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✈ | ANA 737-700 "JA04AN" retired, arrived at Anchorage


Photo ANA's Boeing 737-700 aircraft "JA04AN" Nose with red feather community chest (nabenobu-san, taken on 2011/11/27)

ANA 737-700 "JA04AN" retired, arrived in Anchorage

 
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The "JA04AN" was manufactured at the Renton plant (Washington, USA) and made its maiden flight in late February 2006.
 

All Nippon Airways (ANA) Boeing 737-700 aircraft, aircraft number (cash register) "JA04AN" is April 2021, 4 ... → Continue reading

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State of Washington

State of Washington
State of Washington
Washington State FlagWashington State Mark
()(State emblem)
State nickname: Evergreen state
The Evergreen State
State motto: Catch up
(Chinook: Al-ki) (Unofficial)
Washington State Location
State capitalOlympia
Largest citySeattle
GovernorJay Inslee
Official terminologyEnglish(informal)
area
 - Grand total
 -Land
 -Water area
18th in the US
184,827 km²
172,587 km²
12,237 km² (6.6%)
population(2010
 - Grand total
 - Population density
13th in the US
6,724,540People
34.20 people/km²
Join US
 -Turn
 -Date of subscription

42th
1889th of February 11
Time zoneUTC -8
STD -7
latitudeNorth latitude 45° 33'-49°
longitudeWest longitude 116°55'-124°46'
East-west width400 km
North-south length580 km
elevation
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

4,395 m
520 m
0 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-WA
WebsiteWashington State Government
Senator

State of Washington(British: State of Washington, English pronunciation: [ˈWɑʃɪ̞ŋʔn̩]) IsThe United States of AmericaThe northernmost part of the west coastState.. State capitalOlympiaHowever, the central city in terms of scale and economy isSeattleIs. Northカナダ OfBritish columbia, SouthOregon, EastIdahoIs in contact with. In 1846Oregon boundary disputeTo solveOregon TreatyWas ceded from the United Kingdom as a result of being tiedWashington TerritoryThe west side of is now Washington State. Recognized as the 1889nd state of the United States in 42.

CaliforniaLiberal and conservative with OregonMidwestIt is called "the other side of the Redwood curtain".

in recent yearsMicrosoftIs the home ofStarbucksKnown as the birthplace of.Seattle, the state's capital city, is MLBSeattle MarinersIt is the home of.

According to the 2010 census, the state's population is 6,724,540.About 60% of it is in the Salish SeaPuget SoundIt is concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area, which is the center of transportation, business and industry along the line.Puget SoundThe Pacific OceanIt is a cove fromGlacierMany islands eroded by the deepFjordAnd there is a bay.The western part of the state is deepTemperate rainforestThere are mountains in the west, central, northeast and southeastern parts of the country.Thorough agriculture is carried out in the eastern sub-dry basin.United StatesWest coast,Western partIt is the second most populous state after California.

The name of the state isFounding Father of the United StatesFirst President of the United StatesGeorge WashingtonIt is the only state in the United States to be named after the president.capitalWashington DCIt is called Washington State to distinguish it from, but the inhabitants of the state, nearby states and residents of southern British Columbia in Canada simply call it "Washington", and the capital city is simply "Washington DC" or simply "DC". I'm calling.Originally in one area of ​​WashingtonColumbia riverIt's called "Colombia" after it, and Washington DC is called the District of Colombia, so it was named Washington State to avoid confusion.

Languages ​​Spoken at Home (Washington) 2010
English
  
82.51%
Spanish
  
7.79%
Chinese
  
1.19%
Racial composition (Washington) 2010
White
  
72.5%
Hispanic
  
11.2%
Asian
  
7.2%
Black
  
3.6%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン
  
1.5%
Mixed
  
4.7%

History

Early history

EuropeMany before explorers from to visit what is now Washington Stateイ ン デ ィ ア ンTribes live intotem poleAnd decorated canoes and masks are known.The center of livelihood is the salmon fishery,MakahIn the case ofwhalingWas going.Inland tribes were hunter-gatherer-based and also engaged in some form of agriculture.They also fished salmon on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Popular in the 1770ssmallpoxThe Indian population plummeted because of[1].

The first recorded European to land on the Washington coast was in 1775.SpanishCaptain Don Bruno de Heseta,SantiagoSonoraIt was visited by two fleets.They are in the northPrince William SoundDeclared Spanish territory to all coastal areas up to.this isTreaty of TordesillasSpain has made the Pacific Ocean a "Lake of Spain" and the entire coastSpanish EmpireIt was to be owned.

1778 years,The United KingdomExplorerJames CookThe captainJuan de Fuca StraitAt the entrance ofCape FlatteryHowever, Cook did not consider this strait to exist. In 1787Imperial EagleIt was the first time that Captain Charles William Barclay saw the strait.The Juandefka Strait was the Spanish explorer Manuel Kimper in 1790, Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and the British explorer in 1792.George VancouverExplored.

The 1790 British-Spanish Nootka Convention ended Spain's exclusive claim and opened the northwestern coast to explorers and traders in other countries.Above all with EnglandロシアAnd even the newborn United States was aggressive.Later, American captain Robert Gray discovered the mouth of the Columbia River.He is on boardColombiaThe river was named the Columbia River after that.Gray from 1792Sea otterStarted a business to trade rawhide. October 1805, 10,Lewis Clark ExpeditionHas entered the current state.

19st century

On July 1811, 7, explorer David Thompson was on his way down the Columbia River.Snake riverCamped at the confluence with.Thompson erected a pillar and it was a land of England,North West CompanyHas attached a document declaring that it intends to build a trading base there.

Britain and the United States as part of the 1818 Anglo-American talksRocky mountainsContinentWatershedAgreed to be "cooperative territory" from to the western Pacific Ocean.East of the Rocky Mountains,Lake of the woodsUntil then, the 49th parallel north was the border.Territorial arrangements west of the Rocky Mountains have been postponed. In 1819, Spain passed sovereignty north of the 42nd parallel to the United States.Spain was virtually rights-only and did not own territory.

For the next 30 years, negotiations on the border between Britain and the United States have not progressed,Oregon boundary disputeIt became a tension between the two countries.American pioneersOregon CountryWhen it came to enter in large numbers, it used to beFur tradeDid not encourage settlement because it could interfere withHudson bay companyReversed his position and tried to maintain British rule in the Columbia area.Trapper James Sinclair, at the behest of Hudson's Bay Company manager George Simpson, led some 1841 pioneers of the Red River colony in 200 into the Hudson's Bay Company farm near Fort Vancouver.The corps crossed the Rocky Mountains, entered the Columbia Valley near what is now Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, and then descended southwest along the Couteney and Columbia Rivers.Despite these moves, it was signed on June 1846, 6.Oregon TreatySo Britain gave the United States all rights to the land south of the 49th parallel.

1836 years,Marcus WhitmanA group of missionaries are now in southeastern WashingtonWalla Walla CountyHe established several missions and Whitman's own settlements nearby.Those places are with the Cayuse peopleNez PerceIt was the territory of the tribe Indians.The Whitman settlement was a path of immigrants to the west over the mountains in 1843.Oregon TrailIt helped and accepted a large number of immigrants over the next decade.Whitman treated the Indians, but at this time many Indian patients who were not immune to the European illness died, while many white patients recovered, so he assumed that the doctor, Whitman, was responsible. He killed Whitman and 10 other whites during the 1847 Whitman massacre.This incident led to the Cayuse War between the Indians and the pioneers.

Fort Nisquarie, a farm and trading hub for the Hudson's Bay Company, was founded in 1833 and was the first European settlement in the Puget Sound region. 1846,MissouriWith black pioneer George Washington Bush fromTennesseeI'm fromCaucasianHis wife Isabella James Bush leads four white families into the area, New Market, nowTumwaterBuilt the town of.They evaded Oregon's racist law and entered Washington.After them, more pioneers crossed the mountains through the Oregon Trail into the Puget Sound region north.

In 1852, residents from all places that became what is now Washington State are Monticello (nowLong view) And made a memorandum for Congress.This memorandum represented the desire to be promoted to the state under the name Colombia.This rally came to be called the Monticello Conference.The request made by the conference was favorably received by Congress, but it was determined that the name Colombia could be confused with the existing District of Columbia.The name of the state is the first President of the United States, although it is a strange way to solve the problem of being confused with this capital.George WashingtonWas to be taken[2][3]..Washington was promoted to the 1889nd state of the United States on November 11, 11.[4].

The earliest developing industries in the state were agriculture and lumber.In the eastern part of the state, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while wheat cultivation using dryland farming was particularly productive.Cascade MountainsThe west side of the city is rainy and foggy, especially the harbor facing Puget Sound.Bay pineIt prospered in the production and shipping of timber.Other developments include fishing, canning salmon, and mining.

20st century

Tacoma CityHas long been noted in large smelters dealing with gold, silver, copper and lead.Seattleア ラ ス カ 州It is a trading port with other regions in Japan, and the large shipbuilding industry prospered.The area around the eastern part of Puget SoundWorld War I,Second World WarHeavy industry developed during the period ofBoeingThe company has become a symbol of the region.

World DepressionAt that time, a series on the Columbia River as part of a project to increase power generationHydropowerThe dam was built. 1941 is the largest in the United StatesGrand Coulee DamWas completed.

During World War II, Washington became the center of the munitions industry, and Boeing produced many of the domestic heavy bombers in Seattle.VancouverAnd the port of Tacoma was used to build warships.Seattle was the starting point for soldiers to the Pacific Ocean, many of whom stayed at Golden Gardens Park before departure.In the eastern part of the stateHanford WorksNuclear energy plant opened in 1943Atomic bombPlayed a major role in manufacturing.

May 1980, 5, after a series of violent vibrations and eruptions,Mount St. HelensThe northeastern slope of the volcano exploded, and the top of the volcano was severely damaged.The eruption flattened the forest, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, covered Washington and other states with ash, and darkened it day and night.[5].

Geography

WashingtonContinent United StatesThen in the northwest corner.In the westThe Pacific OceanIn the southOregon(Most of this boundaryColumbia riverAnd its eastern side is the 46th parallel north), in the eastern partIdahoThe northern boundary is mostly the 49th parallel north, and the west side isStrait of Georgia, Halo Strait andStrait of Juan de FucaThroughカナダ OfBritish columbiaIs adjacent to.Known for its beautiful scenery, the high altitude mountainsevergreenIt rises well above the forests and sparkling coastal seawater.

The eastern border with Idaho is north of the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers (116 ° 57'west).MeridianIs running straight, and only the southern part is along the Snake River.From there to the west and the Pacific Ocean is Washington State[6]..WashingtonCivil WarBetweenUnion ArmyAlthough it was a territory of Japan, he never actually participated in the war.

WashingtonPacific NorthwestIt is part of an area called.The Pacific Northwest always includes Washington and Oregon, but Idaho,MontanaWestern, Northern California, part or all of British Columbia, Alaska andYukon TerritoryMay or may not be included depending on the intent of the person using this word.

The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north and south, dividing Washington into two.The western part of the state is the western part of the Cascade Range, with warm, rainy winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers.Ocean west coast climateIs.hereConiferWith a deep forestTemperate rainforestThere is[7].

In contrast, the eastern part of the state is east of the Cascade Range, with a relatively dry climate and the Cascade Range.Rain shadowIs vast sub-dryStepAnd driedDesertThere are several.In the case of the Hanford settlement, the average annual rainfall is 6 to 7 inches (152-178 mm).Further east, the degree of dryness becomes less.Located in the southeastern part of the statePalouseThe area was grassland, but most of it was converted to farmland.The rest of the east is forests and mountains.

The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes that rise higher than other mountains.From the northMount Baker, Glaceon peak,Mount St. HelensandMount adamsAre lined up.Mount St. Helens is the only volcano in the state that is still active.However, all of the above volcanoes are considered active volcanoes.Volcanic 50 miles (80 km) south of SeattleMount RainierIt can be seen from the city.At an altitude of 14,411 feet (4,392 m), it is considered the most dangerous volcano on the continental United States due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area.[8].Decade VolcanoesIt is also listed in.

With ports in the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound, Alaska, Canada andPacific RimPlays an important role in maritime trade.Many islands in Puget Sound are connected by the largest ferry route network in the United States.

Washington is a coexisting area of ​​contrasting terrain.Olympic PeninsulaDeep forests in the world(I.e.It is the only temperate rainforest on the North American continent (like the Hoh Rain Forest).On the other hand, trees are rare in the semi-desert area east of the Cascade Range.The highest mountain in Washington,Mount Rainier[9]Towers vertically in southeastern Seattle, more than any of the highest points in other statesGlacierCovered in[10]..In fine weatherTacomaAppears to "float" offshore.The eastern side of Washington can be divided into two regions: the Okanogan Highlands and the Columbia River basin.

Federally controlled land, reservation and international recognition

Olympic National ParkUNESCO Ofworld HeritageInternational Biosphere ReserveIt is specified in.The following United States federal government controlled areas are located in the state.

National parks and protected areas

In the stateNational Park Service3 managed byNational parkAnd there are two national protected areas.

National forest

The state contains all or part of the nine national forests managed by the Forestry Department.

  • Colville National Forest
  • Gifford Pinchot National Forest
  • Idaho Panhandle National Forest
  • Canix National Forest
  • Mount Baker Snow Qualmy National Forest
  • Okanogan National Forest
  • Olympic National Forest
  • Umatilla National Forest
  • Wenatchie National Forest

Raw fabric protected by the federal government

The state contains all or part of the raw fabrics protected by 31 countries.The following are some of them.

  • Alpine Lake Raw Fabric
  • Glaceon Minehara fabric
  • Goat Rocks Raw Fabric
  • Henry M. Jackson Raw Fabric
  • Juniper dune fabric
  • Lake Chelan Sotooth Raw Material
  • Baker Yamahara fabric
  • Nose Minehara fabric
  • Olympic raw material
  • Paseiten raw fabric
  • Wild sky raw material

National Wildlife Sanctuary

The state includes all or part of the 23 wildlife sanctuaries.The following are some of them.

  • Dangenes National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Little Pondaley National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nisquarie National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Ridgefield National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Mount Saddle National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • San Juan Island National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Turnbull National Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Willapa National Wildlife Sanctuary

Other federal protected areas

  • Columbia riverCanyon National Landscape District
  • Ebay's Landing National Historical Reserve
  • Vancouver Fort National Historic Site
  • Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park
  • Lake Chelan National Recreation Area
  • Roosevelt Lake National Recreation Area
  • Fort Warden State Park[11]
  • Lake Ross National Recreation Area
  • San Juan Island National Historical Park
  • Whitman Missionaries National Historic Site
  • 17 other national natural landmarks

Military and related protected areas

climate

Washington's climate changes significantly from west to east.The western part of the stateOceanic climate(West coast marine climateAlso known as) is dominant, and the eastern side of the Cascade RangeSub-arid climateIs.The main factor in this climate is the North Pacific(I.e.(I.e.Meteorological conditions that appear in turn,North AmericaThere are the Continental Atmosphere, and the Olympic and Cascade Ranges.In spring and summer(I.e.Dominates the North Pacific, and the atmosphere rotates clockwise.

This is from the northwestWesterliesMeans that it brings relatively cool air and you can always expect a dry season.Cyclones in autumn and winterCycloneOccurs in the North Pacific and rotates counterclockwise.This causes the deflected wind to blow from the southwest, providing relatively warm and moist air, resulting in a moist season.In the extreme of this moist seasonPineapple ExpressSometimes called[13].

ワシントン州西部がヨーロッパの海岸都市の多くと同様に海洋性気候であるにも拘わらず、1880年、1881年、1893年および1916年の大雪や1883年-1884年、1915年-1916年、および1955年-1956年の厳しい冷え込みのような例外もある。このような時は 6フィート(1.8 m) の積雪や 0° FThe temperature is below (-18 ℃) for 3 monthsDeep snowThere are lakes and rivers that freeze for several weeks[14]..The lowest temperature ever recorded in Seattle was 1950 on January 1, 31.° F(-18 ℃) But even in low altitude areas about 3 hours drive from Seattle −48° F(-44 ℃) has been recorded[15].

2006 years,University of WashingtonClimate Impact Group has published "The Impact of Climate Change on the Washington State Economy."This is a preliminary assessment of the risks and opportunities of the potential for global warming and its impact on Washington State.[16].

Rain shadow effect

The upwind side of the mountain range is as the Olympic and Cascade Ranges cause the air masses that blow inland from the Pacific Ocean to rise in terrain.Precipitation amountThere are many, and the leeward side is extremely small.The windward slopes facing the southwest of these mountains have a lot of rainfall, resulting in warm and cool temperatures.The lowlands of Puget Sound have a lot of clouds and rain in winter, the western slopes of the Cascade Range have a lot of rain, and the high altitude areas have a lot of snow.Mount Baker, near the northern border of the state, is one of the heaviest snowfall sites in the world, with a world record of 1 inches (1,140 cm) of snowfall in one winter.

The eastern side of the Cascade Range is a vast area with a strong rain shadow effect.Most of eastern Washington has become sub-dry andColumbia PlateauThe relatively low altitude in the center, especially from the Snake River to the Okanogan Highlands, has the highest shade effect on the eastern bank of the Columbia River.In contrast to the temperate rainforests in the west, the east is covered with grasslands and shrub steps.

temperature

Annual averagetemperatureIs 51 on the Pacific coast° F11 from (40 ℃) to the northeast° FIt changes up to (4 ℃).Record lows recorded by Winthrop and Mazama −48° F(-44 ° C).Record highs recorded at Ice Harbor Dam 118° F(48 ° C).Both records were recorded on the eastern side of the Cascade Range.The western part of the state is known for its warm climate, with significant amounts in winter.(I.e.,(I.e.Often covered with(I.e.Continues for a long time.SummersunshineDry a lot.In addition, extreme weather sometimes occurs.North Star in winterCold frontAnd summerheat waveIs not uncommon.The temperature is 112 in Marietta° FTo (44 ℃)[17],Long viewThen -20° FTo (-29 ℃)[18]I have reached it.

The western part of the Olympic Peninsula has annual rainfall of 160 inches (4,000 mm), making it the wettest region of the United States of America.There may be weeks or months without sunny days.The western slopes of the Cascade Range are some of the most snowfall areas in the country (sometimes more than 200 inches (5,000 mm) in terms of precipitation).The eastern shaded area of ​​the Cascade Range has an annual rainfall of only 6 inches (150 mm).Precipitation is gradually increasing toward the Rocky Mountains further east.

Demographic

Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
18501,201
186011,594865.4%
187023,955106.6%
188075,116213.6%
1890357,232375.6%
1900518,10345.0%
19101,141,990120.4%
19201,356,62118.8%
19301,563,39615.2%
19401,736,19111.1%
19502,378,96337.0%
19602,853,21419.9%
19703,409,16919.5%
19804,132,15621.2%
19904,866,69217.8%
20005,894,12121.1%
20106,724,54014.1%

According to the 2010 United States Census, Washington's population was 6,724,540, an increase of 2000, or 830,419%, from the previous 14.1 Census.[19]..This includes a natural increase of 380,400 and an increase of 450,019 immigrants to the state.It is the most populous state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, followed by Oregon and Idaho.There have been many German, Irish and English immigrants since ancient times.

In 2004, Washington's population is expected to include 631,500 foreign-born (10.3% of the state's population) and 100,000 illegally resident foreigners (1.6% of the state's population).

The center of population of Washington State in 2000Enumclaw cityThere isKing countyEastern[20].

According to the 2010 census, the Seattle, Tacoma, and Bellevue metropolitan areas have a population of 3,439,809, which is almost half of the state's population.[21].

Of the state population, 5% are under 6.7 years old, 18% are under 25.7 years old, and 65% are over 11.2 years old.The proportion of women is 50.2%.

Race and ancestors

According to the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the state is as follows:

ProportionRace
77.3%Whites (72.5% non-Hispanic whites)
7.2%Asian
4.7%Mixed
3.6%African American
1.5%American Indian
0.6%Pacific Islands
11.2% (overlapping with above)Hispanic

The breakdown of 7.2% of Asians isChinese people1.4%,フィリピン1.4% of peopleEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1.0% of peopleKorean0.9%,India0.9% of peopleJapanese0.5%,Cambodia0.3% of peopleLaos0.1% of peopleThailandThe percentage of people is 0.1%.

African Americans are concentrated in southern Seattle and Tacoma.The state of the United States has the smaller African-American population.After World War II, the munitions industry and the US military hired many African-Americans in the southeastern United States, and the African-American community in Seattle grew.They had a great influence on West Coast rock and roll and R & B soul in the 1960s.From SeattleJimi Hendrix(With blacksCherokeeA mixed race of Indians) is famous as a pioneer of hard rock.

American Indians are Colville,Maca, McClure Shoot, Quinort, Sailish, Spokane and YakimaIndian settlementAnd lived in the jurisdiction.Tribes such as the Chinookan, Lami and Saylish are known.However, the urban Indian society formed by the United States Indian Bureau's migration plan in Seattle after World War II has brought a variety of Indian cultures to this diverse metropolitan area. When whites settled in the isthmus in the 1880s, the city of Seattle was named after the Seattle chief.

Residents of Asian and Pacific Islands descent are on the Canadian border in the Seattle metropolitan areaMount VernonFrom OregonPortlandIt has formed communities and districts up to Vancouver on the other side of the river.Spokane10% of city dwellers are of Asian descent.It has the largest Filipino population, with 2010 as of 137,083.[22]..There are many immigrants from Japan, one of the largest Nikkei communities in the United States, and a shrine.

The largest ethnic group is 11% Latino, with Mexican-Americans forming large groups in the Chehalis Valley, Yakima Valley and agricultural areas in the eastern part of the state. Late 20th centuryメキシコWhen a large number of immigrants from and other Latin regions entered southern Seattle and the real estate boom occurred in the 1980s and 1990s.King county,Pierce CountyandSnohomish CountyI concentrated on to some extent.

The population composition divided by the country of origin of the ancestors is as follows.[23]..While much of Washington is home to many English-American inhabitants, the eastern part of the state is also home to the largest German-American inhabitants.Wahkiakum County TheScandinavianMany inhabitants of the system live.

ProportionCountry of origin
20.9%German descent
12.6%English descent
12.6%Irish descent
6.2%ノルウェーsystem
4.1%American
4.0%French descent
3.9%スウェーデンsystem
3.6%Italian descent
3.4%Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eusystem
2.6%system
2.5% Netherlandssystem
1.9%Polish descent
1.4%Russian descent
1.2%デンマークsystem
1.1%Walessystem

Religious

The denominational composition of the Washington population is as follows:[24].

As of 2000, the largest number of believers was 716,133.Roman CatholicIt is a church.MormonismThe number of believers is 178,000, and the number of evangelical believers is 127,854.[25].

Like the states of the western United States, the proportion of people who consider themselves "non-denominational" is higher than the national average.Colorado2rd place after[26].

Indian tribe

Once counting 70イ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribes are indigenous, and there are still more than 200 tribes, both official and non-official.There are many fishermen who engage in salmon fishing.In the Puget Sound, by neighboring tribesCanoeThere is a lot of competition.

In the state, there are a large number of fishermen in the sea river, but white people can enjoy mountain stream fishing as a sport, but if Indians fish in the river, they will be arrested for poaching, which is linked to racial discrimination in the 1950s. It was still strong even after becoming.Furthermore, since the 1950s, bills to deprive Indian tribes of the fishing and hunting rights in the United States have been passed one after another by the United States Parliament, which has become a life-and-death issue for Indian tribes in the state. In 1954, the leader of the "Puyalup"Bob SatyacamThe protests over Indian fishing rights initiated by the United States became a central theme in the Indian rights restoration movement in the 1960s.

In March 1964, nearly 3 Indians from all over the United States gathered all over Washington to protest the Indians' deprivation of fishing and hunting rights. The "Fish in Protest" was carried out. This "Fish Inn", the first large-scale protest by Indians in the 5000th century, was launched in 20.National Indian Youth CouncilWas led by.In this movement, white actorsMarlon BrandAlso participates and provides assistance.This "fish-in" protest was thoroughly cracked down by whites, followed by arrests and Indian movements who led the movement.Hank AdamsWas seriously injured in the shooting of the police.

The "Nisquarie", the origin of the name of the Nisquarie River, was forcibly relocated to the Puget Bay area near the mouth of the river by the US Federal Government under the 1854 "Medicine Creek Treaty", but they were put on hold. Two-thirds of the land was occupied by the construction of the US Army's "Lewis Base" in 2, and fishing rights were deprived. In the 3s, they started a campaign to restore their fishing rights on the river, guaranteed by the Medicin Creek Treaty, with the "Puyalup".Endured harassment and numerous arrests from whites, sued the state government, and granted all Indian tribes in Washington state 1917% of their traditional territory in 1970.Bolt resolutionI won.

However, since 1885, power companies have built power generation dams in many rivers in the state, hindering salmon run-up, obscuring these treaties and resolutions, and many fishing tribes have said these. There is a movement to request improvement of dam facilities.There has been a great deal of controversy involving environmental groups over the renewal of electric power dam contracts. Settled by setting up a fish egg hatchery on the reserve, but the "Yakama" and "Chulalip" are against the "Rock Island Dam" on the Columbia River, and the "McCleat" is against the Puget Sound Power Company. , Is pending in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FARC).

On November 2009, 11, the Colville Tribal Secretariat was a land guaranteed by a treaty with the Commonwealth in 12, and was granted hunting and fishing rights even after being ceded to the Commonwealth in 1872. A lawsuit was filed in a federal court to confirm the hunting rights of the tribe in the "Half Area"."The application of Washington's'Firearms Control Act'is too strict for Indian tribes than in other states," said Michael Finley, chairman of the council.

The "Skralams" are traditional fishermen, but since the early 20th century, sawmills by white companies have been planted on the Kitzap Peninsula where they live, polluting the surrounding waters.The Sclaram tribe, which uses seafood as a traditional food, is affected by marine pollution, and in the 1990s, all tribal members who continued to eat traditional food developed cancer, which has become a major problem.

"Olympia Peninsula"MakahIs the only tribe in the United States whose whaling rights are approved by a treaty with the federal government, but has been unfairly banned for nearly 100 years.Although traditional gray whale fishing has resumed in this century, the state government and anti-whaling groups "Sea shepherd, Etc., continue to be disturbed, harassed, and threatened.

"Seattle City" is the Seattle Chief of ""Chief Seattle) Is named after.Chief Seattle's speech when the Squamish tribe was displaced to the reservation by the US federal government in the 19th century is very famous.

The "" is an "extinct tribe" with no reservations, but is currently 152 acres (about 0.6 km) purchased in Clark County.2) Land is being applied for as a trust of the Ministry of Interior.If the application is approved by the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) of the Ministry of Interior, the land will be reserved for the Cowlitz government, housing and industry.They are planning a "Kouritz Casino Resort" there.

Tribes and organizations officially recognized by the US federal government

  • "Up"
  • "Makah'
  • "(Pend au-Rail)
  • ""
  • ""
    • "Jamestown Band"
    • "Port Gambling Band"
  • "・ Topennish Band"
  • "Lower Elwa Tribal Conference ()
  • ""
  • "Colville Secretariat"
    • ""
    • ""
    • ""
    • ""
    • ""
    • ""
    • "Lake"
    • "Nez Perce'
    • ""
    • ""
    • "Band of Moses"
    • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • "Shorwater Bay Tribal Conference"
    • "
    • ""
    • ""
  • ""
  • "Chulalip Control Conference"
    • ""
    • ""
    • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • "Squazin Indians (Coastal)"
  • ""
    • "Swinomish"
    • ""
    • "under"
    • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • "" (Scheduled to be officially recognized)

Tribes and organizations requesting official certification from the US federal government

  • "Mitchell Bay Indian Band"
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • ""
  • "Cherokee・ Anisahani ・ Blue Clan "
  • "Free Cherokee"
  • ""
  • "" Marietta Band "

Indian Casino

  • "Jamestown Su-Claram"
    • "Nanahonsugi Casino" --Avoid in front of the gatetotem poleFeatures
  • "Lower Elwa Tribe Conference (Kuraram)
    • "Elwa River Casino"
  • "Makah"
    • "Macar Tribe Bingo Field" (currently closed)
  • ""
    • "Kouritz Casino Resort" (planned)
  • "Quinold"
    • "Quinault Beach Resort & Casino"
  • "McCulshoot"
    • "McCulshoot Indian Casino"
  • "Snoquarium"
    • "Snoquarium Casino"
  • "Squamish"
    • "Clear water casino"
  • "Port Gambles-Claram"
    • "Exciting eagle bingo field"
    • "Cape Casino"
  • "Squazin Indians"
    • "Small mountain stream casino resort"
  • "Skocomish"
    • "Lucky Dog Casino" (closed on September 2009, 9)
  • "Colville Tribal Union"
    • "Mill Bay Casino"
    • "Coolie Dam Casino"
    • "Okanogan Bingo Casino"
  • "Shorwater Bay Tribal Conference"
    • "Shorwater Bay Casino"
  • "Puyarap"
    • "Queen Emerald Hotel"
    • "Queen Emerald Casino"
  • "Upper Skagit"
    • "Skagit Valley Casino"
  • "Swinomish Community"
    • "Swinomish North Light Casino"
  • "Stila Amish"
    • "Wind Angel Casino"
  • "Chulalip"
    • "Quill Cedar Mountain Stream Nightclub & Casino"
    • "Chulalip Resort Casino"
  • "Kalispell"
    • "Northern Quest Casino"
  • "Spokane"
    • "Cheweller Casino"
    • "Two River Casinos & Resorts"
  • "Che Harris Reservation Tribal Union"
    • "Lucky Eagle Casino"
  • "Niss Quarry"
    • "Red Wind Casino"
  • "Nuksak"
    • "Nooksak River Casino"
    • "Casino across the northern forest"
  • "Rumumi"
    • "Silver Konoha Casino"
  • "A coalition of Yakama Indians, tribes and bands"
    • "Yakama National Legendary Casino"

Major cities and towns

reference:Washington City List,Washington State Town List,List of High Per Capita Income Places in Washingtonas well as the City Government in Washington

The table below lists the 20 most populous cities in Washington.Population is estimated in 2011[27].

RankingName of a cityPopulation (people)
1Seattle612,100
2Spokane209,100
3Tacoma198,900
4Vancouver162,300
5Bellevue123,400
6Kent118,200
7Everett103,100
8Renton92,590
9Yakima91,630
1090,110
11Federal Way89,370
12Belling ham81,070
13Kennewick74,665
14Auburn70,705
15Pasco61,000
16Marysville60,660
17Lakewood58,190
18Redmond55,150
19Shoreline53,200
20Kirkland49,020

Politics and law

reference:Washington State Government

Washington legislatureBicameral systemParliament.The state legislature has a lower house and a upper house.There are 49 constituencies in the state, depending on population, each electing two members of the House of Representatives and one member of the Senate.The term of office for members of the House of Representatives is two years, and the term of office for members of the Senate is four years.There is no limit on the term limit. As of 2, the Democratic Party is in the majority in both houses.

The governor of Washington State is headed by a four-year term governor. The governor of the state as of 4 is (Democratic Party) and has been in his current position since 2011.

The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine judges have been appointed and have been elected throughout the state.

Representative to Congress

The federal senator is as of 2011, and both are Democrats.

The House of Representatives has sent nine members, with five Democrats and four Republicans as of 9.

Elected officials

Execution office

  • Governor
  • Deputy Governor
  • Secretary of State
  • Prosecutor General
  • State Treasurer
  • State Inspector
  • Public Inspectorate General of Public Education
  • Public land inspector
  • Insurance inspector

Politics

Results of the presidential election
YearsRepublican PartyDemocratic Party
200840.48% 1,229,21657.65% 1,750,848
200445.59% 1,304,89352.82% 1,510,201
200044.59% 1,108,86450.21% 1,247,652
199637.32% 0840,71249.81% 1,123,323
199231.99% 0731,23443.41% 0993,037
198847.97% 0903,83550.03% 0933,516
198455.82% 1,051,67042.86% 0807,352
198049.66% 0865,24437.32% 0650,193
197650.00% 0777,73246.11% 0717,323
197256.92% 0837,13538.64% 0568,334
196845.12% 0616,03747.23% 0558,510
196437.37% 0470,36661.97% 0779,881
196050.68% 0629,27348.27% 0599,298

Politics in the state is thought to be divided into two in the Cascade Range, in the westliberalIn (especially Interstate 5 Corridor), in the eastconservativeIs. All since 1988United States presidential electionDemocratic PartyCandidates have won.

Due to the large population of the West, Democrats tend to dominate state-wide results.The Seattle metropolitan area (especially King County) usually outperforms the Democrats over the western surroundings, but the 2000 and 2004 results were nearly equal. In the case of 1968, it is regarded as a state that influences the result, and it is a candidate for the Democratic Party.Hubert Humphrey Republican PartyCandidateRichard NixonIt became the only western province to win.Washington was considered part of the 1994 Republican Revolution, with the Republican Party winning seven of the nine seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the greatest success.[28]..But this didn't last long, and in 1996 the Democratic Party regained one seat.[29]In 1998, it took two more seats and became a 2-5 majority.[30].

Both current federal senators are Democrats, and the governor is also a Democrat for the second term.It was the first state to elect a woman to be both a federal senator and a governor.Both houses of the state legislature are also dominated by the Democratic Party.

Economy

reference:List of companies by state in the United States Washington's 2010 state gross domestic product was US $ 14 billion, the 5,515th largest in the United States.[31].. As of 2009, per capita income was US $ 52,403, ranking 10th in the country.

Jet for important businesses in WashingtonaircraftDesign and manufacturing (Boeing Everett Factory),Automobile(Packer),Computersoftwaredevelopment of(Microsoft), Online bookstore (Amazon.com),game(Nintendo US corporation,Bungee,Valve Corporation), Communication (T-Mobile USA),Electronics,Biotechnology,aluminumManufacturing, timber and wood products (Weyerhaeuser), Mining, Beverages (Starbucks, Jones Soda), Real Estate (John L. Scott), Retail (Nordstrom,Eddie bower, Cartois,Costco, REI, Gene Juarez) and tourism (Alaska Airlines,Expedia Group) Is included.Washington produces a significant amount of hydropower.

importantAsiaTrade withPuget SoundIt is done through the port of.magazine"FortuneAmong the "20 Most Admired Companies in the United States" by, four companies in Washington, namely Starbucks, Microsoft, Costco and Nordstrom.[32].

Washington stateliqueurTheMonopoly systemIt is one of the 18 states.However,convenience store,supermarketYou can buy atAlcohol degreeLess than 20% beer and wine.Fermented liquor (including those with less than 20% alcohol) and brewed liquor can only be purchased at liquor stores operated by the state government or privately owned and contracted with the state government of Washington.

Speaking of millionaires among the people of the state, Microsoft founderBill GatesThere is.ThatNet worthIs valued at $ 400 billion and is the second largest in the world in the February 2011 ranking of the magazine Forbes.[33].. OtherPaul Allen(Microsoft),Steve Ballmer(Microsoft),Jeff Bezos(Amazon), Craig McCaw (McCow Cellular), James Janard (Oakley),Howard Schultz(Starbucks),Charles Simonyi(Microsoft) is[34].

The unemployment rate as of January 2010 is 1%[35].

Tax system

Washington state government to individualsincome taxIs not imposed.There are only seven such states in the United States.AlsoCorporate taxOr it doesn't collect franchise taxes.Corporations in the state are required to pay various income taxes such as business occupancy tax and total receipt tax, and the tax rate varies depending on the type of business.

Basicconsumption taxIs 6.5%, to which the local tax rate is added. As of April 2010, it was 4% in cities such as Seattle.[36], Usually between 8% and 9%.Sales tax applies to goods and services.Most of the foodduty freeHowever, processed foods, dietsSupplementandSoft drinkIs taxable.

Excise taxApplies to limited-edition products such as gasoline, tobacco and liquor.Property taxIs the first tax in the state and accounts for about 30% of state and local revenues.It is the most important source of revenue for special purpose districts such as public education, firefighting, libraries, parks and recreation.

Real estatePersonal propertyIs taxable unless exempted by law.Movables are also taxed, but most personal assets are tax exempt.Movable property tax is levied on personal assets used to carry out business and personal assets that are not exempt from the law.Property tax is paid to the finance minister of the county where the property is located.Intangible assets such as bank deposits, stocks or bonds are not taxed.Also, if you receive a retirement allowance in another state, you will not be taxed.inheritance taxAlthough there is no system for real estate, real estate tax is separate from federal property tax, which means that the state imposes its own property tax.

Agriculture:

Washington is a state with high agricultural output. In 2003, total agricultural output reached $ 57 billion, ranking 9,000th in the country's states.Grain production is $ 11 billion, the seventh largest.Livestock and specialty assets are $ 38 billion, the 7th largest[37].

In 2004, it became the number one product in Japan for the following products.The figures in parentheses are the composition ratio of domestic production.Redraspberry (90.0%), wrinkle species Beans (80.6%),hop (75.0%),spearmintOil (73.6% t),Apple (58.1%),Cherry (47.3%),Pear (42.6%),peppermintOil (40.3%), ConcordGrape (39.3%), for processingcarrot (36.8%), Niagara grapes (31.6%).lentil,autumnpotato, Dried edible beans,apricot, Grapes (all species),AsparagusFor processingcorn, No. 2 in processing green peas, sour cherries,pruneplum, Dry summeronionThen third place,BarleytroutThen third place,Wheat,cranberry,StrawberryThen it is the 5th place.

Apples are a particularly important product.Due to the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cool winters in the central part of the state, it has continued to lead domestic apple production since the 1920s.[38]..Wenatchie Okanogan area (Chelan County,Okanogan County,Douglas County,Grant County) And the Yakima area (Yakima County,Benton County,Kittitas County), Which produces the majority of apple production in the state.[39].

Transportation

Washington ranked first in the 2011 State Waste Disposal Assessment, which assesses the cleanliness of public spaces and the effectiveness and quality of their waste disposal activities.VermontWas ranked as the number one state by overtaking[40].

The state is connected to the Washington State Road System by the largest ferry network in the country and the third largest in the world.[41]..There are 16 public airports, including 140 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation.Located in SeattleKing County International AirportBoeing Field, commonly known as Boeing Field, has the highest number of passengers among non-hub airports in the United States.Seattle-Tacoma International AirportIs another major airport in the Seattle metropolitan area.The official international airport in Washington is Boeingfield, not Seattle-Tacoma International Airport.

There is exceptional traffic demand due to the characteristic terrain of Washington.There are extensive waterways between the state's largest cities such as Seattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia.The bridges make the state roads a vast network, and the country's largest ferry network supports traffic demand in the Puget Sound region.The sea highway consists of 20 ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to connect 28 ports, with 147,000 ferries operating annually.In terms of floating bridge length, four of the world's five masters are in the state.The Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, the Lacy V. Marlowe Memorial Bridge and the Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington,Olympic PeninsulaKitsap PeninsulaIt is a hood canal bridge that connects.

MajorInterstate highway The Interstate 5, Line 82, Line 84, Line 90, etc.There is also a characteristic traffic demand due to the presence of the Cascade Range.The state operates and maintains seven major passes and eight small passes.Snow is removed from these passes in winter, and sand is sprinkled on them to prevent avalanches and keep them safe.Not all passes are passable even in winter.The North Cascades Highway, State Highway 7, is closed annually.This is because there is more snow here and the frequency of avalanches is high in areas with the Washington Pass.

Driver's license

If you drive a car in Washington, you can drive with a license issued by another state or an international driver's license within 30 days.However, for stays of 30 days or more, a Washington state driver's license is required, except for visitor visas (B-1 / B-2).If your address changes in the state, you must notify the change within 10 days.Many international students, business travelers, and overseas assignments from Japan make extensive use of the greenwood test site located north of downtown Seattle.The license renewal period and validity period are uniformly 5 years.

Environment issues

Nuclear waste

Manhattan planMade forplutoniumpurificationFacilityIs still in the southeastern part of the stateコロンビアIt remains on the banks of the river, and its large amountNuclear wastebyHuman capital,Agricultural productsincludingBiology There is concern about the impact on

Toxic chemicals

In 2007, Washington was used in many household itemsPBDEStrongly toxicbromineChemicalFlame retardantsBecame the first state in the country by stipulating that it should not be used in any way. In 2004, we examined 40 mothers living in Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Montana, and found that all of themBreastmilkPBDE was detected in.

Three recent studies by the Washington Department of Ecological Conservation have shown that toxic chemicals banned decades ago remain in the environment and are concentrated in the food chain.In one of the studies, state government scientists found over-acceptable toxic substances in 3 samples of freshwater fish collected from 1 locations.For these toxic substancesPolychlorinated biphenyl(PCB),Dioxins, Two chlorine-based insecticides, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)Dieldrin, And PBDE were included.As a result of this study, unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountainous whitefish, and the sources of PCBs will be investigated on the Wenatchi River.Based on 2007 data and 2004 biological studies, the Washington State Department of Health advises the public not to eat white fish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth to its downstream confluence with the Columbia River.These studies also show high levels of contamination in fish cells collected by scientists from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, again giving advice on fish intake.[42].

On March 2006, 3, Governor Christine Gregore signed and passed legislative bill 27.The law will be included in state dishwashing detergents over the next six yearsRinThe content is limited to 0.5%.The regulation came into effect state-wide in 2010, but came into effect in 2008 in Whatcom, Spokane and Clark counties.[43]..Recent studies have shown that high concentrations of phosphorus in waterAlgaeIs tied to pollution.It is said that a large amount of algae growing in the water area will lead to major ecological and technical problems.

Education

Single course and university

State University

private university

  • Antioch College Seattle
  • Argosy University Seattle
  • Seattle University of the Arts
  • Bastar University
  • Seattle City University
  • Carnish College of Fine Arts
  • Digipen Institute of Technology
  • Debris University
  • Gonzaga University
  • Henry Cogswell College
  • Heritage College
  • Mars Hill Graduate University
  • Moody Bible University Spokane
  • Northwest University
  • Pacific Lutheran College
  • St. Martin University
  • Visual concept school
  • Seattle Bible College
  • Seattle Oriental Medicine University
  • Seattle Pacific University
  • Seattle University
  • Trinity Lutheran College
  • Phoenix University Spokane
  • Puget Sound University
  • Walla Walla University
  • Whitman College
  • Whitworth University

Community college

  • Bates Technical College
  • Bellevue Community College (changed to Bellevue College, a four-year university)
  • Bellingham Technical College
  • Big Bend Community College
  • Cascadia Community College
  • Centralia College
  • Clark College
  • Clover Park Technical College
  • Columbia Basin College
  • Edmonds Community College
  • Everett Community College
  • Grays Harbor College
  • Green River Community College
  • Highline Community College
  • Lake Washington Institute of Technology
  • Lower Columbia College
  • Olympic college
  • Peninsula College
  • Piers College
  • Renton Technical College
  • Seattle Community College District
  • Shoreline Community College
  • Skagit Valley College
  • South Puget Sound Community College
  • Spokane・ Community college
  • Spokane Falls Community College
  • Tacoma Community College
  • Walla Walla Community College
  • Wenatchee Valley College
  • Whatcom Community College
  • Yakima Valley Community College

Primary and secondary education

From 2008 to 2009, there were 1,040,750 children and students in primary and secondary schools in the state, with 59,562 teachers teaching them.[44].. As of August 2009, there are 8 school districts and 295 educational service districts.[45]..The Washington State School Information Processing Corporation, a non-profit state agency, provides an information management system for financial resources and student data.Primary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Public Education Audit Office, led by State School Inspector General Randy Dawn.[46].

High school seniors can choose to use the state's running start program. Started by the state legislature in 1990, students can go to higher education institutions at public expense and at the same time obtain high school and college diplomas.

There are also high schools in the state that focus on popular art, such as the Tacoma School of Art, the Vancouver School of Art and the Center School in Seattle.AlsoTricityThere is also a science and mathematics-based high school called "Delta" in Tacoma and SAMI in Tacoma.

Art and culture

Professional sports team

OUR TEAMSportsleagueCities and stadiums
Seattle SeahawksfootballNFL; NFCSeattle,Quest field
Seattle MarinersbaseballMajor League; ALSeattle,T-Mobile Park
Ice hockeyWestern Hockey LeagueKent, Showware Center
Seattle StormbasketballWNBASeattle, Key Arena
Seattle Sounders FCサ ッ カ ーMajor League SoccerSeattle, Century Link Field
Seattle Soundersサ ッ カ ーW-League (Women)Tukwila, Starfire Sports Complex
basketballAmerican basketball associationBelling ham, Whatcom Community College
basketballAmerican basketball associationBellevue, Maidenbauer Center
Ice hockeyWestern Hockey LeagueEverett, Comcast Arena
Olympia TitansbasketballAmerican basketball associationOlympia, TBA
Ice hockeyWestern Hockey LeagueSpokane, Spokane Arena
Ice hockeyWestern Hockey LeagueKennewick, Toyota Center
Arena footballAF2Kennewick, Toyota Center
baseballNorthwest League; APasco, Gesa Stadium
basketballAmerican basketball associationTacoma, Mount Tacoma High School
Tacoma RainiersbaseballPacific Coast League; AAATacoma,Cheney Stadium
baseballNorthwest League; ASpokane, Avista Stadium
Everett AquaSoxbaseballNorthwest League; AEverett, Everett Memorial Stadium
baseballNorthwest League; AYakima, Yakima County Stadium
Arena footballAF2Spokane, Spokane Arena
Indoor footballAmerican Indoor Football AssociationWenatchie, Town Toyota Center
サ ッ カ ーPremier Development League (Northwest Division)Spokane, Joe Albi Stadium
Indoor footballIndoor football leagueKent, Showware Center
Seattle SeawolvesrugbyMajor League RugbyTukwila, Starfire
rugbyRugby Super LeagueSeattle, indefinite
LacrosseNational Lacrosse LeagueEverett, Comcast Arena
Lingerie footballLingerie football leagueKent, Showware Center
Kitsap AdmiralsbasketballAmerican basketball associationKit sap

State symbols, etc.

US NavyFour ships have been named after the state of Washington, including two battleships.Previously it was named after George Washington.

The state's nickname, "Evergreen State," was proposed by Charles T. Conover in Seattle in 1890.This nickname fits nicely because there are evergreen forests in the state and abundant rain keeps the shrubs and grass green throughout the year.[47][48].

  • State Song: "Washington, My Home"
  • State Birds: "American Goldfinch" (American Goldfinch)
  • State Fruits: Apples
  • State Vegetables: Walla Walla Onions[49]
  • State Dance: Square Dance, adopted in 1979
  • State Tree: "Western Hemlock" (Western hemlock)
  • State Flower: "Coast Rhododendron" (Rhododendron)
  • State Fish: "head trout" (rainbow trout)
  • State Folk Song:Woody GuthrieSang "Roll On, Columbia, Roll On"
  • State Rock Song: "Louis LouisInformal but publicly recognized[50]
  • State grass: "bluebunch wheatgrass"
  • State Insects: "Green Darner Dragonfly"
  • State Jewels: Petrified Wood
  • State Fossil: Columbian Mammoth
  • State Marine Animals:Orca
  • State Terrestrial Animals: Olympic Marmots
  • The state emblem is also drawn on the state flag,Gilbert StuartTaken from an unfinished portrait of George Washington by[51]

Sister municipalities and affiliated municipalities with foreign cities

Japan

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Lange, Greg (2003-01-23), Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s., Historylink.org, http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=5100 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  2. ^ City of Longview History, City of Longview, WA, http://www.mylongview.com/community/longview_history.html 2009th of February 6Browse. 
  3. ^ “Settlers met at Cowlitz Landing and discussed the establishment of a new territory north of the Columbia River”, Washington History-Territorial Timeline (Washington Secretary of State), http://www.sos.wa.gov/history/Timeline/detail.aspx?id=205 2010th of February 2Browse. 
  4. ^ Lange, Greg (2003-02-15), Washington is admitted as the 42nd state to the United States of America on November 11, 1889., Historylink.org, http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?displaypage=output.cfm&file_id=5210 2010th of February 11Browse. 
  5. ^ Mount St. Helens: Senator Murray Speaks on the 25th Anniversary of the May 18, 1980 Eruption, Senate.gov, http://murray.senate.gov/news.cfm?id=237728 2010th of February 1Browse. 
  6. ^ Washington State Constitution Archived August 2005, 12, at the Wayback Machine., Article XXIV Boundaries
  7. ^ Mapes, Lynda V. (February 3, 2010), “Hoh Rain Forest revels in wet,'wild ballet'”, The Seattle Times, オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20100204160228/http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2010963527_rain03m.html 2010th of February 2Browse. 
  8. ^ CVO Website --Mount Rainier Volcano, Vulcan.wr.usgs.gov, http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Rainier/description_rainier.html 2010th of February 11Browse. 
  9. ^ Elevations and Distances in the United States, US Geological Survey, (29 April 2005), http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest 2006th of February 11Browse. 
  10. ^ Washington State's Glaciers are Melting, and That Has Scientists Concerned Archived August 2008, 7, at the Wayback Machine. --Blumenthal, Les. (August 29, 2006). McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved on September 13, 2009 from Commondreams.org
  11. ^ St. George, Peter, Fort Worden: Rebirth Through Decay, SaintImages, http://www.fortwordenbook.com 2011th of February 8Browse. 
  12. ^ "Dust Storm in Eastern Washington: Image of the Day”. Earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 2009th of February 10Browse.
  13. ^ Kruckeberg, Arthur R. (1991), The Natural History of Puget Sound Country, University of Washington Press, pp. 42-43, ISBN 0-295-97477-X 
  14. ^ HistoryLink.org-the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, www.historylink.org, http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=3681 2009th of February 1Browse. 
  15. ^ http://ggweather.com/climate/extremes_us.htm
  16. ^ Climate Change --Economic Impacts, Ecy.wa.gov, http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/economic_impacts.htm 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  17. ^ Western Regional Climate Data Center, Marietta, Wrcc.dri.edu, http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?wa5028 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  18. ^ Western Regional Climate Data Center, Longview, Wrcc.dri.edu, http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/cgi-bin/cliMAIN.pl?wa4769 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  19. ^ Washington QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, Quickfacts.census.gov, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/53000.html 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  20. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2001, US Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt 2007th of February 6Browse. 
  21. ^ Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 --United States --Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico 2010 Census National Summary File of Redistricting Data, US Census Bureau, http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_NSRD_GCTPL2.US24PR&prodType=table 
  22. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?fpt=table
  23. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau, 2006? 2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, Factfinder.census.gov, http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_DP3YR2&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-tree_id=3308&-redoLog=false&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US53&-format=&-_lang=en 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  24. ^ Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, Religions.pewforum.org, http://religions.pewforum.org/maps 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  25. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports, Thearda.com, http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/53_2000.asp 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  26. ^ Religion and Public Life in the Pacific Northwest: The None Zone, AltaMira Press, ISBN 978-0759106253 
  27. ^ Official April 1, 2011 Washington State Population Estimate Office of Finanical Management, Ofm.wa.gov, http://www.ofm.wa.gov/pop/april1/default.asp 2011th of February 7Browse. 
  28. ^ November 1994 General, Secstate.wa.gov, http://www.secstate.wa.gov/elections/results_report.aspx?e=15&c=&c2=&t=&t2=1&p=&p2=&y= 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  29. ^ November 1996 General, Secstate.wa.gov, http://www.secstate.wa.gov/elections/results_report.aspx?e=17&c=&c2=&t=&t2=1&p=&p2=&y= 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  30. ^ November 1998 General, Secstate.wa.gov, http://www.secstate.wa.gov/elections/results_report.aspx?e=10&c=&c2=&t=&t2=1&p=&p2=&y= 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  31. ^ BEA: Gross Domestic Product by State, Bea.gov, (2009-06-02), http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_state/gsp_newsrelease.htm 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  32. ^ Top 20 Most Admired Companies, Fortune Magazine, http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/fortune/0703/gallery.mostadmired_top20.fortune/index.html 2007th of February 6Browse. 
  33. ^ [1] --Forbes (February 11, 2011). Retrieved 9-13-2009.
  34. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2011, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014th of February 4Browse. Seattle Times September 22, 2006 "No news here ... Gates still richest"
  35. ^ Bls.gov; Local Area Unemployment Statistics
  36. ^ “Local Sales and Use Tax Rates by City / County”, Washington State Department of Revenue, http://dor.wa.gov/Docs/forms/ExcsTx/LocSalUseTx/LocalSlsUseFlyer_10_Q2_alpha.pdf 2010th of February 3Browse. 
  37. ^ Washington State Office of Financial Management and the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington Field Office.
  38. ^ Schotzko, Thomas R .; Granatstein, David (2005), A Brief Look at the Washington Apple Industry: Past and Present, Pullman, WA: Washington State University, p. 1, http://www.agribusiness-mgmt.wsu.edu/agbusresearch/docs/SES04-05_BRIEF_LOOK_WAFTA.pdf 2008th of February 5Browse. 
  39. ^ Lemons, Hoyt; Rayburn, D. Tousley (July 1945), “The Washington Apple Industry. I. Its Geographic Basis”, Economic Geography (Clark University) 21 (3): 161-162, 166, two:10.2307/141294 
  40. ^ S. Spacek, 2011 American State Litter Scorecard: New Rankings for an Environmentally Concerned Populous.
  41. ^ ( WSFLargest_foliov3_May06.indd, オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2008, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20080414020110/http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/ferries/pdf/WSFLargest.pdf 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  42. ^ staff (2007-06-25), Toxics Persist in Washington Rivers, Lakes and Fish, Ens-newswire.com, http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2007/2007-06-25-01.asp 2010th of February 7Browse. 
  43. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2013, 11オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014th of February 4Browse.
  44. ^ Washington State Report Card --Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved 10-6-2009.
  45. ^ Districts and Schools --Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved 10-6-2009.
  46. ^ About Us --Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Retrieved 10-6-2009.
  47. ^ Jollata, Pat, "Naming Clark County". Vancouver Historical Society. Vancouver, Washington. 1993. p.17
  48. ^ State Symbols
  49. ^ Senate passes measure designating Walla Walla onion state veggie. Komo 4 Television. April 5, 2007. Retrieved on April 5, 2007.
  50. ^ WSDOT --Highway Map --Washington State Facts, Wsdot.wa.gov, (2009-06-01), http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/highwaymap/other.htm 2010th of February 11Browse. 
  51. ^ History of the State Seal.Washington Secretary of State. Retrieved on April 5, 2007
  52. ^ "Hyogo Prefecture Sisters and Friendship Alliance"
  53. ^ "Memorandum of Understanding on Friendship Exchange and Mutual Cooperation"

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