Toyota "2000GT" is 1 million yen! Famous Japanese cars that are shining brighter
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The next car is the famous Subaru 360, which can be said to have created the opportunity for the words "motorization" and "my car" to be born in Japan.
I hear that the price of used cars is rising recently, but it seems that the value of domestic heritage cars is still high.Festival of famous cars ... → Continue reading
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Adopting an ultra-lightweight structure that applies aircraft technology, many innovative ideas have been introduced to ensure the required comfort in a limited space.As a result, it was the first mass-produced mini vehicle in history to accommodate four adults and achieved driving performance that exceeded the standards of the time.
It is relatively inexpensive, has sufficient practicality, and was widely welcomed by the general public in Japan in the 1960s.motorizationIt played a part in the promotion.Therefore, Japan's first "national car (Popular car)"It is believed that.at the same time"Private carWas born and established, and is evaluated as a "famous car" that is indispensable for talking about not only the history of Japanese automobiles but also the history of postwar Japan.
Even after the end of production, it symbolizes the 1960sNostalgiaAs a target of, it is highly popular and well-known among the general public in Japan.The fact that there are many middle-aged and older people who say that this model was their first private car is also one of the factors that strengthen this tendency.Almost 50 years have passed since the end of production, but there are not a few dynamic cars centered on the late model, and clubs for enthusiasts have also been formed, and you can still rarely see them running on the road.
Light car before Subaru
In the mid-360s, before the launch of the Subaru 1950, domestic passenger cars in Japan were sold by several major manufacturers.However, the price was about 1000 million yen even for a small 100cc class, which was unrelated to most ordinary people whose monthly income was only a few thousand yen.The standard for light vehicles is1949から存在したが全幅は1.00mに制限されており、この数値は2輪車のバーハンドルよりも若干幅の広い3輪貨物車の荷台が辛うじて成立するレベルで、もっぱら2輪車や3輪トラックを製造することを念頭に置いた規格であった。1950年には全幅1.30mに拡大されたが、エンジン排気量の制限があり、少なくとも1954年の規格改定時点までは本格的な4輪自動車を成立させるのは難しく、これに準拠して4輪の乗用車を製造する大手メーカーはほとんどなかった。
The first four-wheeled mini car in historyPassenger carIt is,1952It is believed to be a 250cc car "auto sandals" manufactured in..A small manufacturer in NagoyaNakano Automobile IndustryHowever, it was manufactured by hand using Mitsubishi's general-purpose single-cylinder engine, and has a rear engine for two people.Friction driveIt was a car.It is not a performance that can withstand normal practical use1954It is said that about 200 units were manufactured by then, and then a front-wheel drive model was developed, but production was discontinued without mass production, but there is almost no data left for Nakano Motor because it is a micro-enterprise. Details are unknown.
after that1957By that time, several manufacturers had developed four-wheeled mini passenger cars. "NJ (later"Nikkei Taro』)" (Japan Automobile Manufacturers 1953-1957), "" (1957), etc. were all poorly built by micro-enterprise companies with little technical backing, and did not last long.
yuanNissan MotorEmployee and ambitious car technicianRyuichi TomiyaIs an automobile body manufacturer under the umbrella of a major textile manufacturerSumie SeisakushoSo, an ultra-lightweight 4-wheel mini vehicle "Flying featherWas developed (1954-1955).Rear engineV2 cylinder350cc, 2 seats. 4 wheelsIndependent suspensionRegardless of the adoption of, the delicate appearance was poor in commerciality, and there were many aspects with insufficient performance such as no front wheel brakes.Only a few dozen units were put on the market and the production was discontinued.
Tomiya made one rear wheel in 1956FRPMade fullMonocoque125cc 2 seats of the car body "Fuji Cabin"Fuji carAlthough it was developed in, this is also a failure work with insufficient power and poor steering stability, and only 85 units have been made.
It was the one who achieved relatively decent resultsAutomatic loomSuzuki Motor Co., Ltd. (currently), which had entered the two-wheeled vehicle industry from a manufacturerJapanese sea bass)so,1955Front-wheel drive 360cc car "Suzuki SuzuliteWas developed.This is realWest Germany-BorgwardMinicar, "Lloyd LP400 (lloyd The design was similar to the LP400) ”reduced to the mini vehicle standard, and the appearance was very similar.Passenger carLight van-pick-up truckThere are three types, and the passenger car type was nominally able to accommodate four adults, but in reality the rear seats were as large as children.The weight of the car was as heavy as 3 kg, and the acceleration was slow..Passenger car-PickupSales are sluggish,1957Is a three-seater with a foldable rear seatLight vanOnly specifications are available.This light van specification "Suzulight" has not been very successful commercially, and it is the improved "Suzulight" that Suzuki's mini vehicle production will get on track.Suzulight FronteMoved to1962It was after that.
Fuji Heavy Industries
The predecessor of Fuji Heavy Industries, formerlyNakajima airplaneFuji Sangyo, the predecessor ofGunmaOta CityDonryuu Factory andTokyoAt the Mitaka factory below, the scooter "RabbitWas produced and had a good track record.Also, in Gunma prefecture1947We have achieved good results in the production of lightweight bus bodies.1949Following an American-made bus,フ レ ー ムresponseMonocoqueStructure (stressed skin structure)Rear enginebusIs being developed for the first time in Japan.All of them were successful because they had the foundation for engine technology and metal monocoque structural design as an aircraft manufacturer.
after that,1950Fuji Sangyo was spun off into a total of 12 companies due to the dismantling of the conglomerate according to the GHQ directive, and the Ota Donryuu and Mitaka factoriesFuji IndustriesIn addition, the Isesaki factoryFuji Motor Co., Ltd.Will be reorganized into.
Of these 12 companies, five companies, Tokyo Fuji Industries, Fuji Industries, Fuji Motor Industries, Omiya Fuji Industries, and Utsunomiya Vehicles, jointly invested to establish "Fuji Heavy Industries" in 5, and the five companies that invested later in 1953. It was integrated in the form of being absorbed and merged with Fuji Heavy Industries.
Prior to the development of the Subaru 360, Fuji Motor Co., Ltd. has been working on the development of ordinary passenger cars since 1952, and even made a trial production of the advanced 1500cc 4-door sedan "Subaru 1500" equipped with a monocoque structure, but in terms of profitability and market. Due to concerns about competitiveness, the commercialization plan was abandoned in 1955 after the establishment of Fuji Heavy Industries, and development has been stalled.Subaru 1500See section).However, the development of the Subaru 1500 was a great design study for the technical team, and it was also a great reference for the later development of the Subaru 360.
In December 1955, Fuji Heavy Industries decided to abandon the commercialization of the Subaru 12, but on the same day, the production line for the 1500cc scooter engine that was being produced at Mitaka Seisakusho at that time was diverted to the 250cc mini vehicle engine. And based on this, it has also decided to start developing a 356-seater mini vehicle for adults.This was at that timeMinistry of International Trade and IndustryPlanned by "National car conceptIt is a car that surpasses.
Light passenger car development
1955At that time, the quality and performance of Japanese-made automobiles were significantly lower than those of advanced automobile countries in Europe and the United States.
1954In December"New Road Traffic Control LawIs enforced, and the dimensions of total length x total width x total height (mm) = 3,000 x 1,300 x 2,000 remain unchanged.2-stroke engine,4-stroke engineBoth have a unified displacement of 360cc[Annotation 1].
As mentioned above, the first full-scale light four-wheeled passenger car on the market with a certain degree of perfection against the backdrop of large capital strength in line with this new standard.1955Released in NovemberSuzuki Motor Industryof"Suzulight SFHowever, the light passenger car market at that time was not yet established, and even the Suzulight was initially produced in small quantities at the level of monthly sales of several units.
In addition, some of the light passenger cars on the market or prototypes are inexperienced products by small and medium-sized micro-manufacturers with poor technical capabilities, or even those that are in the hands of existing machine makers with a certain scale, innovate in the technical approach. Many products were lacking.Almost all passenger car types were two-seater cars that were easy to develop, and their maximum speed remained at a low level of about 2-45km / h.[Annotation 2].
However, Fuji Heavy Industries can accommodate four adults,Transit BusThe concept of a car that can run on all the roads[Annotation 3]Development of a mini passenger car with a bold technique[Annotation 4]Challenged.The planned specifications are that it can carry four adults within the framework of the mini vehicle standard, the total weight in the empty state is 4 kg, it is equipped with a 350 cc class 350PS engine, and the maximum speed is assumed to be 15 km / h. It was already difficult to realize with conventional preconceived ideas.The purpose of use was (80) owner drive (1) suitable for short-distance driving (2) more practical than sports (3) suitable for commuting, business, and luggage transportation.
Mitaka Seisakusho was in charge of engine design, and Isesaki Seisakusho, which was producing buses at that time, was in charge of body and chassis design.Shinroku MomoseThe Subaru 1500 design team centered around the company became the new model design team.The chief on the Mitaka side was Shoji Kikuchi, the chief on the Isesaki side was Shinroku Momose, and the design was mainly led by the Isesaki side..
Initially, a test run was started by equipping a prototype trolley assembled with a channel frame with a drive train and conducting a test run.This followed the development method used in the Subaru 1500..
The air-cooled engine is placed horizontally at the rear of the ultra-lightweight body with a full monocoque structure, and the rear engine / rear drive system that drives the rear wheels is adopted, and the suspension is the first in Japan.Torsion bar spring(Using the repulsion caused by the twist of the steel barSpring) Was used to secure the cabin volume inside the car as an extremely compact structure..タ イ ヤHas newly developed a 10-inch size, which was unusual at that time, and adopted it for the first time in Japan..
It is not a primitive assembly line (a collection of small town factory style) that purchases and combines ready-made general-purpose parts that were often seen in light cars and motorcycles until then, but one part to achieve the purpose 1 We used a high-level modern development method that newly designed one in an optimized form and invested appropriate personnel and cost for individual parts development. The new development of 1-inch tires and the introduction of torsion bar springs are the best.screwEven before, it was originally designed for the Subaru 360, and it was a genuine screw with the "F" stamp of the Fuji Heavy Industries mark.In order to reduce weight and secure guest room space, we literally do not choose any means and spare money, costly processing methods, aluminum alloys, fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) And other expensive new materials are also boldly incorporated.These were the tables of Fuji Heavy Industries and Shinroku Momose.
In addition, the adoption of the full monocoque structure makes use of the experience of the Subaru 1500 as a weight reduction measure, and it can be said that it is a technology in the private medicine basket for the Fuji Heavy Industries engineering team, which has many former aviation engineers.
There was debate about the drive layout.It is advantageous to omit the propeller shaft in ultra-compact vehicles with limited weight and space, and in the early stages of development, engineers were forced to choose between front-wheel drive vehicles and rear engine systems.In terms of theoretical space efficiency, the front-wheel drive system has a long advantage, and there is an advantage that the rear part of the vehicle body can be easily redesigned into various shapes such as vans and trucks.In this era, the front-wheel drive system had already been put into practical use, and there were some precedent commercial examples in Japan such as the Suzuki "Suzulight".For this reason, Shoji Kikuchi of Mitaka Seisakusho and others insisted on front-wheel drive at the planning stage..
However, in the case of a front-wheel drive vehicle, a "constant velocity joint" that can smoothly transmit the driving force to the front wheels even during turning is required. As of the mid-1950s, constant velocity joints that had both durability and smoothness could not be mass-produced at low cost, and even the European front-wheel drive vehicles on the market had insufficient joint durability and adversely affected maneuverability. The peculiar vibration at the time of turning was the weakest point.
While knowing the advantages of front-wheel drive, Shinroku Momose speculates that development will be difficult due to the problem of constant velocity joints, and as a more solid method in the mid-1950s, there are already many such as Volkswagen. Decided to adopt the rear engine system, which was similar to[Annotation 5].
Volkswagen Type 1There is no rear deck that also leads to (Beetle)FastbackStyle 2-door 4-window sedan body.In the Japanese automobile industry, it is a pioneer in realizing a full monocoque structure without an independent frame in mass-produced vehicles.
At that time, it was thought that the steel plate used to build the automobile body had to be at least 0.8 mm thick, but this was judged to be an obstacle to weight reduction.Therefore, we adopted a 0.6 mm thick steel plate as the body material, which was not normally used for strength members...Still, in order to obtain sufficient strength, the car body was composed of curved surfaces that are described as "egg-shaped" as a whole, avoiding flat parts.(However, the floor panel was set to 1.2 mm thick due to strength problems.)[Source required]..Furthermore, aluminum material is also used for hoods that do not affect the strength of the main body..
As for the roof, the strength of the monocoque structure can be maintained with only the four-sided frame.Therefore, the ceiling part was made of GFRP (glass fiber reinforced plastic), which was a new material at that time, and fixed to the car body with rubber of H cross section.Not only was this possible to reduce the weight, but it also lowered the overall center of gravity and had the effect of allowing engine noise echoing inside the vehicle to escape to the outside of the vehicle.However, in the production type, the plastic roof suddenly comes off due to vibration during running because it is fixed only with H cross-section rubber, and screwing reinforcement is added.If necessary, a radio antenna wire was also built into the edge of the roof (that is, a wire-type antenna instead of the pole-shaped antenna that is common in automobiles)..
The front windshield and side windows have a relatively small area for the purpose of increasing the weight of the glass and reducing the opening of the body.What is unique is the rear window, which does not need to use glass due to safety standards, so we decided to use a transparent acrylic resin plate instead...Although it had the effect of reducing weight, it was said that discoloration occurred over time after long-term use.
There are 2 doors only on the front seat side,Rear hinge / front openingThe door opening area is secured right after the front wheels to improve the ease of getting on and off.Front-opening doors have drawbacks such as easy door opening in the event of a collision, and front-opening is not preferable from the viewpoint of safety, and this layout was abolished in later years...In the mid-1950s, many cars adopted front-opening doors because of their ease of getting on and off, and Subaru was not unique.
The charming egg-shaped design is accompanied by a corrugated character line from the front fender to the side to ensure strength, helping to lightly organize the side view that may seem too tall as it is.
Background of styling
The person in charge of body design is Kozo Murota, but the body design is an outside industrial designer.Tetsuzo Sasaki(Sasaki Tatsuzo 1906-1998) was hit.Sasaki, a veteran who has been involved in the design of ship paint and architecture since before the war, has a relationship with Fuji Heavy Industries through the coloring of the bus body, and received a request for automobile design from this edge in May 1956..
It was Sasaki's first car design, and he obtained his own car license in parallel with the design.Hino Motors License productionA typical compact car at that timeHino Renault 4CVI tried to understand the car by driving.VolkswagenThe Subaru 360 is often said to be similar, but looking at the details everywhere, it seems that this is also one of the reasons why it is more similar to the Renault 4CV.
Since Sasaki was a designer who made models without drawing drawings, the design was based on the 1/5 times clay model made by Sasaki, and the enlarged 1956x clay model was modified to take a plaster mold. Was taken.As a design base, Fuji Heavy Industries made a wooden mold with nails that serve as a limit guideline for the outer shell of the body, and handed it over to Sasaki in early June 6.Sasaki started making a prototype of the design by laying clay on it, and completed the prototype model on June 20, about 6 days later..
However, Sasaki's original design is a little dull, and it is said that a considerable amount of rework was done by Shinroku Momose and Hideaki Nagata, an in-house designer of Fuji Heavy Industries, before making the same size model.
The final body design formation work using the 1956x model was carried out at Fuji Heavy Industries' Isesaki No. 9 Plant.Sasaki also stayed in Isesaki for three months from September 3, and worked on design work with Momose and Nagata...Since the plaster model generates heat when it dries, it is said that the people involved in the factory worked on it while sweating from the heat, despite the work from late autumn to winter..
The body design completed in this way was embodied in the prototype car completed in March 1957, and was followed by the mass production type.In the production of the steel body of the prototype car, the skillful skills of veteran sheet metal craftsmen from Nakajima Aircraft are demonstrated.
When considering the cabin space of a car, a dummy model is usually used, but in the case of the Subaru 360, the designers themselves tested it with their own bodies. Shinroku Momose, who is over 180 cm tall and has long legs, and Kozo Murota, who is shorter than Momose but taller than Momose, sat on their seats and tested their leg space and head clearance.As a result, most Japanese in the late 1950s had enough space to ride comfortably.
It is epoch-making that a clean form directly connected to the function was realized based on the basic premise that it is designed for a 4-seater mini car, not a humorously forcible reduced version of a large car like a conventional mini car. Subaru 360 is JapanIndustrial designIt is also the reason why it is highly evaluated in the history of.
The interior of the initial model is as simple as it can be, and all waste is eliminated for weight reduction and cost reduction.This is due to the intention of the development team to make the weight as light as possible by setting the experience of aircraft development as a precedent.
The steering wheel is thinly cut down to the limit where there is no problem with strength, and the only instruments are the speedometer placed on the steering post and the total distance meter in it.It also has a minimal number of switches on the front of the thin "dashboard".A tray that covers the entire width of the car body is installed under the dashboard, which helps the luggage space.Initially, the door window was a sliding window with a horizontal slide, so the door panel part was well utilized as part of the interior volume of the cabin.
By using a combination of torsion bar and trailing arm for the front suspension, the leg space under the front seats extends to the front from the center line of the front axle, and although one side is compressed by the tire house of the front wheels, adults can do it anyway. We have succeeded in securing the maximum length that allows us to stretch our legs.Since the driver's seat is located on the right foot side of the tire house, the accelerator, brake, and clutch pedals are offset toward the center of the vehicle body.Therefore, during driving, both legs are forced to be in an offset state.
Both front and rear seats are made of pressed aluminum alloy.Hot water bottle(Colgate,ribIt is a lightweight and simple structure based on a frame with a shape), with cushions prepared with rubber strings and urethane foam and a vinyl skin.It was purchased by Fuji Heavy Industries as a research vehicleCitroen 2CVThe content is reminiscent of, and it is said that the sitting comfort was at a reasonable level at that time.The seat position had to be adjusted in advance with screws.When riding on the rear seat, the front seat could be unlatched and the backrest could be tilted forward.
At the time of development, not limited to SubaruPopular carWas not given what could be called luxury equipment.Initially, the only equipment inside the Subaru 360 was a heater that used the cooling air from the waste heat of the engine (simple and not very strong) and a manual ventilator.The radio could be equipped as an option.
The addition of crash pads and many other instruments to prepare for a collision of occupants and at the same time to produce luxury is that the engine output has been improved, the cost has been reduced due to the mass production effect, and there is a margin in performance and cost allocation. It was the year after it was created.The reason is that there was a demand for deluxe content comparable to that of competing models.
A forced air-cooled 2-stroke in-line 2-cylinder 356cc engine is installed horizontally in the engine room at the rear of the vehicle.The initial spec was 16PS / 4,500rpm in gross value.This engine was called "TB-50" at the trial stage, and was later mass-produced.EK31Has been renamed.
Fuji Heavy Industries has adopted a crankcase compression type air-cooled 2-stroke system from early on for general-purpose small engines.1955Since then, it has been successfully introduced to Rabbit scooters.Lightweight and simple, it can generate output, and the manufacturing cost is low, so it can be said that it is a reasonable choice at that time.The in-line 2-cylinder engine was the result of comprehensive consideration of output security, vibration, and cost.At the beginning of development with the test trolley of the Isesaki Seisakusho teamWest Germany・ Borgwald (Borgward) 400cc front-wheel drive vehicle "Lloyd LP400 (lloyd LP400) "2-strokeA 2-cylinder power unit was used instead, and then a completely newly designed in-house TB-50 engine was used. The prototype car completed in 1957 is also equipped with this new engine.Even at the beginning of engine development by the Mitaka Seisakusho team, data was collected in advance by replacing the head and piston of the Reut 400cc engine with 360cc Fuji Heavy Industries original specifications and placing them on the test bench.
The EK31 series is consistently used as the standard power unit of Subaru 360 while making improvements, and the output will increase to 18PS and 20PS later, and the final model will be described later.Output improved to 450PS, which surpasses the maximum output (23PS) of Subaru 25 (Myr) official[Annotation 6].
Horizontal placementIn addition to saving space in the front-back direction, it was also part of cost reduction.Vertical engineThen, as a part of the drive system, a spiral bevel gear that changes the direction of the drive axis at a right angle (Spiral bevel gear) Is required, but if it is a transverse engine, it is parallel to the axle, so this could be omitted.The performance of the spiral bevel gear gear cutting was insufficient with the machine tools made in Japan at that time, and Gleason Corporation of the United States (en: Gleason Corporation) Needed a good tooth-cutting device, which was extremely expensive.
Fuji Heavy Industries already1956, Rabbit scooter S61 type, nicknamed "Super Flow" as a substitute for transmissionTorque converterI had set a specification car (shifting only with a torque converter without shifting gears etc.), but it is steadily general for Subaru 360Manual transmissionSpecifications, dry single plateclutchAnd a non-synchronous mesh forward 3-speed and reverse 1-speed manual transmission.Moreover, because the engine and drive wheels are close to each other, the transmissionDifferential gear (diff gear)Was integrally casingTransaxleIt has a structure (a common method for rear engine passenger cars).
This transmission was also placed in parallel with the engine, and of course it was placed horizontally.The shift lever is a floor typeSo, at the beginning of the release, due to the restriction of remotely controlling the horizontal transmission with a rod without any special linkage, the shift pattern is horizontal H type (E-shaped) instead of vertical H type like a normal vertical engine car. Was[Annotation 7]..However, in terms of practical use, the normal pattern is better, as expected.1960When the transmission was synchromeshed, a link was added to change the operating direction at a right angle, and the pattern was changed to a normal vertical H-shaped pattern.1964In 4 monthElectromagnetic powder clutchClutch pedalless "Auto clutch"Equipped vehicles have also been added.
Left and right from the differential gear of the transaxleDrive shaftIs exposed without a shaft tube for weight reduction, and is hung on the trailing arm at the outer end.On the differential gear side and the tire side respectivelyCardan jointHowever, for simplification and weight reduction, the shaft itself does not have a spline that expands and contracts.Therefore, the lateral pressure generated by the swing of the wheel is directly applied to the shaft and the joint, and there is anxiety in terms of strength, but in reality, no trouble due to this structure itself has occurred.In order to extend the effective length of the shaft as much as possible and suppress the substantial swing angle, the joint on the differential gear side is made as if it were sunk into the gear.
The fuel tank is located directly above the engine room.There is a small hole in the lid of the tank, and the engine oil mixed fuel naturally flows down by gravity.MotorcycleWith a similar mechanism, no fuel supply pump was required.Later, from the middle of the 1964 model year, the two-stroke engine oil was replenished to a separate tank, and the main tank was shifted to the "separate refueling method" in which normal gasoline was replenished.Mikuni Corporation (currently Mikuni)A dedicated oil pump is added.In the separate type, a wire linked with the accelerator pedal automatically mixes before the engine flows in.Therefore, if the interlocking is not done well, the engine may burn or stick.
Initially, there was no independent fuel gauge or engine tachometer, so fuelgaugeWas attached to the lid of the tank, and it was necessary to check the remaining amount of fuel in the tank.After all it is the same as a two-wheeled vehicleFuel cockThere is a reserve position in, and when the fuel level is low, the cock is switched to run.A fuel gauge was added to the dashboard in the process of deluxeization in later years.
One of the weaknesses of the air-cooled rear engine system is cooling measures.In the hot season with the prototype caroverheatAfter a lot of trouble in taking in cooling air and discharging waste heat, the cooling air is exhausted from the louver of the rear engine hood and taken in from the grill on the side of the car body, considering the flow of hot air rising. The layout was decided.
When inhaling air into the carburetor, there is a concern that dust may be sucked in from the rear of the car body, so in the previous model, a duct was extended to the tip of the car body and sucked in from here, but when it comes to front inhalation, the dust that the preceding car raises this time Inhalation may occur,1960 eraIn the mid-term, road maintenance progressed and the dust problem was improved, so1965It has been changed from the mold to the rear intake of the car body.
During development, the exhaust port of the engine is a burning residue of oilSludge,SootWas constantly clogged, reducing power.Various measures were taken such as changing the port shape, but it was not a fundamental solution.Finally, the adoption of the oil additive "Pentalube" made it possible to suppress soot adhesion for thousands of kilometers, and finally no longer required overhaul for a long period of time.(A similar situation occurred during the development of a two-stroke car for a rabbit scooter at the same time, which was also resolved by the pentalube).For this reason, Subaru 2 designated Pentalube as a genuine additive.[Annotation 8].
In developing the K-10, the Mitaka Seisakusho team led by Shoji Kikuchi was in charge of developing all the power trains, but Shinroku Momose and Isesaki were in charge of the overall development of the K-10, the development of the body, chassis and suspension, and the running test. It was being promoted by the factory.For this reason, the Mitaka team, who is in a subordinate position, had to travel far to Isesaki for communication work, and at the time when transportation and communication were inconvenient, the section chief Kikuchi himself rode a rabbit scooter to Isesaki on an unpaved rough road. It is said that he was often forced to run a harsh business trip..
Suspension deviceIs placed horizontally on the trailing arm both front and backTorsion barIt is an extremely lightweight, space-saving, 4-wheel independent suspension structure with a large suspension stroke that combines the center coil spring and the center coil spring.PorscheThe type of rear suspensionSwing axle typeare categorized.
There was no manufacturer of torsion bars for automobiles in Japan at that time, and Fuji Heavy Industries was a major spring manufacturer.JapanRequested new development and manufacturing.The original prototype isMachinedIt is exorbitant that the total price of four cars is 1 yen, which is close to 4% of the planned price of the whole car.Moreover, due to lack of experience of the manufacturer,YieldThe product was not well made and was often damaged during the test.After that, quality improvements were made, andForgingAs the mass production system was set up, the price at the time of release was reduced to the level of several thousand yen for four pieces.The trailing arm that is connected to this torsion bar and supports the wheels also suffers from continuous damage due to the conflicting issues of weight reduction and ensuring strength, and is expensive but strong.Chrome molybdenum steelIs solved by using as the material.
In the background of adopting trailing arms for both front and rear suspension system, the horizontal torsion bar trailing arm layout is also used.Volkswagen beetleYou can also see the influence of this, but especially in terms of compactness of the front suspension, there was something that was exceptionally thorough compared to the beetle of the size of a normal small car (the beetle is a Porsche type double with a two-stage torsion bar). -A trailing arm, but Subaru is a simpler single trailing arm).As will be described later, this was extremely effective in securing leg space for the front seats.
One of the problems in the development of ultra-lightweight vehicles is that the space difference is extremely large.There is a difference of 1 kg or more in the total weight of the vehicle between the case of only one driver and the case of a full ride of four people, which is a huge weight difference for a car planning an empty car weight of 4 kg. ..Under these conditions, the minimum even when riding a full rideRoad clearanceIt was very difficult to always improve the maneuverability and ride quality while ensuring the suspension stroke.
The initial idea as a countermeasure was to equip the center of the front and rear of the vehicle body with an auxiliary spring that operates by obtaining hydraulic pressure with engine power, in addition to the torsion bar.CitroenWas put into practical use at the same timeHydropneumaticThe idea was similar to that of the system, but in the test, the oil leakage of the hydraulic spring unit could not be solved, and there were many restrictions such as the difficulty of mounting space for the hydraulic pump and the difficulty of the engine output margin to drive it, so the cost and cost Since the development period was also severe, practical application was eventually given up.
As an alternative, it was decided to install an auxiliary coil spring in the central position where the hydraulic spring was planned to be installed.When a large load above a certain level is applied to the torsion bar, this center spring connected to the base works, and a damping effect is produced.This almost solved the basic practical problems..
Swing axle suspensionThen, as an unavoidable problem, the rearjackThere is an up phenomenon, but later in Subaru, cases of rollover accidents began to occur frequently.Initially, the center spring, which was linked to each of the front and rear wheels, is a rear suspension as a measure against rollover.rigidityIn order to secure the above, the rear connection was stopped and the rear wheels were changed to support only the torsion bar.At the same time, the torsion bar for the rear wheels has a larger diameter, and is paired.rollIncreased resistance[Annotation 9].
またDamperPrimitive due to initial cost constraintsFrictionI had to use a damper.I was dissatisfied with the effect as a quantitative damper, and later moved to it due to the price reduction of the hydraulic damper..
In the Japanese automobile industry at that time, in the case of a compact car, the ride quality and durability / traversability on rough roads were considered to be roughly in conflict, so the Subaru 360 can drive comfortably on rough roads without being fluffy. The suspension was greeted with admiration and was dubbed the "Subaru Cushion" by enthusiasts.
However, in the case of Subaru, there is still a limit to the road clearance due to the small size of the tires, and when a four-person ride with the most compressed springs hits a deep rut on a rough road, there were cases where it could not be overcome as it was.In this case, the response is fairly simple: just drop one or two non-drivers off the roadside-immediately the springs stretch and the vehicle height rises.
And the people getting off the "luggage" walked after Subaru until the ruts became shallower on the way. It is an idyllic scene occasionally seen on country roads and mountain roads in the early days of motorization in the 1960s.
Tires, wheels, brakes and other accessories
1955-Around 1957, existing standard products were often used for tires of light vehicles.For example, Suzuki's "Suzulight"DatsunI used a large 14-inch tire for a light car, which was unsuitable for a light car, was large, bulky, and heavy.AlsoSumie Seisakushoof"Flying feather"Is equipped with rear car tires and wire spokes, and there were other small and light car manufacturers that used 9-inch tires for scooters, but there was a limit in terms of performance with substitute tires that were not originally for four-wheeled vehicles.In turn, these situations could be said to be the limits of assembly makers, small-scale makers who have no choice but to use a lot of ready-made parts.
In this way, tires were literally a "shackle" in the development of ultra-compact cars, and Fuji Heavy Industries engineers aimed to pursue space efficiency and weight reduction, and the required tire size was extremely compact "10 inch" class. In addition, we have newly introduced 10-inch tires for automobiles that were not previously manufactured in Japan.BridgestoneIt was epoch-making to ask for development.Bridgestone and Fuji Heavy Industries had a considerable business relationship with the delivery of scooter tires before this, so the approach from that direction was utilized.
In order to reduce the weight, the reinforcement cord was halved to 4 plies instead of the usual 2 plies, but Fuji Heavy Industries' request for "2 plies to be as strong as 4 plies" is strict, and punctures occur frequently in the test. It is said that the Bridgestone side also struggled until it reached the practical range.
For steel tires and wheels, we avoided the heavy "matching rims" of ordinary cars and made them lightweight "split rims" with only the outer frame.This has had many precedents for small and lightweight vehicles such as the Renault 4CV, but it was particularly effective as a measure to reduce unsprung weight.
SteeringThe gear is a rack and pinion type.At that time, the warm and roller type was the mainstream, and the rack and pinion type that was popular in Japan was limited to a small number such as the Hino Renault 4CV, but it is space efficient, lightweight, simple and manoeuvrable. Was adopted because it is also good.
The brakes are hydraulic all-wheel drum brakes (both front and rear) that were common at that time.Reading trailingEquation).
The electrical system was designed from the beginning with a voltage of 12V. Since the mid-1950s, ordinary passenger cars have begun to shift from 6V electrical equipment to 12V electrical equipment, but for small displacement vehicles, the conventional 6V was still the mainstream, but Subaru is a mini car, but the voltage does not drop easily and thin electric wires It adopted a high-voltage 12V that can send electricity efficiently.AlsoDirection indicatorFrom the beginning, the relay-type electric flasher, which was becoming mainstream in line with the trend at that time, was adopted, and the arm-tree type, which was the mainstream until the mid-1950s, was not adopted.The rear flasher cover is also used as a brake lamp (red), which was common until the 1960s, and although there were changes in size and design, it did not change until the end of production.
Origin of car name
The name Subaru 360 was not conceived or decided within Fuji Heavy Industries.Tetsuzo Sasaki heard from Momose that "the name of the first passenger car he developed was Subaru 1500" when the car name was still undecided, and made the "SUBARU 360" logo mark at his own discretion.When he proposed the design to Momose, he went through the in-house approval process and decided the name naturally.According to Sasaki, it seems that even among the Fuji Heavy Industries development team, including Shinroku Momose, it was tacitly understood to use "Subaru" as a pet name..
The Subaru emblem attached to this car (Six starsThe mark) is a modification of Fuji Heavy Industries' in-house recruitment plan by Sasaki, and although the design has been changed several times, the basic motif has been inherited and is still the mark of Fuji Heavy Industries (currently SUBARU). Has been followed as.
Background to and after the release
Endurance test and Ministry of Transport certification test
The first prototype car was completed on April 1, 1957.A total of five units were manufactured, but each was subjected to rigorous test runs and collected valuable data for mass production.
The test run at that time wasIsesakiからTakasaki1 hours per day, 16km long-distance continuous driving test to and from IsesakiAkagiyamaIt was a climbing test that went back and forth to the vicinity of the mountaintop without stalling.
The engine of the prototype car was overused and broke down almost every day, so a technician dispatched from Mitaka Seisakusho to Isesaki repaired and adjusted it all night, and the next morning, the test run was repeated again.
Continuous steep slope section with an altitude difference of nearly 1000m on the Akagiyama mountain climbing road, which was unpaved at that time[Annotation 10]Was a mountain trail prepared for overheating even in ordinary passenger cars at that time, and even during the Subaru test with four passengers, it was prevented from overheating the engine many times.These problems, which required lubrication, material changes, and cooling measures, were gradually resolved, and it was finally possible for the prototype vehicle to fully open and non-stop climbing Mt. Akagi just before the certification test of the Ministry of Transport. It was February 4, 1958[Annotation 11].
According to "The Showa Legend of Man Machine", this prototype carPrince car OfRyoichi Nakagawa,ToyotaAutomotiveTatsuo HasegawaThe designers of competitors such as are also test-driving. Since the latter half of the 1960s, competition between companies has intensified, and from the viewpoint of confidentiality, it has become impossible for engineers of other companies to touch the prototype vehicle under development, but in Japan in the latter half of the 1950s There was a technology exchange meeting that transcended the boundaries of automobile manufacturers, and the development teams of each company sometimes compared prototype cars with each other.[Annotation 12]..Hasegawa pointed out the seam line of the outer panel as a manufacturing problem.
The Ministry of Transport certification test began on February 1958, 2, and the test driver was Tokio Fukushima, an employee of Fuji Heavy Industries...Before the test at the Murayama Proving Ground of the Ministry of Transport, the mud adhering to the underfloor was carefully washed off (according to Fukushima, this alone weighed about 2 kg)...Then the operation testHakone,OdawaraEtc.Even though it was a cold day with light snow, driver Fukushima and navigator Akira Sakaguchi boarded in very light underwear, only thin underwear, in order to reduce the burden of weight as much as possible. did..In the Hakone test, two Ministry of Transport employees had to be on board, but one employee refused to board because he was afraid that Subaru was too small, and instead weighed 2 kg for one person. It is said that a weight was put on it..In the certification test, the test course over Hakone is faster than planned (30 minutes from Hakone Yumoto to Lake Ashi, which takes 22 minutes according to the national car concept standard), and in addition to being lightweight, Fukushima's eco-run driving efforts have also been successful. It achieved good results, such as recording a fuel consumption of 24.5km per liter...In addition, in the course test at the Murayama Proving Ground of the Ministry of Transport, many items such as braking distance (except for the absolute maximum speed at which the output speaks), vibration characteristics, etc. are equal to or exceed those of domestic compact cars of the same era. Recorded excellent characteristics.
Eventually, the specifications at the time of launch were an empty vehicle weight of 385 kg, an engine output of 16 PS, and a maximum speed of 83 km / h, which was slightly overweight than the target, but almost met the planned performance.
An official press release was held to launch the Subaru 360.The date and time will be from noon on March 1958, 3, and the venue will beTokyoIt was the headquarters of Fuji Heavy Industries in Marunouchi.
The staff of Fuji Heavy Industries, who was not accustomed to the event of press release, was trying to finish the announcement only with the catalog without the actual car, but the press gathered in anticipation of a novel new car urged "What happened to the actual car" And suddenly two Subaru 2sTrackIt will be delivered from Isesaki to the Tokyo head office.Reporters who waited patiently until 4 pm decided to drive the Subaru that arrived in turn and experience its ride quality and driving performance..
The response was remarkable.Interested by domestic automobile manufacturers, not only domestic media but also a long-established store in the United KingdomCar magazine"Autocar" is "This isAsiaIt will be a Volkswagen of the world, "and was featured in Western automobile magazines, and became a strong presence from the beginning.The customer of the first car for saleKonosuke MatsushitaIt is famous that it was.
Fuji Heavy Industries had already established a network of distributors for Rabbit Scooter, but it had never sold four-wheeled vehicles to the general public, and when Subaru was launched, it had to start with the network of dealers.For this reason, dealers were arranged in each prefecture using existing scooter agents, existing motorcycle dealers, trading companies, and so on.The original dealers were mainly in the Tokyo areaITOCHU Corporation(Sold from May 1958) Also, in the Osaka area, Takagi Sangyo (sold from July 5) did not start selling all over the country (it was unavoidable because the sales network itself was difficult to develop).
The public announcement was made from March 1958th to 3th, 28 at the Shirakiya department store in Nihonbashi, Tokyo (currently redeveloped to "COREDO Nihonbashi")..
History after release
The 1958 model sold 385 units.Even with this number, it was a great achievement for the number of mini passenger cars sold at that time, but the performance that can withstand practical use was evaluated by the market and sales increased, and the 1961 model exceeded 17000 units.
A full-scale light four-wheeled truck newly developed as a sister car with a sales network established in a relatively short period of timeSubaru SambarWas announced in 1961 and was a great success, which could improve the weakness of the sales network, which is a barrier for new entrants.It was fortunate for Fuji Heavy Industries that this solidified its foundation as a four-wheeled vehicle manufacturer.
1960年10月にはスバル・360と基本構造を共通としつつもデラックス仕様のボディーとオーバーライダーの付いた大型バンパー、423ccエンジンを備える小型車規格の上級モデル「スバル・450」が発売された。その後のテコ入れとして1963年5月に実施されたマイナーチェンジでフロントバンパーの中央上部にカンガルーバー（所謂バンパーガード）が装着された「スバル・450デラックス」に改称されたものの、結果的にさしたる実績は収めることができず、1966年4月を以って生産終了し、そのNext monthToSmall ordinary carWill be the de facto successor toSubaru 1000Was released[Annotation 13]As a result, the sale was discontinued as it was.The total number of Subaru 450s sold in Japan is1549 standSo, the average monthly sales from the start of sales to the end of sales is small23 standwas.
Deluxe equipment released in 1962Mazda CarrollAlthough the 360 was attacked, Subaru succeeded in rewinding with the introduction of the deluxe model, which is superior in power performance because it is lighter than Carol, which has a heavy water-cooled 4-cylinder engine loaded on a heavy body.At the same time, Mitsubishi entered the minicar market with Minica and Daihatsu as fellows, but Subaru's top position was to increase output and equipment while increasing its name and sales force, and to reduce prices due to long-term mass production effects. Was unwavering.
But in 1967Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Extraordinarily high performance and low priceHonda N360Since its launch, sales have been sluggish, and Honda has handed over the top sales volume in the mini vehicle market.For this reason, in the normal model, the output was finally improved to 360PS to compete with the N25, and in August 1968, the "Young SS" equipped with the EK8 type engine that demonstrates 36ps as a sports model aimed at young people. Although it was 32ps, the "Young S" with sporty interior and exterior was released, but it was undeniable that it became obsolete due to the age of the basic design. Successor car in August 25Subaru R-2Was sold together for a while after it was released, but production was discontinued in May 1970.
Also in the continental United StatesRabbit scooterMalcolm Bricklin, a businessman who was importingw: Malcolm Bricklin) And others.However, because it was very small and from time to timeRalph NaderWas pointed out byChevrolet Corvair, Volkswagen Beetle and other rear engine vehicles were also affected by stability issues, and did not achieve great results.
For export specifications, the name was changed to "Subaru 450," which has an expanded displacement.Subaru MaiaHowever, the name "Myr" was later used for the special edition car of the 3rd generation Subaru Leone.
To mechanical engineering heritage
Subaru 2016 was certified as "Mechanical Engineering Heritage" by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers on July 7, 25..
Birthplace of Subaru 360
The second factory of Isesaki Seisakusho (Heiwa-cho, Isesaki City, Gunma Prefecture), which is the factory that originated from Subaru 360, was redeveloped as a commercial facility after dismantling. Height about 360 meters) was maintained.The factory was originally in 29 (Meiji 6.5).Value developmentIt was a historic factory built by Nakajima Airplane in 1941 (see also), but was closed in September 16 due to business contraction, and the dismantling work was completed in April 2001. ..At this time, the brickwork that passed through the war damageSaw roof factoryA part of the brick wall was relocated to a corner of the commercial facility located on the site in response to the voice that it should be preserved..
- Subaru 360 Convertible
- Released in 1959.It is a retractable type so that the roof part, which was originally made of FRP and did not affect the strength of the car body even if it was removed, can be opened.HoodThe type replaced with.Citroen 2CV, 2st and XNUMXnd generationFiat 500Such,Europe OfPopular carThe type often seen in.CompleteConvertibleRather, it is a type of canvas top, and the opening area can be adjusted by the amount of winding.Not only does it provide a feeling of openness not found on ordinary roofs, but it also has the advantage of reducing muffled noise when closed.
- Subaru 360 commercial
- Released in 1959.Modify the roof and rear window side panels of the Subaru 360Commercial vehicleA model that can be used as.The roof is a hood with the layout of the sedan body, and the panel around the rear seat window on the side immediately after the B pillar part immediately after the door is tilted outward to improve the access for loading luggage to the rear space with plywood.It is undeniable that it is unreasonable as a commercial vehicle, and it ended in short-term production.
- Subaru 360 Custom (later renamed Subaru Custom)
- Released in 1963.Full-scale commercial alternative to commercialsバ ンmodel.An easy-to-use van body with a folding seat and a luggage compartment with a roof extending to the rear end of the Subaru 360, and an upper hinged tailgate.Layout of accessories around the engineSambarBy making it common to the above, the floor of the luggage compartment was lowered to increase the volume and improve usability.This layout was then in the rear engine eraR2,RexIt will be followed by the van model of. It has a mechanical fuel pump because it cannot be the original gravity type fuel pumpless structure of 360.After that, with the minor change of the 1964 series in 360, the car name was changed.Subaru CustomIt was renamed to.
- Subaru 450 / Subaru 450 Deluxe (Subaru Maia）
- The engine was bored up to 423cc and a large bumper with an overrider was installed.It was mainly an export model (sold under the name "Myr").It was also sold as Subaru 450 in Japan, and with the minor change in May 1963, the car name was changed.Subaru 450 DeluxeRenamed to.actuallyOrdinary compact carDespite being treated (at that time), the displacement was only about 360cc larger than the 70, and the comfort was exactly the same as the 360, so the significance of existence diminished as the performance of the 360 gradually improved. There was almost no sales record.
- Subaru Sambar
- Strengthen the drive train of Subaru 360,Cab overLadder shape with a car bodyフ レ ー ムThe Subaru 1961's sister car, which was developed by combining it with the Subaru 360 and released in 360.Manufactured with trucks and vans, with high durability, high traction due to the rear engine, and an exceptionally soft ride for a commercial vehicle, it has gained the support of commerce and industry and farmers, and is the largest derivative model of the Subaru 2012. Was successful.It became a hidden long-selling product of Fuji Heavy Industries, and maintained the rear engine system even after Subaru's mini passenger cars were driven by the front wheels while repeating model changes.It was a model that had been produced until the end as a Subaru original mini vehicle, but in February 2, it was discontinued in-house.See the relevant item for details.
- ^ Until then, the standard was 2-stroke engine = 240cc or less, 4-stroke engine = 360cc or less.At that time, it was a differentiation because it was thought that the output of the 4-stroke was higher than that of the 2-stroke for the same displacement, but this was abolished.
- ^ As an example,NaganoMatsumotoIshikawajima Shibaura Machinery Co., Ltd. (currentlyIHI Shibaura) Developed the rear engine open body light four-wheeled vehicle "Shibaura Light Four-Wheel MR-1955" in 4.The company's development team, the former Matsumoto High School (currentlyShinshu University), A person who was an alumni of Shinroku Momose visited the Ota factory in the early stages of the development of the Subaru 360 by driving the MR-2, and begged for Momose's reputation.However, Momose, who actually saw the Shibaura mini car, said that he frankly criticized it because of the low standard of automobiles.Overall length x width x height (mm) = 2830 x 1210 x 1200, the complete 2-seat MR-2 is equipped with an air-cooled 4-stroke single-cylinder 325cc side valve engine, with an output of only 8PS / 4000rpm and a maximum speed of 60km. It stayed at / h.The design was similar to a go-kart with a dummy grill, and it did not reach the market.Even affiliated companies of major companies could generally develop only light vehicles of this level.
- ^ In the 1950s, before motorization began in earnest, a detailed route bus network was formed in Japan up to the mountainous areas of Japan.In the era before road maintenance, there were many unpaved and uneven muddy roads and extremely narrow roads, but the route bus vehicles at that time had a bonnet type body with a small turn, sufficient road clearance with large tires, and sturdy. It was equipped with a fixed axle supported by a leaf spring, and if it could barely clear the width of a rough road that could be called a roadway, it could be traversed at a low speed.Considering the road conditions in Japan at that time, the achievement of rough road traversing performance comparable to that of the route buses of the same era was a sufficiently meaningful target line for commercial passenger cars.
- ^ Development code is "K-10"
- ^ In fact, the front-wheel drive Suzulight that preceded it had an old-fashioned non-constant velocity joint as a bottleneck in drivability, and development work was underway at about the same time.Toyota PublicaAlthough initially planned for front-wheel drive, it could not overcome the technology and was redesigned to a conventional front engine + rear-wheel drive in the middle of development.
- ^ As a result, the final Subaru 360, which is a normal type, has a nominal maximum speed of 110km / h and a continuous cruising speed of 100km / h.Also, for the sports model Young SS, a derivative version of the high-output EK36 that produces 32PS is installed.
- ^ Taking advantage of this, it was a famous episode of early Subaru that a horizontal operation method was devised among users, "Push the shift lever with the left knee and pull up the shift up from 2nd to 3rd speed without using hands". It has become.
- ^ In the report "Commercial light three-wheeled vehicle test drive impression" ("Motorcyclist" May 1959 issue) by Takashi Hayashi the year after Subaru was released, a long-distance drive test of Subaru 5 from Tokyo to the foot of Mt. Fuji was carried out. While evaluating the overall performance with excellent ride comfort, regarding the designation of pentalube oil, "This mixing oil has not yet spread nationwide, and we are selling pentalube in our test.gas stationThere are criticisms and indications along with the difficulty of mixing 2-stroke fuels, such as "It takes time to search for fuel (abbreviated below)" and "In this regard, cooperation and countermeasures between manufacturers and oil companies are required".We can see the actual situation in the early days of motorization in Japan, where the peripheral distribution infrastructure such as gas stations and automobile-related retail stores was immature.
- ^ The Subaru 360 was extremely lightweight, so even if it turned over and lay on its back, it could be brought back up by a few adults.This is also unique to ultra-lightweight cars.
- ^ The mountain trail from the southern foot of Mt. AkagiKanto PlainIt is a long one-sided slope route that continues from around 150m above sea level at the northern end, but the slope becomes extremely steep from around 500m above sea level, and over 10km from here, it is a severe steep slope to Shinzakadaira (around 1400m above sea level), which is the pass of Akagi Sotowayama. Followed.
- ^ It has been said that the time of successful climbing Mt. Akagi was August 1957, and Yoji Katsuragi "The day the ladybug ran-Subaru 8 development story" (Grand prix publication 1987) has a similar theory, but in 2005, "Fuji Heavy Industries Technology Human History" (edited by the editorial board of Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd.) p164, "Materials that succeeded in climbing Akagi on February 2th. Was discovered this time, so I described it in this book. "In this era, even other automobile and motorcycle manufacturers often entered the test from trial runs with no time to spare, and it is a highly credible description from the official description of the manufacturer itself, but on the other hand, winter The cold climate of Mt. Akagi is more advantageous for engine cooling than in summer, and it can be said that the test conditions were not necessarily extreme.Also, regarding the cold resistance test in cold regions, on "The day when ladybugs ran"KaruizawaIt is stated that tests such as heating were carried out in, and it is not stated that Akagiyama was used in winter in that direction.
- ^ Both Nakagawa and Momose were before and during the warNakajima airplaneNakagawa is a fighter engine誉Momose is in charge of remodeling the engine for high altitude.Also, Hasegawa and Momose are the same oldTokyo Imperial UniversityHasegawa is a graduate ofTachikawa AircraftJoined the companyB29Ki 94Is in charge of designing.
- ^ However, at the beginning of the release, only the 4-door sedan was released,1967In February, a 2-door sedansame yearFour-door vans were added in September.
- ^ a b "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 48
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 52
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 68
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 71
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 59-60
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 95-96
- ^ a b "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 82-83
- ^ a b "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 60
- ^ a b "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 79
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 80
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 81
- ^ "All about 360cc mini vehicles" page 15
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 90-91
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 92-93
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 111
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 115
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 130
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 75
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 85
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 85-86
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 121-122
- ^ a b "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 144
- ^ a b c d "Project X Challengers 9" p. 118
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 145
- ^ a b "The day the ladybugs ran" pp. 7-8
- ^ "The day the ladybugs ran," p. 10
- ^ "Subaru 360 selected as a mechanical engineering heritage of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers!". clicccar.com (clicker) (September 2016, 7). 2019th of February 6Browse.
- ^ "About the completion of the dismantling work of the former Isesaki Seisakusho No. XNUMX factory and the completion of the "factory brick wall monument that originated from Subaru XNUMX"”. Fuji Heavy Industries (December 2003, 6). 2020th of February 6Browse.
- "All about 360cc mini vehicles" Sanei Shobo, 2013.ISBN 9784779618963.
- Yoji Katsuragi "Day when Ladybug Run" Grand Prix Publishing, 1995, new edition.ISBN 4-87687-157-4.
- "Project X Challengers 9 Enthusiasm, Like a Flame" NHK "Project XProduction Group, Japan Broadcast Publishing Association, 2001.ISBN 4-14-080636-2.
- Subaru R-2 --Successor car
- Subaru Sambar
- Subaru 1500
- Shinroku Momose
- The Ruined Map(Movie) --Appeared throughout the movie as the hero's detective's favorite car.
- Detective edition(TV drama) --Appeared as the hero's detective's favorite car.
- Yankee Gale Team --The main characterMotorcycle gangAppeared as the captain's favorite car.
- Triple fighter(SFX) --The black car is a devil alienCombat vehicleSeveral cars appear in each episode as "demon cars".There is also a scene where dozens of cars are lined up in a row.
- Young SS --Japanese rock band group.Named after "Young SS" because the member's grandfather was an engineer when Fuji Heavy Industries was founded.
Private car(Jikayoujisha) carries passengers and freight, receives charges, and acts commercially.For transportation business(Green number, business number)AutomobileOn the other hand, all other vehicles used for general purposes are called as follows. According to the Road Transport Law, it is defined as a "vehicle (vehicle under the Road Transport Vehicle Law)" that is not a "business vehicle."Private car(Youka)Private car(My car,Japanglish). In English, a private car is generally called an owner-driver car, and when referring to your own car, it is called My own car.
In this articleJapanI will describe the private car in.
Distinguishing by license plate
Usually, it refers to an automobile that the user himself uses for his own purpose (self-use). It doesn't matter if you drive yourself or not,Car leaseCar orCar rentalIs also for private use.License plateIs green on a white backgroundWhite number,Light carIs called yellow number because it is black with yellow letters.
For non-private vehicles,Commercial vehicle(SalesCar). There is a charge for the definition for salespassenger,cargoIn the vehicle for the transportation, the number is white letters in the reverse green color for private use, so it is called the green number (or the blue number, the light business vehicle is the black number).
Owned by an individual at homePassenger carNot only those used by companies such as transportation of employees and collection and delivery of products, public vehicles of government offices,Business vehicles/company vehicles(Instead of commercial transportation, many are used for corporate route sales and internal business purposes), etc. are also treated as private cars. These vehicles are prohibited from paid transportation, and the transportation itself is not commercial.First-class driver's licenseYou can drive at. But,Emergency carSome of the vehicles that have the qualifications for (official vehicles (fire, emergency, police, etc.) of the public office during emergency dispatch.Fire truck,ambulance,Patrol carFor example, when driving in an emergency, certain conditions must be met.
In addition, the so-called white number such as transportation of companies and schools, transportation of hotels and large public dining halls, transportation of customers dedicated to entertainment facilities, buses owned by government offices (prefectures, municipalities), etc.Private busThere are some people who misunderstand that a large type XNUMX license is necessary even in the case of, but in this case, in the sense of carrying a large number of personnelShared bus,Charter BusAnd their modes of transport are very similar, but in these casesFareBecause of the lack of receipt ofCommercialTarget (SalesAct), and an unspecified number ofpassengerSince it is not intended for the car and it is still a private car, you can drive with a first-class license.
Private cars, with some exceptions, are not allowed to be paid in any form. In the case of family members, friends, etc., it is not a problem to share the expenses required for operation among passengers in relation to relatives, but when calling for passengers to ride in their own cars to many unspecified people who are red strangers Even if the amount of money to be collected is within the range of expenses required for operation, it is required as consideration for the transportation, so if you do not follow the Road Transport Act, you will be in conflict with the law. Becomes In addition, even if the use of a private car is limited to school students, company employees, facility users, etc., those who are not relatives or friends are red strangers, so it is profitable It will be a fee-based transportation including cost sharing that is not a prerequisite. Therefore, as a general rule, transportation by private car is free, and if you collect expenses from the transportation user, you will be authorized as a taxi hire with permission based on the Road Transport Act or you can entrust it to a local taxi company. Is desirable.
In addition, when another person who is not in the family is on board,Copyright lawDue to the equipment in the carkaraokeOr playing music software,Video softwareIt is also forbidden to screenTV broadcast,Radio broadcast, And portable audio equipment that passengers bring in personally).
Bus operators and taxi operators use vehiclesOperation withdrawalIn some cases, the registration may be changed from business registration to private registration and used for the purpose of obtaining a second-class license or in-house training.
Japan Private Car Management Association
Japan Private Car Management Association TheNational Police Agency,Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismEstablished with permission from the three ministriesPublic interest corporation.
In 37, former private car management companies established an association to improve the quality of the industry and contribute to society. In 61, a car management liaison meeting was established. From these, the Japan Automobile Management Association, an independent organization, was established in 4. In XNUMX, the National Police Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry at the time, and the Ministry of Transport jointly received approval as a corporation.
Private driver's school
Private driver's schoolOpened in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo with the aim of developing specialized driving service personnel.Certified vocational trainingbyVocational development schoolIs. The purpose is to conduct lectures, on-the-job training, and aptitude tests for driving service technicians, improve the driving skills of driving technicians and improve their etiquette, and develop excellent drivers who can practice good service. ..
The installation training course is a driving service course and has two courses: a passenger car course and a bus course. Opened in 2. In 12, it became a certified vocational training facility after being certified by the Governor of Tokyo. From 13, people other than the member companies of the association will be able to attend. Since 15Road transport lawAs a result of the amendment, the requirements for a driver who has a license for paid transportation operated by municipalities and paid transportation for depopulated areas will be a person who has completed the driving service department of a private driver's school.
- ^ The word "car" is said to have spread by Yoshiro Hoshino's book "Cars: The Way to See Good Cars" published in 1961. CARGRAPHIC October 2012 Issue 10, "THIS MONTH'S TOPIC"
- ^ About Yomiuri Shimbun News Clip "My Car"[Broken link]
- ^ "Foundation of the association”. Japan Private Automobile Management Association. 2020th of February 5Browse.
- ^ "Driver specialized school". 2020th of February 5Browse.
- Notice concerning private passenger transportation - Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- About private car transportation, rental, etc. - NiigataTransport branch