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🚄 | Plarail with "infinite train" motif, released in summer 2021


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Plarail with "infinite train" motif, released in summer 2021

 
If you write the contents roughly
The suggested retail price is 5,500 yen (tax included), and it will be sold at toy specialty stores and Internet shops nationwide.
 

TAKARATOMY is based on the motif of "Infinite Train" that appears in "Theatrical Version" Devil's Blade "Infinite Train Edition" in the summer of 2021. → Continue reading

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Suggested retail price

Suggested retail priceWhat is (Kibo Korikakaku)?ProductsTo manufactureManufacturer,輸入ToagencyFor example, a sales reference retailer set by a person other than the retailer for the products that he / she supplies.Price.. Also called the manufacturer's suggested retail price.

History

Originally it was said to be "fixed price" or "net price", but books etc.Resale price systemProduct "List priceBecause it may be confused with "suggested retail price" "Reference priceWas replaced with the expression. "List priceIn the case of ", no discounts or price increases are allowed even if there is a reason such as a delay in the release date in the region, and the product must be sold at this price.

2000From around the time, personal computers, etc.Electric appliancesStop setting the suggested retail priceOpen priceThe number of products that are shifting to is increasing.

Ideal science industryIt is,Home PageThe suggested retail price, such as "Ideal price".

Tax included display

Suggested retail prices are not necessarily targeted for consumptionconsumption taxAlthough it is not necessary to display the total amount including the above, many stores display it with tax in order to make consumers understand it as a guide.

  • Suggested retail price 10780 yen (9800 yen excluding tax)

When the over-the-counter price exceeds

There is no legal problem in selling at a high price, as it does not directly stipulate the legal force that the actual selling price should not exceed the suggested retail price.TrackIn mountainous tourist spots where even distribution is difficultvending machineAtSoft drinkIn some cases, products with a manufacturer's suggested retail price of 130 yen are sold for 150 to 200 yen. This reflects high transportation costs and the like.

First generation

In terms of distribution and commercial terms, the equivalent is "First generation"(Jodai), for thisWholesaleThe selling price inLower generation"(Gedai). However, in this case, the upper generation is just a reference price for the end store to sell at the store, and this is not clearly shown to the consumer, and it shows a lower price depending on the management efforts of the store side. It may be acceptable, or it may show a higher price after taking into account the cost of transportation and sales. It's a term that isn't shown to consumers, but nowadaysインターネットBecause there is also a business format that wholesales to the general public usingElectronic mallSome of them use the expression "the retail price / the retail price".

Related item

Five hundred yen coin

XNUMX yen nickel brass coin
500JPY.JPG
MaterialNickel brass
gradecopper 72%
zinc 20%
nickel 8%
Scale7.0g
直径26.5 mm
DesignPaulownia(surface)
bamboo,Orange(Back side)
SurroundingsDiagonal knurled
Issue start2000(12)
Issuance end2021(Reiwa 3 years) Schedule
Five hundred yen white coin
500yen-S57.jpg
MaterialWhite copper
gradeCopper 75%
25% nickel
Scale7.2g
直径26.5 mm
DesignPaulownia (surface)
Bamboo, Tachibana (back side)
SurroundingsWith lettering
Issue start1982(57)
Issuance end1999(11)

Five hundred yen coin(Gohyakuenkou)Japanese GovernmentIssuedcurrency.XNUMX yen coinAlso called (Gohyaku-edama). Face value 500Yen Ofcoin.

High-value coins

Commemorative coinFor general circulation coins excluding such items, the face value of 500 yen isJapanese coinNot only the highest price in世界It is one of the leading high-value coins. When it first appeared,スイス5Franc,Germany(OldWest Germany) Of 5マ ル ク,スペイン500PesetaAlong with coins, it became a hot topic as high-value coins. This is South Korea500ウ ォ ンInviting a large amount of currency alteration cases (described below) due to low-value coins such as coins,2000(HeiseiIn 12), he was forced to recast.After that, recasting is carried out approximately every 20 years.[Note 1].

In Germany and SpainEuroWas introduced and the maximum face value coin was 2 euros, so nowキ ュ ー バ5PesoCoin (Cuban convertible peso is 1.08U.S. dollarToPeg), alongside Swiss 5 francs. The face value of each coin isExchange rateFluctuation. However, although Cuban 5 peso coins are not commemorative coins, they are very rare in circulation.

XNUMX yen white coin (first generation)

Overview

1982(Showa57 years)May 4[1]ToXNUMX yen bill(IwakuraPortrait ofC XNUMX yen ticket) Appeared in place of[2][Note 2].

On the surfacePaulowniaFlower leaves and the letters "Japan" and "XNUMX yen" are on the back with the year of manufacture and above and below.bambooLeaves, left and rightOrangeThe twig of is designed, and the typeface of the number "500" on the back side is derived from the C XNUMX yen coin.[Note 3]..The material iscopper75%,nickel25%White copperMade of white copper with the same compositionFifty yen coin-Hundred yen copper coinIt is natural to make it larger, but as a result of examining the relationship between mobile phone flights, identification with other currencies, balance with high-value coins from other countries, vending machines, etc., the diameter is 26.5. mmIt became the size.The actual thickness is 1.85 mm.

The letter "◆NIPPON◆500◆" (lettering) is repeatedly engraved on the edge as one of the anti-counterfeiting technologies, and it is the first technology adopted since the establishment of the Mint Bureau. Since the front and back are not aligned with respect to the direction of the engraving, approximately half of the front and back are approximately half when placed so that the characters "◆NIPPON◆500◆" can be read correctly. Exists.

History

The circulation of 60-yen coins exceeds XNUMX% of the total coins, andvending machineDue to the demand for higher denomination coins against the background of the rapid spread of coins, it was issued as an exceptionally high denomination coin in the world.[3].

at firstTemporary currency lawWas effectiveTemporary supplementary currencyIssued as1988(Showa 63)Law on currency units and issuance of moneyAfter enforcement1999Until (11) "currencyWas continuously issued as.This XNUMX-yen coin is the last ordinary coin issued as a temporary supplementary coin.

The year 62 had the smallest number of manufactured products (277), followed by the year 5 with the smallest number (64). Unused coins of these years are traded at prices exceeding the face value in old coin dealers.

Due to the frequent occurrence of currency alteration cases, which will be described later, issuance was suspended in 2000 (Heisei 12) in the form of being taken over by XNUMX-yen nickel brass coins.Although a XNUMX-yen coin with the name "XNUMX" was manufactured, it was not issued after all.

2 yen nickel brass coin (XNUMXnd generation)

Overview

2000(12)May 8Introduced the 2-yen nickel brass coin, which is the second-generation XNUMX-yen coin with a different design and material.[4]..It is the first ordinary coin issued as "money" under the "Act on Units of Currency and Issuance of Money, etc." from the beginning of issuance.In Japan in the Heisei era, many types of commemorative coins were manufactured and issued, but this XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin is the only ordinary coin issued in Japan with new specifications in the Heisei era.

It was the year when the era changed from Heisei to Rewa.2019Regarding the 31-yen coins (31 / first year of Reiwa), the number of coins issued in 1 was 2616, while the number of coins issued in the first year of Reiwa was 4. Not only did the number of coins in the first year of Reiwa decrease to 7695, but the number of 6-yen coins in the first year of Reiwa fell below 1 million for the first time as a XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin, the smallest number. Although it became a record, there are still so-called special year coins, which are so small in number that unused coins are traded at prices exceeding the par value at old coin dealers, etc. Not out.

Difference from XNUMX yen coin

Paulownia on the diameter and surface, bamboo on the back[5][6]There is no difference in the rough appearance from the XNUMX-yen coin, such as the design of Tachibana and Tachibana, but there are some differences as shown below, mainly to prevent counterfeiting.

Ingredients

The 72-yen coin was made of white copper with the same composition as the XNUMX-yen coin and the XNUMX-yen coin, while the XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin was XNUMX% copper.zinc20%, 8% nickelNickel brassIt was made. ThisElectrical conductivityBecause of the changes, it became easier to detect counterfeit coins with a machine.Along with this, the color is slightly golden and the quantity is 7.2. gIt is reduced by 7.0 g from to 0.2 g.

Front/rear/side changes/anti-counterfeiting technology

Although the design follows the XNUMX-yen coin, the design on the front and back has been slightly changed and the design on the side has also been changed to prevent counterfeiting.

  • Fine line
    • On the surface, the background of "Japan" and "XNUMX yen" is convex, and fine lines thinner than the hair are applied to prevent counterfeiting.
  • Fine point
    • Fine point processing is applied to the central part of the paulownia leaf on the surface.
    • Both fine lines and fine points use the latest technology in metal microfabrication.
  • Latent image
    • On the back side, there is no hole drawn inside the number "500", it looks like "5 ●●".Furthermore, the "0" part is provided with a latent image in which the characters "500 yen" and "vertical lines" emerge depending on the angle.However, since it is a coin, many of the used coins are crushed and difficult to see.
  • Micro character
    • MintAlthough it is not disclosed, it is hard to see with the naked eye, but 0.2 mm each on both sidesJAPANESEIs engraved with micro characters[7].
  • Diagonal serration
    • On the side, instead of the lettering of the 181-yen coin, a diagonal jaggedness (the number of jaggedness is XNUMX), which is extremely rare in the world coins, was inserted in the XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin.In this way, the XNUMX-yen coin uses advanced technology for side processing compared to other face value coins.

Thickness

The 1.81-yen coin and the 1.85-yen nickel coin are supposed to have the same thickness by design, but in reality, the thickness of the 50-yen nickel coin is XNUMX mm, which is XNUMX. It is slightly thinner than the XNUMX mm yen coin.This difference is due to the fact that the edges of the coin have been changed from inscribed to jagged on the smooth surface.For this reason, for XNUMX XNUMX-yen coinsCoin holderIn some cases, 51 XNUMX-yen nickel brass coins can be stored.

3 yen bicolor clad coin to be issued (XNUMXrd generation)

[Not issued]
XNUMX yen bicolor clad coin
MaterialOuter edge: nickel brass
Center (surface layer): Cupronickel
Center (inside): Copper
By color-Clad
gradeCopper 75%
Zinc 12.5%
12.5% nickel
Scale7.1g
直径26.5 mm
DesignPaulownia (surface)
Bamboo, Tachibana (back side)
SurroundingsThere is a deformed diagonal jaggedness
Issue start2021(Reiwa 3 years) Schedule

Overview

2021(Reiwa3 years) In November, the third generation 11-yen coin with a different design and material, 3 yenBy color-CladCoins will appear[8]..Initially, it was planned to be issued in the first half of 2021 (3rd year of Reiwa),New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)Beverages, cigarettes, etc.vending machineAnd station ticket machines,TMJ2021 (3rd year of Reiwa) due to delays in repair work to make various devices such as new coins compatible with new coins.May 1The Ministry of Finance has announced that it will postpone the issuance.same yearMay 4Announced that it will be issued again by November[9]..The production of this XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coin was made in the same year.May 6Started from[10].

change point

NameMaterialgradeScale直径Surroundings
Five hundred yen white coinWhite copperCopper 75%
25% nickel
7.2 g26.5 mmlettering
"◆ NIPPON ◆ 500 ◆"
XNUMX yen nickel brass coinNickel brassCopper 72%
Zinc 20%
8% nickel
7.0 gDiagonal serration
XNUMX yen bicolor clad coinOuter edge: nickel brass
Center: 3-layer structure with copper sandwiched between cupronickel
(Bicolor clad)
As a percentage from the whole
Copper 75%
Zinc 12.5%
12.5% nickel[Note 4]
7.1 gDeformed diagonal jagged

Counterfeit prevention technology

It has been announced that the following new anti-counterfeiting technologies will be adopted:[8][Note 5].

  • Bicolor clad with 2-color 3-layer structure
    • Nickel brass is used for the outer circumference, and the inner copper is sandwiched by white copper. Although the copper part is not visible from the outside, this layer is useful when taking advantage of changes in electrical conductivity when working with machines.
  • Variant diagonal edge rim
    • Part of the diagonal knurls has a shape different from other knurls (eye spacing, slope, etc.). This is the world's first adoption of coins for distribution.
  • Fine characters
    • Fine character processing of "JAPAN" is applied to the top and bottom of the inside of the surface edge, and "500YEN" is applied to the left and right.[11].

The fine lines, fine dots, and latent images that have already been used for 500-yen nickel coins will continue to be used, but the latent image is based on the vertical lines of the 500-yen nickel coin and the letters "XNUMX yen". The characters will be changed to "XNUMX YEN" and "JAPAN".

Design

Although the design follows the XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coin, the design on the back side is that the design of the lower bamboo among the top, bottom, left and right bamboo and tachibana designs has disappeared, and the letters of the year of manufacture at the bottom of the back side are from series to edge It will be changed to an arc-shaped arrangement along[12].

Counterfeit/altered coins

In the same year that the 1982-yen coin was introduced in 57 (Showa XNUMX), South KoreaBut(Korean version)Was introduced.At the timeExchange rateAlthough it was worth about 170 yen in Japanese yen, the material and size were exactly the same as the 26.5 yen coin, it was made of white copper with a diameter of 7.7 mm, and the weight was only XNUMX g, so it was slightly heavy, so the surface Reduce the mass by slightly shaving or drilling holes,vending machineThere were many examples of coins that could be used as XNUMX-yen coins.[13][14].

The main method is to insert a altered 500 won coin and operate the "return lever" to take out the genuine 500 yen coin stored in the vending machine.By abusing the design mechanism of the vending machine that coins other than the inserted coins come out to the return slot, the difference profit at the exchange rate of 500 won and 500 yen is obtained.In addition to stealing genuine 500-yen coins, there is also a method of stealing goods, tickets, or change worth XNUMX yen from vending machines by using altered coins as XNUMX yen.

In order to deal with this trick, the structure of the vending machine has been revised so that the coins put in can be pooled and prepared for return.

Other than the 500 won coin, although the number was small,(I.e.1RiyalCoins andハンガリー20ForintCoins and 50 forint coins,PortugalOld 25EscudoCoins that are forged coins and counterfeit coins have been used.

In this way, the situation surrounding 2000-yen coins became extremely bad, and in 12 (Heisei XNUMX) it was changed to XNUMX-yen nickel brass coins.

After issuing XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coins, vending machinesTMJDue to the renewal of the coin, the modified coins that were accepted as XNUMX-yen coins gradually became obsolete.2003From around (15), forgery of XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coins began to be reported sporadically.

2005(17) At the end of JanuaryTokyo-Fukuoka-Kumamoto Ofpost officeA large number of counterfeit 2-yen nickel coins were finally found at ATMs and counters in the area, and the handling of coins at ATMs was temporarily suspended at post offices in the area.[15].. Many vending machines limit the number of 500-yen coins that can be inserted at one time to three.[16], Some vending machines are limited to one.

As of 2011 (Heisei 23), there is a strong demand for XNUMX-yen coins.Electronic moneySome experts pointed out that it would be hard to be affected by[17].

From the above circumstances, 33-yen coins are still legally valid, but there are increasing cases where they cannot be used due to improvements or updates in the accuracy of vending machines.In addition, XNUMX-yen coins before the XNUMX inscription (Giza Ten) Is also highly unusable in vending machines[18].

2020At the end of the year (2nd year of Reiwa), counterfeit XNUMX-yen coins were discovered one after another.There is also a view that the criminal will rush to use counterfeit coins before the issuance of XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coins.[19].

Commemorative currency

Issued after 1982 (Showa 57) when XNUMX-yen coins appearedCommemorative currencyIs often issued with a face value of 500 yen, excluding those using precious metals such as gold and silver.

500 yen coin
  • International Science and Technology Expo Memorial 500 Yen White Bronze Coin
  • 500 yen coin to commemorate the XNUMXth anniversary of the founding of the cabinet system
  • A 500-yen coin commemorating the XNUMXth anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor's reign
  • Seikan Tunnel opening commemoration 500 yen coin
  • Seto Ohashi opening commemoration 500 yen coin
  • 500 yen coin to commemorate the throne of His Majesty the Emperor
  • 20 yen coin for the 500th anniversary of the return to Okinawa
Regarding the above, the material is the same as ordinary coins, but the diameter is 30 mm, which is larger than ordinary coins, and the weight is 13 g, which is heavier than ordinary coins.
  • Crown Prince's wedding commemoration 500 yen coin
  • Kansai International Airport opening commemoration 500 yen coin
  • The 12th Asian Games Memorial 500 Yen Cupronickel Coin (There are 3 types of designs: run, swim, and jump)
  • Nagano Olympic Winter Games commemorative 500 yen coin
  • 10 yen coin to commemorate the 500th anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor
The above is the same as the XNUMX-yen coin, which is a regular coin, in terms of diameter, quantity, and material.However, in each case, the surroundings are not lettering but jagged, which is different from ordinary money.
500 yen nickel bronze coin
  • 2002 FIFA World Cup Memorial 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin (3 types of designs)
  • 2005 Japan International Exposition Commemorative 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin
  • 50th Anniversary of Antarctic Research Expedition 500 Yen Nickel Bronze Coin
  • Japan-Brazilian Exchange Year and Japanese 100th Anniversary of Emigration to Brazil 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin ☆
  • 20th Anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin ☆
The above is the same as the XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coin, which is a regular coin, in terms of diameter, quantity, and material.However, ☆ is different from ordinary coins in that the surroundings are irregularly shaped diagonally jagged (other than that, the surroundings are also diagonally jagged like ordinary coins).
500 yen coin
  • Chubu Centrair International Airport opening commemorative 500 yen silver coin
500 yen bicolor clad coin
  • 60 yen bicolor clad coin (500 types of designs) commemorating the 47th anniversary of the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law
  • 30th Anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor's Reign 500 Yen Bicolor Clad Coin
  • His Majesty the Emperor's coronation commemoration 500 yen bicolor clad coin
  • 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games commemorative 500 yen bicolor clad coin (there are two types of designs, Raijin and Fujin) ★
Using the standards (diameter, quantity, material, structure) adopted for the above coins, the format of the XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coins of ordinary coins to be issued was established.However, only in ★, the circumference is not a deformed diagonal jagged but a normal diagonal jagged.

For details on the year of publication and style, seeJapanese commemorative currencySee.

Transition

  • 1981(Showa56 years)May 7[1]: Established a XNUMX-yen coin style[Note 6].
  • 1982(57)May 4[1] : Five hundred yen white coinIssue.The design is paulownia.
  • 1988(63)May 4: Due to the enforcement of the law concerning currency units and issuance of money, etc.Temporary supplementary currencyThe XNUMX-yen coin, which was issued as a coin, will continue to have the power to be used as a "temporary auxiliary coin that is regarded as money."
  • 2000(Heisei12 years)May 1: Established the style of XNUMX-yen nickel coins[Note 7].
  • 2000 (Heisei 12)May 8 : XNUMX yen nickel brass coinIssue.To improve anti-counterfeiting power.The design follows the previous one, but the details are different due to the anti-counterfeiting measures.
  • 2021(Reiwa3 years)May 1: Established a XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coin style[Note 8].
  • 2021 years (Ryowa 3 years)11(plans)[9] : XNUMX yen bicolor clad coinWill be issued.

Incidentally,1994(6)May 4UntilXNUMX yen billWas issued in parallel.

Number of issued sheets

"Independent Administrative Agency Mint Bureau Data on money "Number of coins manufactured by year"

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Bank of Japan notesIncludingbillThen, it is common to renew the banknotes incorporating new anti-counterfeiting technology for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting at intervals of about 20 years, and the same measures are taken.
  2. ^ The C-XNUMX yen note was manufactured and issued for a while after the issuance of the XNUMX-yen white copper coin.1985(60), suspension of payment from BOJ1994(6)).
  3. ^ This front and back is a convenient name at the Mint, and unlike coins of the Meiji era, there are no legal provisions for the front and back.
  4. ^ Looking at each part alone, the outer edge part has the same composition as a XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin, and the central surface layer part has the same composition as a XNUMX-yen white copper coin.
  5. ^ Of this technology, the bicolor clad with a two-color three-layer structure and the deformed diagonal serrated edgesCommemorative currencyThen.2008Issued in (20)Currency commemorating the 60th anniversary of the enforcement of the Local Government ActHas already been adopted by.
  6. ^ July 56, 7 Cabinet Order No. 3
  7. ^ January 12, 1 Cabinet Order No. 28
  8. ^ Reiwa January 3, 1rd Cabinet Order No. 27

Source

  1. ^ a b c Bank of Japan Financial Research Institute, "Institute for Monetary and Currency", Bank of Japan Financial Research Institute, 1994, p. 106.ISBN 9784930909381.
  2. ^ "The 94th Diet House Finance Committee No. 23 April 56, 4 Temporary currency lawOf XNUMX yenTemporary supplementary currencyAbout adding ". House of Representatives. 2020th of February 8Browse.
  3. ^ Akira Watanabe "About the operational status of Japan's currency system (currency system)(Pdf) "Finance" No. 561,Ministry of Finance, November 2012, pp. 8-18,2021th of February 5Browse.
  4. ^ "The 146th Diet House of Representatives Finance Committee No. 3, November 11, 11 Regarding the recast of 17-yen coins”. House of Representatives. 2020th of February 8Browse.
  5. ^ "Money Museum (coins)". Nichigin KidsBank of Japan. As of April 2020, 4オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020th of February 8Browse.
  6. ^ Nichingin Kids/Money Museum
  7. ^ Naoyuki Kawasaki. “See the micro characters of the new 500 yen coinTakai Laboratory, Department of Electronic Information Electronics, Department of Electronic Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University. As of November 2002, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020th of February 8Browse.
  8. ^ a b "I will issue new Bank of Japan notes and XNUMX yen coins" (Press Release), Treasury, (April 2019, 4), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20190409005102/https://www.mof.go.jp/currency/bill/20190409.html 2020th of February 8Browse. 
  9. ^ a b "About the issuance time of the new XNUMX-yen coin”. Ministry of Finance. 2021th of February 4Browse.
  10. ^ "New 500-yen coins will be manufactured at the Japan Mint from November". Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun). (November 2021, 6). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASP6P66JSP6PULFA019.html?iref=com_rnavi_arank_nr01 
  11. ^ Isamu Mukaiyama (2020-06-14). “Special feature: Renewal for the first time in about 2004 years since 20 Significance of new banknote and coin issuance and latest technology”. Finance (Ministry of Finance) (June issue of Reiwa). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 2020-08-14.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200814214803/https://www.mof.go.jp/public_relations/finance/201906/201906c.pdf. 
  12. ^ "The new 500-yen coins are in two colors." The center is the 2-yen coin and the surroundings are the colors of the current 100-yen coin.". FNN Prime Online (Fuji Television Network Co., Ltd.). (April 2019, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 8.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200814205838/https://www.fnn.jp/articles/-/7418 
  13. ^ "Did you know about the new 500-yen coin? What's the surprising reason for the new 500-yen coin?". Adult life (Media software). (April 2019, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20190503024619/https://otona-life.com/2019/04/10/11752/ 
  14. ^ "The 146th Diet session Questions on the Vending Machine Trolls caused by the use of modified foreign coins etc.”. House of Representatives. As of July 2019, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2020th of February 8Browse.
  15. ^ “About discontinuation of handling coins at ATMs” (Press release), Japan Post, (November 2005, 2), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2005, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20050205022156/https://www.japanpost.jp/pressrelease/japanese/kawase/050203j302.html 
  16. ^ Mono Magazine Editorial Department (September 2017, 9). "Unknown profit mechanism for people with "vending machines"". Storage chest 100 (Toyo Keizai Online). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200305120407/https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/186320?page=3 
  17. ^ “Why circulation increases only with 500 yen coins? Electronic money and “appropriate use””. Econo detective team (NIKKEI STYLE). (October 2011, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200411050246/https://style.nikkei.com/article/DGXDZO35987840Y1A021C1W14000?channel=DF210220171905&style=1 
  18. ^ Emi Iwaki (July 2015, 7). "There is a vending machine. No matter how many coins and bills are thrown in, it's a wonder that they return to the change counter.". tenki.jp supplement (Japan Weather Association). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150726004037/https://tenki.jp/suppl/emi_iwaki/2015/07/25/5511.html 
  19. ^ Counterfeit XNUMX-yen coins found one after another Is it a rush before issuing new coins? Sankei WEST December 2020, 12 25:16 (viewed December 39, 2020)

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