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Wikipedia related words
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In a broad sense米 国 OfRecreational vehicle (RV), In a narrow sense米 国Large self-propelledMotorhome(Motor home). AlsoEuropeThen.GermanTow typeCaravanAnd caravan, self-propelledCaravanIs called.AustraliaIt is often called Camper. These are all called campers in Japan.FrenchThen.MotorhomeIndicates a self-propelled camper.
Usage and standards in each country
The United States of AmericaThen, in a campsite that has been maintained for a long time, a form of leisure called "destination camping" where people spend their vacations by staying in a trailer house or a camper van has developed..
Camper as a type of special-purpose vehicle
Under the Japanese Road Transport Vehicle Law,Special carIf it meets the usage purpose 3-4, “Vehicles with special equipment for camping or advertising activities” (defined here as camping vehicles)Special purpose vehicleIt is divided into, so-called 8 number registration is possible. Whether "special equipment" is required depends on the user's judgment.
In Japan, as one of the categories of vehicles that can travel on public roads, in the Road Transport Vehicle Law, a vehicle category called "camper" is defined in the category of special purpose vehicles. This is because a vehicle in one category can handle various legal conditions such as taxes separately from other categories.
A camper was defined as one type of special-purpose vehicle: "It is a vehicle that is not used frequently by the owner on a daily basis but is additionally owned by a person who owns a regular vehicle and pays taxes. It was because of the tax exemption point of view that the tax system is different from that of passenger cars and commercial vehicles that are used daily. However, when the RV (equivalent to modern SUVs/minivans/station wagons) in the 1980s became popular, it was generally known that even vehicles for daily use could be registered as “campers”, which led to sales promotion of RVs. The number of vehicles that do not fall under “special purpose motorhome campers” has increased. Many were simply for the purpose of reducing tax burden. For this reason, the revised law was enforced in 2003, stricter structural requirements were established, and the tax system for each displacement was changed, so the merit of tax reduction has disappeared and the previous situation is resolved. Has been done.
- Structural requirements
- Under the Road Transport Vehicle Act, "structural requirements" for vehicles are specified. Specific structural requirements are also defined for "campers for special-purpose vehicles".
- I need a bed. A flat bunk area for at least one-third of the passenger capacity is required. Do not use the sleeper while driving. Therefore, do not use it as a sleeper car. However, it may be movable, and in most cases, it is in a seat state.
- Cooking facilities are required. At least "boil water" is required. It is necessary to have a sink, a cooking space, and a space where a person who cooks can stand there (indoor height of 160 cm or more). This point has been rigorously redefined when the structural requirements were revised, and concrete dimensions are required. Heat source (Electrical(Gas) and water supply facilities (fresh water (= white tank) and sewage (= gray tank) storage equipment and its supply equipment) are required.
- Rights and obligations
- Each vehicle has legal rights and obligations depending on the category acquired. Since this occurs for each category, the camper van for sleeping as described above (substantially the camper van) has legal rights and obligations depending on the vehicle category acquired by each. If the vehicle is a "camper for special-purpose vehicles", it is classified accordingly, and if not, it is classified accordingly.
- Although the vehicle has acquired the so-called "8 number" by acquiring "Camper for special purpose vehicle", it does not meet the above structural requirements, that is, even though the structural requirements were complete at the time of acquisition. At this point, if the bed is in a state where it cannot be used or it is not possible to boil water, it may be detected as illegal. Vehicles whose overall length, width, height, and total vehicle weight have changed significantly after the application for remodeling have to undergo structural modification inspection. It is necessary to change the description for minor changes.
- Similarly,Non-life insuranceAccording to the contract with the company, if an accident occurs when a vehicle with 8 number does not meet the structural requirements for 8 number, the condition is different from the content at the time of application, so regardless of the 8 numberCar insuranceIt is possible that there will be problems with the payment of money.
Campers that are not "special purpose motorhomes"
In the case of a camper that is not a “special purpose motor vehicle” (for example, 1 number, 3 number, 4 number, 5 number, etc.), under the Road Transport Vehicle Act, the above structural requirements of “special purpose motor vehicle” are required. You don't carry it, and whether you have equipment or not is not related to whether you can drive on public roads.
Light carThe sales of finished vehicles with camping specifications have also increased, and vehicles that provide users with camping use and long-term trips while not taking the 8 number and taking advantage of tax and acquisition requirements, etc. Sold legally.
In the same way, the benefit of the automobile tax on the 8th number has been changed so that it will be other categories (1, 3, 4, 5 number) even if you choose a vehicle that you can enjoy camping and traveling on your own. Registration at is also increasing. Whether or not such a camper vehicle is legally legal is a comparison with the structural requirements of the acquired category, not the structural requirements of a "special purpose motor vehicle".
Classification by body type
The following is an example of divisions in the bodywork form. In specialized magazines, the "version" of "conversion" is sometimes deleted and called "full conversion" or "van conversion".
- Full conversion
- It is mounted on a dedicated chassis. It is sometimes called a full converter, but it is not a conversion because it is made by itself, including the chassis, and it is not a completed car of another company. It is called RV in the United States and is equivalent to Class A. In GermanyVollintegriertes WohnmobilEquivalent Some are over 7 meters long.
- Cab conversion
- It is mounted on a chassis with a cab. In generalTrackMany are modified. Nowadays, many are made by cutting the body behind the B pillar of a one-box car. Known as Cabcon. Equivalent to Class C in the United States. There is a bank in Germany due to bodyworkalcoveAnd no bankTeilintegriertes WohnmobilEquivalent to.
- in Japan,Toyota cam road(Dyna / Toyoacebase)AndIsuzu/Bekamu(Elfbase)Like, there are some that give the cabcon base frame a different car name from the commercial car.
- Due to the large total weight of the vehicle, some of this type (such as 2t vehicle base) are classified as semi-medium sized vehicles. If you have a regular car license in Japan after March 2017, you cannot drive.
- Ban conversion
- Also called a camper van,One box carThe interior, roof, etc. are processed and mounted. There are many passengers with 10 or less passengers who can drive with an ordinary license. It is commonly called Bancon. Equivalent to Class B in the United States. In Germanyvan.
- Bus conversion
- MicrobusSuch asbusMounted on. Bascon. It is said that the window is large and the heat insulation is low. In GermanyWohnbusse.
- Most of the vehicles are classified as ordinary vehicles, but some have a large total vehicle weight, and such vehicles are classified as semi-medium vehicles.
- Light car camper
- Light carCamper based on. recent years[When?]It is attracting attention in the camper boom and leisure of baby boomers. The reason why it is popular is that it matches the usage style in Japan, such as the low price of the base vehicle, low maintenance cost, easy handling, any parking lot, and it can be used by two couples. Within this genre, it is divided into full conversion, cab conversion, van conversion, and truck campers for light trucks. A small number of lightly registered travel trailers are also produced in Japan, but there are a few.
The equipment installed is as follows.
- There may or may not be a private room, and even in the case of a private room, there are many that double as a toilet and shower room due to space efficiency. It is equipped with a simple flushing function and a black tank that collects dirt. There are portable type and stationary type. There is also a type in which a vinyl sheet is simply pulled into a container and after use, a coagulant, a fragrance, sawdust, etc. are added to the container for disposal. Disposal of filth is complicated, but it is a useful facility for camping in places without toilets.
- There are no shower rooms and cold or hot showers are often provided in the same room as the toilet. There are also many types where you can use the shower outside the car by extending the shower faucet from the kitchen. However, the shower uses a large amount of water and requires a large fresh water tank. A hot water shower requires a gas combustion type, an electric type, or a boiler that exchanges heat with engine cooling water and a hot water tank, so many users do not install this.
- shower room
- Equipment that combines a washbasin, a toilet, and a shower room, which are equipped in large vehicles.
- Air conditioning equipment
- engineThe vehicle with is operated by heating with engine cooling water and engine while runningAir conditionAir conditioning by is the mainstream. When the running engine is stopped or in a trailer that does not have an engine, FF heaters that do not pollute indoor air by burning kerosene or gasoline are the mainstream heating. About coolingGeneratorOr from the campsiteCommercial power supplySome use room air conditioners. Recently, a large number of batteries and inverters are increasing that enable room air conditioners to be used for several hours. FF type is generally used for heating, and there are a forced circulation type that rotates a fan with a generator and a battery, and a natural convection type that does not use electricity.
- Galley (sink）
- There are two types, one with a square shape, the other with a hemisphere. Water can be supplied from a fresh water tank by an electric pump, and drainage is stored in a dedicated tank. When equipped in a compact car model, there are some that can be pulled out under the seat or can be used outside the car.Special purpose vehicle (8 number)Is one of the essential equipment in the structural requirements, but after 2003, other essential requirements must be met,8 number acquisition is not possible.
- WorldwideLPGIt is common to use the cylinder of the above, but in Japan, the number is decreasing due to the stricter handling of LPG equipment by regulations. Currently used are those that are widely distributed and have a structure that can set a plurality of disposable cassette gases, and general-purpose cassette gas stoves. The stoveSpecial purpose vehicle (8 number)This is an essential equipment for structural requirements.
- Gas, battery, AC100V 3 sources3way refrigeratorCall. Ammonia enclosed in the tank is heated by electricity or gas, and the inside temperature is cooled by utilizing the temperature drop (vaporization heat) when it vaporizes. The ammonia after vaporization is liquefied by cooling and returns to the tank. Since the structure is complicated and an intake port and an exhaust port for gas combustion are required in the vehicle body, the same compressor-type refrigerators as those for home use have become mainstream these days.
- Dining table
- The bed is often used as a dining room, but some large vehicles have their own space and table.
- tv set,video,DVD player
- Since the radio wave condition may be poor in the mountains or while traveling, video is often installed. Once a cathode ray tubeTele videoWas the mainstream, but recentlyFlat screen tv,DVD playerIs the mainstream.
- Charging system
- Apart from the one in the engine roomSub batteryThere are many things that are equipped (If you use the same thing, if you want to enjoy camping and withdraw or return home, you will be worried that the engine will not start due to battery exhaustion), your vehicle when the engine is runningAlternator, A generator, an external power supply (land, shore power), etc., and a switch that switches inputs from many, and many have control of charging multiple batteries (). There are also solar panels and wind-powered ones. It should be noted that the amount of power generated from the alternator is small in an idling state even if the car is running on the engine.
- For coolers and microwave ovens that require large amounts of power, the battery drive is limited to a short time even with a large battery. There is no problem if an external AC power supply is equipped at the camp site, etc., but in many cases camping in places where external power cannot be taken uses a generator. In general, a small generator is loaded in the luggage compartment and is operated outside when it is used. However, there is a vehicle type that can generate electricity as it is by providing a small generator compartment. Recently, the use of generators is often restricted due to problems such as noise. The number of solar panels that can be recharged is increasing.
- Installed on the car body, avoid the suntentThen, deploy it manually or electrically. It has foldable legs that support the awning and is used by fixing it to the ground or the vehicle body.
- Cycle carrier
- Equipment for loading bicycles.
- Mainly used to keep the living space horizontal even when the vehicle is stopped in a tilted state (this application is also called "auto leveler"). It also plays the role of a cushion that prevents the body from shaking more than necessary when the vehicle is stopped. In the case of a large car body, the interior of the car can be expanded by pushing the side of the car body, or the ceiling part can be lifted to create a two-story space.
These equipments are sometimes called galleys for kitchens and dinets (dining) for living rooms, in the name of boats.
- Travel trailer
- As the name of the trailer, it is a towed type. This type has been common in Europe and the United States, and in Japan, there are many imports from Europe and the United States. It is widely used in Japan, but depending on the weight of the car bodyTowing licenseDemand is limited due to the need for vehicle inspections and vehicle inspections, and few Japanese manufacturers produce it. In Europe it is called Wohnwagen or Caravan Caravan. in JapanCamping trailerIs commonly used.
- Truck camper
- pick-up truck・Truck carrierPassenger carType that can be placed in the luggage compartment. Many of them have special legs that can be separated from the truck part when they undergo a vehicle inspection and are independent. Camping is possible but not called a camper. Mounted on the vehiclecargoSince it is handled, there is no need to change the vehicle number. Since the size of the cargo bed is limited, the internal space and equipment are smaller than those of other body-mounted vehicles, but some are large and have sufficient size and equipment.
- Pleasure boat (Pleasure craft), etc., it is not possible to make a direct comparison between outside Japan and within Japan, as the infrastructure and legal treatment differ depending on the country.
- ^ a b c "Market opening issue complaint handling promotion meeting 3rd report Smooth import of trailer houses and camper vans". Cabinet Office. 2018/7/4Browse.
- ^ "The latest 2019 model of the cabcon base car Toyota "Cam Road" is now available! [Japan Camper Show 2019]". JAF Mate Park Blog (September 2019, 2). 2019/10/22Browse.
- ^ "Isuzu "Bekamu" expects engine and new features of model change output UP". Asahi Shimbun Digital & M (September 2019, 5). 2019/10/22Browse.
- ^ "In return, camper/hometown tax payment, Soo City, Kagoshima Prefecture". Shikoku Shimbun (February 2017, 5). As of February 15, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2018/11/29Browse.
- ^ “The life and opinions of Japanese people who live in Lockdown Town in the United States that are too “real””. ITmedia(July 2020, 4) 2020/4/21Browse.
- Japanese license plate # classification number
- Special purpose vehicle
- Camping trailer - Trailer house
- Road Transport Vehicle Act