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The gear ratio of the 8-speed AT is set to the optimum setting for off-road to highways.
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It refers to all areas of terrain that vehicles can enter, such as unpaved grasslands, gravel, and sand, as well as muddy and rocky areas where it is difficult for people to walk. It should be noted that such a road surface is called "rough road" (British: Rough road).
In contrast, paved roads are "on-road" (British: On-road).
Off-road vehicles (cross-country vehicles or heavy-duty vehicles)
Vehicles designed on the assumption that they will run off-road or modified vehicles are called off-road vehicles, or off-road vehicles for short. It is also called an offloader, including off-road vehicles and drivers. AlsoCross country car(For shortKurokan car), orHeavy duty carAlso called.SUVAlthough it is a type of car, a car that emphasizes full-scale off-road performance is often called a cross-country car.
suspensionHas the ability to mitigate impact even if the road surface is unevenタ イ ヤIs required to have the ability to stay on the road surface, relativelystroke(Expansion and contraction amount) is long, and spring constant and damping force are low. Stabilizer (anti-stabilizer) for the purpose of earning more wheel strokerolling・ Some models are equipped with a mechanism to invalidate the bar). In addition, in order to prevent the vehicle body from coming into contact with the ground and being damaged, or being caught and stuck,Minimum ground clearanceIs made relatively high.
If you touch the ground with a strong impact, important parts will not be damaged.Automobile,オ ー ト バ イ Ofengine,transmission,Bicycle OfChain wheelBelow, etc.金属,FRPIn some cases, a protective material made of a board such as is provided. OrSledIn some cases, a shaped plate (skid plate) is attached to prevent it from getting caught in the unevenness of the ground.
For cross-country cars, the automobile manufacturer "ジ ー プOr a word from North AmericaSUV(Sports utility vehicle),Four-wheel drive OfPassenger carIn an era when was not common4WD, 4x4 (Four by Four)Such names may be used.
Generally cross-country vehicles (abbreviatedKurokan car) Is heavy but durable so that the entire body will not be distorted and unable to drive while driving on rough roads.Ladder frameIs adopted. The minimum ground clearance is high so that obstacles and steep slopes can be overcome, and the following three angles are large.
- Approach angle-frontbumperUnder the front end and the outer circumference on the front side of the front wheelTangentAngle created by
- Ramp breakover angle-Two lines extending from the outer tangents on the rear side of the front wheels and the front side of the rear wheelsWheelbaseIntermediate frame, body, drivetrain (mostlytransferSmaller angle made at the intersection with the lower end of the gearbox)
- Departure angle-The angle formed by the line connecting the rear outer peripheral tangent of the rear wheel and the lower rear end of the rear bumper.
These three angles are the ground obstacle anglesAnd three angles, which are used as a guide for running on rough roads. If you increase these,OverhangBecomes shorter.WheelbaseThe shorter the, the larger the ramp breakover angle.
Internally, Kurokan cars are generallyVertical engineでFRLayout-based part-time or full-time 4WD with center differentialSub-transmission for running on rough roads(High speed side and low speed sideGear ratioHas around 1: 2 or more), depending on the modelLimited slip differentialAnd axleDiff lockAlso equipped.transmissionIs basicallyMTorStepped AT.
Even if it looks like a Kurokan carMonocoque structureEven if it adoptsFour-wheel driveButCrossover SUVare categorized. SUVs in recent years have been particularly streamlined in design and production (Passenger carCrossover SUVs are being promoted in order to emphasize the performance of paved roads. This is the carInstruction ManualsIn the case of a crossover SUV, the instruction manual even describes how to cross a shallow river (crossing the river) in the full-scale Kurokan car of the rudder frame car."Never run underwater such as when crossing a river."it is written like this. As an example, the monocoque structureNissan X-TrailIs the first generation (T30 type)TV commercialThe appearance of jumping on a bad road or crossing a river was expressed in, but this is just on the CM image to stimulate consumers' purchasing motivation.ShowTherefore, if it is imitated, the vehicle body may be distorted due to an impact, or it may become impossible to drive due to flooding. The first generationSuzuki EscudoLike the crossover SUV, which has a rudder frame and four-wheel drive, but emphasizes ride comfort and fuel efficiency on paved roads.Light crocanCalled.
As an exampleHustler MonocoqueStructure ・ Stand-by XNUMXWD with transverse engine ・ While manual or CVT and city riding are the main crossover SUVsJimny TheLadder frameStructure ・ It is equipped with many mechanisms for off-road driving such as part-time four-wheel drive of vertical engine, manual or stepped automatic transmission. MostMilitary vehicleHas the same composition as Jimny,Japan Ground Self-Defense Force OfHigh mobility vehicle,Light armored vehicle,Type 73 light truckIs also this specification.
in JapanMitsubishi PajeroBecame a spark, from the late 1980s to the early 1990sSkiWith the boom, Kurokan cars became popular. However, since the mid-1990s, crossover SUVs have replaced crossover SUVs, as people have sought fuel economy, high-speed stability and ride comfort rather than off-road performance, while emphasizing the fashionability and loadability of the Crocan. It was done.
- General-purpose car
- While the main purpose is to drive on the road, it has improved off-road driving performance.AutomobileHas been manufactured and sold for general users for a long time. These types of vehicles are military vehiclesFor consumerMany started as. Long time agoforestryRoads that are not paved for business such asForest road・ It was often used as a means of transportation to reach the work site through (rough road).Developed countryThen.economic growthAlong withleisureThere has been an increase in usage examples for the purpose of transportation for the purpose of off-road driving itself. As a typical car modelジ ー プ,Mercedes-Benz G-Class,Toyota land cruiser,Mitsubishi Pajero,Suzuki JimnyAnd so on. AlsoAgriculture:Used in forestrylight truckIn some cases, special specifications that satisfy the above conditions are set.
- Military vehicle
- Operationally, off-roaddisasterandWar damageIn many cases, it is necessary to pass through roads that have been broken by the road, and many vehicles are designed for off-road use.
- Construction machinery
- Off-road work is the main operationMotor grader,Motor scraper,Heavy dump truckEtc. are designed for off-road use.
- Agricultural machines
- ト ラ ク タ ー,Rice transplanterThe main work site for agricultural vehicles such as is off-road,FarmlandIt is designed to be able to move on the road, specializing in the ground conditions peculiar to the farming season.
- So that the contact patch pressure can be dispersed even on snowEndless trackMany are equipped with. On the other hand, the snow surface has low frictional resistance.SnowmobileInstead of the front wheel in a vehicle dedicated to snow likeSled,SkiMay be used.
- Other vehicles
- Rough terrain vehicleThe main purpose is for business use, such asBuggy car,All-terrain vehicle,Side-by-side vehicleThere are vehicles whose main purpose is leisure use.
オ ー ト バ イ
- For competition
- motocross,trial,EnduroFor off-road competitions such as, motorcycles designed specifically for each competition are made. The competition population is relatively large, and competition-only models are manufactured and sold to the general public. Very fewTrike,sidecarIs also manufactured and sold.
- General purpose
- Motorcycle manufacturers manufacture and sell models designed to improve off-road driving performance while mainly aiming to operate on the road.
Some bicycles are designed for off-road driving.
- Mountain bike
- The most specialized off-road bicycles in modern timesMountain bikeIs. Equipped with suspension, thick block tires, powerful brakes, etc., it has been devised for high-speed driving on rough roads. Subdivision is progressing depending on the type of competition and usage style.
- Cross Country-Although it is a race that runs on a rugged course abbreviated as XC, a lightweight frame is pursued without assuming jumping, and mountain bikes with only front suspension are also used.
- Trails-Lightweight mountain bikes with front and rear suspension are mainly used for running on rugged courses and mountain roads.
- Enduro ――For races with jumping hills everywhere, mountain bikes with front and rear suspensions with shorter strokes than downhills are mainly used because there are also climbs.
- Downhill --Abbreviated as DH, also known as gravity, for skiingDownhill competitionA race that descends at a tremendous speed as well. A mountain bike with thick tires is used for the front and rear suspension with a long stroke of about 20 cm in a sturdy frame.
- Cyclocross bike
- CyclocrossIs a competition held on a dirt circuit course. For this competitionRoad bikeIs used as a car model arranged for unpaved use. Originally a competition vehicle, it may also be used for general off-road touring.
- It is a car model for touringラ ン ド ナ ーSome of them correspond to unpaved roads. AlsoCross bikeThere are many models equipped with suspension and thick tires that can handle minor off-road conditions.
- ^ Jimny> Driving / Environmental Performance - Japanese sea bass > Top four-wheeled vehicle> Lineup (updated unknown / viewed September 2016, 9)