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Automobile policy study group for carbon neutral, hearing results to be announced on May 5
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This study group will summarize the results of hearings conducted on local governments and industry groups regarding automobile policies toward carbon neutrality.
The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism will hold the "Automotive Policy Study Group for Carbon Neutral" on May 5th ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Industry group(Gyokai Dantai) is involved in a specific industryCompany,IndividualIs configured as a memberProfit groupIs.If the target is a professionProfessional organizationIt is called (Shoku no Udantai).Fair competition agreementFor the purpose of proper operation ofConsumer Affairs Agency-Fair Trade CommissionCertified byFair Trade CouncilThe group that became is also included.
The members of the trade associations are mainly medium and large-sized companies and subordinate business associations.Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsJurisdictionJapanese standard industry classification Call it a business group,Service industry(Those not classified elsewhere)> Political / economic / cultural groups> Classified as economic groups.The explanation is "a business establishment that is an organization organized by the same traders and carries out activities to contribute to the development of friendship, status and technology of the industry", and various businesses in addition to credit business or mutual aid business. DoCooperativeIs categorized as a large category Q-Complex Service Business.
The main purpose of creating an industry group isResponding to issues of common interests in the industry, companies jointly respond without showing the names of individual companiesTo do. The most important activity isCountry,StateSuch asindustryPolicyTax systemCollecting information about revisionsAdministrative agency-政治家To the opinion.Electricity industryIn regulated industries such asFederation of Electric Power CompaniesThere are strong industry groups like.
Other than that,election(Political party) Support activities,Political contributionSummary ofLabor-management negotiationThe industry, formulating industry self-regulation rules, industrystatisticsThe creation ofstandardization, Is engaged in public relations activities. Depending on the industry group, in addition to the voluntarily formed group,National Federation of Money Lending Associations→CurrentJapan Money Lending AssociationAnd, like the prefectural money lending industry association of the subordinate organization, it becomes the basisdecree(in this caseLaw on regulation of money lending business) Is also based on some organizations.
In countries other than Japan,Germany,スウェーデンIn continental countriesUnionIn this relationship, industry groups play a large role as in Japan.The United Kingdom,The United States of AmericaHowever, with some exceptions, the strength of industry groups is weak, and each company is individually involved in government policy.
Major industry groups in Japan
It is often referred to as an economic group or a management group rather than an industry group.
- Japan Business Federation
- Japan Chamber of Commerce
- National Federation of Commerce and Industry
- National Association of Small and Medium Enterprises
- Keizai Doyukai
- National Federation of Commerce and Industry
- National Federation of Corporate Associations
In particular,Japan Business Federation,Japan Chamber of Commerce,Keizai DoyukaiThree ofThree economic groupsIt is called.
Fisheries, agriculture and forestry
- Fiber products
- Pulp and paper
- Medical equipment
- Oil and coal products
- Rubber product
- Glass and stone products
- Non-ferrous metal
- Metal products
- Electrical equipment
- Transportation equipment
- Precision mechanical equipment
- Other product
- Traditional crafts
Electricity, gas, heat supply, water supply industry
Transport/information and communication industry
Finance, insurance, futures trading
- List of bank-related industry groups
- List of insurance-related industry groups
- List of industry groups related to securities/commodity futures trading
- List of other financial industry groups
real estate business
- National Health Sanitation Federation Central Association
- National Living Health Sales Guidance Center
- Life hygiene trade association
- Life hygiene industry small association
- Life Hygiene Federation
- Kansai Economic Federation
- Hokkaido Economic Federation
- Tohoku Economic Federation
- Chubu Economic Federation
- Hokuriku Economic Federation
- China Economic Federation
- Shikoku Economic Federation
- Kyushu Economic Federation
Under the above-mentioned nationwide organization, there are many groups that have associations or branches in each prefecture.
- Special Ward Association
- Designated city mayors' association
- Core City Mayors' Association
- National exception city mayors' association
- Industry group
- Business group
- Professional organization
- Profit group
- Public interest corporation
- Convoy system - Special vibration bill
Carbon neutral (English: Carbon neutral)Environmental chemistryOne of the terms.In JapaneseCarbon neutralSay.Excreted when producing something or performing a series of artificial activitiescarbon dioxideThe concept that the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed is the same.
According to the definition of the carbon offset system of the Ministry of the Environment, "greenhouse effects within the range where it is generally considered reasonable for members of society such as citizens, companies, NPOs / NGOs, local governments, and governments to take responsibility A project to recognize gas emissions and make proactive efforts to reduce them, and to purchase "credits" or realize emission reduction / absorption elsewhere for emissions that are difficult to reduce. It means to make up for all the emissions by carrying out activities and activities. ".
"Carbon negative" refers to a state in which the amount of greenhouse gases absorbed by plants and the sea is greater than the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. When reducing (especially carbon dioxide), it means that it absorbs more than it emits.Carbon positive (carbon positive) ”, the former is also called“ carbon minus ”in Japan.
For example,plantBody (Stem-leaf-rootEtc.) are allOrganic compound(carbonatomIn the basic skeleton of the structureCompound). When the plant grows from a seedphotosynthesisByatmosphereIncarbon dioxideIt takes in the carbon atoms of the plant to make organic compounds and makes the body of plants. Therefore, even if the plant is burned to generate carbon dioxide, the carbon atoms in the carbon dioxide emitted into the air are the carbon atoms that originally existed in the air, so the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is taken in by the plant. It does not affect the increase or decrease of the total amount. Therefore, it is called carbon neutral (carbon dioxide = neutral to the carbon cycle).
|Carbon neutral||Carbon negative|
(Not carbon neutral)
|Emission of carbon into the atmosphere||Yes||Yes|
|Absorption of carbon from the atmosphere||Yes (fast, regenerates in decades from plant sprout to maturity)||Almost none (very slow, average hundreds of thousands to tens of millions of years)|
|Absorption method from the atmosphere||The next planted or growing plant absorbs the land where the plant was||Plants andCalcium carbonateUnderground and underwaterAccumulationSuch(Biosphere,Atmosphere(Limited to those who have completely withdrawn from)|
|Main example||Plant-derived raw materials||Fossil fuel, Low raw materials|
Strictly speaking, carbon neutral is based on the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the combustion and decomposition of plant-derived fuels and raw materials, and the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the original plant during the growth process (emission amount). Absorption amount) is the same amount. Here, when the original plant produces carbon absorbed from other than the atmosphere (underground, etc.) during the growth process, carbon that is fixed to the ground during the growth process due to defoliation, etc., and plant-derived fuels and raw materials are manufactured. The carbon left over after being commercialized is not taken into consideration, but even if it is taken into consideration so far, it will not become carbon negative.
Current,Global warmingThe progress of the process and its effects have become a problem. One of the main causes of global warming is that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising, and there is a movement to suppress the progress of global warming by suppressing the rise in carbon dioxide concentration. is there. In this movement, the concept of carbon neutral has come to appear frequently.
There are three major problems with carbon neutrality.
The first is that even if a (carbon-neutral) plant-derived fuel is produced and used, "if even a small amount of fossil fuel is used in the manufacturing and transportation process, the amount of emissions will increase." All processes such as plant cultivation, felling, manufacturing and transportationProduct life cycleHowever, considering the amount of emissions and absorption throughout the life cycle, it becomes carbon neutral only when both are the same amount. As will be described later, fossil fuels are not considered to be carbon-neutral because there are few means to return the carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels to the ground and it takes a long time, and most of the carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels is I think it will remain in the atmosphere. Therefore, if fossil fuels are used even a little, "carbon dioxide capable of warming the earth for a long period of time" will stay in the atmosphere for a long time. In fact, it has been pointed out that bioethanol produced in the United States uses a large amount of fossil fuel at the production stage, which in turn increases the environmental load. as a result,Life cycle assessmentTo achieve carbon neutrality through再生 可能 エネルギーIt is necessary to take multifaceted measures such as introducing.
The second is that carbon neutrality requires regenerative power (reproducibility). Here, the reproductive power (reproducibility) is the "ability (property) of quickly and surely backfilling carbon dioxide produced by burning and decomposing plant-derived products into the ground." Specifically, it is necessary to properly manage forests and farms that produce raw materials for plant-derived products, and to maintain the cultivation and growth of plants. If this is not done, plant-derived fuels, like fossil fuels, will retain "carbon dioxide capable of warming the earth for a long period of time" in the atmosphere for a long time.
The third is the issue of land. Expanding carbon neutrality and converting fossil fuels and raw materials to plant-derived fuels and raw materials will require vast land for growing and conserving plants. The area required for carbon neutrality (described later) at the national level isCarbon footprint(Ecological footprint) Can be expressed. For example, in Japan, it is said that 7 ha, which is about seven times the national land area, is further required (when the efficiency of plant-derived fuel and raw materials is the same as that of fossil fuels and raw materials). It is said that 269.7gha, which is 1.2 times the total area of the forest, is required (when the efficiency of plant-derived fuel and raw materials is the same as that of fossil fuels and raw materials), and it is difficult to cover all of them. In order to improve this, it is necessary to adopt plants with carbon dioxide absorption capacity and fast growth cycle, and to improve the utilization efficiency of fuels and raw materials to improve biological productivity.
The true meaning is to offset the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the nation or the entire earth by planting trees so that the same amount of carbon dioxide that is normally excessively emitted at present can be absorbed. It is carbon neutral in. For this reason, it is not easy to achieve carbon neutrality.ノルウェーIs aiming for carbon neutrality on a national basis (Later) Corresponds to this.
Status of efforts
Looking at recent movements, it is derived from plants that are close to carbon neutral.Biomass ethanolEtc. are used,sustainabilityAfter consideringfirewood・ ・ Plant-derived fuels such as wood pellets are used. In addition, it is incinerated after disposal and emits carbon dioxide, but there is almost no absorption.oilOf originPlasticAs an alternative tocornMade fromBio plasticIs manufactured.
2007January,ノルウェー OfJens StoltenbergThe prime minister is carbon neutral2050By then, it has set policy goals to be realized at the national level. It is said that this is the first time such a policy has been decided at the national level. Also, in December of the same year,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfOscar Arias SanchezThe president2021By then, it announced its goal of achieving national-level carbon neutrality.
OverseasNike,Google,Yahoo!,Marks & Spencer,Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) ,DellMajor companies such as Japan have made their own "Carbon Neutralization Declaration" and are working to reduce greenhouse gases.. Even in Japan,Green powerCompanies are reducing greenhouse gases using certificates. However, the Ministry of the Environment is considering a handling policy for green power certificates, as some say that they lack additional elements.
In recent years, as a carbon-neutral energy sourceBio ethanolDemand is rising rapidly. This has created food and energy resource struggles in the grain market, creating new global challenges such as rising grain prices and the resulting hunger crisis for the poor.
- ^ Ministry of the Environment Carbon Offset(Retrieved September 2021, 4)
- ^ "Japan Fireplace Stove Association-Fireplaces and wood stoves that are friendly to both people and the environment". 2021th of February 4Browse.
- ^ CARBON & ENERGY | Nike Purpose(Retrieved September 2021, 4)
- ^ Our Commitments ｜ Google Sustainability (2020/09/14)(Retrieved September 2021, 4)
- ^ Becoming a net zero bank | HSBC Holdings plc(Retrieved September 2021, 4)
- Carbon dioxide storage
- Low carbon society
- Carbon offset
- Carbon positive
- Green power
- Life cycle assessment
- Decarbonized portal -Ministry of the Environment
- What is "carbon neutral"? (Part XNUMX) -When and who will realize it? --Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
- What is carbon neutral? (Part XNUMX) -Why is Japan aiming for realization? --Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
- "Carbon neutral』- Koto bank