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🚗 | Review of fixed costs related to cars, target is "voluntary insurance premium" Fixed amount Carmo-kun survey

What kind of expenses were reviewed for photo cars?

Review of fixed costs related to cars, target is "voluntary insurance premiums"

If you write the contents roughly
Regarding car-related expenses, in addition to "voluntary insurance premiums", "vehicle inspection expenses", "automobile tax", "parking fee", and "automobile loan" are being reviewed, so I feel that I want to reduce various expenses related to cars. It seems that many people are doing it.

Nile, who runs the monthly fixed-price car leasing "Advantageous private car fixed-price carmo-kun," conducts an awareness survey on fixed costs ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

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Vehicle inspection fee

Car insurance

Car insuranceWhat is (Jidoshahoken)?AutomobileCompensate for damages that may occur with the use ofNon-life insuranceTo say.For the car mentioned hereオ ー ト バ イEtc. may be included.

In legal treatment, "Compulsory insurance"When"Voluntary insurance"are categorized.

Agricultural cooperative,All laboredWhat is handled byAutomobilemutual aidIs called.Hereinafter, in this item, automobile mutual aid is not distinguished and is described as automobile insurance.

Compulsory insurance

AutomobileWhen you use the insurance for "operation", you need to take out automobile insurance, which is required by law.Compulsory insuranceCalled.In JapanAutomotive Damages Protection Actbased onAutomobile liability insuranceIs equivalent to compulsory insurance.

Automobile liability insurance(California insurance)Automobile(オ ー ト バ イincluding.However, for agricultureSmall special motor vehicleCannot join),Motorized bicycleWhen someone is killed or injured by the operation ofTraffic accidentThis is insurance (liability insurance) that guarantees the damage (compensation amount) incurred by the vehicle operator when the vehicle operator is obliged to compensate the victim.

It is equivalent to personal liability insurance in voluntary insurance, and there are no other insurance collateral items.In other words, there is no insurance coverage for property damage.In addition, there is a limit to personal compensation.

Without taking out liability insuranceAutomobile(オ ー ト バ イincluding),Motorized bicycleIn addition to being punished by lawDriver's license OfAdministrative sanctionsIt is subject to (suspension, cancellation).

Voluntary insurance

As mentioned above, it is compulsory insuranceAutomobile liability insurance(California liability insurance) is often limited to insurance systems aimed at "minimum relief for victims".Traffic accidentThe maximum amount of compensation for personal damages (total amount of medical expenses, lost time damages, consolation fees, etc.) resulting from the victims of the accident is insufficient, and physical damages (or property damages without casualties) are insufficient. No liability insurance is applied to accidents, self-injury accidents, etc.).

Furthermore, if the car insurance policyholder (insured person) becomes a victim due to a traffic accident, or if the car / motorcycle owned by the policyholder is damaged, liability insurance will cover these under the system. No compensation is given for personal or property damage (the insurance that covers the insured's damage is for personal damage and property damage).

In this way, the liability insurance alone is insufficient in terms of the limit amount of liability insurance and the insured's own compensation, and it is voluntarily enrolled for the purpose of providing sufficient insurance to cover the insufficient range. The insurance products that can be made are privateInsurance companyIt is sold from.This is generallyCar insuranceOrVoluntary insuranceThat.

Basically, for personal liability insurance,It is essential to "contract with compulsory automobile liability insurance"It is said thatIf you pay a large amount of premium with voluntary insurance, you do not have to take out liability insurance., The liability insurance does not allow the cancellation itself.Regarding personal compensation, compensation will be paid from the liability insurance up to the limit that the liability insurance should pay, and if the total amount of compensation for personal damage exceeds the limit of the liability insurance, only the excess amount will be paid from the voluntary insurance. (Up to the amount that does not exceed the contract limit).For property damage, pay the full amount of damage that does not exceed the contract limit.

If the insurance has a deductible amount, that amount will not be covered by the insurance (it will be borne by the person responsible for compensation).

In JapanPrivate carIn the old days, the liability insurance was limited to tens of millions of yen and a deductible amount was added (because the limit is low and the deductible amount is large, the insurance premium will be reduced accordingly). In recent years, due to the increase in the amount of compensation due to disputes and the spread of settlement agency services (which is a selling point of insurance companies), in recent years, it has become the mainstream to limit personal compensation and objective compensation to unlimited or high limits. is there.

The insurance period is often one year, but there are also long-term and short-term insurance.The insurance premium rate is determined by conditions such as the age of the driver and the range of the driver (whether the vehicle is driven by another person or limited to the person / family, etc.) in addition to the vehicle type.Specifically, under the following conditions, the higher the risk range (conditions) such as "accident rate", "damage rate", and "vehicle characteristics", the higher the insurance premium.On the contrary, if consideration is given to "gold license" and "vehicle safety", insurance premiums may be reduced.

Conditions for high insurance premiums

Young people up to the early 20s
In addition to being inexperienced in driving skills (inexperienced), it is due to the fact that they tend to drive dangerously due to reckless behavior due to adolescence.
Elderly people in their 60s and older
Due to poor judgment and reflexes, the accident rate is higher than that of middle-aged drivers, and injuries tend to be serious and treatment costs tend to be high.
Young men and middle-aged women
Until the early twenties, men tend to drive more dangerously, while women in their thirties and older have lower driving skills on average, and each has a higher accident rate than the opposite sex of the same age group.In Europe and the United States, as with life insurance, automobile insurance has different premiums for men and women, but due to criticism that higher premiums for women are sexist, there are differences between men and women in some countries and states. Is forcibly prohibited by law in some places.In Japan, it is possible to set premiums for men and women, but many insurance companies do not apply premiums.
Vehicles with large body dimensions (large displacement)
The insurance premium increases in the order of light car ≤ small car <ordinary car.Also,Compact carthanSUVThe insurance premium is higher.With the dimensions of the car bodyDisplacementIs roughly proportional, the larger the car body, the moreVehicle total weightThe larger the displacement, the higher the insurance premium will be because the amount of damage caused by the accident will increase.However, with insurance that covers passengers, on the contraryCrushable zoneThe insurance premium is higher for a small car with a smaller size.
luxury car(OrtheftHigh rate vehicle)
Vehicles with a high rate class calculated by the General Insurance Rating Organization of Japan (by model) have higher insurance premiums depending on the class.High theft rate ・ Luxury cars and other vehicles with high theft rate due to the high cost of parts (4WD OfRV/SUVEtc.), the higher the class tends to be, which is remarkable for vehicle insurance.Also, there is a tendency to install high-performance engines,Car classIt is similar to a large displacement vehicle in that it also increases the weight of the vehicle.
Vehicles with a high accident rate
From the past accident record, the model with a high accident rate may have a higher rate class by type and a higher insurance premium.
Vehicles carrying dangerous goods
In the event of an accident, the damage will be high, and some insurance companies may be denied unlimited liability.
Modified car
Illegal modified cars cannot join, and even legally modified cars may not be able to join.If you make legal or illegal modifications after the contract, you may not be paid the insurance money.
economic situation
In the United States and the United Kingdom, there is a correlation between economic power and accident rate.Credit historyDepending on the situation, insurance premiums may be increased for policyholders who are often in arrears.In Japan, from the viewpoint of privacy protection, it is not allowed to change the insurance premium according to the economic situation.
Car rental
Typically,Paper driverBut you can borrowCar rentalCannot limit the driver, and the driver uses an unfamiliar car, so the frequency of accidents increases.In addition, the car insurance contract of the rental car (the driver's license has the acquisition condition)Medium size-Large carEven so, because it is a car insurance contract that is mortgage for all ages,FleetEven if it is a contract, the insurance premium will be higher than that of a general automobile insurance contract.
Some companies have different insurance premiums depending on the region due to the susceptibility to traffic accidents and different crime rates such as vehicle theft, and if you live in the Tokai / Kinki region, the insurance premiums may be higher.

Conditions for lower insurance premiums

In the following, insurance premiums may be reduced in units of several thousand yen depending on the applicable items.However, it is not always reduced.

Gold licenseDriver
The accident rate is said to be low.
Purpose of use
Contractors who do not use their car for commuting or business may be discounted because they have few opportunities to board.
Safety equipement(ABS,Collision damage reduction brakeEtc.) Well-equipped vehicle
It is said to reduce the damage caused by the accident.
Exhaust gas,Fuel efficiencyLessLow pollution vehicle(Eco car),Hybrid car,Electric car
Aspects that promote consideration for the environment (social responsibility of insurance companies)
Vehicles for people with disabilities
Welfare for persons with disabilities (social responsibility of insurance companies)
New car
A business measure that promotes new insurance policies for newly purchased vehicles.
Official car
Business measures with consideration for the government.
Commercial vehicle
As with public cars, due to consideration for the government.However, there are many disadvantages in the case of risk subdivision insurance, which will be described later.

Besides this, basicallyLight carThe insurance premium rate is generally low.This is based on the idea that light vehicles are lighter and less likely to cause serious damage in the event of an accident, rather than having a low accident rate.However,マ ツ ダ-AZ-1Some models have higher insurance premiums than the average registered car because of the high accident rate due to reckless driving.

Since 1997 in JapanRisk subdivision type automobile insuranceIs approved,broadcast(commercial) AndNews (Chinese)な どMass mediaUsedAdsIt is deployed in.Initially mainlyForeign-affiliated insurance companyWas the center, but nowDomestic insurance companyIs also handled by many.Currently the driver's age, gender, region, vehicle type, mileage,Driver's licenseThe feature is that the insurance premium differs depending on the color of the item.In recent years, there have been cases where existing domestic insurance companies have created subsidiaries to enter the market. Insurance premiums will be cheaper in cases where the mileage is extremely short, such as "I only use the car on weekends".[1]In cases where the mileage increases in rural areas where cars are used on a daily basis, such as commuting, the insurance may be higher than conventional insurance.In addition, it is not possible to make a contract with a corporation, it is limited to individual contracts, and the vehicle type is also a general passenger car (5 number)Small freight car(4 number), limited to light vehicles[2],Camper vanSuch asSpecial purpose vehicle, (So-called 8 numbers) cannot join (legalModified carMay not be able to join).

There may be restrictions on privately traded vehicles and some vehicle types.[3]Furthermore, when switching from other companies' insurance or other mutual aid, the discount grade may not be inherited.[4]

As with compulsory automobile liability, one voluntary insurance is contracted for each car.However, unlike the times when one car was shared, when the majority of the people came to have a driver's license and the family used several cars, "danger of each car" There is an aspect that the calculation of "degree" does not match the actual situation.As an example, for a vehicle that is mainly driven by a high-risk driver who drives the most, to a contractor within the same household / family, not the driver himself or the user for vehicle verification.Gold licenseIt is conceivable to install a paper driver of the above to make the contract risk look low.

Due to the liberalization of insurance premiums in recent years, each insurance company has its own and more subdivided range (Driver's licenseThe degree of risk is calculated for each color, family structure, annual mileage, etc., and multiple holding discounts are introduced.However, the subdivision of insurance premium rates is due to the soaring premiums of young drivers with high accident rates and the "uninsured" of young people with low income (the real burden rate on young people's households is high).Ethical collapseThere is also a risk of inviting an example of risk).

In addition,Gold licenseSome holders have a license system time lag (less driving opportunity)Paper driverFor example, some people do not necessarily meet the conditions of "no accidents and no violations" as a risk of automobile insurance, so it is necessary to pay attention to risk management.

Individual drivers who do not own a car can make a contract,Car driver liability insuranceInsurance products called (driver insurance) are also available from various companies.

Type of compensation

List of types of compensation
Target of compensationA humanInorganic substances, animals and plants
Victim sidePersonal liability insurance / self-injury accident insuranceObjective liability insurance
Those who were drivingPersonal disability insurance, uninsured car accident insurance, passenger accident insuranceVehicle insurance

Insurance money is divided into "payment as compensation to the other party" and "compensation for damages of the policyholder himself".

Due to the nature of compensation for damages to victims and bereaved families,Drunk driving,Unlicensed(Or if your license has been revoked or suspended),Illegal modified carAs a general rule, insurance money is paid even if the driver or vehicle has a "malicious violation" (intentional offense) or "serious negligence", but in the case of "compensation for the contractor himself", driving If a person is found to have had a "malicious breach" or "serious negligence," no insurance will be paid.In addition, it is not possible to take out insurance other than liability insurance alone.

Personal automobile accident insurance, uninsured car accident insurance, self-injury accident insurance, passenger accident insurance, objective compensation insurance, vehicle insurance, and personal / objective consultation negotiation service set for private automobile comprehensive insurance (SAP), vehicle Private car insurance (PAP) is a set of five personal settlement negotiation services excluding insurance, and car insurance (BAP) is a contract for each of them individually or in any combination.However, due to the liberalization of insurance premiums in recent years, each non-life insurance company is developing new and unique products, and these classifications are no longer applicable.

Compensation for injury

Personal compensation
Compensation for damages in the event of injury or death to another person due to the operation or management of a car.You will be paid for damages that exceed the benefits of your liability.The maximum insurance amount is 1 million yen or more and unlimited.
Uninsured car accident insurance
If you die or suffer a disability due to an accident and the other party is uninsured and has no compensation ability, the amount equivalent to personal liability insurance will be paid from the insurance you have contracted as a remedy.Some products are automatically attached to personal liability insurance.
Self-damage accident insurance
If the person covered by the compensation is killed or injured in a self-injury accident, or if the person is not covered by the compulsory automobile liability insurance, the insurance will be covered by the insurance contracted by himself / herself.Some products are automatically attached to personal liability insurance.
Passenger accident insurance
It is paid when a person in the car covered by the compensation is killed or injured.Unlike personal injury, a fixed amount is paid according to the injured part and symptoms. If you are injured with "another person" on board, you will be paid insurance money from personal liability insurance, but passenger accident insurance will also be paid to the driver's family.
Personal injury insurance (personal injury compensation special contract)
Insurance including the above uninsured car accident insurance, self-injury accident insurance, and passenger accident insurance.Injuries caused by car accidents while walking are also covered.
Since it takes time to settle the settlement with the other party, determine the hospitalization cost, and in some cases search for the perpetrator, it may not be possible to promptly procure the necessary costs such as hospitalization costs and securing immediate income. sell.In personal injury insurance, the amount is calculated in advance and paid in advance depending on the situation of the injury.At a later date, the amount paid by the other party or other insurance will be paid to the reimbursed insurance company.
Passenger accident insurance is a fixed payment, while personal injury insurance is for medical treatment and leave compensation.Lost profit, Compensation for the amount of damage actually incurred, such as a consolation fee.Also, if you also have negligence, the amount of compensation from the other party's insurance will be reduced by negligence offset, but with this insurance, the amount of compensation will be paid in a lump sum from the insurance company regardless of your own negligence rate.

Insurance for things

Objective liability insurance
Compensation for the portion of liability for automobile accidents, excluding human damage.In addition to compensation for broken items, it also includes lost time damage caused by it.If you are in a luxury foreign car,Luxury foreign car rental car(Substitute car) is also applicable.The insurance amount can be up to "unlimited".The contract may be made with a deductible amount.
Burning due to collision with a car loaded with explosives or a building that handles explosives, popularRacehorseThere are cases of high compensation for collisions with vehicles that transport vehicles and collisions with railroad vehicles.
Vehicle insurance
Compensation for damage to the target vehicle contracted by the contractor.Not limited to self-injury accidents, even in the case of an accident with a partner, the full amount of damages may not be paid by the partner depending on the negligence rate, and vehicle insurance may be used.Theft of the vehicle,Storm and flood damageSuch,Earthquake,(I.e.,eruptionOther thanNatural disastersYou will also be compensated for the damage caused by.There are cases where the contract is made with a deductible amount, and there are cases where the insurance premium is high but the contract is made without a deductible.
As a general rule, the amount of damage to a vehicle is calculated based on the "market value" of the vehicle.This is because the evaluation value of the vehicle decreases with age, and the purchase price of the vehicle is not fully compensated.
Many non-life insurance companies consider a car that has passed a certain number of years to be worthless regardless of the size of the car, so even if it is a popular car model or a car with a premiere in later yearsOld carIs creating a situation where a legitimate amount of money is not compensated when suffering damage.As a product to deal with this problem, each company sells automobile insurance that covers the repair cost of old cars that meet certain conditions, but it should be noted that the limit may not be sufficient.
The market value of the vehicle is the evaluation value of the vehicle itself, and additional equipment (retrofitted)car navigation,ア ル ミ ホ イ ー ルEtc.) are not included, so even if additional equipment is damaged due to an accident, insurance money exceeding the evaluation value of the vehicle will not be paid.If you also contract for compensation for additional equipment, you need to apply to the insurance company for the contents at the time when those equipment was added and pay the additional premium.
Earthquake,(I.e.,eruption,戦 争,terrorismMost insurance products tend to avoid payment of insurance claims by making them exempt, but by adding insurance premiums, damage caused by earthquakes, tsunamis, and eruptions can be covered.
Vehicle insurance (“Vehicle-to-Vehicle + A”), which is limited to vehicle-to-vehicle collisions with conditions for confirming the other party, has a low insurance premium, but the insurance money is not paid in the case of a hit-and-run accident or a self-damage accident.

Non-fleet contract and fleet contract

If you have less than 10 car insurance contractsNon-fleet contract, If you have a contract for 10 or more unitsFleet contractIt has the same but different discount system in that it gives preferential treatment to contractors with a low accident rate.

In the non-fleet contract, even if the insurance money is 1 million yen or 1 yen, it is counted as one accident, whereas in the fleet contract, even if there are 1 accidents, the total insurance money payment is 10 million yen. If so, there is a difference such as counting it as an "accident of 100 million yen".

The relationship between the grade and the discount rate (surcharge rate) is the same for most insurance companies, but it may differ depending on the insurance company.New contracts usually start at "6th grade"[5].. Cars without accidents for one year will start from grade 1.Strictly speaking, 7 or 6 grades are also given grades such as 7 (A), 6 (B), etc. depending on the driver's age.If you continue without any accidents, the grade will increase by one and the insurance premium will be slightly discounted.On the contrary, if an accident occurs, the insurance premium will be increased by 6 grades per accident. In many cases, when it comes to DNR, the next continuous renewal or new enrollment will be refused, or measures other than personal compensation will not be accepted (Sony AssuranceHas stated that it will refuse new enrollment for persons under grade 3).In order to go from the 6th grade at the time of the initial contract to the highest 20th grade, it is necessary to maintain no accidents and no violations for at least 14 years.

Non-fleet contract

Non-fleet contracts employ a grade-based rate system, and the premium rate changes depending on the grade.If an accident occurs and the insurance money is paid, the contract grade will be lowered and the insurance premium will be increased from the next fiscal year onward.This point is different from other non-life insurance.In the case of a small accident, it may be cheaper to abandon the claim because the premium for the following year and thereafter will be higher than the amount of the insurance money paid for a small claim.On the other hand, depending on the type of accident, the grade may not be lowered.The basic premium rate isInsurance accidentAt least 1 grade depending on the presence or absence ofDNR) ~ It is divided into 20 grades at the maximum.

Fleet contract

Fleet contractThen, the accident rate (ratio of insurance money and insurance premiums) for a certain period is examined and directly reflected in the insurance premiums for the following year.Insurance premiums are generally cheaper for fleet contracts (the discount rate rises faster than for non-fleet contracts), but the insurance money paid in one accident is reflected as it is, so if a major accident occurs, the insurance for the next year There is also the risk of a sharp increase in fees.

Subscription status

Personal / objective accidentCivil trialIn, the amount of compensation that cannot be paid by the compulsory automobile liability insurance alone is presented.PrecedentThere are many.Also officialDriving schoolHowever, the lecture recommends taking voluntary insurance.

The national average of voluntary insurance coverage is 74.3% for personal liability insurance, 74.4% for objective liability insurance, 27.9% for passenger accident insurance, and 43.8% for vehicle insurance.[6]

Some local governments and police operate public cars without taking out voluntary insurance, saying that it is cheaper to pay compensation for each accident than to pay insurance premiums.[7].

Compensation level

Even if the perpetrator has voluntary insurance, it does not guarantee that the victim will receive sufficient compensation immediately.Because insurance companies are also for-profit companies, the factsFault rateIt is exclusively to make a claim that is advantageous to the company.Even if they are valid, are they valid for the insurance company?victimIt is possible to understand whether it is sufficient in light of the damage and recovery of the damage.The industry compensation standard created by the insurance company is the same as or slightly higher than that of the compulsory automobile liability insurance.trialThis is because it is far short of the compensation standards approved in.In addition, when the damage becomes enormous, even if a certain amount of damage is found in the trial, it is rare that all of it will be covered.If the victim accepts the settlement with the low settlement amount offered by the insurance company, the insurance company will receive less compensation than the proceedings and will be able to obtain excess profit.Insurance companies have the know-how of accident response, and one of the accident parties usually does not have such experience, and the disadvantage of an individual cannot be denied when the scheme of insurance company vs. individual is adopted.It is often difficult for an individual to ask a lawyer due to problems such as costs.The insurance company's settlement negotiation service due to an accidentLawyer lawThere is a risk of violating Article 72, and by agreement with the Japan Federation of Bar Associations, as a relief organization for such cases, 53 (1978)FoundationThe Traffic Accident Dispute Resolution Center was established.

Non-payment of non-life insurance in Japan and overcollection of insurance premiums

Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance26 Japanese non-life insurance companies including major non-life insurance companies[8]However, focusing on special contracts for automobile insuranceInappropriate non-payment of insurance claimsIt came to light that I was doing habitually[9]..According to the investigation by the end of September 18, it was found that there were about 2006 non-payments, and the amount was about 9 billion yen.Financial Services AgencySaid the investigation was inadequate and ordered a re-investigation.Originally, non-life insurance was a product that "can suppress payments and make profits depending on negotiations", so in addition to the corporate attitude of trying to suppress payments of insurance claims as much as possible, the above-mentioned overdevelopment of special contracts The fact that many insurance companies with such a complicated structure have become present and it has become difficult for insurance companies themselves to immediately grasp what the insurance is like is a factor that caused a large number of such improper non-payments. is there.In this way, the reason for the non-payment was the lack of morals of the insurance company, the profit-seeking attitude, negligence and indulgence.[Source required], Financial Services Agency caused unfair non-paymentSompo JapanandMitsui Sumitomo InsuranceBusiness suspension order, business improvement order to non-life insurance companies including the two companies on the leftAdministrative sanctionsWas imposed.

2008On May 5, it was revealed that about 21 cases and 68 billion yen were overcollected in automobile insurance.[10]


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Most of the examples explained in commercials (theoretically)The cheapest condition(Men and women in their 30s, 1.5 liter classCompact car,20 grade,Gold license, Annual mileage of about 2,000 to 3,000 km, etc.), and there is no explanation about the insurance premiums for "less than 6 grade" and "green" "blue" licenses, so when I actually contracted It is unlikely that it will be as cheap as the CM (when you sign a new contract for the first time, you usually start from grade 6 (regardless of the age of the contractor). To reach grade 20, there are no accidents or violations for at least 14 years. Must continue to be maintained).
  2. ^ Commercial vehicles such as compact cars and light vehicles were not approved in 1997, but were approved in 2007, but the range of choices is narrower than that of passenger cars.Age limitedSony AssuranceとZurich insuranceIt is only available, and there is no complete passenger-only handling.
  3. ^ As an example,Scope of handling of Mitsui Direct General Insurance and automobile insurance, Refer to the terms and conditions of other companies
  4. ^ Before selecting Mitsui Direct General Insurance
  5. ^ However, after the second contractor of 11th grade or higher, if the accident described later occurs and the grade drops to 2 or 6, it will be 7 (F), 6 (F) grade to be exact.
  6. ^ Car insurance Changes in car insurance participation rate(CorporationJapan General Insurance Association)
  7. ^ Public cars of 5 prefectures, no voluntary insurance ... In some cases of settlement difficulties January 2009, 1, Yomiuri Shimbun
  8. ^ Aioi Insurance, Non-life Insurance Japan, Sumitomo Mitsui Marine Fire Insurance, Nipponkoa Insurance, Tokio Marine & Nichido Fire Insurance, Fuji Fire Marine Insurance, Nissei Dowa Insurance, Kyoei Fire Marine Insurance, Sumisei Insurance, Meiji Yasuda Insurance, Asahi Fire Maritime Insurance, Sony Insurance, Saison Automobile Fire Insurance, Secom Insurance, Mitsui Direct Insurance, Sompo 24 Insurance, Daido Fire Insurance, Nissin Fire Insurance, Ace Insurance, Axa Insurance, JAI Injury Fire Insurance, American Home Insurance, AIU Insurance, Zurich Insurance, General Insurance, New India Insurance
  9. ^ About the investigation result about the omission of payment of the incidental insurance money of the non-life insurance company Financial Services Agency-November 2005, 11
  10. ^ 6 non-life insurance companies: 133 million cases of excessive insurance premiums, totaling 298 billion yen Mainichi Shimbun-May 2008, 5[Broken link]

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