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✈ | Cebu Pacific Air, sale on 3 routes from Japan to Manila From 2,800 yen one way


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Cebu Pacific Air, Japan-Manila 3 routes on sale from 2,800 yen one way

 
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Cebu Pacific Air operates six Japanese routes with Airbus A6s and Airbus A320s.
 

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Airbus A320

Airbus A320

View of Jetstar Airbus A320-200 from above

JetstarView of Airbus A320-200 from above

Airbus A320 (Airbus A320) isEurope OfAirbusIs developed and manufactured by the companySingle passageTwin firejetPassenger plane.

With A320 as the basic type,Airbus A321And short-body typeAirbus A319Airbus A318Was developed,Airbus A320 familyIs composed of. The A320 family can be divided into two generations, the original typeA320ceoThe second generation with a new family and engineA320neoCalled a family. A320ceo in 1988Air FranceBy A320neo in 2016Lufthansa German AirlinesThe first was in service by each.

A320 is the world's first passenger aircraft to be digitalFly by wireControl systemSide stickThe new era of Airbus aircraft was opened. The company expanded its market share by competing with the American manufacturer's single-passage aircraft in the world, pushing Airbus into one of the two major aircraft manufacturers.

A320 is one each on the left and right under the low wing main wingTurbo fan engineEquipped withTailIs a low-wing arrangement,Landing gearIs the front wheel arrangement. The total length is 37.57 meters, the total height is 11.76 meters, and the maximum width is 35.80 meters.Maximum takeoff weightIs 66 to 77 tons and the maximum cruising speed isMachIt is 0.82.

By the end of 2018, the total number of deliveries was 320 for the A5,213 alone and 320 for the entire A8,525 family. As of October 2019, the aircraft loss accidents and incidents related to the A10 family areAviation accidentThere were 30 incidents, 7 incidents such as terrorism, and 7 incidents due to fire during parking. 30 people were killed in 951 accidents, 7 people were killed in 441 cases, and one criminal was hijacked. A1 alone has 320 aviation accidents, 25 cases of terrorism, etc., and 5 cases due to fires during parking. A total of 6 people have been killed in 11 accidents, and a total of 816 people have been killed in two cases, and one hijacking has killed one criminal.

In this section, for jet passenger aircraft, some company names are omitted and only alphanumeric characters are shown. For example, "Airbus A300" is "A300", "Boeing 737"," 737 ","Douglas DC-9Shall be DC-9.

History

Development background

米 国To compete with other aircraft manufacturersEuropeAircraft manufacturer1970In 12 monthCartel"Airbus Industry(Hereinafter referred to as "Airbus"), the world's first twin passage (Wide body) Become a twin-engine jet airlinerA300Developed[4][5].. The A300 made its first flight in October 1972 and started service in May 10.[6].. Continuing in the early 1980s, Airbus became an evolution of the A300A310,A300-600Developed[7][8].. The A310 and A300-600 are so-calledGlass cockpitThe adoption of a computer and the introduction of a computer in the system made it a pioneer of wide-body aircraft that can be operated by only two pilots.[7][8].. Although Airbus has achieved some success in this way, it is already in the United States.Boeing,McDonnell DouglasIs a single-passage machine (Narrow body machine) To wide-body long-distance aircraft.[9].. Until now, Airbus has been avoiding competition with other companies on its own route of twin-engine wide-body aircraft, but in order to establish a solid position as a passenger aircraft manufacturer, it has entered the market dominated by American manufacturers and has actively gained market share. Had to do[5][10].

Meanwhile, around that time, a new passenger plane with 150 seats was being sought in the single-passage market.[11][5].727,737-200,DC-9,BAC 1-11,Sud CaravelleI was approaching the time to update small and medium-sized machines for medium and short distances such as[11][5][12].. In addition, demand for air passengers is growing steadily, and it is estimated that there will be demand for 150 passenger aircraft with 20 seats in the next 3,000 years.[13][14][11].. Aircraft manufacturers in each country eagerly researched new aircraft aiming at this market[11][15].. Several European and European companies have set up independent or joint development plans.[15][11][12].. In addition, a US aircraft manufacturer has attempted to cut off the Airbus Consortium and has approached a European aircraft manufacturer for joint development.[15].

The effect of the truncate tactics by US manufacturers was limited, and the development concept was not realized[15][12].. Rather, European manufacturers launched a new co-development project in 1977 in order not to miss the opportunity to compete with the United States.[15][12].. This project is named JET (Joint European Transport) and the participating members areAerospatial,MBB,(English editionAndBritish aerospace Was (BAe)[15].. The JET project was underway as a separate project from Airbus, but most of the participating members were members of Airbus, and BAe, which was the only non-participating member of Airbus, joined Airbus in 1979.[15][16][17].. As a result, the JET plan was inherited by the Airbus Consortium and was named the SA plan, which means Single Aisle.[15][12].. In the SA plan, three types of aircraft plans were created from SA1 to SA3, and the number of seats was 3 seats, 125 seats, and 150 seats, respectively.[12].

Based on the reaction of the airline, Airbus decided to focus on the 150-seat class SA2, and decided the aircraft name as A1981 in February 2.[12][11][15].. Around this time in 1979Second oil crisisCaused fuel prices to soar, and airlines were chasing fuel efficiency measures[18].. AmericanDelta Airlines,United airlinesHas established the required specifications for 150-seat passenger aircraft with excellent fuel efficiency.[18][19].. The specifications of the A320 have been put together to exactly meet these requirements[19][18][12][Annotation 1].

Until the official development decision

Even in the countries participating in Airbus,British AirwaysAnd GermanLufthansaWas reluctant to A320[21].. British Airways has an urgent need to replace the owned aircraft, and decided to order a Boeing aircraft because it decided that the A320 to be developed will not be in time[22].. Lufthansa called for prioritizing the development of wide-body aircraft for long-haul routes over 150-seat narrow-body aircraft[21][12].. On the other hand,Air FranceWelcomes the A320 plan, of June 1981Paris Air ShowAnnounced that it will order 50 aircraft including options[15][23].. French government also promised to bear A320 development costs[22].

It took three years from here until the official development of the A320 was decided, even though Air France decided to place an order early and the potential demand was confirmed.[22][12].. This is because the German and British governments, who were in a difficult financial situation, were reluctant to bear the burden of development costs.[22][21][12].. Especially the situation in England was complicated[22].. Aircraft engine manufacturerRolls-RoyceThe future of the UK-Japan joint development engine, in which (RR) participated and the UK government also invested, became uncertain, and additional investment was required to convert to a new development plan.[22].. The new plan is an international joint venture of 5 countries including Japan and the United Kingdom,International Aero Engines (IAE) was establishedV2500Was to develop[24][22][25].. The V2500 engine is viewed as a promising engine for the A320, and the British government was forced to invest in the A320 to make the engine commercially successful.[21].

Airbus urged Japan and Canada to participate, but Japan refused because there was a joint development plan with Boeing at that time, and Canada also refused to participate at the last minute because it was not profitable.[22].. Under these circumstances, in early 1984, the FrenchPresident Mitterrand, BritishThatcher,Germany'sPrime Minister of CallHave confirmed that they will provide direct and indirect financial support to A320[5].. In response, the German government decided in February of the same year to spend 2 billion mark (about 90 billion yen), which is 15% of the required expenses.[22][21].. The British government also decided to invest in both the engine and the aircraft after struggling[21].. However, for A320, the initial request of 4 million pounds will be contributed 3,700 million pounds (about 2 billion yen), and the shortage will be raised by BAe.[22][21].

On March 1984, 3, Airbus decided to officially develop and manufacture the A2 because it finally got the prospect of funding[14][26].. By this point, in addition to Air France,Yale Anterre,British Caledonian Airlines,Adria Airways,Cyprus AirlinesWe have won orders for 5 aircraft including options from 96 companies[22].

Design process

Fly by wire

Aircraft design was also advanced in parallel with sales activities.[27].. It is the first passenger plane in the world to operate the A320.Fly by wireTechnology introduced in earnest[28][19].. In the fly-by-wire method, pilot control operations are converted into electrical signals and input to a computer.[29].. Then, the result calculated by the computer is transmitted as an electric signal to the actuator on each control surface.[29].. As a result, it is possible to reduce the mechanical parts such as cables (ropes), rods, and pulleys that used to connect the cockpit to the control wing surface with the conventional control device, which has the advantage of reducing the weight and maintenance load of the machine.[19][29].

When using a mechanical control device with a body size such as an airliner, in order to keep the steering force within an appropriate range, a largeControl wheelThe method of arranging in front is suitable[30].. On the other hand, in the case of fly-by-wire, since the control input is converted into an electric signal, the degree of freedom in the form and arrangement of the control stick is increased.[30].. So in A320, side sticks were adopted instead of the control wheels.[30].. The side sticks are located on the left and right sides of the cockpit, and the captain will operate with his left hand and the co-pilot with his right hand.[30].. The cockpit is so-calledGlass cockpitAnd the instrumentation has 6 sidesCRTAggregated in the display[26].

The full adoption of fly-by-wire and side sticks not only improved the product strength of the A320, but also had strategic significance for Airbus.[29].. Airbus has installed a system similar to the A320 on all passenger planes that will be developed in the future, and had a policy of standardizing maneuverability from small aircraft to large long-range aircraft.[29][19].. In the conventional mechanical control system, it was difficult to unify different handling characteristics for each model.[29].. Therefore, Airbus decided to align the control operation and control feeling of all models by introducing full-scale computer-controlled fly-by-wire technology.[29].. As a result, the pilot qualifications of the A320 family aircraft (derivative type), which will be developed later, are standardized, and the wide body aircraft ofA340,A330It is expected that the training for qualification transfer to[31][29][19].. Airbus will be a powerful advantage as it will allow airlines to greatly streamline their operations by preparing from small aircraft to large aircraft with Airbus aircraft.[32].. And the A320 was suitable as the first model to put innovative technologies such as fly-by-wire into practical use.[12].. Airbus thought that the A320 short-haul aircraft would be operated near the maintenance base, so it would be easy to deal with a serious defect if it is found.[12].

The design of the cockpit was undertaken by Aerospatial of France.[27].. Airbus participating companies including the company have so farConcordeHas commercialized an analog fly-by-wire in the A310, introduced a digital computer in the AXNUMX, and accumulated experience in the development of military aircraft.[26][33].. Aerospatial was also working on research and development of the next-generation cockpit before the development of the A320 was decided.[27].. These experiences and research results were utilized for A320 system development.[27][26][33].. Airbus has developed a fly-by-wire control system using the A300 Unit 3 as a test machine.[34].. The side stick was also mounted on the A300 test machine, and a total of 136 hours of flight tests were conducted by many pilots including airline pilots.[34][35][36].. As a result of these evaluations, it was concluded that there was no problem and it was decided to introduce it into A320.[34].

Structure/aerodynamic design

Like the typical passenger aircraft, the A320's airframe configuration is under the low-wing main wing.Turbo fan engineEach one was placed, and the tail was also placed normally[37].. The airframe structure of A320 was designed by utilizing the data and know-how obtained through the development of A300 and A310.[38].. The structural strength is suitable for short- and medium-haul operation, and corrosion prevention, long-term guarantee of structural quality, improvement of maintainability, and reduction of the number of parts were achieved.[38].. The member has an improvedAluminum alloy,Titanium alloyWas adopted,Composite materialThe range of use has also been expanded[38].

The wing was designed by BAe in England[27][26].. The design cruise speed of A320 is slightly lower than A300 and A310MachSet from 0.79 to 0.8[39].. Cruising range is 3,000nautical mile(Approximately 5,556 kilometers), which was not short for an airliner of this size[40].

The thickness of the main wing should be thin aerodynamically, while on the other hand it should be thick to secure sufficient fuel tank capacity and structural strength in the wing.[40][41].. Although the rear loading wing type that Airbus put into practical use on the A300 had various advantages, the rear part of the wing is thin, so it is smaller than the size of the A320.flapHow to secure the space to install[40][42].. The wing was designed to meet these requirements by utilizing three-dimensional computer analysis.[41].. The main wing of the finished A320 has a wing thickness ratio[Annotation 2]Although it was close to A310,AirfoilIs significantly different and the thickness on the trailing edge side is secured[40].. WingFlat shapeHas a shallow receding angle and a large aspect ratio[45][39].. The flap is a simple one-step fowler flap[46][47]The weight was reduced by using a lot of composite materials for the rotor blades.[45].

The fuselage section is a "double bubble structure" that combines two circular structures, and has the widest body width as a single-passage aircraft.[48][19].. Although this increased the aircraft weight, it realized a room and cargo room with more room than competing aircraft.[12][49].. In addition, by opening the cargo compartment door to a large size to enable the loading of air freight containers, we were able to differentiate ourselves from competitors in terms of freight transportation.[50][51].

The prototype of A320 isMaximum takeoff weightWas 66 tons and had a cruising range of 164 nautical miles (about 1,750 kilometers) when 3240 passengers boarded.[52].. In response, the airline asked for a little more range[23].. Therefore, the maximum takeoff weight was increased to 72 tons, a fuel tank was added inside the central wing, andWing tip fenceEquipped with a plan to extend the cruising range to 3,200 nautical miles (about 5,930 kilometers)[52][23].. The prototype was named A320-100, and the weight-increasing type was named A320-200.[53].

engine

Engine selection was a major issue in the early stages of A320 development[53][54].. Initially, there was no engine suitable for a 150-seat airliner,CFM International(Hereinafter referred to as CFMI)CFM56-2Engines were the main candidates for the time being, and several other engines under development were also listed as candidates.[54][27].. After that, the development of the CFM56-56, which is an improved version of the CFM4, was decided, and the adoption of this engine was decided in 1983.[27].. The previously mentioned IAE V2500 engine was decided to be developed in 1984 and will be adopted for the A320.[55].. With the advent of the rival V2500, CFMI decided that the CFM56-4 had insufficient performance, and changed it to CFM56-5 with increased thrust.[55].. As a result, the A320 equipped engine has become a selection formula from two types of CFM 56-5 and V2500.[34].. Boeing and McDonnell Douglas competitors have only one type of engine setting, and only A1 can select the engine in this size.[45].

Production and testing

The international division of labor was adopted in the production of the A320 so that the participating countries can secure a certain amount of work as with the previous Airbus aircraft.[56].. Table 320 shows the production share of the main components of the A1. In addition, some of the wing parts handled by BAe were subcontracted by an Australian company.[57].. Regarding the final assembly site, which is the base of production, although there were tactics among the Airbus participating countries, in the end it was still in FranceToulouseWas decided[22][58].. However, the assembly of the airframe interior is GermanHamburgTo be done in[59].

Table 1: Production share of major components of A2010 around 320
CountryCompany nameProduction sharing area
FranceAerospatial Nose and front fuselage (in front of the leading edge of the main wing), center wing, engine pylon, cabin door,
GermanyMBBCentral and aft fuselage, tail cones, wing flaps, vertical stabilizers
The United KingdomBAeMain wing body (including aileron and spoiler), main landing fairing
スペイン(English editionHorizontal stabilizer, main landing fairing
ベルギーBell airbusWing leading edge slats

The components produced in the factories of each country are the same as the previous Airbus aircraft.Super guppyAssembled by air transport to Toulouse[60][61].. However, with the A320, once the work in Toulouse is complete, the aircraft will be able to fly, making its first flight and normally moving to Hamburg.[59].. After finishing the interior work in Hamburg, the aircraft flew back to Toulouse, where it was handed over to customers.[59].

The first A320 is the A56-320 equipped with a CFM100 engine, the final assembly of which started in April 1986.[62][23].. The rollout ceremony was held grandly on February 2, 14, and five days later, the first flight was successfully completed on February 5, 1987.[15][62]. afterwards,Type certificationTest flight with 4 aircraft system for acquisition[62].

In the flight control system software development, multiple simulators were used before the test flight. Therefore, a simulator that completely reproduced the cockpit and hydraulic/power system was also developed.[63].. Finally, the flight test verified the software and the entire system.[63].. A dedicated test system was also developed and used to record the internal parameters of the computer in the flight test and set the conditions for the test.[63].. Also, an electromagnetic interference (EMI) test was conducted, which was worried because it was electronically controlled, and it was confirmed by Airbus that the system would not be hindered unless it was in a situation where it was disturbed by a warship.[30].

After completing these flight tests, on February 1988, 2, a type certificate was issued by the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) of Europe for the CFM26 engine-equipped A320.[62].

Start of service

March 1988, 3 First delivery of A26 to Air France[64][65].. On April 4, the same year, Air France started commercial operation of A18.[66].. British Caledonian Airlines was to be delivered next time, but the company was absorbed by British Airways before receiving the A320.[67][68].. As a result, the British Caledonian order will be passed on to British Airways, which received its first aircraft on March 1988, 3, and launched the line the following month.[67][66].. To date, British Airways hasFlag carrierWas the only Airbus operator to introduce an Airbus operator, but in this way joined the Airbus operator.[64].. Subsequently, the delivery to Yale Anterre began[66].. The cabin of the A320, which is wider than the competition, was popular with passengers.[69].

In parallel with the delivery of the A320-100, the weight-increasing A320-200 made its first flight on June 1988, 6.[62].. A56-320 equipped with CFM200 engine obtained type certification on November 1988, 11[70].. Actual orders were concentrated on A320-200, production of A320-100 ended with only the first 21 aircraft, after that all became A320-200[45].. This will make the A320-200 a practical standard model of the A320, and will continue to be improved upon.[45].. Also, the V2500-equipped model was produced only for the A320-200.[62].

The first A320 machine was replaced with a V2500 engine after the first type certification was obtained, and the first flight with the same engine was performed on July 1988, 7, and engaged in the test flight as it was.[62].. On April 1989, 4, the V20 equipped type also obtained JAA type certification.[62].. First delivery of V2500 engine specificationsAdria AirwaysAnd the delivery to Cyprus Airlines was started without delay.[71].. By June of the same year, both airlines also started service on the A6 with V2500 specifications.[71].

Since small revisions were made just before the acquisition of the type certificate, there were problems such as delayed delivery of the aircraft and delayed supply of maintenance parts at the initial stage of delivery.[66].. Still, operational reliability recorded 3% in the first three months.[66].. After obtaining the formal certification, Airbus made 800 improvements, including small details[72].. Only one of them is enforceableAirworthiness improvement orderReached[72].. The content was a problem with the power system of the flight system, and the power supply unit was replaced.[72].. In addition, with the CFM56 engine equipped type, it was regarded as a problem that an unpleasant noise was heard in front of the cabin at takeoff, and Airbus was forced to deal with it[69].

Strong orders

At the time of the rollout in April 1986, the A4 had more than 320 orders from 15 companies.[15].. And in October of the same year,Northwest AirlinesReceived an order for 100 A320s from[26][73].. U.S. aircraft manufacturers were shocked by major US airlines ordering large numbers of Airbus aircraft[74].. The panicked Boeing is said to have sent an order form for the 737 with a blank amount of money to the president of Northwest, but he could not convince Northwest.[74].

However, the fuel price did not rise as much as expected in the early 1980s, so the direct operating cost of A320 was not as advantageous as expected, and many airlines chose existing aircraft with cheaper aircraft price[46].. Delta Airlines, which influenced the specification of the A320,MD-80United had chosen 737[46].. Still, in 1992, Airbus made a full-scale entry into the U.S. market after winning a large order from United Airlines after three years of negotiations.[74].

The A320 was accepted in North America because the aircraft itself was attractive, but some pointed out that Airbus offered a strategic price.[75].. The offer price was said to be 4% off the catalog price, and there was a complaint from the British government who was financially supporting Airbus.[75].. However, this was not just a bargain, it was Airbus' strategy to connect with the A340 and A330 twin-passage aircraft, whose development plans were in progress.[75].

Development of family aircraft

Airbus started studying development of derivative version of A1987 in 320[58].. Based on A320, a type to extend the body and a type to shorten the body were studied[58][12].. Since the simultaneous development of the A340 and A330 had already begun, a minimum number of engineers were invested in the derivative development of the A320.[58].

A321

First of all, the development of the long body type was promoted, and formal ordering activities started in May 1988.[58][76].. In April 1989Aircraft leasingDeal withInternational Lease Finance (ILFC) decided to order 16 aircraft, which was the first order[77].. Then on September 9 of the same yearLufthansaOrders 42 aircraft, including options[78]As a result, on November 11, the long body type was named A24 and official development was decided.[79][77].

In A321, the fuselage has been extended by 4.27 meters, and the standard number of seats in the two-class configuration is 2.[80][35].. With the extension of the fuselage and the increase in aircraft weightLiftTo strengthen the wingflapWas newly designed and replaced with a double slotted flap (double gap flap)[80][81].. Like the A320, the engine is a CFM56 from CFMI and a V2500 from IAE, and both engines are equipped with a thrust-increasing type according to the size of the aircraft.[82].. Others were designed to minimize the changes from the A320, and most of the main wing, tail, and fuselage section were shared with the A320.[83].. The flight system is based on the A320, with some modifications to suit the aerodynamic characteristics.[84].

The final assembly site for the A321 left France for the first time as an Airbus aircraft and was decided in Hamburg, Germany[85][85].. Also, the A321 became the first Airbus aircraft to be developed without financial support from governments of each country.[86][77].

The first flight of the A321 took place on March 1993, 3, and the first type certification was issued by JAA on December 11, 12.[79].. Customer delivery of the A321 was started in January of the following year, and with Lufthansa in March of the same year.AlitaliaStarted line service by[77][87][88].. Next, the A321 was developed as a derivative type with increased cruising power by adding a cargo container type fuel tank.The original specifications were named A321-100 and extended cruising types were named A321-200.[89][79].

A319

Short-body type research was also conducted in parallel, and it was approved by the Airbus Board of Directors to start sales activities on May 1992, 5.[90][91].. However, the government and companies that compose Airbus took time to agree on the final assembly site, and the official development decision was delayed on June 1993, 6.[77][79].. In the end, the final assembly site for the A319 was Hamburg and the assembly site for the A320 remained Toulouse.[77][92].

The fuselage has been shortened by 3.73 meters, and the standard number of seats has been set to 2 with two classes.[93][90].. The layout of cargo doors and emergency exits has been changed due to the decrease in fuselage length and capacity.[93].. The engine can be selected from CFM56 and V2500, and thrust suppression type has been set for both engines according to the downsized aircraft.[90].. Other structures and systems were shared with A320 as much as possible.[93].

The A319 made its first flight on August 1995, 8, and after the flight test for about 25 hours, obtained the first type certification from JAA on April 650, 1996.[94].. The first delivery of the A319 was made to Swiss Airlines within the same month and began service in the following May.[94][95].

ACJ319

Airbus based on A1996 at the Paris Air Show in June 6Business jetAnnounced to develop[96].. We decided to expand into the long-distance business aircraft market by taking advantage of passenger cabin-based passenger rooms.[96][92].. Airbus launches its business jetAirbus Corporate JetThe aircraft based on A319 was called A319CJ or ACJ319.[97][96].. The first ACJ319 flew on November 1998, 11, and was first delivered to the customer in January of the following year.[96].. Later, the ACJ was expanded to the entire A320 family, and the ACJ320 and ACJ321 were developed based on the A320 and A321 respectively, and the ACJ318 based on the later developed A318 also appeared.[98].

A318

For passenger aircraft smaller than the A319, Airbus initially had a policy of not developing its own.[99].. In the first half of the 1990s, several plans for international joint development of passenger aircraft with about 100 seats were set up, and among them, plans for jointly developing the "Asian Express" by European and Asian companies were settled.[99][100].. Airbus has also participated in this "Asian Express" project, and the control system and qualifications will be shared with the A320.[99].. However, the Asian Express is planning to completely design the aircraft, and the high business risk associated with it has come to a standstill as a business.[101][99][102].. Eventually Airbus decided to further shorten the A319's fuselage and independently develop a 100-seat passenger aircraft[99].

The new short body type was named A318 and officially decided to be developed on April 1999, 4.[103].. A318 is 319 meters shorter than A2.39 to keep directional stability with itVertical tailWas extended[104].. In addition, the freight door was downsized and the freight container could not be installed.[104].. The engine is a CFM56 thrust suppression type,Pratt & Whitney Newly developed by (P & W)PW6000Was set[104][105].

The A318 first flew on January 2002, 1 and received its first type certification from JAA on May 15, 2003.[106].. In June of the same yearFrontier AirlinesReceived for the first time and started line service[106].

Common use with twin-passage aircraft

In parallel with the expansion of the A320 family, the twin-passage aircraft A340 and A330 were also completed, and the delivery to the airline company was started in 1993.[107].. Furthermore, Airbus completed the A2000-340/-2, the second generation of the A340, in the first half of the 500s, as well as a giant aircraft with two-story guest roomsA380Developed and entered service in 2007[108][107][109].. These models developed after A320 are equipped with a highly common fly-by-wire system.[110][111].. The layout, display, and operation method of the operating devices and display devices were made as identical as possible, and basically the same cockpit specifications were realized.[112].. As a result, each A320 family aircraft has the same flight qualification[113].. in additionMutual crew qualification With the creation of a qualification system called (Cross Crew Qualification; CCQ), Airbus planes will shift from 100 A318 class A500 to over 380 A2 class AXNUMX with a short training period of a few days to two weeks. Became possible[114][19].. And by the end of production of A2007 and A300 by 310, all passenger aircraft produced by Airbus are subject to CCQ[111].

Competition with competitors and spread to LCC

In the latter half of the 1990's, American aircraft manufacturers made successive generations of single-passage aircraft to compete with the A320.[115].. McDonnell DouglasMD-80Based on V2500 engine and modernizedMD-90Developed[116].. Boeing also updated the 737 engine737NG Developed (Next Generation)[117].. Small single-passage aircraft have smaller profit margins than twin-passage aircraft, so both Boeing and McDonnell Douglas hesitated to develop a completely new model and chose to improve the existing aircraft.[118][115].. On the other hand, Airbus succeeded in implementing a state-of-the-art system for single-passage aircraft such as the A330 by sharing the system with the A340 and A320 and distributing the development costs.[119].

The A320 family delivered more than 1991 aircraft in 1992 and 100 and recorded more than 50 aircraft every year since then.[120].. In 1999, the total number of deliveries of A320 family exceeded 1,000, and the delivery ceremony of 4 and 15 was held on April 1,000th.[121].. Since 1999, the number of deliveries each year has exceeded 320 for the A100 alone and over 200 for the entire family.[120].

In the 1990s, major US mid-sized airlines including Northwest Airlines and United Airlines introduced the A320 family one after another.[122].. Gradually, in the United States, pilots with A320 flight qualifications and mechanics with A320 maintenance experience grew, and by the beginning of the 2000s, the so-called emergingCheap airline (LCC) was preparing an environment where it could secure pilots and mechanics by improving the operation system of the A320 family.[122].. The A320 is also popular in the used machine market,Aircraft leasingBecause it became an advantageous aircraft for carrying out, it was easy to introduce A320 by leasing even for emerging airlines with limited funds[123].. Under these circumstances, the USJet Blue AirlinesAdopted the A320 and expanded the number of operations to 3 in 40 years[123].. continueFrontier AirlinesIntroduced the A2001 in 319 to expand adoption of family aircraft[122].. European cheap airlines have also chosen the A320 family[124].

At this time, Airbus Industry, which had been in the form of a consortium until now, was changed to an integrated company on January 2001, 1, and the company name was simply "Airbus".[125][126].. In the same year, the cumulative number of delivered A320s alone exceeded 1,000.[120].. And in 2002, the A320 family surpassed the 737 series in annual deliveries.[127]In terms of the number of operated aircraft, the A320 family is McDonnell-Douglas single-passage aircraft series (DC-9/MD-80/MD-90) Was pulled out[128].. In 2003, the total number of deliveries of the A320 family reached 2,000.[120].

Started production in China

In order to increase production capacity, Airbus will also attack the Chinese market, so the first final assembly base outside of Europe will beTianjinDecided to open in[129][130].. In December 2005, Airbus and the Chinese government signed a memorandum of understanding for factory construction.[130]The plant started construction in May 2007, started operation in August 5, and officially opened in September.[59][130].. The first Tianjin plant made its first flight on May 2009, 5, and was delivered to the customer on June 18, 6.[59].. The aircraft completed in Tianjin was initially intended for Chinese airlines, but later it was also delivered to some Asian airlines.[59][130].

As of March 2009, the total number of orders received for the A3 family was 320, and the number of deliveries was 6,313.[5].. The breakdown of the orderers by region was 1,988 aircrafts in North America, 1,763 aircrafts in Europe, and 1,595 aircrafts in Asia.[5].

Various improvements

The maximum takeoff weight, which was 320 tons when the A200-72 appeared, was gradually increased thereafter, and specifications such as 73.5 tons, 77 tons, and 78 tons were set.[62].. The increase in takeoff weight was used to increase the amount of fuel loaded, and the standard range was extended accordingly.[62].. The engine was also improved to improve fuel efficiency and environmental performance.[131].Computational fluid dynamicsThe aerodynamic surface was also improved by using the technology of the engine, the shape of the engine pylon and the fairing connecting the wings and the fuselage were changed.[131].. The flight system has also been improved with a continuous descent approach (CDA) method[Annotation 3],Wide area navigationThe function corresponding to is added to achieve more efficient operation.[134][131].. As for the cabin, the overhead baggage storage space was improved to improve volume efficiency, and the interior space was expanded by updating the interior.[134].. A business system for flight attendants, which manages lighting and air conditioning in guest rooms and broadcasts messages, was also introduced.[64].

It is possible to fly a route away from the alternative airfieldETOPSThe scope of application of requirements has been gradually expanded, and in March 2004European Aviation Safety Agency(Hereinafter, EASA) from the United States in May 2006Federal Aviation Administration(Hereinafter, FAA), 319 minutes ETOPS was recognized for A320, A321, and A180.[135][136].. Then, in November 2006, EASA also recognized ETOPS of 11 minutes for A318.[135][137].

After that, we will continue to reduce fuel consumption and replaced the wing tip fence with a new one in November 2009.Wing tip deviceWas announced to adopt[138].. This wing tip device was named "Sharklet" because the main wing tip was bent upward to form a large fin shape.[138][134].. Airbus said it could reduce fuel consumption by 2,000 percent by equipping it with sharklets when flying over 3,704 nautical miles (3.5 kilometers).[138].. From 2010 to 2011, sharklets were developed and prototyped.[138].. And the sharklet was installed on the first A320 aircraft, and flight test started on November 2011, 11[138].. The sharklet equipment specification obtained the first type certification from EASA on November 2012, 11, and on the following month, 30st.Air AsiaWas first delivered to[138][139][140].. The sharklet is set to the A318 family aircraft except the A320, and the sharklet has become the standard specification as a general rule from the 2014 delivery[138].

Consideration of successor

In parallel with the improvement of the A320, Airbus was researching what to do with the successor to the A320.[141][142].. There are two main ideas for the successor, one was to develop a completely new design machine, and the other was to install a new engine on the A2 to create a new generation.[141][142].

The new design isNSR Named (New Short Range), the use of composite materials for the main wing and fuselage structure, the latest aerodynamic design,Enhanced vision systemThe introduction of the latest avionics such as[143].. Around this time, some research on next-generation engines was underway for A320 and 737 passenger aircraft.[144][142].. These next-generation enginesOpen rotorOr because it has a large diameter fan, it required a new airframe design.[144][142].. It was estimated that the next generation engine could be put into practical use at the earliest around 2025, but this was not in time for the NSR plan that was aiming for service in the 2010s. There was concern that NSR would soon become obsolete due to the advent of next-generation engines[145][144][142].

In such a situation, Airbus decided not to carry out new development that requires a large development cost, but to upgrade the A320 to a new generation.[144][142].. Specifically, the aircraft design of A320 will be used as it is, and it will be updated to the latest high-efficiency engine at that time.[144].. Airbus named this improved model A320neo and announced the official development decision on December 2010, 12[146].. "Neo" is "New Engine Option" (meaning new engine selection type)AcronymAnd the meaning of "new"GreekIt is a product of "neo".[146].. And with the advent of neo, the conventional A320 family is now A320ceo (Current Engine Option; current engine choice type)[146].

320, which competes with A737, had a similar successor problem.[144].. Boeing was studying a newly designed single-passage aircraft, but eventually chose to upgrade the existing aircraft, and on August 2011, 8737MAXDecided to develop[143][147][144].. Although the market competition for single-passage aircraft entered a new stage in this way, A9neo, which was ahead of the market for nine months, had won a large order of more than 320 aircraft from 737 companies including the leasing company by the announcement of 14MAX. Was[148].

Development of A320neo

As the name implies, the A320neo has its engine engine updated to the latest turbofan engine.[149][150].. The set engine isPratt & Whitney (P & W)Pure power PW1100GSeries of CFMILEAP-1AThere are two types of series[149].. Both engines have a large diameter fan and have a bypass ratio[Annotation 4]Fuel economy performance was improved by increasing[151].

PW1100G is one of the Pure Power PW1000G series[150].. The PW1100G has a speed reducer to optimize the fan speed.Geared turbofan engineAlso called[149][150].. This results in a very high bypass ratio of 12:1[Annotation 4]Realized[150]..Airbus was supporting P & W's development work by equipping Airbus' A2008-10 with the PW1000 engine under development in October 340 and conducting flight tests.[150][152].. At this time, Airbus had not decided to install the PW1000 engine, but as a result it was adopted for the A320neo.[150].

The LEAP-1A was officially launched in July 56 as the successor engine to the CFM2008.[150][151].. Although it does not have a fan reducer, it uses the latest material technology and aerodynamic design technology to improve the engine core.[Annotation 5]In addition to downsizing and improving efficiency, optimizing the fan, the system was also improved to improve fuel efficiency.[150][149][154][151].

Both A320neo engines have fan diameters that are several tens of centimeters larger than the A320ceo engine, but Airbus says that it can secure the necessary distance between the bottom of the cowling and the ground.Landing gearWas not extended[155][149].. In order to develop in a limited period, the new engineCowl3D model digital mockup was actively used for the design of[156].

The basic airframe design other than the engine was followed by that of the A320ceo family, and 95% of the designs were common.[146][157].. The wing sharklet is now standard on the A320neo[146].

Airbus was also improving the A320ceo along with the development of the A320neo. As a modification applied to both neo and ceo, a new room layout named Space-Flex, complete LED lighting for guest room, and cockpitHead up display (HUD) introduction[158][151].. At Spaceflex,GalleyBy compressing the space of the toilet and the toilet, it has become possible to increase the number of seats by 6[159][151].. The head-up display can be installed on the captain's seat and the co-pilot seat respectively, and it is possible to set it as an option on new machines and to refit it on existing machines.[35].

The first A320neo was equipped with a PW1100G engine and made its first flight in Toulouse on September 2014, 9.[157][160].. On May 2015, 5, the LEAP-19A equipped model also made its first flight.[161].. On November 11 of the same year, the first type certification of A24neo for PW1100G specifications was issued by EASA and FAA.[162][163][139].

Initially during 2015Qatar AirwaysPlanned to receive the first A320neo but postponed due to performance issues with the PW1100G engine[164].. As a result, the first delivery of A1neo was carried out to Lufthansa German Airlines on January 20, the following year.[165].. Lufthansa began operating the A1neo route within Germany in January, and launched it on the international route between London and Frankfurt in April of the same year.[166][167][168].

On May 2016, 5, EASA and FAA also issued type certification for LEAP-31A equipment specifications.[163][139]On July 7th in TurkeyPegasus AirlinesWas first delivered to[164][169].

Early versions of the PW1100G had the problem of taking a long time to start the engine, and P & W was busy improving it.[170][171].. Other than that, some problems were found in both PW320G engine and LEAP-1100A engine in the early stage after the start of A1neo operation, and improvements and countermeasures were made by each manufacturer.[170].

Making family machines neo

When the A2010 neo was decided to be developed in December 12, it was decided to develop a neo for the A320 and A321 family machines as well.[146].. Regarding the smallest A318 in the family, the cumulative number of deliveries from 2003 to 2010 was 74, and the development of neo was postponed because it could not expect future demand.[120][146].. Both A321 and A319 can be equipped with PW1100G engine and LEAP-1A engine, and thrust enhancing type and suppression type are prepared for each engine according to the aircraft size.[173][174].. On May 2015, 5, we decided to develop an Airbus Corporate Jet based on the A19neo family and named it ACJ320neo family.[175][176].

The first A321neo was equipped with a LEAP-1A engine and made its first flight on February 2016, 2.[177][178].. The next month, the A1100neo equipped with PW321G also made its first flight.[168][179].. After that, A321neo made a test flight, and type certification was issued to the PW2016G specification type on December 12, 15, and the LEAP-1100A specification type on March 3, 1, respectively.[180][181].. On April 2017, 4, A20neo with LEAP-1A specificationsVirgin AmericaWas delivered for the first time to PW9G engine equipped machine on September 5,All Nippon AirwaysWas first delivered to[182][183][184].

Long body type A321Boeing 757Although it was expanding into the successor aircraft market, it was necessary to strengthen the cruising power in order to fully replace the 757.[185][186].. Therefore, on January 2015, 1, Airbus will extend the range of the A13neo to the A321LR (Long Rdecided to develop ange, meaning long distance)[187][188].. The A321LR made its first flight on January 2018, 1, obtained type certification on October 31, and was first delivered on November 10.Alkya Israel AirlinesMade against[189][190][191].. On June 2019, 6, the A17XLR (Xbetween Long RAirbus announced to develop ange)[188].. A321XLR isAmerican airlines,Qantas,Iberian airlines,AeringusIs owned byInternational Airlines GroupReceived an order from the company, etc., and development is proceeding with a plan for delivery in 2023.[192][193][188].

During this time, the first A319neo was also manufactured with the LEAP-1A engine specifications and made its first flight on March 2017, 3.[194].. In the same way, after a test flight, in December 2018, type certification was issued to A12neo with LEAP-1A specifications.[194][195].. After that, the first engine of A319neo replaced the engine with PW1100G and made the first flight with the same engine on April 2019, 4.[194][195].. As of 2019, the A1100neo with PW319G specifications is undergoing a test flight to obtain type certification.[196].. The first delivery of A319neo was delivered to individual customers on July 2019, 7[197].

Further sales growth and production enhancement

The number of annual deliveries of the A320 family continued to increase, surpassing 2006 in 300 and exceeding 2009 in 400.[120].. The same is true of the annual number of A320s delivered, exceeding 2008 in 200 and exceeding 2011 in 300.[120].. Cumulative deliveries of the A320 family have continued to grow, reaching 2012 in February 2 and 5,000 in March 2014.[120][198][199].

During this time, the focus of demand within the A320 family has shifted to large aircraft.[200].. Since 320, when the A321, A319, and A1996 have been completed, the number of deliveries has increased in the order of A320, A319, and A321.[200].. In 2006, the share of the number of deliveries in the family was less than 321% for A10, 320% for A43, and 319% for A73.[200]。2010年を境にA319とA321の納入数が逆転し、2016年にはA321が44パーセント、A320が53パーセント、A319は3パーセントとなった[200][120].

The production system has been strengthened in stages in parallel with the development of the A320neo family.[201].. Airbus decided to carry out final assembly of the A2012 family in the US in July 7,AlabamaMobileBuilt a factory in[202].. The Alabama plant started construction in April 2013 and has been in full operation since September 4.[202].. The first U.S.-made aircraft flew in March 2016 and was delivered to customers in April.[202][203].

On February 2008, 2, the total number of deliveries of the A1 family reached 320.[204], October 2019, 10 11 deliveries of A320 "neo" family[197][205].

As of 2019, the final assembly of A320 is in four places: Toulouse in France, Hamburg in Germany, Tianjin in China, and mobile in the United States.[206].. The A319 is finally assembled at three locations in Hamburg, Tianjin and Mobile, and the A3 is finally assembled at two locations in Hamburg and Mobile.[120].. Production of A318 has been cut off since 2015[120].

Aircraft

Family structure

Depending on the generation, the A320 family is divided into the original A320ceo family and the A320neo family, which has been upgraded to a new generation engine. The A320ceo family consists of four models: the basic type A320, the long body type A321, and the short body type A319 and A318. The A4neo family consists of A320neo, A319neo and A320neo.

In this section, the basic type A320 is mainly described. For each family model, see the individual page (A321# Aircraft,A319# Aircraft,A318# Aircraft)checking. For more information about A320neoA320neoSee also For corporate jet specificationsAirbus Corporate JetSee also

Shape/Structure

Basic configuration

Aircraft configuration of A320 is that of a typical passenger aircraft[207].. The cantilevered wingLow wingsPlaced inMonoplaneAnd one shot under each of the left and right wingsTurbo fan engineEquipped with[208][53][146].TailIs the normal arrangement,Vertical tailHorizontal stabilizerBoth are directly attached to the torso[208].Landing gearIs a front wheel type with front legs at the nose and main legs at the roots of the left and right wings[209].. Total length is 37.57 meters, total height is 11.76 meters, width is 34.10 meters with wing tip fence equipment and 35.80 meters with sharklet equipment.[210].

The material of the airframe structure isAluminum alloy,Titanium alloy, But most of the structural weight is made of composite materials.[211][212].. The composite material used isCarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced plastic (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP). AFRP and GFRP are used for secondary structural members, CFRP is used for secondary structural members as well as main structural materials.[211][Annotation 6].

Wing

WingtaperSwept wing with a wing area of ​​122.6 square meters[208][216].. 25% sweep angle at 25% chord, aspect ratio[Annotation 7] Is about 9.5, which is a blade with a narrow sweep angle and a large span.[207][39].. Blade thickness ratio[Annotation 2]Is 10.8%, which is close to that of A310, but the cross-sectional shape is quite different and the blade of A320 is relatively thick in the latter half.[39][40].. The main wing structure consists of a central wing structure that is integrated with the fuselage and left and right cantilever wing structures.[47].. The left and right wings have a box-type stress skin structure (box structure), and consist of front spar, rear spar, ribs (small bones), stringers (longitudinal members), and upper and lower skins.[220][47].. The central wing structure istrussBox structure reinforced withLiftIs responsible for transmitting information such as[47].

On the wingHigh lift deviceWith slats on the leading edge and fowler flaps on the trailing edge[47][207].. There are six slats per wing, and they are arranged almost all over the width.[47][208].. At the base of the engine pylon, the flap is divided into two parts, the inner wing and the outer wing.AileronThere is[47].. On the upper surface of the main wing,SpoilerThere is[47].. SpoilerRoll controlAlso used for[207].. Weight reduction is achieved by using many composite materials for the rotor blades.[47].

Wing tip deviceAsInductive resistanceWith wing tip fence or sharklets to reduce[207][221].. The wing tip fence is a barb-shaped straightening plate, and the sharklet has a shape in which the wing tip is bent upward like a winglet.[47][207].. At the beginning of development, the wing tip fence was standard equipment, but later the sharklet specification was developed, and the sharklet became standard equipment on the A320neo.[207][221].. It is also possible to retrofit the existing aircraft with a sharklet.[222].

Inside the box structure of the wing is the fuel tank[47].. The left and right sides of the tank are divided into two, each of which is divided into five sections, including the central one section, and both ends areSurge tankHas become[223].

胴体

The body cross section of A320 is a "double bubble structure" that combines two circular structures with different diameters.[48].. The outer dimensions of the cross section are 3.95 meters wide and 4.14 meters high. [208].. The length of the body is equal to the total length and is 37.57 meters[208].. The width of the passenger compartment is kept as constant as possible, and the resistance is reduced by devising a flat constriction in the tail.[46].. The fuselage structure is a semi-monocoque structure, including a frame (structural material in the circumferential direction), stringers (longitudinal members extending in the front-rear direction), outer plates, beams (reinforcing members in the left-right direction),Pressure bulkheadConsists of[48][224].. 1.679 meters above the bottom of the fuselagebeamHas a structure and supports the floor of the guest room[48].. Except for the tailPressurizationIs a structure [48].

Tail

The horizontal stabilizer has a wingspan of 12.45 meters and the vertical stabilizer has a height of 5.87 meters.[208].. Both horizontal and vertical stabilizers have a box structure composed of front and rear girders, outer plates, and ribs, and most are made of composite materials.[225].

The horizontal stabilizer is a horizontal stabilizerElevatorConsists of[225].. The horizontal stabilizer does not have a central wing structure like the conventional aircraft, but the left and right wings are connected by metal fittings inside the fuselage.[225].. A jack screw is attached to the front of this joint to change the angle of the horizontal stabilizer and trim it.[Annotation 8]Can be adjusted[227].. The horizontal stabilizer and the fuselage are connected by metal fittings and bearings, one on each side of the rear girder.[225].. The left and right elevators are equipped with two actuators each and driven independently.[225].

The vertical stabilizer is a vertical stabilizerRudderConsists of[225].. Bound to the fuselage at the bottom of the vertical stabilizer[225].. The rudder is connected to the rear girder of the horizontal stabilizer by a bearing and driven by an actuator.[225].

Landing gear

Left and right main and front legs are two-wheel type[209].. Both the front and main legs are retractable, and lifting and lowering is normally done hydraulically. Only the emergency leg lowering mechanism uses cables like other models.[209].. The wheels are made of aluminum alloy, the tires areRadial tireIs[209].. The brake is a multi-plate typeDisc brakeSo carbon is used for the disc[209].. The brakes are hydraulically operated,Anti skidAnd equipped with automatic braking system[209].. The front leg has a hydraulically driven steering mechanism that allows it to turn only when on the ground.[209].

engine

The A320 engine is divided into generations of A320ceo and A320neo, both of which have a high bypass ratio.[Annotation 4]Is a turbofan engine of[45][228][173].

A320ceo engine is CFMICFM56And of IAEV2500Is a selection formula of[45][228].. CFM56 engine is set to all A320 family, V2500 engine is set to A318, A319, A320 excluding A321[229].. Depending on the fuselage length (weight) of the family aircraft, thrust enhancement type and suppression type are available[230].

The engine of A320neo will be a new generation turbofan engine,LEAP-1AOr from P & WPW1100G-JMYou can choose from[173].. Both engines are set for all A320neo families, and also thrust enhancement type and suppression type are prepared according to the fuselage length[229].

The engine is controlled by a digital electronic control unit (FADEC)[34].. FADEC can be said to be an engine version fly-by-wire,Thrust leverThe computer automatically controls the engine thrust according to the input and flight conditions[34][231][232].

Auxiliary power unit As (APU)Gas turbine engineIt is equipped with one and is mounted in the tail cone of the body tail[233][228].. The A320 APU is for supplying electric power and compressed air on the ground while the main engine is stopped, but it can be started even in the air in an emergency.[234].

Flight system

Fly by wire

A320 features for the first time on an airlinerFly by wireFull adoption of technology can be mentioned[235][19].. Airbus calls the A320's fly-by-wire system EFCS (Electronic Flight Control System)[236][237].

In the A320 fly-by-wire system, pilot maneuvers are converted to electrical signals and sent to a digital computer[236][29][238].. In the computer, calculation processing is performed based on steering input and information from various sensors[236][239][29].. The calculated command value is transmitted as an electric signal to each control surface and actuator of the landing gear.[236][235][240][239].

In developing the A320 system, Airbus aimed for a system that could operate passenger aircraft like a carriage.[241][19].. In the case of a carriage, the master gives instructions to the horse, and the horse can run according to the road conditions based on the instructions.[19].. The lord does not direct the horse step by step, and if there is a clear danger, the horse can avoid it at his discretion.[241][19].. Similarly on the A320, the system automatically controls the rotor blades according to the pilot's instructions and conditions.[241].. The flight control system of the A320 has functions to assist pilots in maneuvering, as well as built-in protection functions to protect the safety of the aircraft and flight.[235][239][242][243][244].. And this system is an Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS)Autopilot,Automatic thrust controller,andnavigationTake charge ofFlight management equipmentIs also integrated[245][239].

Compared to the system design concept, it is sometimes called machine-first Airbus and human-centered Boeing.[246][247].. On the other hand, the idea of ​​the Airbus machine is to let the machine do what the machine is good at, and it is said that the system is centered on humans.[246][247].. It is said that good use of the system is the key to successfully flying the A320.[246][247].. In addition, Airbus and Boeing have been improving the system by incorporating the other party's excellent functions into each other.[246].

In the A320 system, the program that receives various inputs and controls the control surface is called "flight control law"[248][249].. There are three types of flight control rules, which are named normal (normal), alternate (alternate), and direct (direct).[250][239].. Normally, it operates under the normal control law, and switches to the alternate control law or direct control law depending on the degree of system failure.[239][251].. In the normal control law, there is a mode according to the flight stage, switching from ground mode to flight mode, landing mode in order, and finally returning to ground mode.[239].

In the normal control law, the protective function controls the aircraft so that the aircraft attitude, load, flight speed, etc. do not exceed the allowable range.[239][244].. For example, when the aircraft approaches a stalled state, the engine is automatically set to maximum thrust and the control surface is controlled so that the angle of attack does not increase any further.[235].. In addition, the normal control law has a function to assist the pilot in maneuvering.[Annotation 8]Is automatically adjusted by the system[235][244].. If the system has two faults, it will switch to the alternate control law[250][239].. The control characteristics of the alternate control law are the same as those of the normal control law, but some protection functions do not work, and passengers must take measures to prevent loss of the control function.[250].. If there are three or more obstacles in the system, it will be necessary to switch to the direct control law and perform trim adjustments by the occupant.[252][250].

There are a total of 7 computers that control the main control surface (elevator, auxiliary wings, rudder). In addition, various computers that control the secondary control surface (high lift device etc.) and perform automatic control processing. The entire system is configured by adding a computer[239][253][245].. Also has a mutual monitoring function to detect computer abnormalities[239][245].

The A320's control system is 109Less than once per hour, 1 decrease in maneuverability5Designed with the goal of no more than once per hour[46].. the systemreliabilityMultiple computers to increaseRedundancyAnd the concept of heterogeneous redundancy is adopted instead of simple multiplexing.[237][254].. Heterogeneous redundancy is a concept for preventing loss of function of the entire system due to the same defect or failure.[237][254].. Specifically, when multiplexing,ProcessorAndProgramming languageMeasures are taken such as combining different computers or completely separating the command unit and the monitoring unit inside the computer.[237][254][46].. Measures such as separation of power supply and separation of signal lines are taken.[254].

Hydraulic system consists of three independent systems[255].. The hydraulic pressure boosted by the hydraulic pump is used in the control system, landing gear, brakes, and engine.Reverse thrust deviceSupplied to[255].. All control surfaces are hydraulically driven[236].. Each wing surface has multiple actuators for redundancy[235].. The landing gear in/out, brakes and steering are also hydraulically driven.[209].

A320 power is supplied from the generators on the left and right engines and APU[256].. It is also possible to use the external power supply of ground equipment while parked.[256].. The power system is equipped with a battery, and from the fuselage in an emergencyRam Air TurbineCan be deployed to generate power and pressurize hydraulic pressure.[256][255].. In addition, in case of loss of all power to the aircraft, a mechanical control system is provided for trimming the horizontal and vertical tails, and the landing gear also has a cable-type leg lowering mechanism for emergency use.[257][250].. The remaining mechanical control system means that the probability of loss of all power sources is 109It is said that it was actually difficult to verify that it was less than once in time (about 11 years).[46].

cockpit

The pilot required for operation isCaptainCopilotTwo people[258][251].. In the cockpit, there are two observer seats in addition to the captain's seat and the co-pilot seat.[259].. It is a rational design that emphasizes habitability and is also called Porsche Cockpit because the design department of Porsche participated in the design[19][260].

A320cockpitIs so-calledGlass cockpitIn addition to being commercialized, like the conventional modelControl wheelControl with side sticks instead of[34][261].

There are 2 displays, 2 in each of the left and right cockpits and 6 in the center, all in color.[260].. All displays except the spare instruments are aggregated on the display[260].. Each display is assigned a role but is compatible and switchable[262].. In case of a display failure, the display layout will be switched automatically so as not to interfere with the continuation of flight.[262].. Initially on the displayCRTWas used, but with technological innovationLiquid crystal displayWas replaced by[35].. From 2014Head up display (HUD) equipment has been added, and it is possible to install it on existing machines as well as setting options on new machines[35].

Side stickpitchrollUsed for the main control of[46]It is located on the left for the left captain's seat and on the right for the right copilot's seat.[30].. The left and right side sticks are not mechanically connected[263].. Normally, operate with either side stick[263].. When both side sticks are operated at the same time, the arithmetic sum of each command becomes an input to the system, but there is also a function to invalidate the input of the other stick in case of an unexpected situation.[263].Auto pilotActive side sticks do not move automatically like traditional control wheels[242].. Since there are no control wheels, a retractable table is installed in front of each cockpit, so you can write logs and eat[261][19].

The cockpit and flight system are standardized in the A320 family, and the pilot qualifications are also common.[264][35][265].. At the same time of AirbusMutual crew qualification Since it is also a subject of (CCQ), it is possible to acquire qualification of other models with short training if it is with the Airbus aircraft subject to CCQ.[266].

Guest room/freight room

The fuselage of A320 has a passenger compartment on the upper layer and a cargo compartment on the lower layer with the floor near the center as a boundary.[48].. Engine or APUcompressorBy using compressed air byPressurizationIs done[267][268].. Computers also control and monitor air conditioning and pressurization[268].. The guest room is equipped with an oxygen mask for emergencies, and oxygen is generated and supplied by a chemical reaction from an oxygen generator.[269].. In addition, there is an oxygen supply system in the cockpit separately from passengers.[269].

The total length of the cabin, excluding the cockpit, is 27.5 meters.[34], The maximum width of the guest room is about 3.6 meters, the maximum height is about 2.1 meters[270].. The standard number of seats in the two-class formation is 2 for A320ceo and 150 to 320 for A160neo.[271].. The maximum capacity is 180 seats for normal specifications, and it can be expanded to 195 seats depending on the emergency exit option.[258].. The guest room has one passage in the center,Economy classThe seating arrangement is 3-3 seats 6 across the aisleAbreast, 2 abrests with 2-4 seats in advanced class[272].. Overhead seats with overhead stowage bins for baggage[259][273][251].. Due to the wide fuselage as a single-passage aircraft, the center seat of the three rows of seats can be several centimeters wider than the seats on both sides.[259].. There is also an interior plan that narrows the seat width and widens the aisle width in order to shorten the boarding time for short distance routes.[274][273].

The door arrangement in the guest room is symmetrical[273].. There is a pair of type I doors at the front and the rear of the passenger cabin for getting on and off.[275][273].. This door is a plug type that opens to the outside and has an emergency escape slide[275].. Two type III doors per side on the wing for emergency escape[258][275][273].. An escape slide that is deployed in conjunction with this emergency escape is provided inside the wing-body fairing.[275][251].

The underfloor cargo compartment is divided into two sections, front and rear, with the main wing in between.[276].. LD-3-46 or LD-3-46W air freight container can be installed in the cargo compartment[50].. The LD-3-46/-46W container has the same width as the LD-3 container for large machines and has a lower height for single-passage machines.[50].. The LD-3-46 can be handled with the same ground equipment as the original LD3 container, and can also be mounted on a large machine as it is.[277].. LD-3-46W can store up to 3 in the front cargo compartment and 4 in the rear cargo compartment[276].. To reduce the work load of loading and unloading containers, there is also an option to electrically slide the floor of the cargo compartment.[251][50].. The rear cargo compartment can be ventilated and heated to transport organisms[267].. In addition, the tail side of the rear cargo compartment is assigned to the loading space for bulk cargo.[276].

All cargo compartment doors are on the starboard side[278].. There is one door for each LD-3-46 container in each cargo compartment[34].. The door is open and the height of the opening is 1.24 meters and the width is 1.82 meters.[278].. In addition, there is an inward opening door at the end for bulk cargo[278].

Operation

This section describes the operation status of the entire A320 family and the A320 alone. For other family aircraft, see the individual page (A321# Operation,A319# Operation,A318# Operation)checking.

As of the end of 2018, the A320 family had a total of 14,581 orders received, 8,525 delivered and 6,056 backlog.[2].. At the same time, 320 aircraft were operating in the A7,702 family as a whole, of which 7,097 aircraft were in the A320ceo family and the remaining 605 were in the A320neo family.[279].

Flight InternationalAccording to magazine statistics, as of July 2018, the A7 family as a whole has 320 aircraft operated by 284 private airlines.[1].. By region, 100 companies in Europe are operating 2,325 aircraft, 94 companies in the Asia-Pacific region are operating 2,744 aircraft, 37 companies in the Americas are operating 1,977 aircraft, and 53 companies in the Middle East and Africa are operating 460 aircraft.[1].

More than half of all aircraft in the A320 family are operated by the company with the top 1% in operation.[1].American airlinesOperates 392 aircraft and is the largest operator in the A320 family[1].. ThenChina Southern Airlines261 aircraft,China Eastern AirlinesContinues with 248 aircraft[1]. AlsoEasy jetOperates a total of 314 units at group companies[1].. Other companies with a large number of operations in North AmericaJet Blue Airlines(188 aircraft),Delta Airlines(177 aircraft),United airlines(165 aircraft) in EuropeLufthansa German Airlines(173 aircraft),British Airways(135 aircraft) in AsiaIndigo(162 aircraft),Air China(142 units),Air AsiaThe group has more than 200 units in total[1].

As of the end of 320, the A2018 alone had a total of 8,961 orders, 5,213 were delivered, and the backlog was 3,748.[2].. There are 4,642 aircraft in service, the A320ceo has 4,151 aircraft, and the A320neo has 491 aircraft.[279].

Flight InternationalAccording to the statistics of the magazine, as of July 2018, the A7 is operated by 320 airlines with 240 aircraft.[1].. By region, 84 companies in the Asia-Pacific region have 1,896 aircraft, 78 companies in Europe have 1,235 aircraft, 32 companies in the Americas have 981 aircraft, and 47 companies in the Middle East and Africa have 369 aircraft.[1].

Top 320 A5 operators are occupied by Chinese and North American airlines[1].. Indigo is the number one operating company with 162 aircraft, followed by China Eastern Airlines with 151 aircraft, JetBlue Airlines with 130 aircraft, China Southern Airlines with 128 aircraft, and United Airlines with 98 aircraft.[1].. The company with the highest number of operations in EuropeVueling Airlines(98 aircraft), followed by EasyJet (92 aircraft), Lufthansa Airlines (80 aircraft)[1].. EasyJet and AirAsia have more than 200 units operated by the entire group,Jet Star AirlinesIs operating more than 100 aircraft as a group[1].

In addition,Business jetThe version of ACJ320 family isGovernment machineIs operated as[96][280][281].

Introduced by Japanese airlines

The first Japanese airline to adopt the A320All Nippon Airways(ANA)[282].. The company introduced the A737 as a successor to the 320 for domestic local routes in Japan and started its operation in March 1991.[283].. ANA's A320 was laterAir NipponIt was operated as a joint business equipment with[283].. Subsequently, All Nippon Airways adopted the A321 and entered service from April 1998, but at that time all aircraft were retired in February 4 due to the company's line demand.[283][172].

We also planned to replace the A320 with the 737, but decided to continue operating the A320.[284][285].. In addition, in December 2016, the A12neo was newly launched and launched on domestic domestic flights and short-distance international flights.[286][287].. In addition, A321 also decided to reintroduce, and in November 2016 A11ceo[288], And in September 2017 A9neo[289]Is in service.

Commenced commercial operation in March 2006Star flyerSelected A320 as the operating aircraft[290].. Initially it was a lease introduction, but later also introduced A320 by in-house purchase[290].. In service in March 2012Peach aviationAnd started service in July of the same year.Jetstar JapanA320 was adopted by Japanese cheap airlines as well.[291][292][293].

Number of orders/delivery

The table below shows the number of orders received and delivered for A320 (A320ceo and A320neo).

Table 2: Orders received/delivered each year (cancellations are subtracted from the initial ordering year)[294]
YearsTotal20182017201620152014201320122011
Number of orders8,9614126145395229925904551,030
Number of deliveries5,213417345319282306352332306
2010200920082007200620052004200320022001
Number of orders281153296529308430171125103119
Number of deliveries297221209194164121101119116119
2000199919981997199619951994199319921991
Number of orders128155175981242242135914
Number of deliveries101101805838344871111119
19901989198819871986198519841983
Number of orders6963105538474412
Number of deliveries58581600000

Incident/accident

Aviation Safety NetworkAccording to (ASN) statistics, the A2019 family will be involved as of October 10.Aviation accidentAnd 153 cases have occurred[295].. Aircraft accidents resulted in 30 aircraft accidents, 7 incidents such as terrorism, and 7 incidents due to fires and natural disasters during parking.[296][297].. Of these, 30 people were killed in 951 accidents, 7 people were killed in 441 cases, and 1 person (criminal) was killed in 1 hijacking.[298].

This section describes incidents and accidents related to A320ceo and A320neo. For other family aircraft, refer to each item.

By October 2019, according to ASN statistics, there were 10 aviation accidents and incidents involving A320ceo, and no accidents or incidents were reported at A93neo.[299][300].. Of these, 25 were aircraft accidents, 5 were terrorist attacks, and 6 were other aircraft losses, including fires during parking.[301][300].. A total of 11 people were killed in 816 accidents, and a total of 2 people were killed in two cases.[301].. In addition, one hijacking occurred and one criminal was shot dead.[301][298].

The first fatal accident of A320 occurred on June 1988, 6Air France Flight 296 AccidentIs[301].. A320, which flew low over the runway for demonstration purposes, crashed as it came into contact with the trees at the end of the runway, killing three of the 136 passengers.[302][303].

The two fatal accidents that followed this accident were:Human factorThe flight system of the A320 was also involved.[304][305].

The first occurred on February 1, 1990Indian Airlines Flight 605 crashIn IndiaBangalore AirportA320, which was about to land on the plane, crashed in front of the airport, killing 148 of 92 passengers[306][307].. As a result of the accident investigation, it is estimated that the pilot accidentally operated the altitude setting knob to change the descent rate.[306][307].. As a result, the flight system narrowed down the engine thrust and could not maintain the descent path and speed, but it was delayed for the occupants to notice this situation and the recovery operation was delayed[306][307].

The first occurred on February 2, 1992Yale Anterre Flight 148 crashAnd the FrenchStrasbourg International AirportA320, which was about to land on the plane, crashed in the mountain in front of the airport and 96 of 87 passengers died[308][309].. The accident aircraft before the crash was descending at an abnormally large descent rate.[308].. Although the cause of the abnormal descent could not be determined in the accident investigation, it was pointed out that the pilot may have made a mistake in selecting the mode of descent angle and descent rate.[308][309].. After the accident Airbus has improved the display to prevent false positives[308][309][304].

The A320 most fatal accident occurred on July 2007, 7TAM flight 3054 overrun accidentIs[301].. BrazilCongonhas airportTAM's A320 landed at the airport deviated from the runway, collided with a building outside the airport premises and a gas station, and burned.[310].. All 187 passengers on the plane and 12 people caught on the ground died[310].. As a result of the accident investigation, it was estimated that the pilot made a mistake during landing due to several factors.[310].

Another accident that killed more than 100 people was in 2000.Gulf Air 072 flight crash, 2006Almavia Flight 967 crash, 2014Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501 crashThere is.

September 2009, 1US Airways Flight 1549 Emergency Landing AccidentThere has occurred[311].. In New YorkLaGuardia AirportA320 that took offBird strikeAlthough the thrust of both engines was lost due to theHudson riverLanded on[311][312].. Also known as the "Miracle of the Hudson River" because all 155 passengers were safe.[312].

Occurred on January 2015, 3German Wings 9525 crashIs presumed to be due to the co-pilot's suicide[313][314].BarcelonaからDusseldorfThe accident aircraft that was heading toward theJapan AlpsCrashed into the mountains, killing 150 of all passengers[313][314].

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayPakistan International Airlines Flight 8303 crashThere has occurred.The accident aircraftJinnah International AirportWhen landing at Jinnah International Airport, it crashed into a residential area 4 km before.A total of 99 people died, including 97 out of 1 passengers and one resident of the residential area at the site.The preliminary report stated that there were problems with both pilots and controllers.[315].

Main specifications

Table 3: Main specifications of each model
A320neoA320ceoA321ceoA319ceoA318
Number of flight crew2 people[316]
Standard number of seats160-190 seats[317]150 seat[317]185 seat[317]124 seat[317]107 seat[318]
Maximum number of seats194 seat[317]180 seat[317]220 seat[317]156 seat[317]136 seat[319]
Length37.57 m[210]44.51 m[320]33.84 m[321]31.45 m[322]
Width34.10 m (35.80 m for sharklet equipped aircraft)[323]
Height11.76 m[324]12.79 m[322]
Fuselage width3.95 m[323]
Body height4.14 m[325][326][208][327]
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)71.5 - 79.0 t[328]66.0 --77.0 t[329]78.0 --93.5 t[330]64.0 --76.5 t[331]56.0 --68.0 t[332]
Maximum landing weight (MLW)66.3 --67.4 t[328]64.5 --66.0 t[329]73.5 --77.8 t[330]61.0 --62.5 t[331]56.0 --57.5 t[332]
Maximum fuel-free weight (MZFW)55.3 --64.3 t[328]60.5 --62.5 t[329]69.5 --73.8 t[330]52.0 --58.5 t[331]53.0 --54.5 t[332]
Cargo compartment effective volume37.42 m3[333]51.72 m3[334]27.66 m3[335]21.3 m3[336]
Engine (x2)CFMI LEAP-1A or PW1100G-JM[229]CFMI CFM56 or IAE V2500[229]
Engine thrust (x2)106.80 - 130.29 kN[337]97.86 --120.10 kN[338]133.30 --142.34 kN[339]97.86 --120.10 kN[340]96.08 – 105.87 kN[341]
Maximum cruising speedMach0.82[342]
Cruising distance6,400 km[271]6,200 km[271]5,950 km[271]3,750 km[271]5,950 km[318]
Table 4: List of model names and equipped engines [343]
ModelengineType certification acquisition
A320-211CFMI CFM56-5A1
CFMI CFM56-5A1 / F
1988th of February 11
A320-212CFMI CFM56-5A31990th of February 11
A320-214CFMI CFM56-5B4
CFMI CFM56-5B4 / P
CFMI CFM56-5B4 / 2P
CFMI CFM56-5B4 / P1
CFMI CFM56-5B4 / 2P1
CFMI CFM56-5B4 / 3
CFMI CFM56-5B4 / 3B1
1995th of February 3
A320-215CFMI CFM56-5B52006th of February 6
A320-216CFMI CFM56-5B6
CFMI CFM56-5B6 / 3
2006th of February 6
A320-231IAE V2500-A11989th of February 4
A320-232IAE V2527-A51993th of February 9
A320-233IAE V2527-A51995th of February 10
A320-251NCFMI LEAP-1A262016th of February 5
A320-252NCFMI LEAP-1A242017th of February 12
A320-253NCFMI LEAP-1A292019th of February 2
A320-271NP & W PW1127G-JM
P & W PW1127GA-JM
2015th of February 11
A320-272NP & W PW1124G1-JM2018th of February 10
A320-273NP & W PW1129G-JM2019th of February 6

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, Delta will adopt the A320 for more than 20 years[20][12].
  2. ^ a b The value obtained by dividing the thickness of the wing by the chord length (length before and after the wing)[43]. Determined based on aerodynamic characteristics, strength and weight, fuel tank capacity inside the wing, etc.[44].
  3. ^ Continuous descent approach and wide area navigation (area navigation) are new navigation methods that are said to lead to reduction of fuel consumption and noise.[132][133].
  4. ^ a b c In a turbofan engine, the sucked air is divided into air that is burned and ejected through the core and air that is discharged (bypassed) without passing through the core.[153]. The value obtained by dividing the air flow rate that bypasses the core by the air flow rate that passes through the core is the bypass ratio. Generally, the larger this value, the higher the propulsion efficiency.[153][344].. Detail isTurbo fan engineSee.
  5. ^ The core is the internal combustion engine that generates the engine driving force for the turbofan engine.[153].. Detail isTurbo fan engineSee.
  6. ^ Structural members of an aircraft are divided into primary structural members (main structural members) and secondary structural members. The primary structural member is a structural member mainly responsible for transmission of flight load, ground load, and pressure load.[213], Such as the members of the girder structure of the main wing[214], The highest safety reliability among structural materials is required[215]. On the other hand, the secondary structural member corresponds to the leading edge and the trailing edge of the main wing that exerts an aerodynamic function and transmits a local load such as wind pressure to the primary structural portion.[214].
  7. ^ Aspect ratio is a value obtained by dividing the square of the wing width by the area and indicating the slenderness ratio of the wing.[217]. Larger aspect ratioInductive resistance(Resistance due to lift generation) is reduced, which is advantageous for efficient flight.[217][218][219].
  8. ^ a b Trim is a balance that allows the pilot to fly in the same posture without exerting any force on the control device.[226].

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  161. ^ "First flight of A320neo and LEAP-1A-equipped aircraft New engine of CFM". Aviation Wire (September 2015, 5). 2019th of February 9Browse.
  162. ^ "Simultaneous acquisition of type certification from A320neo, EASA and FAA". Aviation Wire (February 2015, 11). As of February 25, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019th of February 9Browse.
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  165. ^ "Airbus delivers first A320neo to Lufthansa". Aviation Wire (February 2016, 1). As of February 21, 2018オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019th of February 9Browse.
  166. ^ "PICTURE: Lufthansa A320neo visits Heathrow". Flightglobal (February 2016, 4). As of February 13, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019th of February 10Browse.
  167. ^ "Lufthansa's first A320neo on the Frankfurt-Hamburg line to be upgraded to 5 units within the year". Aviation Wire (February 2016, 1). As of February 27, 2016オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019th of February 10Browse.
  168. ^ a b “World Airliner Directory-Mainliners: Battle for the middle ground”, Flight International, (2016-11-14), https://www.flightglobal.com/asset/14332 2019th of February 6Browse. 
  169. ^ "A320neo and LEAP machines also delivered to Turkish LCC". Aviation Wire (February 2016, 7). As of February 22, 2019オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2019th of February 10Browse.
  170. ^ a b Hensey & Magdalina 2018, pp. 8–11.
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  214. ^ a b Ryuhei Aoki, "Wing Structure," edited by the Airplane Encyclopedia Editorial Committee, "Airplane Encyclopedia," December 2009, p. 12.ISBN 978-4-621-08170-9. 
  215. ^ Yutaka Maeda, "Applications and Markets of Carbon Fibers", CMC Publishing <CMC Technical Library>, June 2008, p. 6.ISBN 978-4-7813-0006-1. 
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  280. ^ "Swiss VIP Charter receives first ACJ320neo aircraft A320neo Business Jet". Aviation Wire (September 2019, 3). 2019th of February 11Browse.
  281. ^ "PICTURE: Ex-Lufthansa A321 joins Luftwaffe". Flightglobal (September 2018, 9). 2019th of February 6Browse.
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  285. ^ "ANA VISION 2006 (56th Term Third Quarter Report)" All Nippon Airways, March 2006.https://www.ana.co.jp/ir/rp/pdf/vision/05/56tq/00.pdf.2019th of February 11Browse. 
  286. ^ "Business class with equipment similar to large aircraft Special feature: ANA A320neo first aircraft launched (1)". Aviation Wire (September 2016, 12). 2019th of February 11Browse.
  287. ^ "ANA's A320neo launches first international flight From Narita to Shanghai". Aviation Wire (September 2017, 1). 2019th of February 11Browse.
  288. ^ "Premium class of electric seats Photo feature/ANA A321ceo domestic flight specifications (Part XNUMX)". Aviation Wire (September 2016, 11). 2019th of February 11Browse.
  289. ^ "ANA, A321neo First domestic flight power supply and personal monitor equipment". Aviation Wire (September 2018, 9). 2019th of February 6Browse.
  290. ^ a b "A thin seat makes it more comfortable Photo Special Feature-Starflyer 14th A320". Aviation Wire (September 2016, 12). 2019th of February 11Browse.
  291. ^ "First Peach retires 325 laps of the earth, pilots and CA on the first day of service". Aviation Wire (September 2019, 5). 2019th of February 11Browse.
  292. ^ "Jetstar surpasses 800 million passengers, two years and nine months after launch". Aviation Wire (September 2015, 3). 2019th of February 11Browse.
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References

Book

  • Yoshitomo Aoki "AIRBUS JET STORY" Ikaros Publishing, 2010.ISBN 978-4-86320-277-1. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Technology for Making Jet Passenger Aircraft: What is the Difference Between Airbus Aircraft and Boeing Aircraft? How to Make Long Wings and Body and What to Carry?" (Electronic 1st Edition) SB Creative <Science Eye New Book >,2014. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Passenger Airliner Yearbook 2018-2019" Ikaros Publishing, 2018.ISBN 978-4-8022-0473-6. 
  • Kanichiro Kato "50 Years of Aircraft Accidents: The First Person Reveals Everything" (Kindle Edition) Kodansha <Kodansha + α Bunko>, 2008. 
  • Shinji Kuze "History of Passenger Aircraft Development in Shape and Speed: From Pre-Light to Super-Large and Supersonic Aircraft" Japan Aviation Technology Association, 2006.ISBN 4902151146. 
  • Kazumi Tanikawa "Boeing vs Airbus Fierce Development Competition: Why Passenger Aircraft Have Evolved So Much in 100 Years" (Kindle Edition) Kotsu Shimbunsha <Kotsu Shimbunsha Shinsho>, 2016.ISBN 978-4-330-74116-1. 
  • Japan Aircraft Development Association "30 Edition Civil Aircraft Related Data Collection" Japan Aircraft Development Association, March 2019. 
  • Kenichi Lee, "Airplane Design Method," Corona Publishing Co., Ltd., 2011.ISBN 978-4-339-04619-9. 
  • GeroDavid "Aviation Disasters: The World's Major Civil Airliner Crashes Since 1950" (Kindle; Sixth Edition) The History Press, 2017.ISBN 9780752499925. 
  • Obert, Ed (2009), Aerodynamic Design of Transport Aircraft, ISBN 978-1-58603-970-7 

Papers, journal articles, etc.

  • Yoshitomo Aoki "A320 Series" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Ikaros Publishing <Passenger Aircraft Model Series (Icarus MOOK)>, 2003a, pp. 53–65.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Side Stick Cockpit" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Airliner model series (Ikaros MOOK)>, 2003b, pp. 102-103.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Fly-by-wire mechanism" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Airliner model series (Ikaros MOOK)>, 2003c, pages 48-52.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki, "A320neo--A New Generation Airframe by Replacing the Engine," Aviation Information, Vol. 61, No. 12, Totosha, pp. 38–41, 2011.ISSN 0450-6669. 
  • Yoshitomo Aoki "Special Feature Thorough Comparison 737MAX vs A320neo" "Aviation Information" Vol. 63, No. 2, Totosha, pp. 36–41, 2013.ISSN 0450-6669. 
  • Konan Aze "Talking about the operation of ultra-high-tech aircraft" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Airliner model series (Ikaros MOOK)>, 2003, pp. 104–109.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Kazuo Kamiyama, "Overview of the Airbus A320 Navigation System," Voyage: Journal of the Japan Voyage Society, No. 97, Japan Voyage Society, pp. 90–94, 1988. 
  • Kiyoji Kume, "Fifth Generation 150-seat Airliner Airbus A320," Airworld, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 146–152, 1984. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (1)" "Aviation Technology" No. 634 Japan Aviation Technology Association, pp. 16-23, 2008a.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (2)" "Aviation Technology" No. 636, pp. 24-33, 2008b.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (3)" "Aviation Technology" No. 638, pp. 19–27, 2008c.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (5)" "Aviation Technology" No. 642, pp. 22–28, 2008e.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (6)" "Aviation Technology" No. 644, pp. 26–32, 2008f.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (7)" "Aviation Technology" No. 646, pp. 25–32, 2009a.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (8)" "Aviation Technology" No. 648, pp. 18-27, 2009b.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (9)" "Aviation Technology" No. 650, pp. 20–28, 2009c. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (10)" "Aviation Technology" No. 652, pp. 20–27, 2009d.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (11)" "Aviation Technology" No. 654, pp. 24–31, 2009e.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (12)" "Aviation Technology" No. 656, pp. 26–31, 2009f.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (13)" "Aviation Technology" No. 658, pp. 20–25, 2010a.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (14)" "Aviation Technology" No. 660, pp. 16-24, 2010b.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Mitsugu Sugimoto; Shinichi Hirota; Shigeo Urayama "About Airbus A320 (15)" "Aviation Technology" No. 662, pp. 20–25, 2010c.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • All Nippon Airways Maintenance Headquarters Engineering Department "Airbus A320 <Special Feature>" "Aviation Technology" No. 432, pp. 3–32, 1991.ISSN 0023284X. 
  • Kazumi Tanikawa, "Air Hass and Boeing in Design Concept," Aviation Information, Vol. 59, No. 6, Totosha, pp. 92–95, 2009. 
  • Tokumitsu Yasushi "Japanese A320 / A321" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Airliner model series (Ikaros MOOK)>, 2003, pp. 93–97.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Takakichi Nakazawa; Mikinari Iharaki "Overview of the use of aluminum alloys in aircraft and the future (Special feature: Challenge of lightweight metal materials for weight reduction of transportation equipment)" "JFA: Japan Forging Association" Vol. 45 Japan Forging Association, 17– Page 27, 2014.ISSN 1347-5746. 
  • Taketoshi Hirayama; Hideki Haneishi; Masashi Ueda "Computer Technology in A320-200", Journal of the Japan Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol. 38, No. 437, pp. 290–300, 1990.two:10.2322 / jjsass1969.38.290. 
  • Charlie Furusho "Why JetBlue fell in love with Airbus" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Airliner model series (Ikaros MOOK)>, 2003, pp. 110–112.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
  • Kazuyuki Hoashi "Until the birth of the Airbus A320" "Intelligent Jet Airbus A320 / A330 / A340" Volume 8 Icarus Publishing<Airliner model series (Ikaros MOOK)>, 2003, pp. 43–47.ISBN 4-87149-470-5. 
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  • Hopkins, Harry (1987-12-12), “The state of the art”, Flight International 132 (4092): 23–30, https://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1987/1987%20-%202661.html 2019th of February 6Browse. 
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Online resources

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Cebu Pacific Air

Cebu Pacific Air (Cebu PacificBritish: Cebu Pacific Air) Isフィリピン OfCebu Island,ManilaTheBaseToCheap airline.

Overview

Cebu Airlines is headed by John GokongweiJG Summit HoldingsIs a company owned by and has entered the domestic market after the deregulation of the Philippine government.2011Currently in the PhilippinesPhilippine AirlinesMaximum pull outAirlinesOf the "JG Summit Holdings" run by the Gokongwei familysubsidiaryIs. The Gokongwei family is a Chinese-Filipino millionaire based in the Philippines.

Cebu Air, Inc., which operates Cebu Pacific Air,1988May 8Was established in1991The legislation approved by Cebu Airlines was approved by Congress.1996May 3The first flight was operated. After the accident in February 1998 (described later), the operation was suspended for a while under the direction of the government, but the operation was resumed the following month.

at firstMetro Manila,Metro cebu,DavaoThe number of flights per day was 24,2001At the end, it has grown into a company that operates 18 flights a day to 80 locations in the Philippines.2000 eraHas entered into Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia with permission to enter international routes. The first international flight2001May 11The flight was to Hong Kong.

Due to subsequent expansion, in addition to domestic flights in the Philippines,Indonesia,Malaysia,Singaporeな どSoutheast AsiaNot only countries,Taiwan, South Koreaな どNortheast asiaWe are operating in 50 cities centering on the major cities of.2008May 11In OsakaKIXAnd entered service in Japan for the first time.

From 2014Nagoya OfChubu International AirportCebu Pacific Airlines will have direct routes to all three major metropolitan areas of Japan.

on the other hand,EUFrom March 2010, 3, with all other Philippine airlines, saying that there is a problem with the safety confirmation system of the Philippine aviation authorities.No entry into the EUMeasures have been added, and the company had no prospect of opening a route until around April 2014.[1].. But on April 4thUS Federal Aviation AdministrationHas raised the Philippine safety standards from Category 2 to Category 1 because it meets the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) safety standards.[2]EU Updates Airline Safety List On April 4th, Cebu Pacific Air Following Philippine Airlines Has Been Removed From Prohibition List[3].

2014May 1ToSingaporeof"Tiger air] And a strategic alliance will be implemented. With regard to the route networks of both companies, it has become possible to make reservations, sales, and connections with each other through an interline tie-up, and by expanding the network, convenience has increased. In addition, Tiger AirTigerair Philippines40% of the shares of "," and made Tigerair Philippines a wholly owned subsidiary. In addition, Tiger Air Philippines continued to operate for the time being using the "Tiger Air" brand, but in 100CebgoChanged the brand name to[4].

August 2015, 8 in ManilaNinoy Aquino International AirportIs planned to change the terminal used in[5].

On March 2016, 3, we announced new uniforms for flight attendants to commemorate the company's 1th anniversary. The new uniform will be worn according to the 20 summer schedule on March 2016, 3.

Owned equipment

As of 2018 year 4 month[6][7]

Services

The company has announced a typical cheap airline policy, spending money on equipment, maintenance, reservation system and other hard aspects, free food and drink, free checked luggage, paper tickets,Mileage programIt is said that the price will be reflected as "LiteFARE" for the air ticket price instead of implementing it.[8]

In-flight mealThere is a charge for alcohol and alcohol, but the menus are replaced quickly, and some menus may not be available depending on the flight.In-flight magazineThere is a "Smile", which also serves as an in-flight sales catalog.US dollar,Philippine pesoYou can pay with, but basically you can only make changes in Philippine pesos. Checking the weight of baggage is strict, and carry-on baggage is free of charge up to 7kg, but if you exceed it even a little, an excess charge will be incurred, so refilling work at the airport counter is often necessary and check-in often takes time. Most of the equipment used is state-of-the-art aircraft such as the Airbus A320 and ATR72, but the spacing between seats is not wide and there are no facilities such as personal monitors. However, some A319 models can listen to music by bringing in earphones. On international flights, there are broadcasts (recordings) in the language of the country, but the conversation with the crew is basically in English. Also, depending on the flight, when the flight attendant says "show me game" (show me), we will implement a game-like service so that the person who shows it the earliest can receive the item. ing.[9]

2010 year 10 month,Lady Gagaof"Just dance), the pilot conducted safety guidance before takeoff while dancing and gained a great reputation[10].

Service route

Domestic flights

Luzon
Manila (Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3) : Main hub
Busuanga (Busuanga Airport
Kawayan (Cauayan Airport
Clerk(Clark International Airport
Lawag (Laoag International Airport
Legazpi (Legaspi Airport
Naga (Naga Airport
Puerto Princesa (Puerto Princesa International Airport
San Jose (San Jose Airport
Tuguegarao (Tuguegarao Airport
Villak (Virac Airport
Visayas
Cebu (Mactan Cebu International Airport : Hub
Bacolod (Bacolod-Siray International Airport
Caticlan/Boracay (Godofredo P. Ramos Airport
Dumaguete (Sibulan Airport
Iloilo (Iloilo International Airport
Kalibo (Kalibo International Airport
Lohas (Roxas Airport
Tacloban (Tacloban airport
Tagbilaran (Tagbilaran Airport
Masbate[11]
Mindanao
Davao (Davao International Airport : Hub
Butuan (Bankasi Airport
Cagayan de Oro (Lumbia Airport
Kotabato (Awang Airport
Dipolog (Dipolog Airport
General Santos (General Santos International Airport
Ozamis (Labo Airport
Pagadian (Pagadian Airport
Shargao (Sayak Airport
Surigao (Surigao Airport
Taui Taui (Sanga-Sanga Airport
Zamboanga (Zamboanga International Airport

International flights

East Asia

Japanese flag Japan
Tokyo/Narita,Osaka/Kansai,Nagoya/Chubu,Fukuoka(January 2016 service)
Republic of Korea flag  South Korea
Seoul/Incheon,Busan
Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku
Shanghai/Pudong,Guangzhou
Hong Kong flag Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Macau flag Macau
Macau
Republic of China flag Taiwan
Taipei/Taoyuan

Southeast Asia

 Indonesia
Jakarta,Denpasar
Singapore flag Singapore
Singapore
Kingdom of Thailand flag Thailand
Bangkok/Suvarnabhumi,プ ー ケ ッ ト[12][13]
Malaysia flag Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur,Kota Kinabalu
 Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
Hanoi,Ho Chi Minh City
Brunei flag Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu
Bandar Seri Begawan

Oceania

Australian flag Australia
Sydney

Middle East

United Arab Emirates flag United Arab Emirates
Dubai
Saudi arabia flag Saudi Arabia
Riyadh,Dammam
Kuwait flag クウェート
クウェート

Accident, trouble, etc.

  • February 1998, 2-Manila (via Tacloban) to Cagaya de Oro / Flight 2 / DC-387-9 / RP-C32
ManilaNinoy Aquino International AirportFrom central PhilippinesTaclobanVia southern PhilippinesMindanaoNorthern cityCagayan de OroTo Flight 387DC-9-32(RP-C1507) crashed into the mountains about 11km north-northeast from the airport during landing approach to the final destination, Cagayan de Oro Airport, around 50am. It was a catastrophe that killed all 104 passengers and crew[14].
  • June 2013, 6-Manila to Davao / Flight 2 / A971-320 / RP-C214
When landing at Davao Airport, he left the runway and the front wheels plunged into the grassland beside the runway. After that, the aircraft stopped and the wheels were damaged, but 165 passengers and 6 crew members were all alive and there were no injuries. At the time of the accident, visibility was poor due to thunderstorms, and flight crew members reported to the authorities that "the lights from the runway could not be clearly seen even when the altitude was lowered." Misunderstood as a line light, and forced landing due to bad weather is said to be the cause of the accident[15].

Related item

footnote

  1. ^ “European Union: All Philippine and Sudanese airlines are prohibited from entering the region”Bloomberg. (March 2010, 3). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2012, 7.. https://archive.is/7aDS 
  2. ^ Press Release – FAA Announces the Republic of the Philippines' Aviation Safety Rating April 9, 2014 Contact: Alison Duquette or Les Dorr Phone: (202) 267-3883
  3. ^ “Aviation: Commission updates the European safety list” (English). Brussels: European Union. (April 2014, 4). http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-415_en.htm 
  4. ^ “Tiger Air and Cebu Pacific Announce Strategic Alliance”. FlyTeam. (January 2014, 1). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/30605 
  5. ^ CEB Advisory-Manila Terminal Changes Cebu Pacific Air
  6. ^ Cebu Pacific Airlines fleet details -AirFleets.net
  7. ^ CEBU Pacific Air Fleet Details and History Planespptters.net
  8. ^ LiteFare Cebu Pacific Air
  9. ^ Cebu Pacific Airlines (Philippines) reviews, reputation and impressions Cheap Airline LCC Institute [Source invalid]
  10. ^ "Safe Dance" at Lady Gaga - CNN
  11. ^ “Cebu Pacific Airlines enters service on Cebu/Masbate”. FlyTeam. (January 2013, 6). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/22727 
  12. ^ “Cebu Pacific Airlines Enters Manila/Phuket Line from August”. FlyTeam. (January 2013, 5). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/22663 
  13. ^ “Cebu Pacific to Manila/Phuket route”. FlyTeam. (January 2013, 8). http://flyteam.jp/news/article/25564 
  14. ^ Cebu Pacific Air 387- Accident description Aviation Safety Network
  15. ^ Cebu Pacific Air 971- Accident description

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