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🚗 | Unmanned aerial vehicle starts delivery of pizza Neuro funded by Toyota investment fund

Photo Delivery of pizza by Domino's unmanned self-driving car started by Domino's Pizza

Unmanned aerial vehicle begins delivery of pizza Neuro funded by Toyota investment fund

If you write the contents roughly
When R2 arrives, the user enters the PIN code on the R2's touch screen.

Domino's Pizza in the United States delivers pizza by unmanned self-driving car in Nuro on April 4, Hugh in the United States ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


Password(British: Password) Is generallySecret word(Aikotoba)Refers to, but especiallyComputerWhen using in relation, when using a specific function / authorityAuthenticationRefers to the character string (combination of characters, numbers, symbols, etc.) to be input to perform.If the combination of the user's name (user name) and password matches the one registered in advance, the computer or service can be used.


NormallyUser IDUsed as a pair with.When the password of the user ID registered in advance and the password entered by the operator match, the operator is recognized as the user of the user ID.

Of the password, a character string consisting only of numbersPIN(Pin,(PIN[1]).Financial institution OfTMJ,Mobile phone OfIdentificationUsed in.

Especially for passwords with long string lengths of several tens of characters or more.PassphraseIt is sometimes called and is used in systems that require high security.

On many systems, the characters that can be used in passwords areThe alphabet(Latin letters) 26 characters (uppercase letter-Lowercase52 characters if is distinguished),Arabic numerals10 characters,+(Plus sign),-(Minus sign),/(ス ラ ッ シ ュ),!(Exclamation point),"(double quotes),#(Number sign),|(Vertical bar),_(underscore) Although limited to symbols such asMultibyte characterCan also be used.

Password discovery

Password andCredit cardIt has often been the practice to discover passwords, as obtaining the number can provide various benefits by impersonating another person.

In theory, if you try all the strings in a brute force manner, it's easy to see that one day you'll be able to find the correct password, but it's a lot of work and isn't really done much.

Also, if you enter the wrong password multiple times, the system may refuse to enter it further (Financial institution OfAutomatic teller machineThen, if you enter the wrong PIN three times, the card can no longer be handled except at the manned window.The circuit is the electronic lock on the doorcrackingSome of them judge themselves and destroy themselves.Also,ア ッ プ ル OfiPhone,iPadThen, depending on the number of times you make a mistake, the unavailable time will change, or if you make a mistake 10 times, the deviceStorage mediumIs erased. ).

Passwords are made up of arbitrary strings, but they are rarely completely random and are often made up of easy-to-remember strings.Taking advantage of its propertiesdictionaryIncrease the efficiency of finding passwords by entering the words and names listed insoftwareThere is also.

In many cases, the PIN code of a cash card or mobile phone terminal is only 4 digits, and if you try it up to 0000 times from 9999 to 10000, you can find the PIN code, so if you forget the number, all the numbers There is software to try.

However, for PINs with a small number of digits, a limit (usually up to 3) is set for the number of times that can be entered at the time of collation.


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ British: personal identification number

Related item

外部 リンク

Touch panel

Touch panelIsLCD panellikeDisplay deviceとTouch padlikePosition input deviceIt is an electronic component that is a combination of, and operates the device by pressing the display on the screen.Input deviceIs. It is often built into equipment that requires intuitive handling.touch screen (British: Touch screen) AndTouch screen,Touch screenAlso called.


The touch panel has two functions of display and input,computersImage information received from outside such asLiquid crystal displayAnd the picture displayed on the screen by the operator.PictogramBy touching a point or region such as with a hand or applying pressure with a special pen called “stylus” or a general pen, the touched screen position information is sensed and output as an information signal to the outside. The external device performs an appropriate operation desired by the operator based on the position information on the screen.

The operator can intuitively understand the operation, such as pushing or sliding the portion displayed on the screen, and thus it is possible to create a device that is easy to handle.

A plate-shaped device that does not have a display function but only has a position input functionpointing device(Position input device) is distinguished from these touch panels and is touched with a fingertip.Touch padUse a dedicated pen that uses magnetic inductionpen tabletCalled.

Conventionally, only one point could be detected, but a touch panel that can detect multiple points, such as a multi-touch screen and touch FLO, has appeared, greatly improving the operability that was difficult compared to mouse and button operation. It is as easy to use as it is to win[1].

Used equipment

Touch panel,bankな どFinancial institution OfTMJ,vending machine(EspeciallyRailway station,RestaurantSuch asAutomatic ticket vending machine), such as those with a high degree of publicity handled by the general public,Tablet computer,Smartphone,Mobile information terminal(PDA),Digital audio player,handheld game console,Copy machine,fax,Car navigationIt is used in various fields such as digital information equipment.

Advantages and disadvantages

利 点

  • Since the input operation corresponds to the operation explanation on the screen, it is intuitive and easy to operate.
  • Since the input device and the display device are integrated, miniaturization of the entire device can be expected.
  • Touch pad,Pointing stickSoftware atkeyboardInput is faster than input.
  • Even if there is no physical button, various operability can be realized depending on the software.

Since this device can be operated by the user while watching the operation procedure on the screen, it is excellent in that the machine operation can be easily handled by anyone. By switching the screen display at any time, it can be used for various operation instructions on one screen, so it can be expected to downsize the entire device.[1].


  • The dirt may make it difficult to see the screen.
  • In a method that is not good at fine fingertip operations, unintended selection may be detected. If the judgment is made strict, there are some that cannot be detected unless it is pressed strongly. EspeciallytobaccoContained in the ashes and smokefatIf it becomes dirty with (or), the accuracy that can be detected will decrease.
  • Generally, I am not good at inputting as quickly and accurately as on a keyboard.
  • Unlike push buttons, there is no click feeling, so input operations may become awkward. For this reason,ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンFeedback will be devised such as visual effects and sound and vibration.
  • Physical buttons (Bump) Is a flat surface, so it relies on the sense of touchVisually impairedIs very difficult to use[1].
    • In particular,Railway stationIt becomes a problem with highly public devices such as vending machines and ATMs of the public. To eliminate this,BrailleIn addition to the guidance byHandset,speakerVoice instructions,Numeric keypadIt is indispensable to use it together with the physical button.
    • Barrier-freeFrom the standpoint of the above, ATM manufacturers can use push buttons for input and display a message to confirm whether the operation is correct on the screen so that incorrect operations are not immediately accepted. Is taking.
    • Do most of the operations on the touch paneliOS(iPod touch,iPad,iPhone), in the setting, voice instructions and specialgestureWith the combination of, you can operate without looking at the screen Voice Over Equipped with functions,Universal designHas been realized.
  • Differences in roles can cause confusion when used with pushbuttons.
  • variousSecurityThere are challenges. Left on the panelfingerprintHas been recoveredBiometricsHas been broken through,PIN(PIN) etc. may be estimated by fingerprint. For this reason, many devices have a dedicated numeric keypad.

・ People with disabilities with finger defects cannot operate the touch panel.

By operating principle

Matrix switch

Matrix switches are now an old method.BoardThere are switches with electrodes arranged like eyes, and when the operator presses a part of the surface, the upper and lower two layers of electrodes make contact to form an electric circuit, and position information of vertical and horizontal Is a mechanism for detecting.

This is simplified and shown below.

 Switches arranged on a plane like the eyes of a board
  3 4 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX A ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Unpressed switch B ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ● Pressed switch C ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ D ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ E ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX A ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ B ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ XNUMX Information that C of XNUMX was pressed is sent C ○ ○ ● ○ ○ D ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ E ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX A ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ B ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ XNUMX C sends information that E was pressed ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ D ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ E ○ ○ ○ ● ○

In the example, it is 5×5, but in reality it is much finer and arranged in a grid. The external device receiving the position signal from the touch panel performs an appropriate operation corresponding to the position information of each switch.

Structurally it consists of a transparent electrode with a two-layer structure.For example, horizontal strip electrodes up to A-E and vertical strip electrodes up to 2-1 face each other with a slight gap between them, and push from above. If the contact is made only when the current occurs, in the second part of the above figure, a current flows from 5 to C and an output of "2C" is generated, and in the third part of the figure, an output of "3E" is generated. this isElectronic notebookAlthough this method was used in early portable information devices such as, but this method is rarely used in newly manufactured devices, it is another new method that does not provide a gap regardless of physical contact.

The matrix switch uses a transparent material for the electrodes.
The matrix switch can only roughly detect the position information pressed by the operator within a certain size range, and there is a constraint that the screen layout to be displayed must be designed according to the matrix switch. .. For example in a bankTMJBecomes a dedicated device for each bank. Also carried by individualsPDAIt is difficult to use for devices that require fine operation accuracy, such as mobile phones and music players.

Resistive film method

The resistive film method has emerged as an alternative to matrix switches. The metal thin film that constitutes the transparent electrode isresistancehave. For one of the two opposing resistance filmsVoltageWhen applied, a voltage corresponding to the operated position is generated on the second sheet. By detecting the voltageanalogIt is possible to detect the location operated as a quantity.

The method has two drawbacks: the larger the area, the lower the accuracy, and the other one is that the transparency is poor because two metal thin films are required. The former can be avoided by applying a matrix switch structure to detect multiple areas independently, and the latter is due to the essential structure of the resistive film method, and there is no other countermeasure except devising the material. In addition, it does not have to be a finger to press because it works if pressure is applied.[1].

It is still widely used because of its extremely low cost for small-area equipment. It is used for operation panels of multi-function peripherals and low-cost liquid crystal devices.

Surface acoustic wave method

Surface acoustic waveThe method was developed to solve the drawback of the resistance film method, that is, the low transparency. In multiple corners of a substrate such as rigid glassPiezoelectric elementIs attached to generate a vibration wave. When you touch the plate, it becomes a fixed point, and the vibration wave is absorbed there and part of it bounces off. Bounce is detected by the generation of voltage on the piezoelectric element. It is possible to detect each contact time by measuring each reflection time.Ultrasonic methodAlso called.

It has better visibility than the resistive film type, is structurally robust, and has a long life. As with the resistive film method, what is pressed is not necessarily a finger, but there are some restrictions.[1].

It is used for large-screen devices because it requires very few active elements per area. It is also widely used for public terminals because it is robust.

Infrared method

mainlyInfraredLEDIs a light source, and the transmission type detects the position by blocking the infrared light, but the infrared light alone cannot detect the pressing of the switch. The reflective type requires a frame for arranging the infrared LED and its sensor with a thickness around the operation surface. It is not widely used because it has many restrictions such as it cannot be used outdoors or near sunlight.[1].. Some use a panel that integrates an optical sensor and liquid crystal, and detects shadows and reflected light from fingers and pens. Sharp'sMebiusToOptical sensor LCD padWas adopted by.

Electromagnetic induction method

The electromagnetic induction method requires a dedicated pen called an electronic pen. Originally, it was a position input method with a pen tablet that did not consider the screen display, but by arranging the sensor part under the liquid crystal screen, it was possible to realize it as a touch panel without sacrificing high reading accuracy. The largest electromagnetic induction typeWacomIs planning to develop and ship a product that has both the capacitance method and the electromagnetic induction method. With this combination product, you can operate with either a pen or your fingertips, and you can detect pen pressure and side switches using an electronic pen. With this method, it is possible to use a high-definition electromagnetic induction pen on an electrostatic touch that cannot normally be input with a pen without sacrificing the visibility of the electrostatic touch.[1].

Capacitance method

There are two types of capacitive touch panels, the surface type and the projection type. In both cases, the position is detected by capturing the change in capacitance between the fingertip and the conductive film. It is possible to express and operate by displaying the cursor before touching by taking advantage of the property that electrostatic coupling occurs when the finger approaches the surface of the sensor. It does not react unless it is pressed with an electrostatically conductive object, but it reacts with the resistive film typeclaw,Touch penSince it is impossible to operate, a touch pen compatible with electrostatic type is required. In addition to malfunctions caused by water drops, it does not react in water, so if this method is used for a waterproof mobile phone, it may be inconvenient to operate around water (volume button in water, shooting It becomes impossible to use other than physical buttons such as buttons).

Surface type
10型Often used in the above products. It consists of three layers, a cover, a conductive film, and a glass substrate. The conductive film is stuck on the glass substrate, and electrodes are provided at the four corners of the glass substrate. A uniform electric field is formed by the conductive film. When a finger touches the screen, a weak current from the drive circuit passes through the corner terminals, the conductive film, and the cover, and forms a closed circuit between the drive circuit and the surrounding environment including the ground via the finger. The position of the finger can be determined by measuring the ratio of the current amounts of the terminals at the four corners on the drive circuit side. The mechanism is simple, inexpensive to make, and relatively large.
Projection type
The projection-type capacitance method can detect multiple points on the fingertip. In general, the projection typeInsulatorthe filmAnd the electrode layer below it, andcontrolICComposed of a substrate layer on which is mounted. Under the insulation filmelectrodeIn layersITOA large number of horizontal and vertical layers with transparent electrodes such asモ ザ イ クElectrode patternガ ラ ス,PlasticEtc. are placed on the substrate. When touched by a finger, the position can be accurately determined by knowing the change in the electrostatic capacitance of the electrode in the vicinity thereof from the two vertical and horizontal electrode rows. A large number of electrode rows running in the vertical and horizontal directions enable multipoint detection, but the number of terminals is large and the manufacturing cost is high. The wiring made of ITO is too high in resistance, so it is not suitable for a large screen. In a large-sized touch panel, the wiring from the detection electrode has a small resistance due to another metal wiring layer. An IC for position detection is required, and the manufacturing cost including a large number of wirings connecting them tends to be high, but it is the most practical because it can detect multiple points,Tablet typeMostly used in mobile terminals[1][2].

Technology/price trends

About 2021% of touch panels in portable information devices as of 90 are of the resistive film type, and the rest are mainly of the capacitive type. The resistance film method is a 3-inch size used for mobile phones and is inexpensive at around US$2. The projected capacitive type is the same size and costs about US$5 if it is cheap, and the cost is disappearing as a major obstacle. Since the electrostatic capacitance method can detect multiple points, it can give complicated instructions such as "gesture" to some extent, and can be differentiated from the conventional model that only detects one point. Conventionally, the immediate response to an input is to respond to the user by changing the screen display at any time or by making a sound, but recently, when the screen is operated with a finger or the like, a switch is pressed. A technology called "tactile feedback" that gives such a feeling of operation is beginning to be incorporated into products. Furthermore, research is also being conducted to convey the texture of objects.

The touch sensor and LCD panel are separate components, but LCD panel manufacturers are working on developing products that incorporate both functions in one. If it can be made as thin as one LCD panel with a touch sensor, it will be a big differentiator for mobile devices.

There is a problem that the part pressed with a finger becomes difficult to see when operated on a touch panel, but "rear surface operation technology" is being researched in which the entire panel is held by hand and operated on the back side of the panel. With a touch sensor on the back of the panel, you can operate without touching the screen by operating while checking the position of your back finger displayed on the front side.[1].

Industry trends

In terms of the global share of touch panels, Japan and Taiwan are competing for the top in the world market, but the Taiwanese manufacturer, which preceded by the capacitive method, is taking the initiative. Taiwan TPK is the largest manufacturer in the industry by manufacturer, and since the introduction of the capacitive type iPhone in 2007, the mounting of touch panels on mobile phones has become a trend. The touch panel market is expected to expand in the future, as the digital home appliance market has received a great deal of attention, such as the release of products equipped with touch panels for cameras. In the field of mobile phones, which is leading the market, the capacitance method is becoming the mainstream. According to Fuji Chimera Research Institute's forecast, in 2009, the capacitance method will overtake the resistive film method at the rate of being used in mobile phones, but the supply has not kept up with the demand, and at present, The price seems to have stopped lowering. TPK (including Cando Co., Ltd.) in Taiwan has strengths in the electrostatic capacity method, and the size that can be supported is from 1 inch to 42 inches. In addition, our strength is direct bonding between touch panel and liquid crystal panel, which is the best in the industry. With the track record of shipping, the trend of the industry is changing drastically in the past with the pasting method of the liquid crystal and the touch panel to meet the demand of direct bonding.



Usage example

For example,Home theaterTouch panel type to operate the setLearning remotein the case of,

  1. On the lighting control screen, close the electric curtain to dim the lights.
  2. Bring up the projector remote control screen and touch the power button
  3. Bring up the surround speaker screen to adjust power and volume
  4. After switching to the DVD player remote control screen, press the tray open/close button to set the DVD.
  5. Then press the play button

And so on.

Bank ATM
Machines can be used as substitutes for various financial institution operations such as withdrawing, depositing, paying, transferring, remittance (transfer) of deposits (money), so that you can operate without hesitation even with many types of operations. All of these operations can be performed on the same screen by consolidating the functions above.
Vending machine (Vending machine)
Vending machine, trainticketIn the case of the ticket vending machine, various combinations occur depending on the destination, train used and age (adult/child). In the past, the type of button that was lined up for each fare was used, but this caused confusion because there were too many buttons on long service lines. For models that use a touch panel, you can select the purchase method such as selecting the destination station name, and also have the function to switch the display language for travelers from overseas. It has also become possible to sell ticket types such as reserved seat tickets and commuter tickets that were previously only available at the counter.Airline ticketThis automatic check-in machine can be said to be this companion.
Mobile phone-Smartphone
In 1993IBMAdopted a touch panel over the entire surface without buttonsIBM SimonHas been released. The model with the first touch panel in the history of mobile phones in Japanpioneer 1996ToDigital phone(For those days)DP-211(Cover of brochure at the time of release). It was an innovative terminal at the time that most of the operations were performed on the touch panel. In order to have a wide display function in smartphones, a touch panel that can integrate the operation parts on the screen has been adopted. Released in June 2007iPhoneFor smartphones released since then, most of the operations have been integrated into a multi-touch touch panel, and the number of physical buttons is minimized. Even terminals that are not smartphonesF-01A,F-03AThere is a touch panel that shares some functions.
Mobile information terminal (PDA-UMPC) AndDigital audio player
These devices sacrifice various things for miniaturization. In particular, if the size of the input portion is too small, the input button becomes small and it is difficult to operate with a finger. For this reason, many things are premised on operation with a touch pen rather than a finger. Furthermore, if the screen is small, it becomes difficult to perform input operations. For this reason, it is common today to leave some function keys such as the power button, eliminate the keyboard and pointing device, and combine the display part and the operation part in one place.
handheld game console
Traditionally, input devices consisting of arrow keys and several push buttons were common. However, since it became possible to make the touch panel function inexpensively and hard to break, in 1997game.comStarting with the one adopted inNintendo DS,GP2X It was also installed on portable game consoles such as the F-200. On December 2011, 12, touch panels were installed on both the front and back of the screen.PlayStation VitaWas released.
Electronic dictionary
It is sold by Casio, Sharp, SII, etc.
Copier,facsimile,Printer/FAX/Scanner multifunction machine
This deviceMultifunctionalVarious functions were incorporated in the process of, but the functions that can be used at the same time are limited. Conversely, the functions can be adjusted according to the manuscript, or someHierarchyThe mainstream models are those that can be set step by step while following the operation procedure on the touch panel. But for home useCheap editionIt is not often used for things such as copiers and facsimiles that have only simple functions.
car navigation
You can operate the route setting and facility name search while stopped. For safety reasons, many things cannot be operated while driving. In some modelsリ モ コ ン,voice recognitionIt is also possible to use a combination ofCar AudioSome include the function of.
Multimedia station
convenience storeMulti-function terminal installed in.Loppi,Fami portSuch. Something similarDigital cameraThere is a coin-type photo printer that appeared with the spread of. Once in TokyoSeven-Eleven"Seven Navi" installed inFujifilmIt is the same type as the old model "Princhao".
arcade game
Horse racing games, bingo games, etc.Medal gameHas been used for a long time in some models of2002Since then, the number of works introduced has increased rapidly, centered on models with network competition functions.
Since ancient times博物馆,Department storeIn public facilities such as, the guide plates were installed in various places, but the larger the facility, the larger the map, and the more detailed and difficult to understand. For this reason, a computer monitor and touch panel are combined, items are selected according to purpose, routes to predetermined floors and corners are displayed, and further information on exhibits, products and facilities, services and the latest information are provided to users. Things that can be done are beginning to be used.
Hello WorkJob search system
A system has been introduced in which a user receives a usage card at the reception desk and inputs conditions such as full-time employees, age, job category, work location, etc. using a touch panel operation on a designated PC terminal, and searches for job information.

And many more.

Failure example

Voting machine in the US
2004 US presidential electionThen, in some areas, a touch panel that touches the candidate photo on the screen was introduced in the voting method, but the voting device did not react to some people, and voting could not be done as desired (depending on the person) For 15 minutes or more, I had a trial and error with the person in charge) and there is a confusion.
Inside the aircraft
In an in-flight entertainment system for aircraft passengers, if a display with a touch sensor is installed in the back of the front seat in the economy seat, the seat of the front passenger is shaken each time the operation is performed, and the comfort is greatly impaired.[1].
Choose a person
The touch panel responds in almost the same way even when it is operated with various objects such as the head of a person's nose or the paws on the backs of the feet of cats and dogs. However, some objects that use some special mechanism that does not utilize physical contact may have difficulty reacting due to constitution such as dry skin, and there are many troubles related to this. Operate without touching the image floating in the airFloating touch displayIs under development[3].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sadaru Nezu, Phil Keys, "The Input Revolution Caused by Touch" "Nikkei Electronics," p.44-p63, Nikkei BP, June 2008, 6
  2. ^ "Why is iPhone capable of multi-touch?" -IT Monoist posted on May 2009, 5 (viewed January 13, 2011)
  3. ^ Operate images floating in the air with your fingers NICT "3 years later, life-size images of humans"

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