), 2 is [I](Ye), 3 is [wo]It was like (Wo).

3 is now [or]It seems that (e) was in the Edo period[137].18st centuryIn "Otonka Tamafuchishu", it is taught not to pronounce "o" and "o" as "wo".

2 is now [e](D) becameArai ShiroishiBased on the description of the general remarks of "Toga", Genroku Kyoho17st centuryFrom the end to the beginning of the 18th century)[138]According to the description in "Song Eikakasho", it seems to be in the middle of the 18th century.[139].

Stool phenomenon

Since the Heian period, change the sound of words to make pronunciation easierSound mailThe phenomenon began to be seen little by little. "Next" is defined as "Next"A sound flight, "Kuishakushisu" is called "Kotoshiusu", etc.U sound service, "Departing" as "departing", etc.Consonant flight, "Fly" and "fly"Sound-repellent flightsAppeared. 『The Tale of Genji”, there are many U-stools such as “Imijiku” as “Imijiu”, and examples of A-sounds such as “Suffering” as “Bitter” are also found.[140].Kamakura PeriodAfter that, otosetsu became popular in colloquial language.

In the Middle Ages, the syllabic form that is not in the common language nowadays, such as "Put it in," "Put it in," "Put it in," "Put it in," "End it," and so on. Was also seen. These shapes remain in various places even today.

Phenomenon on continuous tone

Kamakura Period-Muromachi PeriodToContinuous voiceThe trend of (renjyo) became popular.Sound repellencyorConsonantThe vowels and half vowels that came afterNa row"sound·"Line"sound·"RowA phenomenon that changes to a sound. For example, Ginkgo is "Gin" + "Ann" for "Ginnan", and Yukigaku is "Set" + "In" for "Setchin". When the particle "ha" (wa) and the previous part uttered a voice, the words "Human" → "Ningenna" and "Today" → "Connitter" were obtained.

In addition, in this era, "au" such as "center" of "central" [au] The sound of is long vowel [ɔː] "Oh" such as "Oh" [ou] The sound of [oː] (The same applies when there are onset sounds such as "cow" and "ko")[137].. The former who opens his mouth slightlyOpening sound, The latter pursedSynthetic soundCall. Also, "Iu" [iu], "Eu" [EU] Diphthongs such as[juː],[joː] It changed into a long sound. "OpeningThe distinction of “” gradually gets disturbed, and in the Edo Period, [oː](Oh) In Kyoto, in the general spoken language the distinction of Kaiai was lost in the 17th century.[137]. However, some dialects still have the distinction of opening.[44].

Foreign phoneme

Chinese languageWas not used in ancient Japan when it came to be used in JapanSoundThe sounds of "Que Gu", "Que Guy" and "Que Guy" are now pronounced.[137].. They are [kwa] [ɡwe] It was pronounced as "," and was used like "Kikuui (bizarre)," "Hongguan (this application)," and "Hengue (change)." At first, there was a strong awareness of foreign sounds, but it seems that after the Heian period, it became used in ordinary Japanese.[141]. However, the life of "Ku-Gu" and "Ku-Gu" was short, and they were integrated into "Ki-Gi" and "Ke-Ge" in the 13th century. "Ku" and "Gu" were used throughout the Middle Ages, but confusion had already begun with "Kaga" in the Muromachi period. In the Edo period, confusion progressed, and in the Edo period, the direct sound "ka ga" became popular in the middle of the 18th century. However, it still remains in some dialects[44].

Until the Heian era, the Chinese language was pronounced close to the original Chinese language, and was considered to be distinct from the Japanese phonological system. Voiced rhyme [-k], [-t], [-p]Nasal rhyme tail [-m], [-n], [-ŋ] It seems that these were pronounced very faithfully to the original sound. In the Kamakura era, the Japaneseization of kanji sounds progressed,[ŋ] Is integrated into u, [-m][-n] The confusion of was also common in the 13th century,Sound repellency Of / ɴ / Was integrated into. Voiced rhyme [-k] Became an open syllable and was pronounced as K[-p] Also [-ɸu]After (h), it became pronounced in u.[-t] Has the appearance of open syllables, but the end of the consonant [-t] The shape of was also used side by side until the end of the 17th century. In the Christian documents at the end of the Muromachi period, word forms such as “butmet” (Buddha destruction) and “bat” (punishment) are recorded. In the Edo period, the shape of open syllables was completely generalized.

After modern times,Foreign language(EspeciallyEnglish) Sound has started to use new sounds. In addition to the more generalized sounds such as "She Che Tsa Tse Tho Tha Fa Fi Fe Fo Dje Di Du", in some cases "Ye We We Wo"・Sounds such as "qua, qui, que, qua, quar, zi, to, gua, du, tu, fu" are also used.[142].. These are the ones that existed in the conventional Japanese language, if you take each of consonants and vowels. Sounds that had never existed before, such as "Va v ve ve vo vu", are rarely actually pronounced even if they are written in written words.

Grammar history

Changes in utilization

The types of verbs used areHeian periodThere were 9 types. That is,Four steps-Previous paragraph-Upper two steps-Lower one step-Lower two steps-Strange-Strange-Na weird-La strangeWas divided into This was integrated with the times,Edo PeriodHas reduced to 5 types. The upper two tiers were integrated into the upper one tier, the lower two tiers into the lower one tier, and Na-hen ("Die" etc.) and La-hen ("Yes" etc.) were merged into four tiers. Some of these changes occurred individually from ancient times to the Middle Ages, but they became remarkable only after the Edo period. However, Nahen was still used even in modern times.

Of these, the biggest change is the one-step use. The second-stage to first-stage integration was still rare in the Keihan district at the end of the Muromachi period (completed relatively early in the Kanto region). Even so, it was found in Keihan in the early Edo period and became popular in the latter period.[143].. In other words, today's "wake up" was used in two stages of "ki-ku" like "ki-ki-ku-kuru-kure-kiyo" in the Heian period, but it was used in the Edo period.・Kiru, Kiru, Kire, Kiyo (Kiro) are now used only in the first stage of Ki. Also, today's "dawn" was used in the second tier of "ke" in the Heian era, but in the Edo era it was only used in the first tier of "ke". Moreover, in the process of this change,Termination/union type unificationIs happening becauseKamakura-Muromachi PeriodNowadays, it is used differently than it was before and after. Next is a table that compares the use of each age.

Modern word formTimestemBeforeContinuous usestopUnionAlreadycommand
起 き るSafeContactCanCanKucomeGive meFollow
MuromachiCanCancomecomeGive meFollow
DawnSafeAKucomeGive meKeyo
MuromachicomecomeGive meKeyo
There isSafeAEt al.RiRiThatReRe
MuromachiEt al.RiThatThatReRe
EdoEt al.RiThatThatReRe

Adjectives are used in the Heian period, such as "ku・ku・shi・ki・kere (kara・kari・karu・kare)" and "ku・ku・shi・shi・shiki・shikure". There was a use of shiku. This distinction isTermination/union type unificationIt disappeared along with it, and the usage of adjectives became one.

Today, in grammatical terms, the use of XNUMXdan is called the use of XNUMXdan (substantially the same),Already formedAlthough is now called the hypothetical form, the type and form of utilization is basically the same as in the Edo period.

Ties and its collapse

Formerly Japanese,TieThere was a grammatical rule called Receive a specific word in a sentence with a particle such as "zo", "namu", "ya", "ka", "koso", and againUnion form(In the case of "zo" "namu" "ya" "ka") orAlready formed(In the case of "koso") is tied (Nara period"," was also tied in an adjoint form.)

There was a clear difference in the meaning of the whole sentence depending on how the knot was used. For example, in the sentence "Yamazato is winter, loneliness increases", when the word "winter" is received as "zo", "Yamazato is winter"ThisIncreased lonelinessTo"("Ancient and modern collection)), and the sentence announces that "the loneliness of mountain villages increases during the winter." Also, if you receive "Yamazato" with "Nozo", "Yamazato"ThisThe loneliness increases in winterToIt will be in the form of ", and it will be a sentence that says that it is none other than Yamasato that increases loneliness in winter."

However, in the Middle Ages, the particles such as "zo" and "koso" gradually became more formalized, and had only the meaning to emphasize the above words. Then, even if you use the particle, there are some cases where the end of the sentence is not connected in the adnominal form or the pre-formed form. On the contrary, there are many cases in which sentence endings are connected in the adnominal form without using a particle. In this way, the moorings gradually collapsed.

There are no regular ties in today's colloquial texts. However, "in povertyThatHe is patient"DifferentThe idea is the same,” and remains fossil.

Termination/union type unification

Among the conjugation words, the verbs, adjectives, adjective verbs and many auxiliary verbs other than the four-inflection areEnd-formUnion formTook different forms. For example, the verbs were "face to face" (end form) and "face to face" (adjunct form). However, along with the formalization of monetary knots, there are now many examples in which sentence endings are fixed as adnominal forms (“face to face.”) even though there is no particle above them. For example,The Tale of GenjiIn

While standing out for a while, I can look down at Tamahaba, high places, and here and here.
The Tale of Genji Wakamura[144]

However, it should be ended in the form of "overlooking". Such examples became common in the Middle Ages. As a result, the verbs, adjectives and auxiliary verbs are morphologically indistinguishable between adnominal forms and final forms.

In the adjective verb, the ending form and the adnominal form inflection were both "naru", and the word form was changed to "na". For example, "sad hard" became "hard" for both the final form and the union form. However, in the final form, it was common to use "jiya," which came from "being". Therefore, the final form became "sadly", and the union form became "difficult". "Ajiya" was mainly used in the upper part, and "da" was used in Eastern countries. Today's common language also draws on the Eastern system, with the ending ending in "da" and the adjunct ending in "na". This is one of the grounds for distinguishing both the adnominal form and the end form for the use of the idiom.

In some cases, the final form of the sentence remains fossilized. The final forms of the auxiliary verbs “tari” and “nari” in the literary language remain as parallel particles today, and are used in the forms of “going back and forth” and “greater or lesser”.

Possible verbs

The so-called possible verbs used today, such as "you can write kanji" and "you can drink sake",Muromachi PeriodHad occurred. At this time, from "read" to "read" (= can read), from "have" to "have" (= can have), etc.Four stepsExpress the possibility based on the verbLower two-stage utilizationThe verb has begun to be made. These verbs were eventually used in terms such as "readable" and "possessed".[145].. These possible verbs areEdo PeriodIt was also used in the upper part of the first half and became common in Edo in the latter part.[146].

Even in traditional Japanese, there are four verbs, "pull out" and lower two verbs, such as "(when the sword is pulled out)" versus "(when the sword is naturally pulled out)" There were many examples in which "pull out" (exit) corresponds. In this case, the latter represented the spontaneous occurrence (spontaneous) of "becoming so naturally." As a result of analogy therewith, it is considered that possible verbs such as "reading letters (reading)" as opposed to "reading letters" have been created.

From modern times, especially from the Taisho era, this linguistic effect applies to not only four-stage verbs but also one-stage verbs.Easy wordsBegan to spread[147].. "Seeable" is "viewable", "eatable" is "eatable", "comeable" is "comeable", and "residence" is "residence". This usage became prevalent in some parts of the country, and became more nationwide after World War II.

Passive expression

In the passive expression, there are few examples in which people other than people are the subject before modern times. Originally, Japanese passive expression was a kind of usage of "natural occurrence" that could not be done by one's will.[148].. Therefore, things rarely became the subject of passive expression. 『Pillow soshiko』In "Nikukimono"

Slipping with hair in the slip. (Slids have hair in them)
Pillow Soshi[149]

A certain example can be understood as a passive expression, but it should be said that it was described by observing the natural state. On the other hand, expressions such as "This bridge was made by many people" and "The Tale of Genji was written by Murasaki Shikibu" did not seem to exist in old days. These passive points do not represent the state, but the fact that the thing is acted upon by a person.

It seems that the passiveness of the expression "This bridge was built by many people" became widely used in incorporating European contexts such as English.[150].. In the Meiji era

Wild chrysanthemums were planted all around the grave of Minko.

A Western-style passive like this is used.

Vocabulary history

Expansion of Chinese power

Chinese (ChineseThe vocabulary of) began to enter the Japanese language quite a long time ago, and it can be traced back to the period before the literature. "Ume (Ume)" and "Uma (horse)," which are treated as Japanese today, may have been originally borrowed from Chinese.[24].

Initially, it was assumed that Chinese was used in some literacy groups, and the majority of Japanese other than that used Japanese (Yamato). However, with the influx of Chinese culture and ideas and the spread of Buddhism, Chinese was gradually introduced into ordinary Japanese.Kamakura PeriodAt the end ofNatural grass], Chinese and mixed words (mixture of Chinese and Japanese) have reached 31% of the total number of different words. However, the total number of words is only 13%, and the majority of the vocabulary is Japanese.[151].. End of the Edo periodJapanese-English dictionaryEven in the headwords of "Japanese-English Lin Shui", only about 25% of Chinese words remain.[152].

It was from the end of the Edo period to the Meiji era that Chinese language expanded its power again. "Telegraph," "Railway," "Political Party," "Principle," "Philosophy," and other Western texts were translated into Chinese (New Chinese.Japanese-made ChineseThat). According to an article in the Tosho newspaper at the end of the Edo period, the geisha of Kyoto Gion also liked the Chinese language. He said that the fire in the brazier was too slow)[153].Futabatei Shimeiof"Floating clouds], a female student called Oze

I can't understand what you said because I didn't understand Chinese in my words...

And, it looks like he looks down on a younger woman who does not understand Chinese.

The Chinese power continues to expand to this day. According to a magazine survey, both the total number of words and the number of different words exceed the number of Japanese words, and it has reached to nearly half of the whole words.[154][155]("Word type"reference).

Expanding the power of foreign words

Borrowing vocabularies of other languages ​​except Chinese was not so common in ancient times. this house,SanskritThe vocabulary of was adopted in many Chinese words,BuddhismIt was transmitted to Japan with. "Aunt""master of the house""MandalaIs an example. Also todayJapaneseIs treated asBuddha)” “Kawara (Roof Tile)” etc. are also derived from the Sanskrit[156].

Western languages ​​began to be imported in the Middle AgesChristianIt is after the missionary came to Japan.Muromachi PeriodIsPortugueseThe terms such as “castella”, “konpeito”, “sarasa”, “juban”, “cigarette”, “bateren”, “velvet” were introduced. "Knitted, Etc.SpanishWas also used.Edo PeriodAlso, Portuguese such as "Kappa", "Carta", "vest", "bread", "button", and Spanish such as "Enishida" have come to be used.

In the Edo period,Dutch studiesWith the rise of such as "alcohol" "electric" "glass" "coffee" "soda" "don taku"DutchWas told[157].

From the end of the Edo periodMeiji EraAfter that, the number of foreign words, mainly English, increased rapidly. Words that are not commonly used today, such as "stention (station)" and "telegaraf (telegraph)," were also used in general at that time.Tsuyouchi"Tosei Shosei-gensei" (1885) has a line in the script that says, "Because my watch (watch) is still enough (ten-minitsu), if I hurry up and go, I'll be fine". In addition, lending is a pretext, and it must have been sold to a seven (= pawn shop) or sold (cell). Many of these words have become established as Japanese.

Second World WarAs the situation became more intense, there was a tendency to ban or refrain from foreign words, but after the war, foreign words from the United States exploded. Currently,News report-Transportationorgan·communicationWith the development of technology, new foreign words are spreading instantly. According to a magazine survey, the number of foreign words exceeds 30% in terms of the number of different words.[155], Has become an essential part of modern vocabulary ("Word type"reference).

Increase vocabulary and part of speech


As a result of the introduction of Chinese into Japanese, the vocabulary of nouns, sa verbs, and adjective verbs has increased particularly. Chinese is a word that is not used and is essentiallyWord of mouthWas introduced as a (noun)[158], If you put "su"StrangeIf you add a verb (eg, pray), "nari"Adjective verbCould be used as (eg, mysterious).

Chinese has made it possible to express strict concepts in a concise manner. In general, one word is widely used in Japanese[159].. For example, the verb "take" is used to read "qualify," "take nutrition," "take blood," "take a newcomer," "take a movie." However, it has become possible to use the Chinese language to distinguish between “acquire (acquire),” “ingest,” “collect,” “adopt,” “photograph,” etc., using various Sa verbs. .. Also, the Japanese adjective "Kiyoshi" has a wide meaning, but in Chinese, it is "clean (clean)", "clean", "clear", "clean", "clean", etc. It became possible to express strictly by the adjective verb[160].

Foreign words are as expensive as ChineseCoinageAlthough it doesn't have, it enriches the Japanese vocabulary, especially in the nouns, syllables, and adjectives, as in Chinese. In addition to being used as a noun such as "ink", "bucket", "table", it can be used as a sa verb such as "sketch" or "service" with "do", or "romantic" or "sentimental" with "da". It has come to be used as an adjective verb such as "da".

With the increase in Chinese and foreign words, the power of adjectives and adjectives has reversed. Originally, there were few adjectives and adjective verbs in Japanese, but in terms of numbers, the adjective was the center of adjective expression, and the adjective verb supplemented it. 『Manyoshu』In the noun 59.7%, verb 31.5%, adjective 3.3%, adjective 0.5%,The Tale of Genji], the nouns were 42.5%, the verbs were 44.6%, the adjectives were 5.3%, and the adjectives were 5.1%.[151].. However, the number of adjective verbs whose stems are Chinese and foreign words has gradually increased, and the number of adjective verbs exceeds that of modern adjectives.Amount of vocabulary for each part of speechSee section). On the other hand, however, the number of adjectives and adjective verbs is still low in terms of the entire vocabulary because the number of nouns and sa verbs derived from Chinese and foreign words is also increasing.

Almost all adjectives have been lost today, and the only new adjectives that have been confirmed since modern times are "sweet and sour", "yellow", "square", and "sticky".[161].. On the other hand, adjective verbs retain their high coinage power to this day. In particular, the majority of words with the suffix “target” such as “scientific” and “human” and those derived from foreign words such as “elegant” and “clean” are new words since modern times. Moreover, most of the new adjective verbs are based on Chinese and foreign words. According to a survey of contemporary magazines, among the adjective verbs whose word types are clear, about 2% are Japanese, over 3% are Han, and over 4% are foreign words.[155].

Notation history

Birth of Kana

Originally, there is nothing that can be called a character in Japan, and in order to write words漢字Was used (so-calledKamidai characterIs a forgery of posterity[162]). Examples of relics with kanji include:1st centuryThe excavation from Fukuoka CityHan Commissioner King, Etc., but it seems that it was used in earnest later. 『Record of Ancient Matters],Emperor OshinBaekje scholar in the age ofWang JinSaid that he came to Japan with "XNUMX vocabulary volumes, XNUMX volume of XNUMX characters".Inariyama TumulusExcavatedIron swordInscription (5st century) Is engraved with kanji including the name of the person who is considered to be the Emperor Yuki. "Sumitahachiman Shrine Kagami Inscription" (6st century) Is written in pure Chinese. From such historical materials, it can be inferred that the range of use of Kanji has expanded with the rise of the power of the Yamato administration. 6th century~7st centuryTo become andConfucianism,Buddhism,TaoismThe literacy layer has expanded because it has become necessary to read Chinese sentences about[163].

Such as waka in kanjiYamato languageWhen I wrote down, I sometimes copied each Japanese sound by borrowing the sound of Kanji (or Kun) like "Hatsuharuno". The representative of the materials using this notation is "Manyoshu』(8st century), this notation means "Manyo Kana] (Already7st centuryAn example can be seen in the middle wooden tree[164]).

9st century"Kusakana", which is a more disruptive form of the Manyo-Kana character, was born (such as "Fujiwara Yunenbun" in "Sanuki Kuni Registry").hiraganaCame to see the birth of. This made it possible for the first time to write Japanese freely. The dynasty literature that manipulated Hiragana freely10st centuryAt the beginningOld and modern Wakashu], etc.,11st centuryof"The Tale of Genji, Etc., reached the top in a series of story works.

Buddhist monks and scholarsReadingWhen doing, a dot was placed in the corner of the kanji, and depending on the position, particles such as "te", "ni", "wo", "ha", etc. were sometimes expressed (wokoto point). However, it gradually became more common to indicate particles, etc. with Manyo Kana. Over time, they were simple, with no strokes.KatakanaBecame.

Both hiragana and katakana have beenNote valueMultiple characters were used for. For example,/ ha /(The pronunciation at that time was [ɸa]), there was a hiragana that originated from "wave," "person," "eight." 1900 (Meiji 33 Year)Elementary school decree"Enforcement rules" were issued, and kana taught in elementary school were arranged into one letter and one sound. Kana that are no longer used from now onKana KanaIs called. The variant kana is still sometimes used as the name of a restaurant.

Occurrence of pseudonym usage problem

Heian periodUntil then, the pronunciation and kana were almost the same. After that, pronunciation and kana no longer corresponded one-to-one with the change in pronunciation. For example, the pronunciation of "ha" in "hana (flower)" and "ha" in "kaha (river)" is "fa" in the early Heian period.[ɸa]), but it happened during the Heian periodC line callAs a result, the word ending "ha" such as "kaha (kawa)" is pronounced "wa". However, because there is another word "wa" in the character read as "wa", it is unclear whether the pronunciation "kawa" should be "kawa" or "kaha". It was Here is how to use kanaPseudonymProblem occurred.

Although the intellectuals at that time sometimes set the norm about Kana usage (Fujiwara TeikeThe "gentleman collection" was not always faithful to old Kana usage ("History of Japanese studiesSee section). Also, the followers were limited to certain groups such as poets and nationalists. The pseudonym code used by everyone had to wait until the beginning of school education in the Meiji era.

Revision of kanji/kana usage

The number and style of Kanji andPseudonymWith respect to the revision, revisions have been discussed and implemented since the modern times.[99].

As for kana, the so-called "" was adopted earlier in the Elementary School Regulations Enforcement Regulations (1900), such as "Ningyo (puppet)" was changed to "Ningyo". was there. Since 1904, the "Shojo Shogaku Kyokusho" (first term) follows this stick drawing pseudonym. However, this was not popular, and with the amendment of the rules, it returned to the original pseudonym from the next textbook of 1.

In 1946 after World War II,Kanjitable""Modern dayWas announced by the Cabinet. Along with this, some kanjiFontThe abbreviated font is adopted forHistorical pseudonymThe school education by the has been abolished.

1946 and 1950US Education Mission ReportProvides recommendations and suggestions for romanization of national characters.[165],National Language CouncilBut it was discussed, but it did not happen. In 1948,GHQ OfPrivate Information Education Bureau A literacy survey was conducted under the direction of (CIE). Japanese kanjiLiteracy rateIt was a survey based on the idea that the literacy rate of Japanese people was high, contrary to the investigators' expectations.[166].. In 1981, the Cabinet announced the “common kanji table” and the revised “modern kana kanji”, in which the restricted colors of the current kanji table/modern kana kanji were lightened. In addition, regarding sending syllabaries, after several discussions, in 1973, the Cabinet was notified of "How to assign sending syllabaries," and it has reached the present day. The post-war national language policy was not always supported by regular observation, and debate continues to this point.

Style history

Birth of Japanese and Chinese mixed-text

Until the Heian period, the official written language used in the court wasChinese textMet. This is similar to Vietnam and the Korean Peninsula. At first, it seems that Chinese sentences were read in Chinese sounds, but due to the large difference in phonological systems between Japanese and Chinese, this method eventually became obsolete, and Japanese grammar and vocabulary were applied.ReadingCame to be. So to speak, it was a translation of Chinese sentences into Japanese.

Chinese sentence readingAccording to the customs of "Kawawa Kanji," Japanese words such as "gif" (... Tamafu) and "za" (... masu) are mixed in the Japanese sentence, and some of them are written in Japanese word order. ”Was born (6st century OfHoryuji Yakushi BuddhaSeen in). In addition, "Otoshin, etc.NaiGuru"("Japanese sequel)), a writing style appears in which small particles such as “no” and “ni” are added in small letters. This style isCongratulatory(Norito)MissionIt is called "Declaration" because it is seen in (Senmyo).

Katakana came to be used as an aid for reading Chinese texts, and eventually this text made its way into the text, based on the Hanbun reading body.Kanji Katakana mixed sentenceWas formed. The oldest example is "Todaiji Temple Sudoku Manuscript" (9st century). In a kanji katakana mixed sentence,Chinese languageNot only is it used frequently, but it is also characterized in that many expressions are used for reading Chinese sentences, such as "Hanaha Da Hirokusite" and "What Zogen Hazar."

On the other hand, the style of court literature in the Heian period (Japanese) is basicallyJapaneseIs used, and there are few Chinese words. Also, there are not many expressions used for reading Chinese sentences. For example, "Jinda Hirokushite" and "What Zoh Hasalu", which are the readings of the Hanbun, are "Itohiro" and "Katatamahanu" in Japanese. From the notation, Japanese sentences are “Hiragana/Kanji mixed sentences”, which is a mixture of Hiragana and Kanji. Begins with "Spring is Akebono.Pillow soshikoThe style of 』is one of the typical examples.

The writing styles of the two will eventually come together,Heike storyAs seen inJapanese and Chinese mixed sentencesWas completed.

I was enthusiastic about Kyago and moved to the swords of Kosodai, and after the end of the violence, Kanyang Palace. Even though he hid the smoker's smoke, he remembered it and felt sorry.
"Heikemonogatari" Holy Lord Rinyuki[167]

Here, there are Chinese words such as “Gang Wu” and “Teng Thorn”, and phrases such as “already” in Chinese sentence reading, while Japanese vocabulary and phrases such as “I remember pity and pity” are also used.

The most commonly used texts today are a kind of mixed Japanese and Chinese sentences, which is a mixture of Japanese and Chinese. Properly mix a sentence with many Chinese words, such as "I walked out in the suburbs with my friend the other day," and a sentence with many Japanese words, such as "I walked around the town with my friends during this time." Or spelling sentences while using them properly.

Sentences and colloquial sentences

Spoken language undergoes enormous changes over time, but written language does not. As a result, there is a difference between spoken and written language over hundreds of years.

It was considered that the Japanese written language had matured for the time being in the middle of the Heian period, and at that time the difference between written and spoken language was not large. However, looking at what is written in a narrative tone in the Middle Ages, it can be seen that a great difference has already been created between written and spoken language. Edo periodFashionable book-comic bookIn the category of, the conversation part strongly reflects the spoken language of the time, and the written part of the ground part uses a style that tries to follow the ancient grammar. The difference between the two is clear.

Written words in the Meiji era still tried to follow classical grammar, but words using everyday words also appeared. These written words were generally called "ordinary sentences." Ordinary sentences are as followsReading bookWas also used.

People in Wagga, full industrial use for hands, takuminareba, sono-made works, elaborate narkoto, other ni, clubbek nation.
"National book" 1st term 1904

Strictly speaking, strict sentences were not exactly the same as classical grammar, but mixed with many new expressions. For example, the term "interpretation" was sometimes referred to as "interpretation" and "obligation to attend school" was referred to as "obligation to attend school". Therefore, the Ministry of Education acknowledged that some of the new idioms are long-term idioms.Meiji 38 Year) Article 16 was announced.

On the other hand, from the Meiji 20s,Futabatei Shimei-Yamada MimeEfforts have been made to bring written words closer to spoken words, centered on literary people (Word agreementmotion). Futaba-tei is a "da" body, Mime is a "da" body,Ozaki autumn leavesTried each sentence called "is" body. As such attempts spread, newspaper and magazine articles also have more styles similar to spoken language. Texts that follow traditional grammarSentence, A sentence that reflects the spoken languageColloquial sentenceSay. After World War II, official documents such as legal texts were also written in colloquial texts, and they were far from everyday life.

Dialect history

Before modern times

Japanese was already in the literature eradialectThere was a difference. 『Manyoshu』Vol.14 "Toga" and Volume 20 "Boninka" are recorded songs in the Eastern country dialect at that time[Note 9].. In the "Todaiji Temple Religious Manuscript," which was established around 820, the description "This country dialect, Komijin dialect, Hida dialect, Eastern country dialect" can be seen, and this is the oldest example of the word "dialect" used in domestic literature. R. This is a valuable record showing the dialects of the central people in the early Heian period.

Heian periodからKamakura PeriodUp until then, the cultural influence of the central part was overwhelming, so the description of dialects remained fragmentary.Muromachi PeriodAmong other thingsSengoku periodAs a result of the weakening of central power and the strengthening of local powers, local literature often reflected dialects. A document of Eastern origin called Domonsho is famous, but dialects often appear in ancient documents.

Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodからEdo PeriodIn the very early days,PortugalA large number of missionaries have left behind, some of which are local dialects.京都Many Kyushu dialects were recorded while focusing on the wordsJapanese-Japanese dictionary(1603-1604),Chikuzen,Bizen"Rodriguez Nihon Bungen" (1604-1608), which describes the linguistic features of dialects in various places, is the representative.

At this timeRyukyu dialect (Ryukyu)Will also appear. One of the oldest is the Chinese translation "Ryukyukan Translated" (established in the first half of the 16th century), which records many Ryukyu words in transliteration. Also, in the 1609 Shimazu invasion caseRyukyu KingdomUnder controlSatsuma DomainAlso, the words of Ryukyu are recorded in fragments in the records, but when viewed as a material of word history,Ryukyu Islands[Avoid ambiguity]A collection of ancient songs and umui that have been handed down toOmoroushi』(1531-1623), overwhelming others in terms of quality and quantity.

Nara periodSinceEdo ShogunateThe Kinki dialect was in the central language until the establishment of.Imperial courtからTokugawa familyConqueror GeneralSince the proclamation of the Edo culture has flourished,Edo languageThe status ofMeiji EraHas Japanese in TokyoStandard languageCame to be considered.

Since modern times

After the establishment of the Meiji government, it became necessary to unify and standardize the language in order to achieve nationwide political and social unification, and as a modern nation to foreign countries.[169].. The term "middle-class society in Tokyo" was adopted in school education.[170], The same word is also used in broadcasting "common term" (common language) Was[171].. thusStandard language OfNorm awarenessWith the establishment of the, the movement to correct the dialect spread. EducatorShuji IzawaWrote a book for teachers to teach the correction method of Tohoku dialect[172].. At a local school, a person who spoke a dialect said, "DialectThere were also penalties such as lowering[173].. The military was instructed to use common language at the stage of primary education so as not to interfere with command transmission.[174].

On the other hand, after the war, it became feared that the dialects of various places were being lost.NHK Broadcasting Culture Research InstituteMade a recording of dialects nationwide in a 20 five-year plan, assuming that the pure dialects of each region (as of the Showa 80s) are only used by old people over the age of 1953. In this recording survey,Kunio Yanagita,Tojo Misao,Eitaro Iwabuchi,Kazuhiko Kanedaな どLinguisticsWere instructed[175].

In addition, when the inflow of population from rural areas to cities began with economic growth, the conflict between standard languages ​​and dialects became apparent. Since the latter half of the 1950s, suicides and incidents caused by people from rural areas having their words laughed have occurred one after another.[176].. In response to this situation, dialect correction education was continued.Kamakura City Koshigoe Elementary SchoolThen,1960 eraIn addition, a movement called "Nesayo movement" was started to try not to add the endings such as "~ne", "~sa", "~yo" peculiar to the Kanto dialect.[177].. The movement of the same purpose spread all over the country.

High growthLater, I began to see a change in my awareness of the dialect.1980 eraIn the first questionnaire survey, more than 90% of the respondents answered "I want to keep the dialect".[178].. As the dialects became more common, the so-called "dialogue complex" began to disappear, raising the motivation to cherish the dialects.

1990 eraSince then, the attention of young people to using dialects as if they were playing with a word has been increasing. Wrap in 1995DA.YO.NE"Kansai version of "SO.YA.NA" etc.Dialect parodyWas the subject of conversation and was featured in a news article[179].. According to a survey of Tokyo university students from the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Kansai dialect is observed to permeate young people in Tokyo.[180].. Around 2005, even among high school girls in Tokyo, it became popular to use dialects from around the world such as “Dera (very) cute!” and “Ikube” in conversation.[181], A kind of dialect reference books for high school girls also appeared[182].. Original usage of "super" such as "super interesting" was originallyShizuokaIt is said that it occurred in Tokyo and entered Tokyo[183],Youth words,new wordIs not limited to Tokyo ("Dialect-derived youth wordsSee).

In the world of dialects, research to contribute to the establishment of standard language was once popular.[184], Today's dialect research is not always done from such a viewpoint. It is needless to say that dialect study contributes to historical study of central language[185].. But more than that, the study of individual dialects can itself be viewed as an independent discipline.Genji Yamauraof"QusenAs seen in research[101], Researchers are proud of their own dialect, and have taken the position of studying as a language separate from Japanese.

Research history

The Japanese have a long history of being interested in Japanese,Record of Ancient Matters''ManyoshuThere is also a glimpse of interest in the etymology, script, and auxiliary characters in the description. Since ancient times, Japanese studies have been conducted by people from various fields.Edo PeriodAfter entering, a free academic style that did not stick to the secret occurred, and objective and empirical research was deepened. It is no exaggeration to say that the basic characteristics of Japanese were almost clear before the modern Western linguistics was imported. Below, I will give an overview of the pre-Edo and post-Edo eras, and then add to modern times.

Before the Edo period

Edo PeriodThe previous flow of Japanese language research was broadly divided into three fields. Research by Chinese (Chinese) scholars,Shittan StudiesResearch,versificationIt is a research by a person.

Through contact with Chinese, that is, learning about the syllable structure of Chinese characters, I became aware of the relative characteristics of Japanese. 『Record of Ancient Matters』Is "Touno GoroshimaSounds below the XNUMXth character”(Onogoroshima <The four letters below the Yodo are sounds) is often added, but this is the kanjiDebtIt is used to describe Japanese proper words that cannot be expressed in Chinese, one syllable in Kanji. It is considered that the Japanese syllabic structure came to be recognized through such notation. Also in ChineseReadingIs not in Chinese due toParticle-Auxiliary verbThe elements such as “te,” “ni,” “o,” and “ha,” which are necessary when reading a Chinese sentence, were initially expressed by adding dots to the kanji. (Wokoto point), then borrowed, and thenKatakanaCame to be used. These elements were put together under the name of "teniha" and became one research field later.

At the beginning, when I started to write each Japanese sound with a borrowed character, my consciousness of the whole phonological organization was still weak, but after that all kana were collected once and made into a recitation.Heian periodEarly onWords of heaven and earthHowever, in the middle of the Heian period,Iroha songHas appeared. It seems that these were used to acquire accents for the kanji sound[186]Later, Iroha songs have a context and are easy to remember, soColored leaf paper』(12st century) Etc. indicating the order of things such asIroha orderIt is also used as an example of a pseudonym and has become popular among people.

On the other hand, according to the research of AzumaSanskritIt has become known that (Sanskrit) has an orderly phonological organization. It seems that it was established at the end of the Heian period.Japanese syllabary”Is very similar in the order of the lines of “a・ka・sa・ta・na……” to the order of the Kagome Kagumi chapter (Character table), and the study of the Japanese phonological organization has progressed through Kagaku studies. Ask. However, the purpose of making the Japanese syllabary isCut-offWas also to understand. At first, the arrangement was quite free (almost similar to the present arrangement was establishedMuromachi PeriodLater). The oldest Japanese syllabary is the scholar of the end of the Heian periodLightAs seen in "Resonance". Akekaku also shows a lot of interest in the Japanese phonological organization by citing many Japanese examples to explain the pronunciation of the Sanskrit word in "Yuzumi Kayo".

Poetry has flourished since the Heian period. It was a study for waka poems and criticism, but because of the requirement to use legitimate vocabulary and vocabulary, the study of Japanese old words and the study of "teniha",PseudonymLed to the research into.

Among them, in the study of ancient languages, it was attempted to explain the relationship between words in a phonological manner. For example,Akiraof"Sleeve], the origin of "Tanabata Tatsume" is "Tanabatatsuma" (this is an error in itself), and "Ma" and "Me" are the same five sounds (= the same line of the Japanese syllabary). Late[187]Is explained. In this way, explanations such as "five syllables (sounds in the same row of the Japanese syllabary)" and "same rhymes (sounds in the same row of the Japanese syllabary)" are often used. Became.

The full-scale research on "Tenioha"Kamakura PeriodIt was started by a short sentence "Teiji Taishosho," which was established from the end of the period to the beginning of the Muromachi period. In this sentence, "if the independent words (verbs) such as nouns and verbs are temples and shrines, "Tenioha" is equivalent to their majesty", then the particle "zo" " He briefly describes "teni-wa", including the relationship between "kobe" and its conclusion. In the Muromachi period, "Anekojishiki" was written, and the particles "zo", "koso", "ya", and "ka" as well as the final particles "kana" Is discussed in more detail.

Regarding pseudonym usage, in the early Kamakura period, Fujiwara Sadaie made this a problem, and Sadaie wrote in his book "Secretary Collection』, asked for the standard of kana usage in the kana notation of the grasses at the end of the Heian period of the previous generation, and tried to show the norm. However, regarding the distinction between "o" and "o", both were already in the end of the Heian period.[wo]Since there was no sound and the pronunciation distinction was lost, there was a considerable fluctuation in the notation, and it was not possible to find the standard by the precedent except for the case particle "wo". Therefore, in "Shimankakushu", words with high accents are written as "o", and words with low accents are written as "o". It has already been found in "Shirohajisho".Northern and Northern DynastiesToGyoaAdded this and wrote "Kana-jiji" (this is laterTeika pseudonymIs called). Gyoa's attitude is that old books are also used as a standard, and the distinction between "o" and "o" follows the principle of the Teika pseudonym. However, when Gyoa wrote "Kana-jimoji", there was a big change in Japanese accent,[wo]Regarding the vocabulary containing the sound of, the accent height was different from that of the time of the fixed family. As a result, there is a discrepancy in the pseudonym usage of "o" and "o" with the one that Teike showed.

In addition, since the phonetic distinction between "o" and "wo" was lost, even in the Japanese syllabary, erroneous figures in which the positions of "o" and "wo" were reversed have been used since the Kamakura period. (That is, "aiueo" and "wauuuuo"). This is corrected in the Edo periodNoricho MotoiIt was after the appearance of.

Many Japanese studies were also conducted by foreigners from the late medieval period to the early modern period.JesuitsThen with JapanesePortugalDictionary of wordsJapanese-Japanese dictionary(1603) was compiled andRodriguezPublished the grammar book "Nihon Daibunten" (1608) and "Nihon Kobunten" (1620). Rodriguez's book is valuable because it analyzes Japanese based on the tradition of Latin grammar books. On the other hand, in China, "Japanese Phrase Translation" (around 1549),Mr. LeeThen, a Japanese learning book such as "Koushin Shingo" (1676) was compiled.

Edo Period

The reason why Japanese studies have become highly objective and empirical is thatEdo Period OfOkiSince the study of. Kioki is commented on "Manyoshu"PseudonymWas observed in detail, and the author wrote "Japanese character Shokansho" (1695). From this book, it was clarified that in ancient times, kana usage was decided for each word. Kioki himself also executed the pseudonym. That is, posterity,Historical pseudonymIt is a pseudonym called. The headword posted by Kioki was laterUtahiko KatoriIt was augmented with the kana dictionary of Japanese edition "Kogendai" (1765),Murata HarumiIt was supplemented with "Kanashuyo".

In the study of ancient languages,Matsunaga Sadanori"Wakuge" (1662),Kaihara EkikenAfter "Nihonshakumyo" (1700) appeared,Arai ShiroishiCompiled the big book "Tomasa" (1719). Shiraishi used a modest attitude throughout his presentation of the etymology in "Toga", and the ambiguous ones were dismissed as "unknown". Also,Kamo MafuchiWrote "Word Consideration" (1789) and showed the concept of "about, ensemble, abbreviation, communication". That is, "the change in word form occurs depending on whether it is contracted (about), extended, abbreviated, or consonant (alternation of vowels or consonants)." Although this principle is valid in its own right, some people later abused it and advocated irrational etymology. In etiology research,Suzuki Suzuki(Suzuki Akira) wrote “Gagoon Jyokou” (1816) and wrote “hototogisu,” “guuguisu,” “crow,” “hottogi,” “ugui,” and “kara”. The part of shows an interesting idea, such as showing that it is a cry.

Noricho MotoiWas extremely successful in researching kana and grammar. First, in the field of kana syllabary, he wrote "Jonkanzuka" (1776) and discussed what kind of kana syllabary should be used when writing kanji sounds in kana. Among them,Kamakura PeriodSince then, I have pointed out the fact that the positions of "o" and "o" are erroneously written in the Japanese syllabary (see the previous section), and it was the first time in 400 years that the original correct "aiueo" and "wawau" Was returned to the form. This fact laterTojo GimonWas verified in "Okyokyogi" (1827).

Nobunaga also made good progress in his studies of grammar, especially in relations. A summary of the knots, "Himogami" (1771), was compiled and explained in detail in "Tama no Tamao" (1779). If the word "zo-no-ya-what" comes in the sentence, the end of the sentenceUnion form, When "koso" comesAlready formedIn addition to showing that they are tied together, the end of the sentence in the case of "ha-mo"End-formIt has been shown that It is natural that the end of a sentence is an end when the nominative is attached with "ha-mo", but this is not always the case. When "ga-no", which shows the nominative, comes, the end-of-sentences are connected in a joint form, such as "Kimi ga serisukeru" (Manyoshu), "I'm stuck in the sleeve of Nihohi" (Kokinshu). Therefore, it is important to dare to show that the bottom of "ha-momo-kaku" is tied in an end form.

What has made good results in part-of-speech researchNaruaki FujitaniIt was (Akira Fujinari). Fujitani has part-of-speech as "name" (noun), "iso" (verb, adjective, etc.), "kazashi" (adverb, etc.), "ayui" (particle, auxiliary verb, etc.) ) Classified into 4 categories. In "Introduction to Kazashi" (1767), we discussed the adverbs we use today. A particularly noteworthy work is "Ayusho" (1778), which systematically classifies particles and auxiliary verbs, and discusses in detail their usage, meaning, and usage. The contents are full of ingenuity, and are often cited in today's part-of-speech research. At the beginning of "Rashiisho", "Yoseizu" is a table that summarizes the use of verbs and adjectives, and it was very useful for later research.

After that, research on utilization was carried out by Suzuki Akira's "Kakugo Intermittent Score" (around 1803),Main spring gardenIt was taken over by "Kotobano Yachimata" (1806). Blindness of spring garden is generallyAdachi MakiichiKnown for his novel "Yachimata". At the end of the Edo period, Gimon wrote "Katsugoinan" (1844), which revealed almost the whole usage of Japanese.

In addition, as research that should be noted in the Edo period,Ryumaru IshizukaThere is a "Kakuzuka Okunoyama Michi". It was shown that there were two types of writing in the pseudonym of Manyoshu, but it was not legally treated for a long time. laterHashimoto Shinkichi Old generation special pseudonymWas re-evaluated as a pioneering study.

Since modern times

Edo PeriodFrom the second halfMeiji EraOverWestern OfLinguisticsWas introduced, and Japanese language research reached a new stage. However, there were a number of studies that, by uncritically applying the theory applicable to Western languages ​​to Japanese, would undermine its accumulation.

Under these circumstances, I examined the ancient Japanese studies and Western linguistics and compiled the grammar.Fumihiko OtsukiMet. Otsuki is a Japanese dictionarySea of ​​words』The grammatical theory "Language instruction south" was written (1889), which was later made independent and expanded to become "Hiro Nihon Bungen" (1897).

After that, the number of Japanese researchers increased with the spread of higher education.Tokyo Imperial UniversityA Japanese language laboratory was set up in 1897, returning to Germany.Ueda MannenPlayed a leading role as the first chief professor.

Less than,Second World WarListed below are the major Japanese scholars who played an important role.

FieldEvery woman participating in the study applied SERUM to one half of her face and an identical product without the EGF cellular activator to the other half. The study ran for eight weeks, during which time participants applied the serum twice a day. To rule out any effect anticipation could have on results, the study was double-blinded, meaning that none of the women in the study, nor the scientists in charge of measuring results, knew which half was which. Efficacy was assessed by standardized photography and biophysical measurements to evaluate skin topography, density, and thickness.Remarks
Contrast language studyKatsuji Fujioka-Shozaburo Kanazawa-Shinpei Ogura-Hattori Shiro
GrammarTakao Yamada-Daisaburo Matsushita-Hashimoto Shinkichi-Seiji TokiedaThe grammar theory of these four people is generally called the four major grammars[188].. Hashimoto grammar isSchool grammarIs the basis of.
PhonologyKanesuke Ichida-Hideyo Arisaka-Kamei Takashi
PhoneticsJimbo-Sakuma Ding
Kana font/Kana usageToru Oya
DialectTojo Misao-Kobayashi good day
Christian materialsDoi Tadao-Shinmura Departure
MaterialKasuga politics-Kato Endo
Japanese historyYukichirou Yuzawa-Shoji Ando

Japanese outside Japan

Since modern times,Taiwan,Korean PeninsulaJapan that merged and ruledTaiwanese-Korean peopleToImperialization policyTo promoteschool educationIn JapaneseNational languageAdopted as.Manchuria(CurrentNortheastern China)AlsoJapaneseAs a result of the large number of people who moved to Japan, Japanese is widely used, andChineseIt was made an official language with. Mainly do not understand JapaneseHan people,ManchurianIs simple JapaneseKyowaWas also used. PresentTaiwan(Republic of China) AndKorean Peninsula(north korea- South Korea) Etc., some of the elderly people still understand Japanese.

on the other hand,Meiji-TaishoからShowaBefore the war, Japanese peopleAmerica-カナダ-メキシコ-Brazil-ペルーImmigrated to many,NikkeiSociety was built. Although Japanese was used in these local communities, the number of people who do not understand Japanese is increasing as the generations become younger.

Since the 1990s, the number of travelers from outside Japan has increased, and they also work for Japanese companies.Foreign worker(Japanese foreigner) Is also increasing dramatically,Japanese language educationIs spreading. Depending on the country/region, there are some countries that have Japanese as one of the selected subjects, such as a second foreign language, and opportunities to learn Japanese outside Japan are increasing.[189][190].

Above all,1990 eraOr later,"Cool JapanOutside of Japanア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン,ゲーム,movies,TV drama,J-POP(Japanese music) Music represented byComicJapanese modernity represented bysub cultureMore and more young people feel "cool"[191]As a result, they have more opportunities to come into contact with Japanese.[192].

Often outside of Japan, where Japanese people often visit(I.e.In some cases, Japanese may be used for local advertisements and conversations with employees of retail stores.[193].. Of the Japanese that are seen in such places, novel and attention-grabbing examples are often introduced in magazines and books.[194].

Awareness of Japanese speakers

Awareness of change

Changes in Japanese language over time are often criticized. This type of criticism is also found in classical literature. 『Pillow soshikoSays that the word "Nuzu" at the end of the sentence is called "Nuzu" ("Itowaroshi"). Also,"Natural grass』In the old days, he said, "Take a car" and "Take a fire", but he said that the present person is "Take it up" and "Take it up." "It seems that it will become (22nd dan).

Not only this, but notable notes about language changes are historically kanaShunryi BrainIt is found in various kinds of materials, such as poetry books such as "," and music instruction books such as "Otakyokubuchishu." Among them,Edo PeriodThe haikuYasuhara SadamuroHowever, "Katato (Kotokoto)" (1650), which was compiled for the purpose of criticizing nuisance words, covers 800 items and is very valuable as a material showing the actual language at that time.

After modern times,Ryunosuke AyukawaIn "Sumiedou miscellaneous notes", "Something" was conventionally accompanied by denial, but I doubt that it would be an affirmative form such as "Very cheap". From the perspective of a researcher, Shinano Asano's Language Reflection (1933) is an example of a collection of interesting words from the same period.

After World War IIWas published in 1951 in the magazine "Language Life" (initiallyNational Institute for Japanese LanguageSupervision), the interest in Japanese increased. In such a trend, criticism of language change and its advocacy were actively exchanged by people of all positions. As an example of a typical discussion,Kazuhiko Kaneda"Japanese is not disturbed"[195]And Yoshio Uno's counterargument[196]Is mentioned.

So-called"Disturbance of JapaneseIn discussions, there are many words that are often talked about. 1955National Institute for Japanese LanguageSurvey of experts[197]"Nippon Nihon (Japan)", "Jissen Jussen (1979 sen)", "I couldn't see/I couldn't see", "I had a research, I got a research", etc. Contains many word forms and usages. In particular, the wording that "sees" is "viewable" is a typical example that clearly shows the difference in people's language habits, such as the XNUMX NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute's "Survey on the Language Environment of Contemporary People". It is an example. This language is1980 eraIsEasy wordsIt was called, and it came to be taken up actively.

There are many voices that point out the "disorder of words" in newspapers and magazines.Agency for Cultural Affairsof"Public opinion poll on Japanese languageIn 1977, nearly 7% of the respondents thought that the wording was “disturbed”, and 2002% in the survey from November to December 11. Such people's recognition is one of the factors that support the so-called Japanese language boom.

Young Japanese

The criticism of changes in Japanese often goes to the younger generation. Young people actively create languages ​​and language habits that the old generation did not use, and sometimes make them feel uncomfortable.

Youth words

So-called"Youth wordsIs used in various meanings and the definition is not always constant. Classification of Fumio Inoue[198]According to this, the so-called youth language is classified as follows.

  1. Temporary buzzword. Words used by the younger generation of a certain age. After the war, "Ajapa",1970 era"Chicalet tabby" etc.
  2. Cohort (same language). Buzzwords survive and are words that the generation will use even after they get older. The next generation of youth will not use it because they think it is out of fashion.
  3. Youth generation language. Words used by people of all ages only while young. Includes "Doi" (German), Chai (Chinese), Hula (French), etc. (campus term).
  4. Language change. It is used by the younger generations as they age, and is used by the next generation of young people. As a result, change will take hold across generations.Easy words-Nasal noiseSuch as the decline of.

All of the above are similar in that they can all be exposed to criticism, but in the order of 1-4, the rate of retention of words gradually increases, so that it becomes more recognizable as an example of "disorder of words".

Akihiko Yonekawa points out the factors that cause words corresponding to "temporary buzzwords" or "young people's words" in the above classifications in terms of psychology, society, and history.[199].. The points can be summarized as follows. In other words, young people in their growing years not only become more interested in themselves and others, but also seek freedom from conventional norms of language. With the maturity of the Japanese economy, the value of "seriousness" collapsed, and young people began to talk by "nori". Above all,1990 eraSince then, the generation of people who enjoy "Nori" has become younger and younger words have been produced as a product of a consumer and entertainment society. Also, from around 2007Mass mediaBut"Field airThe culture of[200]Therefore, more people attach importance to mutual understanding and communication rather than words. In contrast,Agency for Cultural AffairsIt is,空 気can not read (KY), he pointed out that it might be the appearance of a climate that tries to match the atmosphere of the place.[201].

Youth notation

Young people's Japanese language is also unique in terms of writing. Various Japanese notations are used depending on the age.

Circle character

1970 eraから1980 eraIn the meantime, among the girls, the rounded writing letters became conscious of being "cute" and became popular.Circle characterIt was called "Manga character" "Hentai girl character (=meaning girl character with a strange typeface)".Yamane KazumaAccording to a survey, this character was born by 1974 and began to spread rapidly in 1978.[202].

Hetauma character

Around 1990, instead of circle letters, vertical writing letters similar to the golden nail style began to become popular among girls. There was a feature that the hiragana "ni" was written like "reko" and the long note "-" was written as "→". At first glance, it looked so bad that it was also called the "long-haired Hetauma character." In media, “Hetuma characters that Choberiba generation enjoys”[203]"A strange pointy character that spreads to high school girls"[204]Although it was introduced, it did not necessarily become a topic of the adult generation, but it surely spread. Book to practice this character[205]Was also published.

Gal character

With the spread of mobile email and the Internet, girls and girls called gals have come to use unique characters and symbols for digital notation. "Goodbye" is written as "± ∋ uTora,"Gal characterWas taken up by the media as[206]. A book for practicing this Gal character also appeared[207].


With the spread of computers and the beginning of personal computer communications using computers, emoticons have come to be used as a treatment similar to Japanese punctuation marks. This is a method of expressing emotions by inserting an emoticon such as "(^_^)" after a sentence or by combining symbols alone when communicating as computer characters. Emoticons, which were first introduced in the late 1980s, became widely used due to the spread of computers to young people.

絵 文字

On your mobile phone絵 文字By implementing, communication using various emoticons called emoji culture came to be performed. It is treated as Japanese characters like Kanji and Kana, and it has come to be used not only as a punctuation mark but also as a replacement for words and sentences.[208].


In addition to the already popular emoticons and emoji, around 2006LowercaseA unique notation called "" has appeared. A specific character is written in small letters, such as "Etashi, Kyoubu Ganainano", and it is also introduced in the media.[209].

Japanese boom

The interest of people in Japanese isAfter World War IICan be said to have become particularly noticeable[210]. Since October 1947NHKThe “Words Laboratory” started on the radio, and in 1951 the magazine “Language Life” was launched.

The number of Japanese books published has also increased. In the case of a book about honorifics,1960 eraWhat used to be 5 commentaries and 2 utility books,1970 eraSince 1994, about 25 commentary books and about 10 utility books were issued in 40 years.[211].

After the war, the first boom of Japanese language occurred in 1957,Kazuhiko Kaneda77 copies of "Japanese" (Iwanami Shinsho, old edition),Shin Ohno36 copies of "Origin of Japanese" (Iwanami Shinsho, old edition) were published. In 1974Maruya Saiichi"For Japanese"Shinchosha" was published in 50 copies, and Shin Ohno's "Back to Japanese" (Iwanami Shinsho) was published in 50 copies.[212].

After that, Shin Ono's "Japanese Practice Book" (Iwanami Shinsho) in 1999 became a bestseller with over 190 million copies (as of 2008).[213]. Furthermore, in 2001Takashi SaitoSince the publication of 140 million copies of "I Want to Read Aloud in Japanese" (Kusashisha), there has been an unprecedented boom in Japanese language in the publishing world, and a vast number and variety of Japanese-related books for the general public are available. Came out[214].

In 2004Yasuo KitaharaThe volume "Problematic Japanese" (Daishukan Shoten) explained to the public the vocabulary and vocabulary that were often problematic at the time. The following year from 2005 to 2006, many Japanese-themed programs were broadcast on TV, and most of the programs had Japanese scholars as commentators and supervisers. "Tamori Japonica Logos"(Fuji Television 2005-2008),"Quiz! King of Japanese(TBS 2005-2006), "Miyake type drill"(TV Tokyo 2005-2006),"Matthew's Best Hit TV+・Namari-tei" (TV Asahi 2005-2006, dealing with dialects),"Pass! Japanese border line"(TV Asahi 2005),"Uncle Kotoba's Natuku Japanese SchoolThere were various programs such as (NHK 2006-2010).

Japanese special theory

The argument that Japanese is special has been frequently raised since modern times. In an extreme example, after the war,Naoya Shiga"I think there is nothing incomplete or inconvenient in the Japanese language,"FrenchTheNational languageInsisted on adopting[215](Japanese language foreign language theory). In 1988,National Institute for Japanese LanguageThe director, Kikuo Nomoto, called for debate about the need for "simplified Japanese" with simplified grammar for teaching Japanese to foreigners.[216][Note 10].

In this way, it is pointed out that Western-centricism that spread in the process of modernization is behind the idea of ​​making Japanese inferior, difficult, or irrational.[217][218].. After the war, not only the negative view, but also the positive view that "Japanese is unique" increased. The timing of that change is1980 eraTo be[218].. In any case, the two people have the same view in that they are based on the assumption that Japanese is special.

Japanese special theory is also discussed outside of Japan. Provide diplomacy trainingUS Department of StateThe Foreign Service Institute (FSI), a subsidiary of theChinese-ArabicEtc., and is classified into Level 4 (the most difficult language group that takes time to learn)[219](However, this is a point of view from the perspective of an English-speaking person, and it merely indicates a relative point of view).E. Rice ShowerAccording to him, there are many foreigners who complain that their Japanese is neither clear nor logical, even though they have little knowledge of Japanese. Reischauer himself argues against this, there is room for vagueness and uncertainties in all languages, and Japanese is the same, but there is no element in Japanese that prevents concise, clear, and logical statements.[220].. It is said that it is difficult for Indo-European language speakers to learn because there are few commonalities, and there are various jokes related to learning.Basque languageabout,France OfBayonne"The Satan was once in Japan. It came to Basque land," said the Basque Museum in Basque.IllustrationThe one with the history of entering is displayed. This is also said to be a combination of Basque and Japanese, which are difficult for Indo-European speakers to learn.[221].

In today's linguistics, the view that Japanese is special is negative. For example, it is sometimes said that it is special that Japanese has only 5 vowels, but according to a study, 209 out of 5 languages ​​have 55 vowels like Japanese, which is the most typical type. There are many. Regarding the word order, like in Japanese SOV structureAbout 45% is the most common language, while English isSVO structureMore than 30% of the languages ​​use (according to survey results by Urtan, Steel, Greenberg, etc.). From this point, it can be concluded that Japanese is an ordinary language.[217].. In addition, linguist Tasaku Tsunoda compared 19 languages ​​on 130 characteristics including word order, and concluded that "Japanese is not a special language, but English is a special language."[222].. These are based on the number of languages ​​as the standard of statistics, and different rankings can be obtained by using the number of speakers instead, but even in that case, Spanish with the fourth largest number of speakers is in the 5 vowel system. , It is hard to come to the conclusion that the SOV structure is special such as Hindi, which has the third largest number of speakers.

Kyozo Mori, a journalist, used to say that in Japanese word order, "the most important verb to express thought comes at the end of the sentence", so he got tired by the time he went to the verb part at the end of the sentence, " It can't be discussed.”[223].. In this way, there are many arguments that the Japanese is ambiguous and unreasonable because the verb comes last. However, in sentences, the parts other than predicates such as "who, what, where" are often more important as information, and the validity of placing these parts before the predicate cannot be ignored.

In addition,Computer sciencePerson ofMurashimaAccording to the claim, the Japanese have been familiar with the character culture for a long time, and the literacy rate of the common class was relatively high. In Japanese, there are two ideographic characters (kanji) and phonetic characters (kana). Because they used one script[97].. Of course, the double use of ideographs and phonetic characters is not unique in Japanese,Hanbun Kanji,Female true characterSuch,Kanji culture areaIf so, it is a phenomenon that can be recognized in other than Japanese[224].. Even outside the Kanji culture area,Maya,HieroglyphIn such cases, there was a distinction between ideographic characters and phonetic characters. In addition, even in languages ​​that use only phonetics, the spelling is more important than the phoneticHebrewIt has been pointed out that languages ​​such as Japanese have common characteristics with Japanese in terms of parallel processing of ideographs and phonetics.[225].. However, many people argue that skillfully combining kanji and kana is a characteristic advantage in Japanese, similar to Murashima. On the other hand,SwordfishThere are some who argue that it is inconvenient to properly use several character systems, and there is a constant dispute between the two.

There are also examples in which the peculiarity of Japanese is discussed by taking up the word order, phonological theory, or notation system in Japanese and associating them with the Japanese culture and ideological background. However, in general, these theories only list pastoral differences between languages ​​such as English and Chinese at hand, and often lack linguistic grounds (Sapir-Wharf hypothesisSee also). In recent years, even in the context of discussing the peculiarities of Japanese culture, there are many claims from a comprehensive perspective, looking at as many cultural areas as possible[225].

Murayama ShichirouAsserted the "law of inverse proportion" that "the less you know a foreign language, the more features you have in Japanese."[226].. The reason why Japanese people think that Japanese is special is that other familiar languages ​​are almostEnglishGreat to be alone. However, Japanese isIndo-EuropeanIt is true that it has many differences with. for that reason,Contrast linguisticsThe above is a good comparison with Indo-European.

Regarding research from the perspective of Japanese origin,Origin of Japanese"checking.


From ancient times to the Middle Ages

For reading old Chinese books in JapandictionaryWas compiled. As for the record of compilation of the dictionary in Japan, 11 volumes of "New character" of Tenmu 682 (44) are the oldest ("Japanese calligraphy)), since there is no biography or even anecdotes, it is unclear what the content of the dictionary was, except that it would be a type of kanji book from the title.

Nara periodA dictionary called "" or "(Benshiryujou)" was compiled. Although each remains only as a story, it seems that it was a Hanwa dictionary with Japanese lessons. The oldest existing dictionaryKukaiIt is said to be editedName of all the slaves(9th century), but in ChinaBallIt is a kanji book of radicals imitating ", and there is no harmony. It was compiled in the early 10th centuryShinsengoji mirror』Is the oldest Hanwa dictionary in which the manuscript exists, and after the kanji are arranged radically, Wakun is written in Manyo Kana.Heian periodIt was compiled in the mid-term "Japanese name Juju], classified by meaningChinese languageMostly, the Japanese translation is given in Manyo Kana, and although it is a Hanwa dictionary, it has a strong encyclopedia color.PeriodCan be said to be a compilation of past Hanwa dictionaries.Jinju YoshiyoshiWas compiled. Abundant attached to the lessons of the same bookVocal pointHas almost clarified the accent system during the institutional period.

Kamakura PeriodEncyclopedia "Second history], a practical rhyme for poetry, and a etymological dictionaryDust bagAnd 'Famous word(Myogoki)” etc. have come to be woven.Muromachi PeriodIn the background of the spread of reading and writing to a wide range of peopleJubun Ryomi』、Kanwa dictionary "Japanese version(Wagokuhen)”, a Japanese dictionary that includes slang in Japanese translationLower school collection], a popular encyclopedia in which everyday words are arranged in order.Collection of clausesThe dictionary such as "" was edited.Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodAt the end,JesuitsJapanese and Portuguese dictionaries by Christian missionaries inJapanese-Japanese dictionary] Was created.

Edo Period, A large number of dictionaries were edited and published based on the Muromachi period's "Shuyoshu". The main items are Yasubayashi's "Shushushu" and "". In addition, "" including haiku terminology dictionary, etymological dictionary "", slang dictionary "(shibugaki)", and pillow dictionary "" were compiled.

Modern times

Meiji EraSince 1889Fumihiko OtsukiEdition of a small dictionarySea of ​​wordsWas published. This is the first modern modern language that covers classical and everyday words, arranges headings in the order of the Japanese syllabary, and adds parts of speech, Kanji notation, and vocabulary.Japanese dictionaryMet. "Konkai" became the model for the later dictionary, and an expanded version of "Kotomi" was also published.

After that, as a widely used small Japanese dictionary, Shojiro Kanazawa's "Kibayashi",Shinmura DepartureThere is a volume "Kijien" and so on.Second World WarFrom the middle to the postwar period, Ikeda Kaneda (Gobo Mikiwriting)"Clear Japanese dictionaryIs often used, and today'sSanseido Japanese dictionary''Shinmei Solution Japanese Dictionary] Has been taken over.

As for medium-sized dictionaries, before the Second World War, in addition to "Daikomi", there was the "Great Japanese Language Dictionary" edited by Kenji Matsui and Mannen Ueda.KojienIs widely accepted. Now, Hayashi Daidai "Kotosen", Akira Matsumura "Daijirin, And several other medium-sized dictionaries have been added, and the only large dictionaryJapanese language dictionary』(About 50 words).


注 釈

  1. ^
    • 1982 years"Constitution of Angaur Island, Republic of Palau" According to the Republic of Palau AngaurThe official language ofPalauan・ English / Japanese[5].
    • Japan uses "Japanese"De facto official language Because it isCountries that officially use Japanese as their official language Is the only "Republic of Palau (Ngeaur)" in the world.
    • However, as a result of the 2005 census of the Republic of Palau, it was reported that as of April 2005, there were no "Japanese-speaking residents of Angaur Island over the age of 4 and legal residents".[6].
    • Also, no one reported that he was from Japan or a Japanese ethnic group.[7].
    • (A person born in Angaur said he speaks Japanese and Palauan as often at home (but does not appear to live in Angaur).[6]. )
    • A brief census of the Republic of Palau in 2012 reported that out of a total population of 130 in Angaur, seven residents aged 10 and over can read and write in "languages ​​other than Palauan and English." Ta[8].
  2. ^ A Japanese dictionary that uses "Nippongo" as its headwordJapanese language dictionaryAnd so on.
  3. ^ In many cases,Foreign nationalityEven so, if you were born and raised in Japan, Japanese is the easiest to speak.However, there are cases where you grow up with a mother tongue other than Japanese, andRyukyuThere is also a way of thinking that the language is different from Japanese, so it cannot be said that it is all.
  4. ^ KoreanKanjiHangul・Although Latin characters are used together, the use of Kanji has been dramatically reduced due to national policy.DPR KoreaHas officially abolished Kanji ("Korean Kanji"Or"Hangul only(See)[13].
  5. ^ In Micronesia, the generations who received Japanese language education still use Japanese for conversations with the same generation, and many people also have words and phrases derived from Japanese.[17].
  6. ^ Strictly speaking, the accent nucleus is a mora or syllable that brings about a discriminative pitch variation, and is a general term for a descending nucleus, an ascending nucleus, an ascending nucleus, and an descending nucleus. The down core has a function of reducing the sound of the mora immediately after.
  7. ^ For example, in the Tokyo book "New edition, New Kokugo 1" (textbook for Japanese language in junior high school), the 1977 test book deals with "subjects and predicates" at once. It plays an important role," and then describes the subject together with the modifiers.
  8. ^ It's not a collapsed barn (before the horse runs through). English is different from JapaneseTense agreementIs a working language, so the horse runs through and the barn collapses (in terms of tense) at the same time (in terms of structural interpretation along Candidate (1) in the text).
  9. ^ It is known that the Eastern dialect recorded in Manyoshu is not eight vowels[168].
  10. ^ However,Natural languageSimplifies to newInternational auxiliary languageThere is an example in addition to "Simplified Japanese" for makingBasic english","Special English","Unutilized LatinIt is that.


  1. ^ Japanese language dictionary(Shogakukan) According to the Japanese section, "Nihongo °"
  2. ^ a b “The “nasal noise” has almost disappeared in the next century? Areas that were originally unused...”. Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun). (January 2015, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 3.. http://web.archive.org/web/20150305002557/https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASH2W5751H2WUCVL00X.html 
  3. ^ Japanese language dictionary(Shogakukan) According to the Japanese section, "Nippongo °".
  4. ^ "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest Languages ​​in 2010), in Nationalencyklopedin
  5. ^ "Constitution of the State of Angaur”. Pacific Digital Library. 2021th of February 3Browse. “The traditional Palauan language, particularly the dialect spoken by the people of Angaur State, shall be the language of the State of Angaur. Palauan, English and Japanese shall be the official languages.”
  6. ^ a b "2005 Census of Population & Housing”. Bureau of Budget & Planning. 2021th of February 3Browse.
  7. ^ "2005 Census Monograph Final Report”. Bureau of Budget & Planning. 2021th of February 3Browse.
  8. ^ "2013 ROP Statistical Yearbook”. Bureau of Budget & Planning. 2021th of February 3Browse.
  9. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin et al., Eds (2016). “Japanese”. Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/nucl1643 
  10. ^ Court lawArticle 74,Notary LawArticle 27,Company calculation rulesArticle 57, paragraph 2,Patent lawEnforcement Regulations Article 2 etc.
  11. ^ "Japanese Language”. MIT. 2009th of February 5Browse.
  13. ^ Kure Zenka (2008) "What happened to Korea by "Kanji abolition"" PHP Research Institute.
  14. ^ See Kamei Takashi, Kono Rokuro, Chino Eiichi [ed.] (1997) "Linguistics Dictionary Selection Languages ​​of the Japanese Islands" (Sanseido), Fujio Minami "Japanese and Review". In addition, the Ethnologue web version estimates the speaker population in Japan to be 1985 million in 1 and 2100 worldwide.[1] (Viewed 2010-01-03).
    In addition, as a result of investigating 1977 points (1997 points including differences in editions) published by Tadano Tadanomura from 10 to 16, the minimum number of Japanese speakers in each was 1.02 million. The maximum number was over 1.25 million.Tadano Tanomura "About the ranking of the number of Japanese speakers: is Japanese the sixth largest language in the world?"Kokugogaku" Vol. 189, pp. 37-41.[Broken link] Table (Expanded Second Edition, 2-2010-01).
  15. ^ Gobo Miki (1964) “Reading American Japanese newspapers” “Language Life” 157 (in “Various Encounters of Words” (Sanseido) in 1983) wrote in the language of Japanese newspapers in Los Angeles and Hawaii in the 1960s. touch.
    Fumio Inoue (1971) "Japanese and English of Hawaiians of Nikkei", "Language Life" 236 is a report containing discourse citations of Nikkei of Hawaii.
    According to Hiroshi Hondo (1996) "Awareness and Actual Conditions of Brazilian Nikkei-Contrast with Hawaii Survey", "From the Viewpoint of Japanese Language Research Areas", Brazilian Nikkei in the survey from 1979 to 1980. 1950% of the respondents who answered "I can use Japanese well" were born before 20.6, and 8.3% were born after that.
  16. ^ See Kamei Takashi, Kono Rokuro, Chino Eiichi [ed.] (1997) "Linguistics Dictionary Selection Languages ​​of the Japanese Islands" (Sanseido) Fujio Minami "Japanese/Review".
  17. ^ Shinji Sanada (2002) "Phase of Japanese loanwords in Ponape-from a field survey in Micronesia," Kokugo Kenkyu, 9-25.
  18. ^ Aoyagi Mori (1986) "Taiwan Mountains Travel" "Tokyo Fire" October 1986 (Web version:"Japan Pen Club: Electronic Bunkeikan/Earth Walker”. As of May 2012, 7オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2012th of February 2Browse.).
  19. ^ Shinji Sanada, Shin Katsuki,About Japanese Creole in Taiwan"Japanese Studies" 2008 Volume 4 Issue 2 p.69-76, two:10.20666 / nihongonokenkyu.4.2_69
  20. ^ Yuzaki Yazaki, "Development of Modern Advanced Law," Nobuyama Publishing, October 2001, pp. 10-10,ISBN 479723038X.
  21. ^ ""2005 Palau Census”. As of May 2008, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2012th of February 6Browse.(English, PDF)” Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Palau, December 2005, p. 12.
  22. ^ 2015 overseas Japanese language education institution survey results (preliminary figures) (PDF)
  23. ^ Survey by the Agency for Cultural Affairs “Outline of Japanese language education in 27” (2015).
  24. ^ a b Kamei, Takashi, et al. (eds.) (1963) "History of Japanese 1 The Birth of Ethnic Languages" (Heibonsha).
  25. ^ Shin Ohno, Takeshi Shibata [ed.] (1978) "Iwanami Course Japanese Vol. 12: Japanese System and History" (Iwanami Shoten).
  26. ^ Fujioka, Katsuji (1908) "The position of the Japanese language" "Kokugakuin magazine" 14.
  27. ^ a b Arisaka Hideyo (1931) "On a kind of vowel change in the national language" "Sound research" No. 4 (included in the 1957 "Study on Japanese Phonological History Supplement" (Sanseido)).
  28. ^ Kitamura Tsukasa (ed.) (1981) “Lecture Language Vol. 6 Languages ​​of the World” (Daishukan Shoten) p.121.
  29. ^ Takashi Kamei, Rokuro Kono, Eiichi Chino [Edit] (1996) "Altai type" of "Linguistics Dictionary 6 Technical Terms" (Sanseido).
  30. ^ Izumii Kunosuke (1952) "Japanese and South Island Languages" "Ethnology Studies" 17-2 (included in "Comparison and System of Malay-Polynesian Languages ​​in 1975" (Kobundo)).
  31. ^ See Shin Ohno (1987), "Before Japanese" (Iwanami Shinsho). See Shin Ohno (2000) "Formation of Japanese Language" (Iwanami Shoten) for the compilation of research.
  32. ^ The main criticisms and anti-criticisms are as follows. Taro Iemoto, Nozomu Kodama, Hiroshi Yamashita, Toshiki Nagata (1996) "Verifying "Japanese = Tamil Similarity Theory"-Shin Ohno's "The Origin of Japanese New Edition"" "Japanese Studies" 』13/Shin Ohno (1996) "Verify "Tamil = criticism of Japanese homology"" "Japanese Studies" 15/Hiroshi Yamashita (1998) "Answer to Shin Ohno's criticism-"Japanese= Considering the Method of "Tamil Synonyms", "Japanese Studies" 17.
  33. ^ a b c d Hattori Shiro (1959) "Japanese Language" (Iwanami Shoten, 1999 Iwanami Bunko).
  34. ^ Nakagawa Yu (2005) "Japanese in Ainu", "Japanese Literature Interpretation and Appreciation" 70-1.
  35. ^ I. Shinmura (1916) "On the numbers of Japanese and Korean", Geibun 7-2, 4 (collected in 1971, "Encyclopedia of New Village, Vol. 1", Chikuma Shobo).
  36. ^ Hattori Shiro (1950) "Phoneme, Phone and Compound Phone" "Language Studies" 16 (included in "Methods of Linguistics" (Iwanami Shoten) in 1960).
  37. ^ Kamei, Takashi (1956) "The concept of "phoneme" is useful in Japanese," "Kokubunkyo" 15.
  38. ^ Matsuzaki Hiroshi (1993) "Foreign speech and contemporary Japanese phonological system" "Japanese and Japanese literature"18 shows a phonological system consisting of 129 moras in which many foreign sounds are recognized.
  39. ^ "Japanese Speech" Haruo Kubozono, 1999, p35-p37
  40. ^ "Japanese Speech" Haruo Kubozono, 1999, p34-p35
  41. ^ "Japanese Speech" Haruo Kubozono, 1999, p100
  42. ^ "Japanese Speech" Haruo Kubozono, 1999, p35
  43. ^ Kazuhiko Kaneda (1950) ""27 million" and "work"-proposing syllables" "Kokugo and Kokugaku" 1-1967 (in XNUMX, ""foster parents" and "sugar store"-proposing syllables Research on Japanese Phonology” (collected in Tokyodo Publishing)).
  44. ^ a b c d e Tokugawa Souken [ed.] (1989) "Phonological Guide" in "The Japanese Dialect Dictionary" (Shogakukan).
  45. ^ "Japanese Speech" Haruo Kubozono, 1999, p59
  46. ^ "Consideration of p", Mannen Ueda, 1898
  47. ^ "Distribution and change of C consonant", Shinichi Tanaka, 2008, Lecture "Linguistic Science 2" in Faculty of Liberal Arts, The University of Tokyo
  48. ^ Yoshino Ueno (1989) "Accent of Japanese language" "Lecture Japanese and Japanese language education Volume 2 Japanese speech and phonology (above)" (Meiji Shoin).
  49. ^ Kuniyoshi Sakai (2002) "Brain Science of Language" (Chu Kou Shinsho), page 105.
  50. ^ a b Mikami Akira (1972) "Introduction to modern language" (Kuroshio Publishing).
  51. ^ Mikami Akira (1960) "Elephant has a long nose: An introduction to Japanese grammar" (Kuroshio Publishing).
  52. ^ Shigeyuki SuzukiIn "Japanese Grammar and Morphology," 5,6 "elephants" are regarded as "subject words" that have the function of presenting a subject. However, regarding the 7 sentences, "elephant is" is the subject, and "nose is long" is the compound predicate.
  53. ^ Morishige Satoshi (1965) "Japanese Grammar-Subject and Predicate" (Musashino Shoin).
  54. ^ Kitahara Yasuo (1981) "World of Japanese 6 Grammar of Japanese language" (Chuo Koronsha)
  55. ^ a b Hashimoto Shinkichi (1948) "Japanese Language Law Study (2nd volume, written by Dr. Shinkichi Hashimoto)" (Iwanami Shoten).
  56. ^ See Watanabe Minoru (ed.) (1983) "Study of Sub-terms" (Meiji Shoin).
  57. ^ Suzuki Kazuhiko (1959) "Adverbs Arrangement", "Kokugo and Kokubun," 36-12.
  58. ^ a b Tokieda Seiki (1950) "Japanese Grammar Colloquial Edition" (Iwanami Zensho).
  59. ^ Takao Yamada (1909) "Japanese Grammar" (Hobunkan).
  60. ^ Kazuhiko Kaneda (1988) "New Japanese Edition" (Iwanami Shinsho).
  61. ^ National Institute for Japanese Language (1964) "Vocabulary list" (Shuei Publishing).
  62. ^ Nakano, Hiroshi (1981) "Number of words in "Classified vocabulary list" "Metric national language" 12-8.
  63. ^ Takeshi Shibata, Susumu Yamada [Edit] (2002) "Thesaurus" (Kodansha)
  64. ^ Takashi Kamei, Rokuro Kono, Eiichi Chino [Edit] (1996) "Personal pronoun" in "Linguistics Dictionary 6 Technical Terms" (Sanseido).
  65. ^ Russian Latin transliteration: myau
  66. ^ Chinese Latin transliteration: miao miao
  67. ^ Korean Latin transliteration: yaongyaong
  68. ^ Edited by Masanao Kaeda, Kuroiwakaz and "Leaders English-Japanese Dictionary" [ed.] (1985) "Encyclopedia of English Onomatopoeia for Manga" (Kenkyusha).
  69. ^ Yamaguchi Nakami [Edit] (2003) "Living Words: Onomatopoeia/Mimetic Words Dictionary" (Kodansha) p.1.
  70. ^ Tsuruko Asano [ed.] (1978) “Onomatopoeia/Mimetic Word Dictionary” (Kadokawa Shoten) p.1.
  71. ^ Tezuka Osamu (1977) "How to draw manga" (Kobunsha) p.112.
  72. ^ Seiji Horibuchi (2006) "How Moe American Americans Read Manga" (Nikkei BP).
  73. ^ Kazusuke Kaneda, Kyosuke, et al. (ed.) (2002) Inside-out look back at the 8th edition of "The Newly Selected Japanese Dictionary" (Shogakukan)
  74. ^ Kunio Yanagida (1938) "Formation of dialects" "Dialogue" 8-2 (Recorded in "Kunio Yanagita Complete Works 1990" (Chikuma Bunko) in 22 p.181)
  75. ^ How many words are there in the English language?
  76. ^ Nomura, Masaaki (1998) "Part-of-speech of modern Chinese", "The XNUMXth Anniversary of the Foundation of the Japanese Language Laboratory, The University of Tokyo" (Kuko Shoin).
  77. ^ See Shibata Takeshi (1988), "Method of Lexology" (Sanseido).
  78. ^ Fumihiko Otsuki (1889) "Language instruction south" (collected in the Japanese language dictionary "Konkai").
  79. ^ Sakuma, D. (1936) "Modern Japanese Expressions and Languages" (Koseikaku, supplemented from Kuroshio Publishing in 1983).
  80. ^ Akihiro Satake (1955) "Characteristics of Color Names in Ancient Japanese", "Kokugo Kokubun," 24-6 (in 2000, included in "Manyoshu Nihonsho" (Iwanami Gendai Bunko)).
  81. ^ Komatsu Hideo (2001) "History of Japanese-Why is the green light blue?" (Kasama Shoin).
  82. ^ Brent Berlin & Paul Kay (1969), Basic color terms: their universality and evolutionBerkeley: University of California Press.
  83. ^ Oya Toru (1899) “Kokugo Kihara” p.26.
  84. ^ a b Takeshi Shibata (1968) "Relative name as a vocabulary system-Turkish/Korean/Japanese" "Asia-African Language and Culture Studies" (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies) 1 separate volume (1979, Japanese Language Studies Volume 5) Meaning/Vocabulary” (collected in Daishukan Bookstore).
  85. ^ Tanaka Akio (1978) "Language vocabulary" (Meiji Shoin) Chapter 2 figure.
  86. ^ Takao Suzuki (1973) “Words and Culture” (Iwanami Shinsho) p.158 Also mentioned below.
  87. ^ Tadao Kabashima (1981) "How Japanese is changing-vocabulary and characters" (Iwanami Shinsho), p.18, and p.176 and below.
  88. ^ Mari Iwata (1983) "Functions of Kanji in Contemporary Japanese", "The World of Japanese 16" (Chuokoronsha), p.183.
  89. ^ An example of modern language is given in Chen Riki (2001), “Kanji and Word Composition in Japanese”, “Japanese Studies”, 20-9.
  90. ^ The above is based on the example of Toshio Ishiwata (2001) "Comprehensive Study of Foreign Words" (Tokyodo Publishing).
  91. ^ Haruhiko Kaneda (1991) “The Characteristics of Japanese Language” (NHK Books) p.54.
  92. ^ According to the relevant item in "Random House English-Japanese Dictionary" (Shogakukan).
  93. ^ Takao Suzuki (1990) "Japanese and foreign languages" (Iwanami Shinsho).
  94. ^ Umeda Tadao (1972) "Problems of contemporary Japanese characters" "Japanese culture and the world" (Kodansha Hyundai Shinsho), etc.
  95. ^ Takao Suzuki (1975) "Closed Language/World of Japanese" (Shincho Selection Book), etc.
  96. ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs (2001)Standards for writing official sentences (Collection of materials) Second edition(First Law) contains various materials such as "Kanji usage in official texts" and "Kanji usage in laws and regulations" in 1981.
  97. ^ a b Murashima Sadayuki, "Kanji and Kana Mixed Sentence Spirit" (Fu-Sha).
  98. ^ Takashima Toshio (2001) "Kanji and the Japanese" (Bungei Shunju).
  99. ^ a b Minoru Nishio, Kenichi Hisamatsu [Supervised] (1969) "Kokugo Kanji Education History Guide" (Kokugo Education Research Group).
  100. ^ Hojo Tadao (1982) "Overview of Tohoku dialect", "Lecture dialect 4 Dialects of the Tohoku region of Hokkaido," p. 161-162.
  101. ^ a b Genji Yamaura (1986) "Introduction to Quesen" (Kyowa Printing Planning Center, supplementary edition revised in 1989).
  102. ^ Nishioka, Satoshi, Nakahara, Min (2000) "Introduction to Okinawan Language: Fun Uchinaguchi" (Shiramizusha), p.154.
  103. ^ National Institute for Japanese Language [Edit] (1969) The phonetic romaji written in the "Okinawa Dictionary" (Ministry of Finance, Printing Bureau)International phonetic symbolsThe one fixed in.
  104. ^ Hiroyuki Sasahara (2006) "Japanese Kanji" (Iwanami Shinsho) p.142-5.
  105. ^ Yoshida Tobita [eds.] (2007) "Dictionary" by Mikiichi Hanzawa in "Encyclopedia of Japanese Studies" (Meiji Shoin).
  106. ^ Matsuoka, Hiroshi [Edit] (2000) "Handbook of Japanese Grammar for Beginners" (Three A Network) p.324.
  107. ^ Hashimoto Shinkichi (1928) "Overview of Japanese Language History" (1983, "History of Japanese Language and Japanese Language Characteristic Theory (Hiroshimoto Shinkichi's Works)" Iwanami Shoten) p.9 The word “” appears.
  108. ^ Kanesui Satoshi (2003) "The mystery of virtual Japanese role words" (Iwanami Shoten).
  109. ^ Shiro Hayashi and Fujio Minami [Edit] (1974) "Honorific Lecture 8 Honorifics in the World" (Meiji Shoin).
  110. ^ Yasuto Kikuchi "honorific expression".
  111. ^ Cultural Council "Honorifics guidelines (reported by the Council of Culture)(PDF) Agency for Cultural Affairs, February 2007, 2.
  112. ^ a b Hiroshi Miyaji (1971) "Modern Honorifics" "Lecture History of Japanese Language 5 Honorific History" (Daishukan Shoten).
  113. ^ a b Hiroshi Miyaji (1976) "Reward Expression" "Kokugo Series Separate Volume 4 Japanese and Japanese Education Characters and Expressions" (Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau).
  114. ^ Hiroshi Kabaya, Megumi Sakamoto, Yoshikazu Kawaguchi (1998) "Honorific Expressions" (Daishukan Shoten).
  115. ^ Ariehiko Irie (2005) "Structure of Ikezu" (Shinchosha).
  116. ^ Tojo Misao (1954) "Japanese dialect" (Yoshikawa Hirofumikan).
  117. ^ Kazuhiko Kaneda (1964) "My Dialect Section" (edited by the Japan Dialect Study Group, "Japanese Dialect Section" Tokyodo).
  118. ^ Yukihiro Yamaguchi (2003) "Establishment of Japanese Tokyo accent" (Person of the port) p.238-p.247.
  119. ^ Minoru Wada (1966) "Discovery of primary accent-Ibukijima-" "Kokugo Kenkyu" (Kokugakuin University) 22.
  120. ^ Yukihiro Yamaguchi (2002) "Background of "Ibukishima" Accent: Sociolinguistic Circumstances and Comparative Linguistic Theory", "Modern Language Studies" 11.
  121. ^ Yoshio, Norio (1984) "Dialogue Survey Method" "Lecture 2 Dialect Research Method" (Kokusho Publishing Association).
  122. ^ Toshio Tsuchi (1986) "Outline of Grammar" edited by Koichi Iitoyo, Shijun Hino and Ryoichi Sato, "Lecture Dialectic 1 Dialect Outline" (Kokusho Publishing).
  123. ^ Yasuo KitaharaSuperintendent,Yoshino UenoEdited (2003) "Asakura Japanese Course (262) Speech/Phonology", Asakura Shoten, XNUMX pages.
  124. ^ Hattori Shiro (1951) "The accent of primitive Japanese" "Korean accent theory series" (Hosei University Press).
  125. ^ Haruhiko Kaneda (1954) "Until the difference between eastern and western accents is made", "Literature" 22-8.
  126. ^ Okumura Mitsuo (1955) "East-West Accent Separation", "Kokugo Kokubun" 20-1.
  127. ^ Yukihiro Yamaguchi (2003) "Establishment of Japanese Tokyo accent" (Person from the port) p.9-p.61.
  128. ^ Kazuhiko Kaneda "Phonology"
  129. ^ Hirayama Teruo (1998) "All Japanese Pronunciation and Accents" NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute "NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary" (Japan Broadcasting Corporation).
  130. ^ Shinkichi Hashimoto (1917) "A discovery in the history of Japanese Kana-gana research: about Ryumaru Ishizuka's Kana-gaku Okuyamaji", "Imperial Literature" 26-11 (1949, "Study on Japanese characters and Kana-gaku (books by Dr. Shinkichi Hashimoto, Volume 3)" 』(Iwanami Shoten)).
  131. ^ Shin Ohno (1953) "Study of Joshiro Kana" (Iwanami Shoten) p.126 Below is the introduction of research history.
  132. ^ Shin Ohno (1982) "Kanagoto and Kamidaigo" (Iwanami Shoten) p.65.
  133. ^ Maneda Ueda (1903) "Ponshikaku", "For national language second" (Fuyama Fusa).
  134. ^ Hashimoto Shinkichi (1928) "Transitions of wave-consonants", "Okakura professor memorial paper" (1950, "Study on Japanese phonology (4th volume by Dr. Shinkichi Hashimoto)" (Iwanami Shoten).
  135. ^ Tsuchio Doi [ed.] (1957) Tadao Doi, "The National Language of the Kamakura and Muromachi Periods" in "History of the Japanese Revised Edition" (Sobundo), p.158-159.
  136. ^ a b c Takeyoshi Sato (1995) "Outline of Japanese History", Asakura Shoten, p.84-97.
  137. ^ a b c d e Takeyoshi Sato (1995) "Outline of Japanese History", Asakura Shoten, p.98-114.
  138. ^ Hashimoto Shinkichi (1942) "Study of Japanese Phonological History" (included in 1966 "Japanese Phonological History (Hiroshimoto Shinkichi's 6th book)" (Iwanami Shoten)) p.352.
  139. ^ Toyama Eiji (1972) "Modern Phonology" "Lecture History 2 Japanese Phonology" (Daishukan Shoten) p.238-239.
  140. ^ Sakurai Shigeji (1966) "A Study on Adjectives and Feces-Focusing on the Tale of Genji", "Rikkyo University Japanese Literature" 16.
  141. ^ Hashimoto, Shinkichi (1938), "Transition of Japanese Phonology," "Kokugo and Kokubun," 15-10 (included in "The Phonology of Ancient Japanese in 1980, 2 other editions" (Iwanami Bunko)).
  142. ^ According to "Notation of foreign words" (Cabinet notice in June 1991).
  143. ^ Okumura Mitsuo (1968) "So-called two-step utilization one step", "Modern Language Studies Vol. 2" (Musashino Shoin).
  144. ^ Akio Abe, Satoru Akiyama, Genei Imai [School Note] (1970) "Complete Collection of Japanese Classical Literature Genji Monogatari I" (Shogakukan) p.274.
  145. ^ Ryuzou Sakanashi (1969) "On the formation of so-called possible verbs", "Kokugo and Kokubun" 46-11. According to Sakanashi, since the form of "reading" is historically confirmed, the theory that "readable" can be read from "readable" is erroneous.
  146. ^ Yukichirou Yuzawa (1954) "Research on the revised Edo language" (Meiji Shoin).
  147. ^ Matsui Eiichi (1983) "Words not in a Japanese dictionary" (Nagumo) p.130 or less, and it is a translation like "Left fan" in Nagai Kafuu's "Hasame hair" (1899) in the Meiji era. It is introduced that there is an example such as "Nee."
  148. ^ Hideo Komatsu (1999) "Why Japanese language changes" (Kasama Shoin).
  149. ^ Kameda Ikeda, Shinji Kishigami, Satoru Akiyama [School Note] (1958) "Japanese Classic Literature College 19 Pillow Soshi Murasaki Shikibu Diary" p.68.
  150. ^ Ugaki Minoru (1943) "Formal Borrowing Overview" in "Study of Japanese Foreign Languages" (Seinensha Publishing).
  151. ^ a b Tatsuo Miyajima [ed.] (1971) "Kasama index series 4 classic contrast vocabulary table" (Kasama Shoin).
  152. ^ Tatsuo Miyajima (1967) "Formation of modern vocabulary" "National Institute for Japanese Language Studies 3 Study of Words 3".
  153. ^ "Totsu Shimbun" Daiichi May 1868 (Keio 4) (collected in 5 "Complete Meiji Culture" 1928 (Nippon Hyoronsha)).
  154. ^ National Institute for Japanese Language (1964) "Contemporary Magazine, XNUMX Kinds of Terms".
  155. ^ a b c National Institute of Japanese Language (2006) "Modern Magazine, 200 million Character Language Survey Vocabulary".
  156. ^ Ugaki Minoru (1943) "Study of Japanese foreign words" (Seinen News Agency Publishing Department).
  157. ^ As described above, the certification of the era of tradition is based on the "Concise Katakana Dictionary" third edition (Sanseido).
  158. ^ Takao Yamada (1940) "Chapter 1958 Introduction" in "Study of Chinese Language in Japanese" (Hobunkan, revised in XNUMX).
  159. ^ Yoshifumi Tobita [ed.] (2007) Yoshihide Endo, "Japanese Language" p.152 of "Encyclopedia of Japanese Studies" (Meiji Shoin).
  160. ^ Mari Iwata (1983) "Function of Kanji in Contemporary Japanese", "World of Japanese 16" (Chuo Koronsha).
  161. ^ Kazuhiko Suzuki, Koki Hayashi [ed.] (ed.) (1973) "Japanese grammar class by part-of-speech 4 adjectives/adjective verbs" (Meiji Shoin) has a list of 1343 adjectives, among which the word forms are shown. The thing is 1192 words. Of the remaining 151 words, only about 2 words such as “sweet and sour”, “yellow”, “square”, and “sticky” can be confirmed only in the Meiji era and later examples in the Second Japanese Language Dictionary (Shogakukan).
  162. ^ See Yamada Takao (1937), “Kanji History Script” (Toe Shoin), p. 41 et seq.
  163. ^ How long have kanji been in Japan? Didn't there be letters before then? | Word doubts | Language Research Center National Institute for Japanese Language
  164. ^ In October 2006, a wooden sign was found in the ruins of Namba Palace in Osaka, which was marked as "Harusume Hisanohide Yoneno Sword" (the beginning of spring grass). It seems to be in the middle of the 10th century.
  165. ^ Murai Minoru [Translation/Commentary] (1979) "American Education Mission Report" (Kodansha Academic Library) contains the first report.
  166. ^ Literacy Research Committee (1951) "Japanese Literacy" (University of Tokyo Press).
  167. ^ Ichinosuke Takagi, Masao Ozawa, Kaoru Atsumi, and Kazuhiko Kaneda [School Note] (1958) “The 33rd Heike Family Story, Japanese Classical Literature” p.101. The script has been partially revised.
  168. ^ Kiyoji Sato [ed.] (1971) Tomigi Maeda "Nara era" p.60-64 of the reprint of "History of Japanese Language" (Sakura Kaedesha).
  169. ^ Shinji Sanada (1991) "How the standard language was established" (Soutasha).
  170. ^ The Ministry of Education (1904) “National textbook compilation outline”, “Regular elementary school reading book compilation outline”, “Chapter 51 format” includes “text, colloquial words, multi-words It is said that the line is the standard of the national language and the unification of the language.” (p.XNUMX).
  171. ^ In the General Policy on Survey of Broadcast Terms, which was established in 1934 by the Study Committee for Improvement of Pronunciation of Broadcast Terms, "Common terms are generally adapted to the majority of modern national languages ​​and are generally used in the educated social class of the Imperial City. It is based on the vocabulary, vocabulary, pronunciation, accent (including intonation) used" (Japan Broadcasting Corporation Broadcasting History Edition (1965) "Nippon Broadcasting History" (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) p.427).
  172. ^ Shuji Izawa (1909) "Applied Tohoku Tohoku pronunciation correction method" (Rakuishisha).
  173. ^ Nakasone Masayoshi (1995), "The Beauty of Ryukyu" (Roman Shobo), introduces that the author, born in 1907, was "not able to forget that discomfort" about the dialect tags that he experienced in his elementary school days in Okinawa. I am writing.
  174. ^ War-up movie "To the final sky(1943) was collected from all over the countryNavy flight traineeThere are scenes in which new recruits in the field are pointed out by their supervisors that they have accents, and are instructed to use the words of the military.
  175. ^ "Recording national dialects" "Nihon Keizai Shimbun," June 28, 6, page 19
  176. ^ Osamu Ishiguro (1960) "The Tragedy of Dialects" "Language Life" 108 introduces an article about a boy who stabbed a person after being laughed at by Imari Narimari. Also, the Mainichi Shimbun Miyagi edition (August 1996, 8) introduces a case in which a boy worker from Akita laughed at a word and stabbed a colleague in 24 (Mainichi Shimbun Regional Special Report Group ( 1964) "Tohoku "Dialogue" Monogatari" (Recorded in Mumeisha).
  177. ^ Norihisa Hashimoto (2004) ""Nasayo movement" and "Nehai movement"" "Bulletin of Toyo University Graduate School" (Grad.
  178. ^ Kato, Masanobu (1983) "The Present Situation of Dialect Complex", "Language Life" 377. The survey is 1979-1981. Respondents are nationwide, mainly in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Ibaraki prefecture, and the Tohoku region.
  179. ^ Asahi Shimbun evening edition June 1995, 6 etc.
  180. ^ Masanori Jinnai (2003) "Expansion of Kansai communication-in the Tokyo metropolitan area" "Ministry of Education 14 Kakenhi Achievement Report: Wide Area Study on Regionality of Communication and Influence of Kansai Dialect".
  181. ^ Sankei Shimbun, September 2005, 9.
  182. ^ Kotoba Tanteidan (2005) "THE HOUGEN BOOK The Dialect Book" (Japan Literature company) and others.
  183. ^ Fumio Inoue and Kanetaka Harusui [ed.] (2002) "Dictionary <New Japanese>" (Toyo Shorin).
  184. ^ For example, in the introduction of Junichi Wakita (1938), "Sanuki Dialect Study" (reprinted from the Kokusho Publishing Association in 1975), "Before a child to practice a pure Japanese language life, It is necessary to study and make efforts to correct the rejuvenation." Even in the post-war period of high growth, Groters, WA/Takeshi Shibata [Translation] (1964) In "I Want to Be Japanese" (Chikushobo), "Japanese dialect researchers are After all, it is an idea to enrich Japanese language, and ultimately, unification of Japanese in standard language will be an important goal.” (p.153)GrotersIs a dialectist).
  185. ^ Kunio Yanagita (1930)Cochlea(Toue Shoin, Iwanami Bunko in 1980) shows that the dialect has a concentric distribution centered on the center (peripheral distribution).
  186. ^ "Irohauta" ("Chukou Shinsho" 558, Chuokoronsha, 1979) by Hideo Komatsu.
  187. ^ Hashimoto Shinkichi (1928) "Outline of Japanese Language History" (Included in 1983 "History of Japanese Language and Japanese Language Characteristics (Hiroshimoto Shinkichi's Works, 9th-10 volumes)" (Iwanami Shoten)) p.61.
  188. ^ "Modern japanese grammar"reference.
  189. ^ Nobuyuki Real Name [Others] (2000) "Japanese Language Education in Asia" (Sanshusha).
  190. ^ "Japanese language education around the world”. As of May 2015, 1オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2005th of February 3Browse.See also
  191. ^ Douglas McGray (Translated by Kyoko Kamiyama) (2003) "The coolness of Japan walking the world"Central public opinion(The June 2003 issue)
  192. ^ According to Yasuki Hamano (2005) "Imitation of Japan" (Shodensha) p12, "Kill BillIt is said that the fact that non-Japanese actors have conversations in Japanese in movies such as "is a proof of the height of "coolness" in Japan.
  193. ^ Fumio Inoue (2001) "Can Japanese survive?" (PHP new book) p.69.
  194. ^ Monthly Takarajima editorial department [edition] (1987) "VOW Contemporary Care Encyclopedia-The town's strange catalog" (Takarajimasha), Tadamura Tanomura (2003) "Chinese Japanese" "Japanese Studies" 22-12 (2003 November issue) etc.
  195. ^ Kazuhiko Kaneda (1964) “The Japanese language is not disturbed”, Bungei Shunju, December 1964 issue.
  196. ^ Yoshikata Uno (1964) "Is the Japanese language not disturbed?-An objection to Kazuhiko Kaneda", Asahi Shimbun evening edition December 1964, 12.
  197. ^ National Institute for Japanese Language (1955) “National Institute for Japanese Language Annual Report 7 Basic Survey for Determining Word Form”.
  198. ^ Fumio Inoue (1994) "New horizons of dialects" (Meiji Shoin).
  199. ^ Yonekawa Akihiko (1996) "Contemporary Youth Words" (Maruzen Library).
  200. ^ Yasuo Kitahara"KY Japanese-Why Romaji Abbreviations Are Popular"Daishukan Bookstore
  201. ^ “KY no... “Putting each other” is popular without communicating in words”. YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (November 2009, 9). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2009, 9.. https://archive.is/20090906012139/https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/national/news/20090904-OYT1T00983.htm 
  202. ^ Yamane, Kazuma (1986) "Study of Transfiguration Girl Characters" (Kodansha).
  203. ^ September 1996, 9 issue of "Weekly Yomiuri".
  204. ^ June 1997, 6 issue of "AERA".
  205. ^ "HA/YA/RI character master notes" (ASCII 1997), etc.
  206. ^ NHK General TV, "How are you? Japanese islands, words of concern," February 2004, 2.
  207. ^ "Gal character Hetaji official BOOK" (Jitsugyo no Nihonsha 2004), etc.
  208. ^ [WebDB Forum 2009] The swirl pictogram is not "typhoon," but "was," Baidu investigates -INTERNET Watch
  209. ^ "Mainichi Shimbun" October 2006, 10, etc.
  210. ^ Hiroaki Iima (2010) "Is there a "Japanese boom" and is it?", "Japanese Studies" 29-5.
  211. ^ Yasuto Kikuchi (2003) "Introduction to honorifics" (Maruzen Library).
  212. ^ Gobo Miki (1977) "Retrospective and Prospect of Japanese Boom" "Dictionary and Japanese" (Tamagawa University Press) is a sentence that verified the Japanese boom around 1975.
  213. ^ “Iwanami Shinsho “Contemporary” 70 years in continuous grasp”. YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun). (October 2008, 6). https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/book/news/20080603bk07.htm [Broken link]
  214. ^ The above figures are based on the evening edition of Asahi Shimbun, November 2002, 11.
  215. ^ Naoya Shiga (1964) "Japanese Language Issues" "Remodeling" April 1946 issue (collected in "4 Naoya Shiga Complete Works Vol. 1974" (Iwanami Shoten) p.7-339).
  216. ^ Nomoto Kikuo (1979) "Recommendation for "Simplified Japanese"-For Japanese to become a world language" It was already claimed in "Language" 8-3, but the debate occurred in 1988. Is.
  217. ^ a b Shibatani, M. (1981) “Is Japanese a peculiar language?” “Language” 12-12.
  218. ^ a b Matsumura, Kazuto (1995) "Japanese in the World-Is Japanese a Unique Language?", Institute for Asian and African Language and Culture News, 84.
  219. ^ Eiichi Chino (1999) "Kotoba no Jukai" (Seidosha)
  220. ^ Edwin O. Reischauer (1977) The Japanese, Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, p.385-386.
  221. ^ Kotaro Shiro, Hiroshi Matsuzaki (1995) "Linguistics of Japanese "Rashisa"" Kodansha. p28-29
  222. ^ Tasaku Tsunoda (1991) "World languages ​​and Japanese" (Kuroshio Publishing).
  223. ^ Kyozo Mori (1959) "The Sixth Years of Europe" (Asahi Shimbun).
  224. ^ Kinbunkyo (2010) "Kanbun and East Asia" (Iwanami Shoten).
  225. ^ a b Uchida, Ju (2009) "Japanese Marriage" (Shinchosha)
  226. ^ Groters, WA/Takeshi Shibata [Translation] (1984) "There is no special feature in Japanese" "I want to be a Japanese person-the front and back of Japanese culture that I knew and loved" (Daiwa Publishing Green Books 56) p .181-182.

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