ENEOS's clear race sense and Kenta Yamashita's window misfortune that divided his fate [GT500 final after-reading]
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"I had a chance to overtake car 17, but in the last 20 laps, the window became so oily that I could see the corner posts at all when the sun came in. It's gone, "says Yamashita, who talks about the situation in the third stint.
It won the opening round of the 2021 Super GT and was equipped with a 40kg success weight (SW / former name: weight handicap) ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Overtake(Japanese-English: overtake)raceAt, say that the car behind is ahead of the car ahead.
In English, it is called "overtaking" or "passing".
In a race, "overtaking" is not necessarily "overtaking". "Overtaking" in races can be roughly divided into the following three cases.
- Vehicles competing for position in the same lap, the car behind the car overtakes the car in front, and the car is switched.
- Cars with different numbers of laps overtake the ones in front of the other car and delay the laps.
- A car running in the pit lane or in the pit is moving ahead of the car in the track.
In most cases, it points to "1" and is called "overtake".raceIt's a big showcase, and the content and the number of times often affect the entertainment itself of the race. For example, a race with little or no overtake may be ridiculed as a "running event."
"2" is overtake in a broad sense, but not overtake in a narrow sense. In a race, overtaking only means that the rankings are swapped as in "1", and cases such as "2" are often referred to simply as "lapped down" or "lapped down".
In recent years, like "3"F1In such cases, the ranking often changes due to pit work, but in this case, the ranking is switched regardless of the intention of overtaking the rear car or the intention of the front car blocking it, and there is no action accompanying it, so Opinions are divided on whether or not this can be called overtaking. For example, if cars competing for the same lap perform pit work on the same lap or recent laps, both pits will not be overtaken on the track due to work differences and lap times. The order may change after the work. Or, when the front car does the pit work first, the rear car will temporarily move forward in the ranking, but these are not often overtakes.
To distinguish this, "1" is sometimes referred to as "overtaking on the course".
- Use of linear speed difference
- The most common overtaking method iscornerEscape from and approach the front car, longstraightIn front ofSlipstreamBy enteringAir resistanceTo increase speed,Tail to noseIt is a method of lining up horizontally from the state and pulling out. At this time, the front car often changes the running line so as not to enter the slipstream or simply blocks in order to prevent overtaking, and the rear car, on the other hand, enters the slipstream, Or to change the driving line to avoid the block,battleOccurs, and this becomes the highlight of the race.
- Braking game
- If you can't overtake straight, in the next cornerbrakeBy delaying, the driver's courage and skill will be displayed as if they are trying to enter the corner first. Those who are on the in side toward the corner are more advantageous, but when they deviate from the running line on the out side, the road surface becomes dirty and braking becomes difficult. How to remove the front car that blocks the in side by covering it from the out sideOgai MowingSometimes called.
- Cross line
- Even if you can't pull out when entering a corner, there is also a method where you pull in the gap where the front car cannot decelerate enough and the running line swells to cut into the inside, and line up when you exit the corner. This switching technique is called "cross line".
- Compound skill
- Aim for the inside by entering the cornerfeintAnd let the front car take the block line. In the front car, the cornering line becomes difficult and the escape speed decreases. If the rear car rises to the corner with emphasis on acceleration, it will be easier to use slipstream on the next straight.
- Even if you don't succeed once, you need to continue to apply such pressure to induce mistakes by the opponent and to play brains to wear brakes and tires.
Overtaking is the real pleasure of racing, but actions that are problematic from the viewpoint of safety and sportsmanship are subject to deliberation and may be penalized by the race committee.
- Dangerous driving
- Contact accidents that occur in an overtaking battle are usually handled as racing incidents. However, nuisances that endanger the surroundings, such as "repeating zigzag while avoiding slipstream", "attempting to push the opponent off the course while running in parallel", and "engaging the opponent with reckless braking" Subject to penalty.
- Severe penalties such as suspension of participation and deprivation of points will be given to malicious cases in which it is determined that the contact was made intentionally.
- Overtaking in prohibited overtaking sections
- In many races, the dangerous sections/areas where accidents occur during competition, or the entire course,Yellow flagIs used. This means that the driver should be careful and the speed should be suppressed, and at the same time, overtaking is prohibited in that section. If you overtake in the section where the yellow flag is presented, you will be penalized by the regulations.
- Unjust profit
- When overtaking, when passing over a place that is not on the official course and gaining a clear advantage over the following car, the overtaken car causes the overtaken car to lead again Failure to do so may result in a penalty.
In addition, even if it is not clearly stated in the regulation, mutual recognition such as "which one will ultimately yield" is necessary between the parties involved in the battle. When entering a corner while running side-by-side, it is considered etiquette to "leave one's opponent's running line". Since contact at high speed corners can lead to serious accidents, it is necessary to make an instant judgment based on vehicle performance and the driver's skill.
Overtake promotion measures
The frequency of overtaking during a race depends on the race category or the characteristics of the circuit.IndyCar,NASCARlikeOval truckIn the races that use, the bargaining that uses the slipstream is developed everywhere. In the two-wheeled light displacement class, you can see the situation where the race is carried out as a group while repeatedly changing the ranking. Conversely, F2Monaco GPWill be the stage ofMonte Carlo city courseOn a twisty course with a narrow road like this, overtaking becomes a very difficult task.
TV ratings for modern motorsports (=Broadcast rightBecause of the impact of (income), entertainment is required more than before. Races with few overtake scenes are considered boring, so we have added a directing element that introduces rules and techniques that make it easier to overtake.
On the other hand, there is also a view that if there are frequent artificial overtakes that do not reflect the driver's skill, they will be awakened. OnceCARTThen, I mounted a spoiler (Hanford device) on the rear wing to suppress the speed on the oval truck, but as a side effect, Thrips Stream became too effective and the scene that the car I pulled out immediately returned ..
There are several possible reasons for the reduction in overtaking.
- The body design isWingIt is generated by air flowing over the upper surface of the vehicleDown forceIt is important to get more, and by approaching the front car during cornering, air resistance decreases and downforce is lost and the car body becomes unstable and a sudden change in behavior occurs, so much As a result of being unable to approach the front car,straightでSlipstreamI can't put it in.
- Used in F1カ ー ボ ンDisc brakeHas a high braking force, the deceleration distance is short and it is difficult to challenge the braking game when entering a corner.
- The tire dust (marble) that has been torn from the tire surface is scattered on the course, so if you leave the running line for the purpose of overtaking, the tire dust will adhere to the tire and the grip force of the tire will decrease.
- Since you can basically change the tires freely, you can always have the fastest lap time possible, you do not need a strategic pace reduction to save the tires, you can also use the tires to slow down Since it has decreased, there is no longer a big lap time difference.
- When overtaking on the track, there is always a danger of contact, so a tactic that raises the ranking by involving pit work etc. without risking trying to overtake it on the track Came to take place.
- Due to cost reduction, the degree of freedom in engine development has been greatly limited, making it difficult for engine manufacturers to make a difference in engine performance.2005From now on, it is obligatory to use one engine for two races in a row, and often the engine used in the next race will not be overused.
- As a result of the circuit's run-off area being maintained, even if the driver makes a mistake, the ranking will not change.Jackie StewartDesigns many of the modern F1 circuitsHermann TilkeIs criticizing.
The International Federation of Motor Vehicles (FIA)CFDWe are studying aero packages that facilitate overtaking based on analysis. In 2005, we announced the Center Downwash Generating Wing (CDG), which splits the rear wing into left and right parts to reduce back turbulence, and was introduced in 2007, but its adoption was postponed.
In 2008, the Overtaking Working Group (OWG) was established as a research subcommittee. We have been discussing specific regulations with the design managers of each team, and have introduced them in order since 2009.
- 50% reduction in downforce.
- As a measure against understeer, widen the front wing and lower the left and right heights.Ground effectIncrease. The angle of the flap can be adjusted up to 1 degrees per lap and up to 2 degrees (until 6).
- In order to suppress the generation of rear turbulence, raise the position of the rear wing,DiffuserTo a simple structure.
- In order to prevent a sudden change in behavior when approaching a front vehicle, wearing aero gadgets around the vehicle body is prohibited.
- To increase the dependence on the mechanical grip,1998Has been used sinceGrooved tireAbolishedSlick tireTo reintroduce.
- KERSIntroduces and releases the energy recovered and accumulated at the time of braking as needed to promote speed difference and increase opportunities for overtaking.
- Increase the difference between the driver's points between the championship and the 2nd place, and actively try to overtake.
- No refueling during the final race. Reduces ranking fluctuations in pit strategies and promotes overtaking on tracks.
- During the race, if you approach within 1 second from the preceding vehicle in the designated section, the variable rear wing (Drug reduction system(DRS)) is allowed.
- PirelliIntentionally developed a tire whose performance deteriorates sharply. A clear performance difference is also made between the two types of compounds that are obligatory to use during the race.
- Prohibiting meandering operation and limiting line changes to protect the position is limited to one time, and when cornering, a space for one machine is opened inside to smoothly overtake.
A system called "Push to Pass" is used in the IndyCar Series, where races are conducted not only on the oval but also on the road course (European circuit). When push-to-pass is activated, the allowable engine speed increases by 200 rpm. With a supercharged engineTurbochargerBoost pressure increases. Regarding usage restrictions, the number of times may be restricted and the total operating time may be restricted, which varies depending on the season.
Formula Nippon/Super Formula
Formula NipponThen.2009"Overtake button" was introduced from.. It can be used up to 5 times during the race and the engine speed can be increased by 20 rpm for 400 seconds. Five lamps are lit on the roll bar to make it easy for the audience to understand, and when the button is pressed, it starts blinking after 5 seconds and turns off one by one after each use.
Formula EIn order to produce a close battle, the output of the power unit is softly limited during the final race, but the maximum output is temporarily obtained by passing through a specific lane (outside the normal running line) provided on the course. You can use the "attack mode" that you can.Also, while attack mode increases battery consumption by increasing output,Social MediaA "fan boost" has also been introduced in which only the most supported driver above can obtain an output increase using extra power..
- ^ Lord Stewart criticizing Tilke ESPN F1 March 2011, 3 (viewed September 11, 2011)
- ^ 2009 F1 Machine Regulations F1-Gate.com November 2008, 11 (viewed September 28, 2011)
- ^ Hiroshi Tsujino,Formula Nippon with a new car All about Motorsport May 2009, 5 (viewed September 19, 2011)
- ^ Kota Sera"ahead January issue-What is "Formula E", the first year of EV F1 opening". Auto Look One. (January 2014, 1) Retrieved February 31, 2014."