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[Peugeot 508 500km test drive] What is the "lifeline of a specialty car" that abandoned the sedan?
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The road test vehicle was equipped with an optional infrared night vision device "Night Vision".
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Far infrared rays (thermal infrared rays)Is detected,imageupperpixelThe temperature distribution in the observation area can be displayed by the brightness of..The characteristic isThermographyClose to, butモ ノ ク ロThe part that has a temperature difference from the surroundings is highlighted in white (or black).
Targets within the normal temperature range are mainly far awayInfrared(Wavelength 6-15Micrometer) In the areaHeat radiationTo do. By detecting light in this area, FLIR can be used with or without a light source, so it can be used with visible light TV devices.Low light night vision deviceBetter.In addition, since it is possible to inspect objects by temperature and infrared emissivity, it can be expected as a countermeasure against concealment by vegetation or camouflage..
Series processing used in the earliest period (serial processing) Type system, smallInfrared sensorThe entire area of the 2D field of viewscanningTherefore, one scan is performed in each of the depression / elevation angle direction and the azimuth angle direction.mirrorUsingRaster scanWas doing..In this system, the screen resolution was determined by the number of samples in the scan line and the spacing of the parallel lines.afterwards,Microfabrication technologyWith the progress of infrared sensors, when infrared sensors became a one-dimensional linear array, each element of the sensor array was in charge of one angular segment and captured a series of measured values, so that only one mirror was required...Parallel processing of this system (parallel processing) Type.FurthermoreIntegrated circuitInfrared sensor is a two-dimensional array of focal plane detection elements (focal plane array, FPA), The scanning mechanism of the device itself is omitted, and the entire field of view can be captured instantly..
In addition to FLIR, the heat ray imaging device includes a downward monitoring infrared device (down looking infrared, DLIR) Is also available.This involves installing a one-dimensional infrared line scanner (IRLS) on a platform such as an aircraft, and composing images according to the progress.. Also,Infrared search and tracking system(IRST) focuses on the ability to recognize and track goals as points rather than as images.In that respect, it is different from FLIR in principle., For exampleAN / AAQ-40 EOTSThere are also systems that can be used by switching between FLIR and IRST as appropriate..
- In firefighting煙And through walls to find survivors
- Enhanced vision system
- The temperature of the basinWild animalsHabitat monitoring
- EnergyLoss detection andEnergy ConservationInsulation verification for
- Military aircraftTarget capture and tracking in
- Instrument flight In (IFR)aircraftLeading the way
- 道路OndeerAnd other beasts warn the driver
- Natural gasAnd othergasLeakage detection
- Volcanic activityMonitoring
- switchboardDetection of overheated parts inside equipment such as
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- ^ a b c Terazono, Hidaka & Nakatsuji 1979, pp. 188–189.
- ^ Horino, Shinichi, Oi, Toru, Miura, Shingo "Development of Infrared Sika Deer Aerial Census Method" "Mammalian Science" Vol. 33, No. 2, 1994, two:10.11238 / mamanlianscience.33.99.
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- ^ Clancy 1997, p. 83, 183.
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Night vision device
Night vision device(Anshi Sochi,British: Night vision device,NVD; Night visionTomo) is a device for ensuring visibility even at night or in the dark.aircraftFor those forANVIS(British: Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System) Is abbreviated.
OriginallyMilitary technologyAlthough it was developed and developed as1980 eraFrom the latter half, it was also noticed for astronomy.Automobile,Surveillance cameraIt is also applied to consumer products such as, and is also sold as daily necessities such as toys and binoculars.
Visible lightThe color in the middle of the wavelength ofgreenAnd mostPerceptionThe image of the night vision device is usually adjusted to green because it is said to be an easy color. In addition, it should be notedInfraredThere is no color in itself because infrared light itself is not visible light. Of course, like visible light, infrared lightfrequencyIt is not difficult to display colors separately for each wavelength or wavelength, but it is completely meaningless in practical use because it is completely different from the visual sense of color distinction in everyday life.
For those commercially available for consumer use,MilitaryThere are various restrictions such as export restrictions of the country of origin because it can be diverted to the purpose.
In principle,UltrasoundAnd other than infraredElectromagnetic waveIt is possible to make a night vision device using, but for the latterradarAlthough image satellites and the like are the same in principle, they are all difficult in terms of practicality.
About name / notation
Night vision deviceImage Intensifier(Image Intensifier,II),NoctvisionSometimes referred to as (Nocto Vision).
In modern times, it is generally called / written as "night vision device", but in old materials and books of the times, "Night Vision" and "Nact Vision" are often written.
Visible near infrared (VNIR) band
0th generationThe earliest night-vision devices classified asJEDECIt had S-1 type spectral sensitivity characteristics by number. That is, nearUVClose toInfraredAlthough it showed sensitivity in a wide wavelength range, all of them had low sensitivity. Therefore, in order to capture the image of the goal, click here光線It was necessary to irradiate the light to enhance the reflected light. Since it is meaningless to irradiate visible light with a night-vision device, near-infrared rays are used as the irradiation light.
Near infrared rays are humanEyeThen.PerceptionAlthough it cannot be done, it has characteristics that are almost the same as visible light in other respects. Therefore, the basic principle of the 0th generation night vision device is to illuminate the object with a near infrared light instead of normal lighting, and to capture the reflected light with the night vision device and convert it so that it can be perceived. Become. Therefore, it is necessary to operate two sets of "irradiation device" and "image receiving device" as a set, and since the image amplification tube requires a high voltage, heavy stacking as an operating power source.batteryI had to carry it with me as a set. The mechanism is opticalス コ ー プIt's just an infrared filter attached to it, and it's sometimes misunderstood that the battery is for an infrared light, but it doesn't require a very large power source for the light. Even if you look at the reflected infrared rays through the infrared filter, they are invisible to the human eye. The infrared filter is to prevent visible light from being emitted from the light.
This kind of night vision deviceSecond World WarinsideGerman army Panther tankFor the first time in the world, it was successfully put into practical use. Also, for personal use, at the end of World War II1945 The German army put it into practical use in "ZG1229 Vampir (Vampir:"Vampire batOr "vampire"Meaning)" is the first one. this is,StG44It is an active infrared night-vision scope that is used by attaching it to the camera, and its effective distance was only about 100 m. laterU.S. ForcesButM3 carbineAs a similar device was put into practical use,Vietnam WarIt was used until that time. The M3 carbine was a very heavy and bulky equipment with a complete system including a gun weighing 14 kg. Since more than half of the weight is the battery, the weight will be reduced by downsizing the battery in later years, but it is still quite heavy equipment.
In the German army, such a night-vision device changes the viewing distance depending on the output of the infrared light.ArmorHalf trackA vehicle equipped with a large infrared irradiation light was also made. "Sd Kfz 251/20 Uhu(Uhu:Eagle OwlThis vehicle, which was called "", is 60 cm.caliberInfraredSearchlightIt was possible to see the target at a distance of 1,500 m.
However, although near-infrared rays are invisible to the human eye, there is a drawback that the irradiation source is exposed if the other party also has a similar device.In other words, the other party can catch the light source that appears in the field of view of the night-vision device and attack the light source without irradiating the infrared light.1960 eraToSoviet Union ArmySimilar equipment has appeared in the communist bloc, includingPSO-1With the advent of an optical sight that allows you to see the irradiation source visually by incorporating an infrared filter, the detection rate has increased, andPhotomultiplier tubeDue to technological advances in Japan, it has become possible to obtain sufficient images without projecting light, and the 0th generation night-vision devices have been gradually retired.
1960 eraIsPhotomultiplier tubeWith the progress of, it has become possible to generate an image using naturally occurring visible light.星,MoonlightFrom amplifying and gaining visibilityLow light night vision device(English: Starlight scope), Which is commonly known asVietnam WarThe actual battle started from. Unlike the 0th generation (= active near infrared type)InfraredSince no floodlight is required, the discoverability is significantly reduced, but it cannot be used in complete darkness such as in a structure or a cave, and has the disadvantage of being affected by the weather.
Generations are classified as follows according to performance and characteristics.
- 1th generation
- The visible light amplification method using a dynode type photomultiplier tube is adopted, the spectral sensitivity characteristic is S-20 type, and the light amplification factor is about 1,000 times, so the brightness of the moonlight is required. The effective viewing distance was about 100 meters.
- 2th generation
- Micro channel plateIt uses a visible light amplification method using a (MCP) type photomultiplier tube, its spectral sensitivity characteristics are S-25 type, its optical amplification factor is improved to about 20,000 times, and its effective viewing distance is 1,500 for starlight. It is said to be 2,700 meters in meters and moonlight. However, there is a problem with the imaging ability for high-speed moving targets.tankIt was not suitable for aiming.
- AN / PVS-4
- AN / PVS-5 * PVS-5D is equivalent to the 3rd generation
- Low light night vision glasses JGVS-V3
- Type 75 low-light dark vision device for aiming type II (B)
- 3th generation
- Similar to the 2nd generation, it uses a visible light amplification method using an MCP type photomultiplier tube. However, instead of the S-25 type photomultiplier tubeGallium arsenideBy adopting a (GaAs) element, the detectable band is expanded to the near infrared region, and by covering with an ion barrier film, the sensitivity is further improved and noise is reduced. The optical amplification factor has improved 30,000-50,000 times, and the effective viewing distance has also increased by 25%. In addition to the normal visible light amplification method, models that also use the passive far-infrared method have appeared.
- Due to its high performance, most of the 3rd generation night vision devices are subject to import / export restrictions by the country of origin, and the users are limited to government offices.
Thermal infrared (TIR) band
Emitted from an objectThermal infrared(Wavelength 8-15 μm,English: Thermal InfraRed) Visualizing device. The resulting image is so-calledThermographyAn image and a device for thisHeat ray imaging device(British: thermal imager ). It should be noted that the 0th generation active night vision device used near infrared rays, which has a frequency close to that of the thermal infrared rays used in the heat ray imaging device, but is significantly different in characteristics.
Every object emits far infrared rays due to its own temperature (Blackbody radiationTherefore, the heat ray imaging device can visually recognize the target even in a place where there is no light source. In addition, far-infrared rays have inferior resolution and excellent transmission ability compared to visible light, so to some extent煙You can also catch the statue through it. For exampleSoldier,Anti-aircraftBattery WoodsIf it is hidden in, the intensity of infrared rays due to the subtle temperature difference can be displayed on the screen for identification.
The early ones were too heavy and bulkyinfantryIt was not practical as equipment. There are two main reasons why miniaturization was difficult.
- The infrared receiver does not work unless it is cooled to -180 ° C or less.
- Since the infrared light receiving element is only one-dimensional, a mechanical scanning line scanning device was required to obtain an image.
In particular, the former is a serious problem. Initially, a gas cylinder was required for cooling, and the remaining amount of gas limited the usable time.Stirling engineWhen the Sterling cooler that applied the above was put into practical use, it was miniaturized to the extent that infantry could carry it on their shoulders, but it was still too large for infantry.
1990 eraFor the first time, a two-dimensional light receiving element that does not require cooling was developed.rifle Ofス コ ー プA practical one that can be attached to is completed. Therefore, as described above, some third-generation passive visible and near-infrared night-vision devices also use the heat ray night-vision method.
Use in the general photography field
Use in the astronomical field
Because the subject is dark1980 eraIt was also noticed for astronomical use in the latter half.With the naked eyeLight pollutionYou can see only 6th magnitude stars even in a few places, but if you attach an image intensifier behind the 50mm F1.4 lens and look at the output side phosphor screen with a 50mm eyepiece, you can see up to 9-10th magnitude stars. can.In addition, since the spectral sensitivity of the photocell extends to the infrared part, there is an advantage that it can be observed with almost invisible light such as Hα rays.
However, since the back light is also amplified, the advantage cannot be utilized unless the place has little light pollution. Also, the resolutionSN ratioIs low.
Automobile night vision device / system
AutomobileNight vision device / systemInfraredカメラIt is a night driving support system that contributes to safe driving by displaying the image captured in the above on the display and expanding the field of view at night. There are two types, one that detects the heat source using a far-infrared camera and the other that irradiates near-infrared rays and detects it with an infrared camera. The near-infrared type is superior in terms of cost, but has advantages and disadvantages such as being inferior to the far-infrared type in terms of detection distance. Although it was devised and put into practical use by each automobile company, it has not been installed in all cars due to problems such as cost, and it is adopted only in some luxury cars or specialized cars with specific applications. There is.
- GM night vision device
- GM Raytheon OflicenseThe system was developed based on (including the name and exclusive use rights), and uses a low-cost far-infrared camera for the private sector developed by Raytheon. The camera is embedded in the front grill and the image isHUDIs displayed in. Completely improved2000 Of the modelCadillac Deville(CurrentCadillac DTS) Is the first safety equipment for automobiles to be set as an option, and after thatChevrolet tahoeIt was also set as an option. In the 2000 model, it was installed in more than 7,000 units and it was doing well, but because it is the world's first system, the number of installed units has dropped year by year due to the high option price.2003 At the same time as it was abolished, the license for the night vision device was returned.
- L-3 CommunicationsIt is a far-infrared camera released by Infrared Products (former Raytheon Commercial Infrared), and it is also available for external automobiles.
- Intelligent night vision device system
- Honda Motor Co., Ltd.System developed by. Two far-infrared cameras detect the position and movement of pedestrians and oncoming vehicles, and the display on the HUD and buzzer sound alert the driver, making it the only intelligent vehicle.2004 Completely improvedHonda legendToJapanThe option is set only in.
- BMW night vision device
- BMWIs a far-infrared type system adopted byAuto ribIt was developed based on the night vision device system of.ErgonomicsThe image is displayed on the display of the center console, and it has a function to automatically pan and zoom according to the running speed and running condition.2005 ToBMW 7 seriesOption setting, then5 series,6 seriesIt is also set as part of.
- Night view
- ToyotaThis system was developed by the company and uses near infrared rays. It irradiates a maximum distance of about 250 m and has a recognizable range of about 150 m. The video is displayed on the HUD.2002 For the first timeLand Cruiser CygnusThe option was set to.Crown MajestaThen, the role of an infrared projector is added to the high beam side of the headlight by using a visible light cut filter.
- Night view assist
- DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler)ButBoschA system jointly developed with. It is a near-infrared type, and a visible light cut filter is attached to the high beam module, and it is taken with the camera in the front window. The image is displayed on the LCD of the instrument panel.2005 Completely improvedMercedes-Benz S-ClassIs installed for the first time. On the other handChryslerThere is no example adopted.
- Night vision device system
- AudiIs the system adopted by2009 Completely improvedA8 (D4 type)It was set as an option by being incorporated in the "Audi Presence Package".
- Peugeot night vision device
- Group PSAUnder the umbrellaPeugeotThe system that is adopted.2019 Completely improved508 (2nd generation)Was set as an option to be included in the "Full Package".
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- Night battle
- Chemical light
- Ground Self-Defense Force night vision device
- U.S. military night vision device