Single-track electrified orbit is pure grade separation_Meiji is down, Showa is up
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This is the boundary point between the three towns of Fujimi-cho, Misumi-cho, and Sakae-cho, Higashimurayama-shi, Tokyo, where the Kokubunji Line and the Tamako Line cross over.
This is the point where single-track tracks cross over, north of the Bridgestone Tokyo Factory.From the yellow train that goes up, Seibu Railway ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Multi-level crossing(Ritaikousa,Flying junctionTomo) is different from multiple paths when an object moves.flatIt means crossing over.building,TransportationAs a field term, the path is basically basicallyroute,waterwayAnd the situation of grade separationFacilityPoint to and say.
Railway line,道路There are many examples,Roman aqueductThere are many examples of grade separation of waterways represented by.Also human and wildAnimalEquipment / facilities that are three-dimensionalized for the purpose of avoiding the inconvenience of crossing the routes in daily life (Later) Does not deviate from the definition.
Level crossingCompared to oneroutePass throughvehicleIncreases the capacity of the route because it does not block the other passage,Traffic jamCancellation ofTraffic accidentIt is useful for prevention of.In addition, it should be noted.WaterwayとRiverIn some cases, the waterways intersect with each other.
Main types of grade separation
Overpasses are roughly divided into the following three types.
- Multiple railway lines
- Multiple roads
- Multiple rail lines and roads
Multiple railway lines
When railroad lines with a large number of trains intersect, the lines may be grade-separated.When the number of trains is large, at-grade intersections are often constructed as grade separations because they hinder the neck on the diamond and increase the number of trains.One of the reasons for grade separation is the safety of train operation.Of the grade separations of railways, those that perform grade separation in the form of bridgesRailroad bridgeCall.
However, compared to roads, railways have curved radii and slopeslinearDue to the many restrictions on conditions, vast land and construction costs tend to be high.When making a grade separation from an at-grade intersection, it is required that it does not interfere with the operating train, and if there is a train that changes between the intersection lines, it is required to respond to the change Therefore, a longer construction period and a large amount of cost are required.
in Japan,ShinkansenThe law requires that all grade separations be made.
in Japan,highway(Strictly speakingRoad structure ordinanceType 1 inHighway national road,as well asMotorwayAnd the second kindUrban highwayIn the case of), all are grade separations and the connection with other roads isInterchangeIt is decided as a structure.
In the case of roads other than highways, there is an intersection with a structure that becomes a grade separation only when going straight on the intersecting road, and a level intersection when turning right or left on the road..
Multiple rail lines and roads
Where the railroad and road intersect at the levelRailroad crossingIs.Railroad crossings are prone to accidents due to complicated traffic, andTraffic jamIt also causes.in Japan,列車At railroad crossings with a large number of tracks and tracks, the open time is shorter than the closed time."Railroad crossing without opening'May occur and become a social problem.Therefore, especially at railroad crossings with heavy traffic, grade separation of roads and railwaysContinuous three-dimensional intersectionIs being promoted.
On railway lines constructed in Japan after the end of the 20th century,Road lawArticle XNUMX states, "Except when the traffic volume on the road or the number of times the railway is operated is small, when it is unavoidable due to the terrain, or when otherwise specified by a Cabinet Order, the method of intersection shall be grade separation." Because it is written, it is constructed with a structure that is basically a grade separation with the road.As a result, there are many railroad crossings, or even if there are only a few railroad crossings.
Other grade separation
Three-dimensional crossing facility
A facility where pedestrians (and, in some cases, bicycles) cross the road without encountering vehicles or railroad tracks without encountering trains.Pedestrian bridgeas well as the Underground crosswalkThere is.
Airfield(空港-Military airfieldEtc.)Runway,TaxiwayRoads and railroads are used to cross over general roads and railroads.tunnelOften.Narita International Airport Terminal 3,Kuala Lumpur International Airport KLIA2,London Gatwick Airport At the north terminal, etc., a pedestrian bridge is built on the taxiway.
When constructing a road in a mountainous area, etc.Animal trailStarting withwildAnimalLife way[Note 1]Is divided by human roads, but this narrows the wildlife habitat andgeneIt also undermines diversity..
Is like thisEcosystemTo reduce the adverse effect onAnd that animals can cross safelyNature, which is set up for the purpose ofEnvironmentIt is a grade separation for conservation.Since there are terrestrial and tree-dwelling animals that are expected to be affected, there are two types of animal crossings: underpasses that pass below human roads and overpasses that pass above human roads.For the former,culvertThere are tunnel type roads that pass underground using drainage pipelines and human roads that have a bridge structure, while the latter has various bridge structures.This is in Oita prefectureHigashikyushu ExpresswaySome facilities, such as the Curious Bridge, require large-scale civil engineering work, and some facilities, for example, straddle human roads.SignUtilized the facilityDormousePassing for "Dormouse Bridge"And the width 30 in the aircm Ofsuspension bridgeConnected withSquirrePassing forIs also a type of wildlife crossing that works well.
Flooding at the bottom of the road
Drainage and water storage facilities are provided at the bottom of the grade separation that passes under roads and railroad tracks.. But,Torrential rainIf a large amount of water flows in for a short period of time and the drainage / storage limit is exceeded, or if the leaves are clogged and cannot be drained normally, water will accumulate at the bottom of the road and flood the road...Even if the car is flooded by several tens of centimeters, the car door will not open and it will be difficult to escape...In order to avoid this, there are places where intrusion caution / prohibition is displayed at the entrance or in front of sudden heavy rain.
- ^ For example,National highway No. 1 / Harajuku intersectionetc.
- ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Road Design Handbook, Chapter 12, Three-dimensional Crossing Facility
- ^ a b c d e Measures against fragmentation of animal habitat --National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- ^ "Cargo Eco Road-Ingenuity to protect animals". Fukushima. 2010/11/7Browse.
- ^ We covered the current status of "underpass" flood countermeasures that protect life.
- ^ Watch out for underpass flooding! / This is Kitakyu editorial department!
- ^ Road underpass
- ^ Road flooding location map
- ^ Precautions for flooding in the underpass
- ^ Road surface flood notification system (underpass)
- ^ Why dangerous?Underpass during heavy rain
- ^ Please be careful about underpass traffic during torrential rain
- "(PDF)". (Official website). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismNational Institute of Advanced Science and Technology. 2011/9/6Browse.
- "(PDF)". (Official website).National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2011/9/6Browse.