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🚄 | Kanto Railway Hoki 800 is transported to Kominato Railway by two diesels


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Kanto Railway Hoki 800 is transported to Kominato Railway by two diesels

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is equipped with a Volvo 12.8-liter clean diesel engine and runs at a maximum design speed of 40km / h.
 

Two JNR Hoki 800 type hopper cars (for spraying crushed stone ballast) owned by Kanto Railway were transferred to Kominato Tetsudo. ... → Continue reading

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Design maximum speed 40km

diesel engine

diesel engine (English: Diesel engine)Diesel engineAlso calledInternal combustion engineAndGermanyTechnicianRudolph DieselInvented round tripPiston engine(Reciprocating engine).1892Invented in1893March 2PatentGot

Diesel engines are classified as "compression ignition engines" whose ignition method is compression ignition, and the air is compressed and heated by a piston.Liquid fuelIs ignited by injecting.Liquid fuelignition pointBecause it is injected into the compressed air that exceeds.

It is the most efficient type of engine as a single heat engine that has been put into practical use.Light oil-heavy oilIn addition to petroleum-based products such asignition pointCan be used in a wide range of squalene, ester, etc. as long as it is a liquid fuel with a temperature of about 225 ° C.[Annotation 1]..It is highly versatile, and there are various variations from small high-speed engines to huge low-speed engines for ships.

The engine name is named after the inventor.JapaneseIn the notation, in addition to the general "diesel", it was once written as "diesel", "diesel", and "daisel".JapaneseAuto mechanic national examThen.Giesel engineIs written.

How it works

The piston compresses and heats the air above the ignition point of the liquid fuel, and injects the liquid fuel there to self.IgnitionLet me."Compression ignition" that pushes out the piston by the expansion of the combustion gas generated by thisDiffusion combustionIt is an institution.The essence of the diesel engine is "Ignition deviceIs an unnecessary internal combustion engine. "

Diesel engines are roughly divided into 4-stroke cycles and 2-stroke cycles.Theoretical cycleIn the classification of, slow onesDiesel cycle(Isobaric cycle), high speedSabate cycleTreated as (composite cycle).

The diesel engine does not require a throttle valve because the output is controlled by the fuel injection amount.That is, there is always excess intake air.diluteDriven in the area.However, it is unevenDiffusion combustionTherefore, even if it is thin as a whole, it remains partially unburned.Particulate matter(PM, Particulate matter)Nitrogen oxide(NOx) Occurs.

Fuel injectorFuel is injected into the combustion chamber at high pressure using.Due to the difference in the shape of the combustion chamber, the single chamberDirect injection typeSub-chamber typeDivided into (・). Since it became possible to increase the fuel injection pressure after 1990, the direct injection type was the mainstream, and the sub-chamber type and the vortex chamber type were no longer used due to their low efficiency.Today, the sub-chamber system is used to ignite a large gas engine with diesel fuel.

Features

Diesel engine is for compression ignitionHigh compression ratioWill be.In general, a piston engine has a compression ratio = expansion ratio, so a high compression ratio and high expansion ratio engine increases thermal efficiency.Analyzing the increase in compression ratio only by the thermodynamics of gas, the efficiency continues to increase logarithmically, but it does not increase when the compression ratio exceeds 15.On the other hand, high compression increases friction loss and inertial loss due to the increase in weight of moving parts, and mechanical loss increases sharply especially at high rotation speeds.Also, the higher the compression, the easier it is to ignite, but ratherIgnitionIt is said that the proper compression ratio is 14 units because it becomes difficult to burn completely.The expansion ratio may be larger.However, the compression ratio is often larger than 14 due to engine startability at low temperatures and high altitudes.

Diesel engine is a high compression ratio engine, so if you can secure the ignition pointpurificationInexpensive fuel with low degree can be used (heavy oilOr so-calledSalad oil・ Abolishedlubricating oilCan also be used.However, in some casesacetone-naphtha-alcoholAnd with preheatingLiquidityNeed to be enhanced).However, this requires expensive pretreatment equipment and special engine oil.Although it has low fuel consumption, it is large and heavy because the engine body needs to have structural strength that can withstand a high compression ratio, and the initial cost is high.Since the operating rotation range is lower and narrower than the gasoline engine, it is advantageous for starting the vehicle, but it has more stages.transmissionWill be required.

Due to the characteristics of diffusion combustion, the output per cylinder volume is low, but there is no limit to the cylinder volume, and a huge engine can be realized.Since the thermal efficiency is good, the engine can be enlarged until the required output is obtained.In this case, the larger the size, the lower the speed, which is extremely convenient for applications that require low speed rotation and high output, such as large ships. In fact, ultra-large low-speed diesel engines are widely used as the main engine of large commercial ships. There is.

Premixed combustion because the fuel self-ignites while compressing only airgasoline engineBecome a problemknocking,DetonationDoes not occur.Therefore, it is easy to compensate for the low output per cylinder volume by increasing the suction filling amount due to supercharging.Because it does not have a throttle valve and the exhaust pressure is high even at low speeds,TurbochargerExhaust byEnergyRecovered part of theDisplacementPer literoutput100horsepowerIt is possible to increase the degree to more.

4 strokes and 2 strokes

21st century, current medium-speed, high-speed diesel engine[Review required] To4-stroke engineIs used and largeShipLow speed 2-stroke for large power generationUniflow scavenging diesel engineIs used. Some kind of supercharging is required to send fresh air to the cylinder with a 2-stroke engine.Inexpensive with a gasoline engineCrankcaseCompression is used, but in diesel enginesSuperchargerOnly Uniflow scavenging diesel, which also uses an overhead exhaust valve, is in production.

Each stroke of a 4-stroke cycle diesel engine
  1. Inhalation stroke- pistonGoes down to bottom dead center,空 気ThecylinderInhale inside
  2. Compression stroke-The piston rises to top dead center and compresses and heats the air in the cylinder.
  3. Expansion stroke-When fuel is injected into the hot, high-pressure air in the combustion chamber, the fuel self-ignites, and the expanded combustion gas pushes the piston down to bottom dead center.
  4. Exhaust stroke- Flywheel OfinertiaOr, the piston rises to top dead center due to expansion in other cylinders and pushes the combustion gas out of the cylinder.
Each stroke of 2-stroke cycle diesel engine (in the case of uniflow scavenging)
  1. Ascending stroke-The ascending piston blocks the scavenging port and exhaust valve in that order, scavenging is completed by the first half, and compression is performed in the second half (majority).After thatCompression top dead centerFuel is injected and ignited in the vicinity.
  2. Downward stroke-After expansion in the first half, the exhaust valve opens, the internal pressure drops, and immediately after that, the piston lowers to open the scavenging port, the intake air pushes out the exhaust, and scavenging begins.

Combustion stroke

  1. Diffusion combustion
    • Diesel engines are the diffusion combustion of droplets in spray combustion.When liquid fuel is injected into the compressed and heated air in the combustion chamber, multiple fine droplets evaporate, making it easier for the diffusion area on the surface to burn individually, repeating self-ignition and diffusion combustion, and burning to the adjacent droplets. spread.In recent years, it has been found that the main cause of the spread of combustion between droplets is the ejection of evaporative gas due to Marangoni convection accompanying ignition, which propagates ignition.And, under gravity, the higher the pressure, the more the natural convection inhibits the Marangoni convection, and the burning speed decreases.In addition, the higher the pressure, the lower the thermal diffusivity and the material diffusion coefficient, so there is a limit to the burning speed.[1].
    • Since diffusion combustion ignites and does not burn at once, there is no propagation of the flame surface that spreads from the spark plug that occurs in spark ignition and uniform premixed combustion.Appropriate ignition delay brings about good diffusion combustion by diffusion and expansion of the mixing area, and since only air is stopped in the corner of the combustion chamber, knocking due to abnormal combustion does not occur even if the compression ratio is high.However, when starting at low temperature or with fuel with poor ignitability, diesel knock that burns premixedly at once due to a long ignition delay occurs.
    • The compression ratio has been set to about 16-18 to ensure that diesel fuel starts at low temperatures.With this high compression ratio, when a large amount of fuel is injected during a high load after warming up, the combustion chamber greatly exceeds the ignition point, so the droplets before vaporization in the region where the fuel is extremely uneven and dense. It ignited early and incompletely burned in a low oxygen state, generating a large amount of soot-like PM. PM is a carcinogenic air pollutant.I want to completely burn from the surface of the droplet, which is originally sufficiently diffused and vaporizing, toward the inside.Furthermore, even under the condition of complete combustion, the excess combustion gas in the air becomes high temperature and high pressure, so the excess oxygen and nitrogen combine.Nitrogen oxide(NOx) Also occurs in large numbers.
    • Conventionally, the condition of "compression ignition" was prioritized, and the pressure was too high for "diffusion combustion".Premature ignitionExhaust gas was polluted due to incomplete combustion due to the above, and efficiency was also reduced.Considering a sufficient expansion ratio when ignited at top dead center while reducing the problem of high compression, it is said that a compression ratio of 14 diesel fuel engines for automobiles is good.As a means for fuel to self-ignite at this compression ratio, high pressure fuel injection and multi-stage injection are required.High-pressure fuel injection makes oil droplets finer and easier to vaporize, and multi-stage fuel injection expands the diffusion region containing air, allowing complete combustion in an atmosphere that does not become too hot.For low temperature start#Preheating mechanismTo expand.
    • Since such non-uniform diffusion combustion is equivalent to ignition before the uniform air-fuel mixture spreads over the entire combustion chamber, it is difficult to use up the cylinder volume in principle, and the output per volume is low.Due to the high compression, the combustion speed is slow and it cannot be operated at high speed.
  2. PCCI (premixed compression ignition)
    • In 1995, PCCI (Premixed Charged Compression Ignition) will be put into practical use in the low load region of diesel engines.In this method, fuel is injected in the intake process to generate a non-uniform premixture, and then compression ignition is performed at once, which can be said to be controlled knocking.Since it is premixed combustion, PM is not generated and it is not onlyEGRIt is said to be a means to improve fuel efficiency by lean combustion while lowering the combustion temperature at low load and reducing diesel knock and NOx in combination with[2].
    • However, PCCI cannot be used because it causes severe diesel knock at high load.In order to reduce harmful exhaust gas under high load, it is necessary to realize clean diffusion combustion with a compression ratio of 14 units.

Fuel injection device (fuel injection pump and fuel injection valve)

  • Since fuel injection is a control means for ignition and combustion in a diesel engine, an injection device is an important component.Currently, high pressure of about 2,000 bar (about 2,000 atm) and multi-stage injection are required, which makes it a fairly expensive part.Fuel injection systems account for half of the cost of diesel engines for automobiles.
  • For about 50 years from the beginning, there was also "air injection" that injects fuel with compressed air shared with the start of a large engine, but it was abolished because it was inefficient and the pressure could not be increased.The process after becoming "aspirated injection" in which only fuel is injected at high pressure is shown below.

Traditional method

In the past, it was a "jerk type" pump that realized one fuel injection with only one stroke of pressurization and discharge of the plunger pump, so multi-stage injection was not possible.The injection amount was determined by the effective stroke amount of the plunger under mechanical control.The conventional jerk type pump has a drawback that the fuel pressure and the injection amount change depending on the engine speed and the load.The fuel injection valve was automatically opened and closed depending on the increase and decrease of fuel pressure.In both cases, the injection pressure is low due to the effect of returning the long injection pipe between the injection pump and the injection valve to a low pressure each time, and it has become obsolete in recent years.

  1. Row type injection pump(Inline Injection Pump)
    • A structure in which one plunger pump is in charge of fuel pressurization and discharge of a single cylinder, and pumps for the number of cylinders are lined up in a row.
    • Among jerk type pumps, it was used for large vehicles because the injection amount is stable from low speed rotation.
    • The fuel pressure that can be achieved is up to over 200 bar due to the effect of returning the injection pipe between the injection pump and the injection valve to low pressure every time.
    • Even if you try to increase it further, the loss will be large, such as generating a shock wave in the injection pipe, which is not realistic.
  2. Distributive injection pump(Distributor Injection Pump) Also known asRotary pump(Rotary Pump)
    • One plunger pump realizes fuel pressurization and discharge of all cylinders
    • The plunger reciprocates several times as many cylinders as it makes one revolution per cycle.
    • There is a notch on the outer circumference of the plunger for cylinder distribution, and it is injected when it overlaps with the discharge port at the corresponding position.
    • The plunger pump is shared by all cylinders, but it does not accumulate pressure like a common rail because it repeats pressurization and discharge each time.

Recent trends

Since the latter half of the 1990s, high-pressure fuel injection has been electronically controlled by the following methods.Basically, only the pressurization is shared by the pump, and the electronic control valve placed between the dependent valve and the injection amount and timing are shared.

  1. Common rail
    • After the high-pressure fuel is stored in the common pressure pipe (rail) of the supply pump, the injection nozzle (injector) with a built-in electronic control valve injects each cylinder.
    • The electronic control valve shares the injection timing and injection amount, realizing multi-stage injection at high pressure.
    • solenoidThe formula injector can inject about 1,800 times per cycle at 1 atm.
    • As of 2012PiezoThe formula injector can inject fuel 2,500 times per cycle at an ultra-high pressure of 1 atm.[3].
  2. Unit injector
    • An injection device with an integrated injection pump and injection valve, which has been mechanical since the 1930s and was electronically controlled in the 1990s.
    • Install a unit injector for each cylinder.That is, it is suitable for large engines because it is not necessary to route high-pressure pipes.
    • Due to its simple structure, high pressure was preceded by common rails, but it was not good at multi-stage injection, and it became a complicated structure such as using two solenoid valves together to cope with it.
    • OHCDrives the plunger pump of the unit injector, and the first solenoid valve precisely controls the start and end of pressurization of the pump and determines the injection amount per cycle.
    • For multi-stage injection, a second solenoid valve controls the opening and closing of the injection valve inside the pressurizing process.Therefore, there is a limit to the rough injection timing.

Auxiliary equipment

Diesel engines require equipment that has different characteristics than gasoline engines, which results in a considerably high cost.Typical examples are the above fuel injection device and the post-treatment device for exhaust gas countermeasures in the subsequent stage, but other than these, vibration and noise will increase in principle, so a secondary balancer may be added to the diesel engine.Anti-vibrationAdvanced technology is used for fixing with rubber, and for large vehiclesCompression release brakeAlso used.

Fuel oil purifier

A fuel oil purifier is a device that removes impurities from C heavy oil. A fuel pretreatment device developed around 1950 to use inexpensive C heavy oil in large marine diesel engines.Until then, diesel engines could only use heavy fuel oil A, which is above a certain level. Heavy fuel oil C is a poor fuel that can be said to be an oil refinery residue, and is premised on the inclusion of impurities.The fuel oil purifier heats the residual oil to increase its fluidity, removes water and solids with a centrifuge, and filters with a filter to remove fine contaminants.

Residual oil, which demands low cost, is a residue obtained by distilling light oil. Therefore, as oil refining technology improves and various components with utility value can be highly fractionated, the quality of the residual oil becomes relatively low.Therefore, the quality of fuel oil purifiers is required to be improved because the quality is not limited to a certain level. Alumina and silica fine particles will be mixed into the residual oil from the contact catalytic decomposition device introduced by the progress of the oil refining method after 1970, and accidents that damage the piston ring, cylinder liner and fuel pump in a short time will occur frequently. Became.It is used in combination with the fuel oil analysis service to prevent accidents.[4]

Preheating mechanism

Since it does not have an ignition mechanism like spark ignition and uses high temperature due to adiabatic compression of air for ignition, it can be started from a cold state such as after a long stop in a cold region, or the altitude can be increased. When starting in a high and low air density, the intake air may not reach the temperature required for ignition, and "preheating" is required."The head is exposed in the combustion chamber.Glow plugPreheat with ", or in some casesIntake manifoldThe "" placed immediately before heats the intake air.MazdaSKYACTIV-DThen, a glow plug is used for starting, and immediately after starting, hot exhaust gas is blown back to the intake pipe by late closing of the variable exhaust valve (inside).EGR), Warming the intake air.

Starter motor

To start a small diesel engine, just like a gasoline engineStarter motorByCrankshaftRotates and starts the combustion cycle, but due to the high compression ratio, it is about the sameDisplacement2-3 times larger thanoutputMust be equipped with a starter motor, even in automobilesbattery2 piecesseriesToElectrical equipmentThere is a system with 24 volts.

For starting a large engineCompressed airIs required to blow the piston into the cylinder and move the piston directly.in advanceAuxiliary power unitLaunchPower generationAnd often generate compressed air.

Engine stop mechanism

Since the diesel engine does not use electricity for ignition, the engine key is turned off (batteryIt does not stop even if the power is turned off from.There are the following three types of methods to stop the operation.

Fuel supply stop
This method is mainly used for small engines.For older row pumps, manually or key-offmotorThere is one that directly moves the sleeve control rod of the injection pump to squeeze the fuel, but after the distribution type, it is "closed" by key offelectromagneticvalveIs used.Since the piston stops by the force that compresses the intake air, vibration is likely to occur and the stop position tends to be the same.[Annotation 2]There are also disadvantages.
Intake stop
Intake manifoldA method of squeezing the intake air with the intake shutter placed immediately before.The stop is smooth and there is little vibration.Of the shutterActuatorA motor or a diaphragm driven by a negative pressure is used.
Release of compressive force
LeverAir supply and exhaustvalveHow to keep the piston in the "open" state so that the piston does not compress the intake air.Small size for manual crankingMoverIn such cases, to reduce the burden at startupDecompIs used, but the mechanism is also used when stopped.It has the drawback of discharging unburned gas and fuel, and is not mainstream.

engine oil

Engine oil # diesel carSee also.Additives were added correctly in diesel enginesengine oilOtherwise, the unburned fine particles of fuel in the cylinder will combine with mineral oil, which is the main component of engine oil, near the top ring on the side of the piston to form a deposit, and a phenomenon called "ring stick" will occur in which the ring is fixed. Get up.To prevent this, a cleaning dispersant is added to the engine oil to wash away the unburned residue that accumulates near the piston ring, that is, "soot" and "sludge" and disperse it in the engine oil.Also,exhaust (EGR) andBlowby gasDue to the sulfur contained in themacidPrevents engine oil from deterioratingOxidationInhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, and viscosity index improvers that maintain proper viscosity are also added.

For more information on marine lubricantsUniflow scavenging diesel engine # for shipsSee.Diesel engines for ships are roughly divided into medium- and high-speed trunk piston type 4-strokes and low-speed crosshead type 2-strokes.The former trunk piston type lubricant is similar to a general high-speed diesel engine.However, the latter crosshead type is an oversized diesel engine that uses a large amount of C heavy oil with residual sulfur content, and is characterized by the existence of two types: cylinder oil for cylinder liner lubrication and system oil for other lubrication.Cylinder oil is required to be "high alkaline cylinder oil" having a high base value (alkali value) in order to neutralize the sulfuric acid component generated after combustion.This is because the inside of the engine will be corroded immediately if it is not neutralized.

Engine oil filter

Diesel engine oil takes in more fine particles earlier than gasoline engine oil, sooil filterIs large and highly efficient.In some engines, fine particles are removed and returned to the oil pan with a centrifugal or adsorption bypass filter that is provided separately from the original oil flow path.[5].

In a crosshead engine that uses heavy C oil with a large amount of combustion residue, the highly alkaline cylinder oil that lubricates the cylinder is too dirty to be reused even with a filter and becomes waste oil.Instead, the crank chamber is separated from the cylinder chamber and circulated and lubricated through an independent oil path.

Vacuum pump

Diesel engine does not require a throttle valve[Annotation 3]And inhalationpulsationIntake manifold compared to gasoline engine due to its large sizeNegative pressureNot suitable for generation.Therefore, the vacuum booster typeBrake boosterIn diesel vehicles that useV belt,gearDedicated to drive withVacuum pumpAnd equipped with a negative pressure storage tank.

Engine oil is also used to lubricate this pump.

Comparison with gasoline engine

The larger the speed, the more the advantages of the diesel engine stand out, and the less noticeable the disadvantages tend to be.On the contrary, a gasoline engine is advantageous at a small high speed.For this reason, the engine of a small car is often gasoline, and the engine of a large car is often diesel.Most railcars on railways are diesel engines, and ships are generally diesel engines, except for military, high-speed ships, and outboard motors for small ships (less than 20 tons).

The ignition method of the gasoline engine is "spark ignition" and the combustion method is "uniform premixed combustion".An air-fuel mixture in which fuel is vaporized in advance is sucked into a cylinder, compressed, and then ignited by an electric spark.Flame plane propagation occurs in the combustion chamber filled with the uniform air-fuel mixture, the combustion area expands in a hemispherical shape, and intermittent combustion occurs.If the cylinder diameter is too large, the flame propagation speed will not be in time and it will not be possible to ignite the air-fuel mixture near the outer circumference of the cylinder.Bore) Has a limit (10 cm for automobiles, 800 cc in volume).On the other hand, PM is not generated in premixed combustion.However, in a direct-injection gasoline engine that injects fuel in the compression stroke, PM is generated because of non-uniform stratified combustion in which droplets that cannot be vaporized remain.

Since the diesel engine is diffuse combustion, there is no limit to the volume.However, since the diffusion combustion speed under high pressure is slow, the large volume engine is limited to low rotation speed.This is rather convenient for large ships and high power engines such as pumps and generators. A gear reducer with a huge output exceeding 1 horsepower is unreliable, so direct output of a low-speed engine is required.However, a multi-speed transmission is required for vehicles with drastic speed changes.

A gasoline engine controls the output by throttled the intake amount of the air-fuel mixture with a throttle valve, whereas a diesel engine controls the output only by the fuel injection amount, so that pumping loss is small and efficiency is good.For the same reason, the air-fuel ratio of diesel changes due to load fluctuations, and the air-fuel ratio is generally lean-burn, so the ideal air-fuel ratio cannot be achieved.This means that the fuel charge per volume is small, and the output per cylinder volume tends to be low, which can be supplemented by supercharging.Since there is no throttle in particular, it is compatible with turbochargers because it has a large displacement from low rpm.

However, recently, the configurations of both are approaching. In 2012, Mazda shipped a high compression ratio gasoline engine and a low compression ratio diesel engine with the same compression ratio of 14.Even with gasoline engines of other companiesIntake OfVariable valve timing mechanismBy changing the intake amount, or by changing the ratio of exhaust and intake by the low temperature large amount EGR valveoutputCame to adjustThrottle valveIs no longer required.Due to these improvements, the efficiency of gasoline engines has increased in recent years, and the gap with diesel engines has narrowed.

In addition, virtually the same ignition and combustion modes are under development.First, an HCCI (Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition: (uniform) premixed compression ignition) engine is under development, which aims for compression ignition with a compression ratio of 14 units even though it is gasoline fuel.[Annotation 4]And also known as the Disotto engine[Annotation 5][6] On the other hand, in 1995, PCCI (Premixed Charged Compression Ignition: (non-uniform) premixed compression ignition), which uses premixing in the low load region even though it is a diesel engine, was put into practical use. Being ambiguous[2].

Advantage

Fuel economy and efficiency

High compression ratioCombustion chamberDue to the large excess air inside, the working gasSpecific heat ratioIs highThermal efficiencyIs high (the ratio of the energy used to raise the temperature of the combustion gas is low).However, this is the case for a large low-speed engine, and a high-speed engine has a large loss. While the thermal efficiency of large marine diesel reaches 2010% as of 50, the thermal efficiency of automobile diesel is 40%, the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines is about 30%, and the thermal efficiency of gasoline Atkinson cycle engines is in the high 30% range.In addition, the difference is reduced when the driving pattern of the automobile is given in consideration of weight, load fluctuation, speed, and shifting efficiency.The results of the report on the actual efficiency of the Top Runner Program for passenger car engines are shown below. The difference in Tank to Wheel efficiency is reduced by half in the 2005 results compared to the 2010 preliminary survey.It can be said that the difference has narrowed to meet the same level of exhaust regulations.

Regarding the calculation method of efficiency in this report, first comparing fuels, light oil has a density 12% higher than gasoline, and per volume.CalorieAlso 9% larger, butmassnearCalorieIs 5% smaller, per caloriecarbon dioxide(CO2) Generated 2.5% more, CO per mass22% less generated, CO per volume2Incidence is 10% higher[7]..Since engines with different fuels cannot be compared in terms of fuel volume or mass, production energy and energy consumption are compared.

With the Tank to Wheel efficiency corrected in this wayJC08 modeAnd diesel is only 3.5% better than gasoline[8]. However,10・15 mode8.5% good[9]..Furthermore, the efficiency and CO of JC08 mode of Well to Wheel total efficiency211% good in emissions[10]..Furthermore, CO of 10/15 mode of total efficiency of Well to Wheel218% good in emissions[11].

In summary, automotive diesel is 08% more energy efficient than gasoline engines in JC3.5 mode Tank to Wheel efficiency under current strict emission regulations, but CO per calorific value of light oil.2Since the amount generated is 2.5% higher, CO of the car alone2There is almost no difference in the amount of emissions.However, the CO of Well to Wheel overall efficiency in JC08 mode2Emissions are 11% good The conclusion remains the same.This is because refining gasoline consumes more energy than light oil.[12].

Diesel for vehicles is about 3% more efficient than gasoline according to its thermal efficiency when the load is constant, such as when driving at a constant speed on a highway.However, since the normal rotation range is narrow, there is no difference from gasoline at once in a driving pattern that includes load fluctuations and acceleration / deceleration such as urban driving.It can be seen from the fact that the efficiency of 10/15 mode, which has simple shifting, is better than that of JC08 mode.

Structure / operation surface

Since the diesel engine does not require an ignition device and a throttle valve, the structure can be simplified and the reliability is high.

If the diesel engine is within the range of diffusion combustion, only air is inside the cylinder during compression, so even if it is superchargedPre-ignition-knocking,DetonationThere is no.Since there is no throttle valve, there is a lot of exhaust even at low speeds, it is compatible with turbochargers, and it can compensate for the low output per volume.Furthermore, in large engines, more exhaust energy is recovered on the output shaft.Turbo compoundIs also possible.

While gasoline engines have a limit on the cylinder diameter due to the propagation speed of the flame at the time of ignition, diesel engines have no limit and are suitable for upsizing.In a gasoline engine, it is necessary to secure a displacement by increasing the number of cylinders to obtain high torque, or to increase the output by increasing the rotation speed, whereas in a diesel engine, it is possible by increasing the cylinder volume and the structure is simplified.FrictionLoss is also suppressed,Thermal efficiencyWill increase.Larger engines take advantage of diesel engines.

Since the flash point of diesel fuel is about 80 ° C higher than that of gasoline,爆 発-火災There is a lot of room for accidents.Especially on the premise of being hitMilitary vehicleAnd this merit is big[Annotation 6]..The engine of a military vehicle is aviation fuelJP-8Considering the combined use with such as, we are proceeding with dieselization.Gas turbine fuel is a finer oil than light oil, but sharing fuel will streamline emergency logistics.

Reverse rotation operation

Of the diesel engines, the 4-stroke engine does not have an auxiliary scavenging machine on the intake system side, and because it has a structure in which fuel is injected directly into the cylinder with an injection pump, unlike gasoline engines (excluding direct injection), something is done at the time of starting. By rotating the crankshaft in the opposite direction by the method, the reverse rotation operation can be performed.For example, in the case of an automobile, if the vehicle body is pushed backward in the forward gear with the transmission in the forward gear, or if the vehicle runs idle in the downward direction on a slope, the crankshaft will rotate in the reverse direction, so the decompression will be left open. Unless you take precautionary measures, the engine will run in reverse rotation.PushWill start[13] It is.In such a state in an automobile, the vehicle body moves backward when the transmission is in the forward gear, and reversely moves forward when the transmission is in the reverse gear.While this causes accidents and occupational accidents, it also means that by utilizing its characteristics, it is possible to drive backwards only by reverse rotation without going through a transmission.

When reverse rotation operation is started with 4-stroke diesel, the function of the intake / exhaust valve is reversed, so intake is taken from the exhaust pipe and exhaust is performed to the air filter side.[14]..Also, of the camshaftValve timingSufficient output performance cannot be obtained unless the injection timing of the injection pump is properly reversed.[15]Although it is not very practical for automobiles, MAN, Sulzer, B & W, etc. used to have two camshafts, one for forward and one for reverse, for small and medium-sized marine engines.Variable valve mechanismAchieves backward navigation by reverse rotation operation of 4-stroke diesel[16], For aircraft enginesDaimler-Benz DB 602Had a similar mechanism.However, today, in small vessels, instead of such a reverse rotation operation mechanism, a clutch that is intermittently operated by remote control of hydraulic or electric power[17] Reverse navigation is performed by incorporating a reverse gearbox.[18].

In a 2-stroke engine, the functions of the scavenging hole and the exhaust valve or exhaust hole do not reverse even if the reverse rotation operation is performed, and the scavenging port timing does not change.Reed valveBoth the gasoline engine and the uniflow diesel can be operated in reverse rotation, which is not an advantage peculiar to the diesel engine.However, there are some cases where reverse rotation is used for backward rotation in gasoline engines.SnowmobileTo a limited extent, Uniflow Diesel is still used today as a means of reverse navigation on large vessels.[19].

Disadvantage

The price of a diesel engine for automobiles will be double that of a gasoline engine (40-50 yen higher than the price difference of domestic cars).Instead of not requiring a throttle and igniter, it requires an expensive fuel injection system and accessories, which increases the overall cost of the engine.

The main disadvantage of diesel engines is that they are large, heavy and vibrating.Due to its heavy weight, the output-to-weight ratio of the engine is poor, and with the exception of some aircraft, it has not been widely adopted in the past and could not be mainstream even in the heyday of reciprocating engines.In addition, due to compression ignition, the startability and reliability at high altitudes (low temperature, low pressure) are poor, which is one of the major reasons why diesel engines have been avoided.

Since it is diffuse combustion, black smoke and PM are likely to be generated, andCombustion chamberInside is high temperature and high pressure and lean burn area (30: 1 to 60: 1 at light load)oxygennitrogenNO because there are too manyxThis is also the reason why diesel engines were disliked by pilots, especially on airplanes before the spread of closed cockpits.Even if you take measures against exhaust, in an oxidizing atmosphere with a lot of residual oxygen in the exhaustThree-way catalystPM and NO because you cannot usexSeparate post-processing equipment is required for countermeasures, which increases costs.

Health

Fuel economy and efficiency

Due to the high compression ratio, the piston ring surface pressure, bearing surface pressure and mass of moving parts are large, and when rotated at high speed, energy loss increases sharply due to friction loss and the like.Due to the high compression ratio, it does not rotate to high rpm and the normal rotation range is narrow, so it is necessary to shift gears according to the running speed for vehicles, and if the optimum rpm is removed, efficiency will decrease.Due to the disagreement between these two points, diesel engines for automobiles are significantly less efficient than large marine diesel engines.

Structure / operation surface

In a diesel engine, the fuel injection device doubles as an ignition device and an output control device, which makes it expensive and difficult to control combustion.The fuel injection system accounts for half of the engine cost.

Due to the high compression ratio, the intake and exhaust systempulsationThe vibration and noise here are also large.For ships,CogenerationIn order to suppress pulsationaccumulatorSome are equipped with.

Cylinder head,Cylinder block,piston,Connecting rod,CrankshaftHighStrengthrigidityIs required and the weight increases.

A multi-speed transmission for large torque is required for vehicle applications that frequently require acceleration / deceleration and start / stop.It is too complicated and unrealistic to manually operate a transmission with 18 or 24 speeds including an auxiliary transmission.Therefore, an excellent automatic transmission is required, which makes it heavier and more costly.

In automobiles, it is difficult to obtain negative pressure in the intake pipe.Brake boosterNeed to be taken from another route.This also causes high costs.

In cold regions in fuelパ ラ フ ィ ンPrecipitatesFuel filterMay be clogged with.If you move to a cold region and park with light oil in a warm region that is not designed for cold regions, fuel will often stop flowing and the vehicle will not start.

Compensating for the low output per volume of a diesel engine with a turbocharger, turbocharger, turbo compound, etc. offsets the advantages of the simplicity of the igniter and increases the cost.

Diesel engines for passenger cars tend to have a large number of cylinders with a small displacement in order to reduce vibration, and it is difficult to take advantage of the fact that the size can be increased by expanding the cylinder volume, resulting in high cost.

Diesel engine runaway

IntakeDoes not have a throttle valveAccelerator pedalDiesel engines, whose operation controls only the injection amount of the injection pump, have problems with the linkage of the injection pump.GovernorIf the fuel supply becomes excessive due to damage to the engine, the engine speed will increase.(English editionThe engine speed cannot be controlled by the operator's operation.(English editionAccidents may occur[20]..Diesel engine runaway occurs when a large amount of atomized engine oil is mixed into the intake system due to oil leakage from the turbocharger bearings or excessive blow-by.[21]Or it can also be caused by external factors such as when a working diesel engine is placed in a space filled with flammable gas.[21].

Gasoline engine has a malfunction of the fuel system, for exampleChoke valveIf the fuel supply becomes excessive with respect to the intake air amount due to malfunction ofSpark plugMisfiredEngine stallOr the drivability is significantly reduced.Even with a gasoline engine, damage to the throttle valve linkage may cause a runaway that causes the engine speed to remain overspeed and become uncontrollable. In this case, the main key switch orKill switchTo activate orCar batteryWiring andPlug cordForcibly by disconnectingIgnition deviceBy cutting off the power supply to the spark plug and the spark plug, the operator can easily stop the runaway.MechanicalFuel injectorAnd mechanicalFuel pumpcarburetorWith a gasoline engineRun-onOnly in the special situation where the engine can not be completely stopped by the operator's operation, but if the throttle valve is closed, the number of revolutions will decrease and furtherScarfThe runaway can be easily stopped by closing the exhaust port of.

But,throttlevalve((English edition) And self-ignite only with compression pressure, especially when the injection pump is mechanical, there is no mechanism to limit the amount of intake air, so once a runaway occurs, the main switch and accelerator pedal No matter how much you operate, you will not be able to stop the overspeed of the engine.[22]..Furthermore, in the case of a diesel engine with a turbocharger, if a runaway occurs, the turbocharger will also be in an over-rotation state, so blow-by will occur due to the overshoot of the boost pressure.Combustion chamberFrom a large amountCrankcaseA blow-by to the sidePCV valve,EGREven if the fuel supply to the injection pump is cut off due to a large amount of suction to the intake side through, the diesel engine will continue to run away with only the engine oil that blows through the intake due to a large amount of blow-by.Positive feedbackThere are even cases where the state is established[21].

Such a diesel engine runawayEngine blowTo stop before reachingFuel tankIt is not enough to just cut off the fuel supply to the injection pump fromair cleanerFit a lid or plug into the box or air intake,carbon dioxideFire extinguisherBy blowing a large amount of air into the intake port, the intake air (oxygen) Is blocked[23]Or with the derailleur in top gear or overtopFoot brake,side brakeTo the fullestclutchForcibly stop the rotation of the crankshaft by connectingengine stallThere is no choice but to take a method such as aiming at[24]..In a car, even if you release the accelerator pedal while driving, the increase in engine speed does not stop, if there are signs of diesel engine runaway,Manual transmissionThen immediately disengage the clutchAutomatic transmission,Semi-automatic transmission,Continuously variable transmissionThen.shift leverIn neutral(English editionAfter cutting off the power transmission to, stop on the shoulder and take the above measures to stop the runaway.[25].US NavyThen, if a runaway occurs in a marine diesel engine, close the fuel supply valve and thenDecompThe training manual states that you should open and stop.[26].

In Europe and AmericaDiesel locomotive,[27],Detroit DieselOld-fashioned diesel turbo engineRestoreSuch runaway accidents often occur during the test run at the time of the test run.CaterpillarWhen starting a diesel engine with a repaired fuel system for the first time, it is recommended that the work assistant be prepared to immediately plug the intake port in case of runaway due to a mistake in repairing the fuel system.[28]..In Japan in the early 2000s,Mitsubishi Motors OfMitsubishi Delica,Mitsubishi ChallengerA diesel engine runaway accident occurred due to a mistake in the injection pump manufacturing process.recallThere is an example that has led to[29].

Frequent filling of flammable gaspetrochemistryPlantsmineThen, there are many diesel engine runaway accidents,United States Department of LaborOverseas labor administration agencies, such as, for industrial diesel engines, in case of a runaway, both the intake system and the fuel supply system(English edition,(English editionMandatory to equip[30] But still all the diesel engine runawayFail-safeHas not yet been established in 2005Texas City Refinery Explosion AccidentHowever, it has been confirmed that the runaway of the diesel engine of the automobile was related in the process.

Combustion regeneration type without additional injector just before the filterDPF / DPR, etc.For diesel engines equipped with, the engine oil will be diluted with light oil, but the blow-by gas generated by the engine oil containing fuel will beEGR mechanismThe diesel engine runaway also occurs when it is returned to the intake system.

Main uses

Stationary typeInternal combustion power generationAnd power such as pumps.On the waterShip,submarineMarine power such as.Track,busLargeAutomobileAndtanklikeMilitary vehicle,Construction machinery,Agricultural machinesLarge special car such as[Annotation 7]Diesel locomotive,RailcarSuch asRailway carUsed for.Diesel is the mainstream for power generation and pumps, but if there are restrictions on gas fuel such as LPG and CNG due to exhaust gas regulations, it will be an electric ignition gas engine or a gas engine that ignites with diesel fuel.

Ship

Large marine engines that produce high output and stationary power generation engines derived from them are applications that can be said to be the sole field of diesel engines.In these fields, the weight and volume of the engine body and auxiliary equipment, which are always restrictions and problems in other applications, can be ignored to some extent, and it can be said that the results match the properties of diesel engines suitable for upsizing.

  • As of the 21st century, large vessels mainly use heavy fuel oil C at low speeds.Uniflow scavengingTwo-stroke diesel engines are the mainstream.The size of the engine itself for large ocean-going vessels is about 2 meters in length, about 24 meters in height, about 15 tons in weight, and a total displacement of about 2000 liters with 11 cylinders in series, as an example of a large one. It has an output of about 2 horsepower (MAN B & W 2K8.5ME type) and has a useful life of about 11 years.Combining an overhead exhaust valve and a powerful supercharger, the piston diameter is less than 98 meter and the stroke is about 20 meters, which is an ultra-long stroke.Since the physical piston speed of this size is too large to exceed the current level, the rated rotation speed of the crankshaft is as low as 1-2.8 rpm, but as a result, the characteristics close to the theoretical diesel cycle are realized. It has been transformed.In fact, the thermal efficiency exceeds 60%, and in some cases it reaches a level approaching 100%, achieving the highest level of thermal efficiency for a single practical internal combustion engine.In addition, a low speed of 50 rpm or less is a speed that can be directly applied to the screw rotation of a ship, and the screw can be driven directly from the crankshaft without providing a reduction gear device that has restrictions on strength.That is, the loss is reduced in terms of practical power transmission.
  • Large 2-stroke diesel engineConnecting rodThe part was divided into two parts, a piston rod and a connecting rod.Crosshead structureTherefore, it is very tall.This is usedC heavy oilIs a low-quality fuel with high viscosity, so the combustion residue is dirty.Cylinder headCrankcasePart ofengine oilThis is to make the path independent and not to pollute the bearing.The structure in which the cylinder and crankcase are connected using high-quality fuel is called a trunk piston engine.
  • The 4-stroke medium-speed diesel engine (300-1,000 rpm) is widely used from large fishing vessels to ferries, passenger ships, and large ocean-going vessels.For fuelA heavy oilThe trunk piston engine that uses is the mainstream, and there are some that can use C heavy oil or AC blend oil.Although the thermal efficiency is not as good as that of a 2-stroke low-speed diesel engine, it has the advantage of low weight per output and external dimensions, and a high degree of freedom in engine placement.ferry,RO-RO shipIt is the mainstream for ships that want to reduce the height of the engine room due to its structure.Used via a variable pitch propeller or reducer.
  • High-speed boatsPleasure boat, Small fishing boats use a 4-stroke high-speed diesel engine (1,000 rpm or more) that uses heavy oil A or light oil as fuel, and small ones often use the same engine as for automobiles.It is configured with a reduction gear to reduce the size of the engine and drive system.
  • The difficulty is that, except for the very small 4-stroke engine ship, it is necessary to increase the fluidity by preheating the heavy oil used as fuel, which requires a lot of auxiliary equipment related to this, and once the engine is stopped, the engine Since it takes a long time to restart the main body and auxiliary machinery, it is necessary to continue the low-speed rotation of the engine even while the ship is moored and maintain the preheating of the fuel system.
History
Trial adoption of small vessels began in the 1900s, but the first diesel vessel to achieve full-scale success as an ocean-going vessel was Bowers & Wilkins (B & W) 1912 in 1,250.hp・ Built with two 4-stroke enginesデンマーク5,000t class cargo ship "Selandia''(MS Selandia).This ship was able to sail with about one-third the fuel consumption of a ship equipped with a steam engine of the same class (and did not require fresh water for a boiler like a steamship), which made it economical. It proved its superiority in cruising range and was a practical success.The amount of smoke emitted is much smaller than that of a steamship, so it is as thick as a steamship.chimneyIs not necessary for practical use, it only needs to be equipped with a simple exhaust pipe (in the subsequent diesel ships, it imitated the same chimney as before, mainly from an aesthetic point of view.FunnelThere are many cases in which an exhaust pipe that is thinner than it looks is passed through.
In the early stages of World War I, the engine room was easily sealed, suitable for larger engines than gasoline engines, and the cruising range could be extended, so it rapidly reached a practical level at that time.submarineIntroduced to the main power of.
After the 1920s after World War I, full-scale spread to ordinary warships and commercial ships began, but it took time to become the mainstream of marine power. Until around 1950, large diesel engines for ships required a certain amount of high-quality heavy oil, and the output of a single unit was not as high as that of a steam turbine. It was forced to complicate the output synthesis (for example, the German "pocket battleship" that was put into service in 1934-36.Deutschland class armored shipsWas a 12,000t class diesel ship equipped with two-axle screws, but it was equipped with eight diesel engines to secure 2hp class output, and driven one screw every four engines).For this reason, especially as the power for large ships, it has not been possible to drive out a steam turbine that can be operated with a steam boiler that can be used with coal or inferior heavy oil, and that can easily increase the output.
In the 1920s, in the field of large marine diesel engines, 4-stroke and 2-stroke, single-acting with a combustion chamber of normal structure, and multiple with a separate combustion chamber at the crosshead between the lower part of the piston and the crank chamber. The dynamic type was introduced to the market in parallel to increase the output.In this process, fuel injection has evolved from a compressed air type to an airless injection type similar to a smaller engine.
B & W, Sulzer, and MAN, which have been technological leaders in the international market for large marine diesel engines since the early 1930s, are two-stroke double-acting engines with crossheads that can increase combustion frequency and are suitable for high output. However, this method has problems in terms of complexity and heat load.For this reason, the crosshead and two-stroke systems were maintained after World War II, but the complex double-acting combustion chamber declined and the single-acting system became the mainstream.
This time,Imperial Japanese NavyInImperial Japanese Navy Technical DepartmentLed the development of various marine diesel engines, and initially, two-stroke diesel engines were often used in submarines for the purpose of emphasizing surface speed.Before the war, the I-go submarine was a compound two-stroke diesel engine that boasted a high-speed power of over 2 knots on the water, but when World War II began, it rapidly shifted to a four-stroke single-acting type and was on the water. The speed also dropped rapidly to the middle of 2 knots. Although the 20-stroke double-acting diesel engine has high output, there is a high risk that the cylinder will be flooded during a dive when the exhaust pipe is submerged due to loud noise and low exhaust pressure, and the main diesel engine is driven. Could not be done.This isSnorkelIt is not suitable for continuous underwater navigation at the main engine using the, and movement underwater is practicallyelectric motorIt meant that I had to rely only on it.Therefore, the shift to 4-stroke was carried out with the intention of significantly reducing performance. The output decreased due to the shift to 4-stroke, but the noise was suppressed.Fuel efficiencyAlso greatly improved, at the end of World War III-XNUMX submarineThe water cruising range is 37,500 nautical miles (about 7 km,Around the worldAbout 1.5 times as much as[31].
In the latter half of the 1940s, attempts were made to use "C heavy oil", which is the cheapest but inferior liquid fuel, in low-speed diesel engines. An engine that can use only heavy fuel oil C as fuel has come into practical use by protecting the crank chamber lubrication with a cross-head type single-acting structure that thoroughly improves performance and lengthens the stroke.
In the process of increasing the output of diesel engines to replace steam turbines, "static pressure supercharging" using exhaust turbines that take advantage of the characteristics of low-speed diesel engines has been put into practical use since the early 1950s.The first was in 1952 by B & W on the tanker "Dorte Maersk" (10,630).GRT) Is a 6,500 HP engine manufactured for.Competitors also proceeded to introduce the static pressure supercharging method by 1953-55.Since then, the size and output of marine diesel engines have increased and the efficiency has increased, and the economic superiority of marine engines has become overwhelming.
However, until around 1970, there was a time when the output-based share of diesel engines temporarily declined because only steam turbine engines could be prepared for the huge power of tankers, which are becoming super-large in response to increasing international oil demand.However, when the oil crisis of 1973 arrived, the reduction of operating costs became the supreme order, and the momentum for tankers to grow infinitely large was lost.Almost all commercial ships were said to be sufficient at 30 tons or less, and were almost diesel-powered.
With the improvement of petroleum refining technology after World War II, it has become possible to extract more high-quality ingredients from crude oil than before, but the quality of residual oil remaining after advanced refining has declined year by year. The content of sulfur, etc. in C heavy oil, which is used as a raw material, increased without major processing.Large-scale marine diesel engines have withstood this progress of fuel deterioration through technological improvements from time to time, but since the 1990s, the global environmental pollution of exhaust gas caused by C heavy oil fuel has been talked about, and new issues have been raised. It has become.

Train

Automobile

Because it is a diesel engine suitable for large vehicles, large vehicles (Commercial vehicle,Track,Bus * 1,※ 2) And largeSpecial car,Construction machineryIt is used in.In Japan, the retail price of light oil is about 1% cheaper than that of regular gasoline, so it is small for commercial vehicles that prioritize economic efficiency.Light vanBut the ratio of diesel is high.

EuropeThen, even for small passenger cars, about 43% of new car sales are diesel cars (2006).米 国The share of diesel vehicles in the passenger car market is 0.5% (2005).

Motor sportsDiesel engine appeared in 1952Indy 500CumminsA car equipped with a diesel engine made by Japan has acquired pole position. In 2006,Audi R10 TDI 24 Hours of Le MansRecorded the first victory of the diesel engine.After that, the diesel engine car became Le Mans Winner for 2014 consecutive years until 9. From 2007 to 2011WTCCBut the diesel engine car was approved,SeatLeon has achieved an overall victory of the season.However, there are extremely few examples of all of them compared to gasoline engine vehicles.JapaneseSuper enduranceButMazda DemioIs participating in the race, but while the low-speed torque is powerful, it does not extend to high revs, so it is not possible to earn horsepower and it is hard to say that it is superior.There are many large carsRally raidSo diesel cars were and are still common.

Around 2000, a 9-16L class medium-sized engine adopted an in-line 6-cylinder engine and an intercooler turbocharger with an output of about 500hp, and a 16-30L large engine adopted a naturally aspirated V8 or more array. It had been.Frequent high-speed constant-speed drivingExpress BusMedium size for transport trucksTurbochargerIs suitable for dump trucks that have many opportunities for low-speed driving on low mu roads and rough roads with high running resistance.V8 cylinderNon-turboThis is because the engine has been favored.

However, before the exhaust gas regulations that are becoming stricter, each company will reduce the displacement to about 2010-11L by 13, and it has a high affinity with the harmful exhaust reduction device.Inline 6 cylinderDue to the limited production of engines, the large displacement V-type naturally aspirated engine disappeared.In 4-stroke engines for automobiles, the pressure is increasing due to the supercharger, and the compression ratio is already on the decline due to the limit of increase in the maximum in-cylinder pressure (Pmax).

Most of the small diesel engines with a displacement of about 2-5L are for passenger cars, so quietness and measures against exhaust gas are more strongly required than for medium and large engines, and the direct injection type is a common rail.

CO in Japan compared to Europe2NO than the reduction merit ofxSince 2000, the number of passenger cars equipped with small diesel engines has decreased due to the priority given to laws and regulations on and PM.[5]..However, clean diesel passenger cars that comply with the strict standard group called the post new long-term regulation were released after 2010, and the number was gradually increasing again.Volkswagen # Emission Regulation Fraud ProblemSince its discovery, diesel passenger cars have been abandoned by regulators (especially in Europe), manufacturers and, above all, users.

In tracked vehicles, it is not just a combination with a supercharger, but a combined engine with a turbine engine (Turbo compoundExample (institution)Leclerc).

オ ー ト バ イ

IndiaDiesel motorcycles have been produced and sold for a long time (example:Fuji Heavy Industries (currently SUBARU)Made ofGeneral-purpose small air-cooled single-cylinder diesel engineEquipped withEnfield-Robin D-R400D).

in recent years,British Army KawasakiMadeOff road bikeThe diesel engine was installed in the vehicle and started operation.As a result, the unification of Army vehicle fuel to light oil was completed.A similar vehicle is commercially available as HDT M1030-M2 JP8 (680cc).

aircraft

airshipIn1920 eraから1930 eraDeveloped inLZ129 Hindenburg,LZ130With a reverse-rotating diesel engine ()propellerWas driving.The direction of rotation can be changed by changing the gear on the camshaft.The time from full output to full output after stopping the engine and rotating in reverse was less than 60 seconds.This is exactly the same function as a marine engine. 1929Completed inR101The airship was equipped with five in-line 8-cylinder Beardmore tornado engines.It was a combination of two 5-cylinder engines for railways to achieve high output and light weight.Because it is expected to be used on the Indian route where the temperature is high,Flash pointWith low gasoline火災Diesel was chosen because of accident concerns.The airshipFixed wingaircraftUnlike, continuous operation was not required, and a medium-speed class reversible rotating diesel engine could be diverted.1930 eraDue to the decline of the rigid airship itself at the end of the period, no further development was seen.

Fixed wing aircraftDiesel engines were first tested in the 1920s and 1930s.1928March 9PackardEquipped with a star-shaped diesel engine made ofStinsonDetroiter(Aircraft number X7654) has succeeded in the first flight[32]..The aircraft equipped with the Packard engine had the aircraft color black as a countermeasure against the black smoke generated, but the odor and black smoke were unpopular.

A typical example is Packard'sAir coolingStar engine(Black smoke emissionStrengthOf the facedefectBy earlierMarketWas selected from)Opposed piston type OfYumo 205and so on.USSRThen.Second World WarMedium Charomski Ach-30 diesel engineYermolayev Yer-2,Petlyakov Pe-8Such asBomberIt was installed in. FranceThen.Bloch MB.203To the bomberClergetIt was equipped with a radial diesel engine made by the company.Royal Aircraft EstablishmentThen.1932ToRolls-Royce Condor EngineTo a compression ignition engine,Hawker Horsley bomberIt was mounted on and tested.

Many manufacturers have tried to develop engines in this way, but diesel engines have good durability and fuel efficiency, but the throttle response is slow, and due to severe smoke exhaust and vibration, they could not become mainstream.

Complex as a unique post-war proposalTurbo compoundUse diesel to burn the engineNapier NomadHowever, this has not been put into practical use either.AlsoAllison 250There are turboprop engines that claim to be compatible with diesel fuel, but they are not actively used because their output drops.

The evolution of gasoline engines for aircraft has peaked, and in addition to two oil shocks, it has a negative impact on the environment.LeadedDue to the tightening of regulations on aviation gasoline, the price of fuel for conventional aviation reciprocating engines remained high.So in Europe1980 eraSince then, jet fuel is also available, and at low output, it is more fuel efficient than a turbine engine.Propeller planeInterest in fuel-efficient diesel engines has revived. NASA in 1980Glenn Research CenterThen.Continental MotorsIn collaboration with the company, it has announced a 3-cylinder and 6-cylinder star-shaped diesel engine.In order to improve the drawbacks of being large, heavy, and vibrating, an attempt is being made to develop a lightweight engine called "aero diesel".Dair, England as an example[33] 2-stroke diesel can be mentioned.This is two without using a heavy cylinder headOpposed pistonIn oneCombustion chamberTo formOpposed piston typeA modern version of the engine.But -5 The performance and reliability of this type are not high, such as the start-up below is not guaranteed, and the ignition and combustion are not stable and cannot be used at high altitudes.Diesel is applied to airships used at low altitudesLight aircraft・ It is limited to helicopters and has little development potential.

2001German Thielert (laterTechnify Motors), But for the first time after World War II in diesel engines, JAA (Joint Aviation Authorities <English version>) Certified[34][35].. The Centurion 2002 (TAE 1.7) engine, which was certified in 125, and the subsequent Centurion 2.0 engine, respectively.Mercedes-Benz A-ClassIt is based on the OM668 and OM640 engines installed in Diamond Aircraft Industries OfDA40 (English version),DA42 (English version)It was adopted in small machines such as.2010By now, a total of more than 3000 units have been produced.The company2008TobankruptcyAfterTrusteeReconstruction was carried out under2013ToAviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC)Under the umbrellaContinental MotorsWas acquired by.

In 2010EADSDiesel controlled byhybridHelicopter concept announced[36].. An opposed-piston engine from EcoMotors is used.

Electric by NASA from 2015VTOLMachineDroneTheDiesel electric systemBy doing so, research is being conducted to extend the cruising time.[37][38].

September 2015, 11Airbus HelicoptersIs HIPE-AE440 (V8 cylinder4.6 liter direct injectionturbo) Equipped with a testing machineH120Succeeded in flying[39].. Developed as part of the European Clean Sky initiative.This makes it the mainstream turboshaft engine in helicopters.Turbomeca ArriusIt is said that fuel consumption will be reduced by 30%, cruising range will be nearly doubled, and operability in high temperature and highlands will be improved compared to the same type of aircraft equipped with.[39].

About the engine in modern aviation lawpistonTurbineAlthough it is divided into, it does not mention whether to use gasoline or diesel, and diesel engine-equipped aircraft can also be operated with piston qualification.Especially in JapanAviation gasolineBecause the number of airfields that can be refueled is decreasing and the price is rising[40], There are many places where you can refuel at a lower costJET-A1There are also businesses that replace diesel engines that support[41]..Continental Motors also sells a JET-A1 compatible engine and replacement kit as a set for replacement.

Environmental impact and countermeasures

Diesel engines, which have higher thermal efficiency than gasoline engines, are CO2The amount of water generated is less burdensome to the environment.But PM and NOxIs more problematic than gasoline engines[5].

Unlike premixed combustion, which burns only gas, the principle of spray combustion, which burns fuel as droplets, is as unburned residue of droplets.PM,Black smokeThe disadvantage is that it is easy to generate.Also, since a diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that has a higher temperature and pressure than a gasoline engine and takes in extra air,Nitrogen oxides (NOx)Will also increase the amount of production.

The air-fuel ratio of a diesel engine at low load seems to be as dilute as 30: 1 to 60: 1, but since it is not uniform premixed combustion, there is no decrease in NOx due to low temperature combustion.Rather, the diesel engine heats a large amount of excess air while the combustion temperature is high due to non-uniform diffusion combustion that consumes only the air near the droplets, and produces a large amount of NOx per stroke compared to when the load is high.

Diesel engines also have excess oxygen, so they are often used in gasoline engines for exhaust purification.Three-way catalystCannot be used.The three-way catalystTheoretical air-fuel ratioHydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) can be purified at the same time when operating in.

Exhaust gas carcinogenicity

Regarding the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust gasWHOIs a subordinate organization ofInternational Cancer Research Institute(IARC) has long stated that "group 2A carcinogenicity" = "probably carcinogenic to humans", but in June 2012,National Cancer Institute/ From a large-scale epidemiological survey of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, it was upgraded to "Group 1" = "Carcinogenic to humans" showing the highest risk.[42][43].

Sulfur and SOx

For diesel fuelsulfurIs harmful to the exhaust if it remainsSulfur oxides (SOx) Is included.In addition, since sulfur has a large oxidizing power, it reacts first with an oxidation catalyst or a reduction catalyst for exhaust gas purification to invalidate it.Therefore, the support for automobile engines is exclusively fuel.DesulfurizationRely on.ConventionallyEuropeLight oil has a low sulfur contentNorth SeaWhile it is made from crude oil, Japanese light oil has a high sulfur content.Middle EastIt was said that it was difficult to reduce sulfur because it was made from crude oil.However, regarding desulfurization in Japan, at the end of 2004,Car emission regulationsThe "automobile fuel quality regulation value" related to the above was changed, and the allowable limit of sulfur contained in light oil was changed from 0.01% mass or less to 0.005% mass or less, and it became the same level at the same time as Europe. Is decreasing[44]..Since the sulfur content has a lubricating effect on the fuel pump, a lubricant is added to the fuel oil after desulfurization to protect the fuel pump.

Since inferior fuel with a high sulfur content of about 3% is used for large marine engines, SO from exhaust is used after post-treatment such as a seawater scrubber device (smoke exhaust desulfurization device that absorbs SOx contained in exhaust gas into seawater).xTrying to remove.NO after the wet scrubberxA reduced catalyst can also be used, but it is difficult because the exhaust temperature has dropped too much. As of 2012, with a dry scrubber that does not lower the exhaust temperature too much in Europe#SCRCombination is under development[45].

DO NOTxAnd black smoke

NO in exhaust gasxAnd black smoke are in a trade-off relationship, and the driving conditions of the car are both states, so PM, NO in the 2000sxTwo aftertreatment devices are required for countermeasures.

Even if a small amount of fuel is completely burned by high-pressure injection to prevent the generation of black smoke, nitrogen and oxygen (air) under high temperature and high pressure will cause NO.xWill be generated.Therefore, when the load is low, increase the EGR and lower the combustion temperature to NO.xTo reduce.

If the EGR is increased, it becomes difficult to burn completely and black smoke increases, so the EGR cannot be used under high load.Even if the EGR is eliminated, if the fuel injection amount increases under high temperature and high pressure, the non-uniform fuel will ignite early and PM will be generated. When multi-stage injection became available in the common rail system in the 1990s, European automobile manufacturers tried to completely burn the generated PM by post-combustion by multi-stage injection.But it was invalid for NOx.After all, PM measures and NOxAs a countermeasure, separate post-processing equipment was used.

Mazda released in 2012SKYACTIV-DNO at high load for the first time due to low compression ratio dieselxIs reduced, NOxThe aftertreatment device is no longer needed.

Since C heavy oil with a high sulfur content is used for large marine engines, NOxPurification catalysts are not easy to use.In addition, the compression ratio cannot be reduced because it ignites inferior heavy oil.In the derivative type internal combustion power generation, the combustion temperature is lowered by water-added combustion and NO.xIs being reduced.The heat of vaporization of water lowers the temperature of the combustion gas, and water vapor becomes the working gas.Thermal efficiency is reduced by only 2-3% NOx50% reduction.Furthermore, if you use the advanced technique of adding multiple layers of water, you can maintain thermal efficiency and achieve 60% NO.xCan be reduced[46].

Related laws and regulations

Environmental regulations for diesel vehicles are being enforced in various parts of Japan, the United States and Europe.

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Marine Pollution Control Convention Annex VI (MARPOL73 / 78 ANNEX VI) in 1997, and the procedure is that it will come into effect when the number of ratifying countries reaches a certain number.xThe policy is to start the regulation of the above and to strengthen the regulation regularly. NOxIn 2005, following the first regulation that came into effect in 2011 and the second regulation that came into effect in 2016, the third regulation that is extremely strict only for ECA (emission control sea area) will be enforced in XNUMX. Will be hung[45].

Exhaust gas treatment

The technology is NO by burning at as low temperature and low pressure as possible.xThe generation of CO and HC is suppressed by suppressing the generation of CO and HC by treating PM, CO and HC with an oxidation catalyst and DPF, and by completely burning at the highest possible temperature, resulting in an increase in NO.xTo nitrogenreductionNO to doxThe mainstream method is to use two reduction catalysts together.

DO NOTxThere are two types of reduction catalysts, one derived from a conventional three-way catalyst and one called SCR.Also, always the same NOx"Urea SCR system" to purify and NO during lean combustionxThere are two "occlusion catalysts" that store occlusion and promote purification after rich combustion, and each can be combined.

In addition, NO due to fuel reformingxThere is a plan to reduceDimethyl etherMixing, waterEmulsionResearch on fuels and the like is progressing mainly in the field of marine engines, but practical application has not progressed due to problems such as improvement of the supply system and measures when the user neglects to replenish.

In addition, NOxAs mentioned above, the amount of PM emissions is a trade-off, and basically the method is equipped with a processing device suitable for treating substances that are emitted in large quantities depending on the combustion settings, but the manufacturer intended it depending on the usage conditions. It may not work as expected (for example, in a vehicle using a urea SCR system, combustion may become low or low for some reason and emit a lot of black smoke. Conversely, DPF may be emitted. In the equipped vehicle model, PM may be emitted beyond the processing capacity of the DPF due to low temperature or low pressure that is higher than the manufacturer expected, causing clogging of the filter that is not caused by fuel).In addition, as will be described later, forced regeneration of the DPF consumes a lot of fuel (= poor fuel economy), and even if the urea SCR system is structurally small enough to ignore the deterioration of fuel economy, the consumption of urea water is the same for that system. It will be enormous for trucks and buses that are often installed.In order to alleviate these situations, purification systems that use both DPF and urea SCR systems began to spread in the 2010s (eg,).DaimlerBlueTec, etc. adopted by the group).When used in combination, it is not necessary to set the combustion setting to either low temperature or low pressure or high temperature and high pressure, and by doing so, the amount of PM generated is reduced compared to that of vehicles with only DPF, which reduces the chance of forced regeneration and improves fuel efficiency.On the other hand NOxSince the amount of urea generated is smaller than that of a vehicle with only a urea SCR system, the consumption of urea water can be suppressed.

EGR

Introduce part of the exhaust gas into the intake systemExhaust gas recirculation (Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR) Reduces the amount of oxygen in the intake air to lower the peak combustion temperature, NOxSuppress the occurrence of.Since the diesel engine does not have a throttle valve, EGR is introduced in the place where the lean burn is extremely excessive at low load, and NO.xUse for lowering.In the case of passenger cars, EGR is not performed under heavy load, but there are cases where trucks use EGR even under heavy load.EGR also has the advantage of reducing noise during combustion (oxygen concentration can be reduced and rapid combustion can be suppressed).

Fine particle removal device

Included in diesel exhaustParticulate matter (PM, Particulate matter) is often "DPF"(Diesel Particulate Filter) is a ceramic filter that catches and burns.

The DPF is inserted in the middle of the exhaust pipe and allows the exhaust to pass through the fine gaps of the porous ceramic packed inside to collect soot-like PM.On a porous surfaceplatinumMetals such ascatalystIs applied, PM causes a chemical reaction with the exhaust gas by the catalyst in an atmosphere of 300 ° C or higher, and H2O and CO2It is oxidized and discharged by the harmless gas of.If the exhaust temperature from the engine continues to be low, it is called "forced regeneration" to manually create an exhaust with excess fuel and periodically create a high temperature to detoxify and remove the PM accumulated in the DPF.

Most catalysts are sensitive to sulfur and can cause filter clogging, so other than low-sulfur gas oil (Illicit gas oilEtc.) cannot be used, but there are products that use wire mesh and silicon carbide fibers instead of ceramics for the filter, and this can also be used for products other than low-sulfur light oil.

SCR

SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) is a reducing action by a selective catalyst, and NO in the case of exhaust gas countermeasures.xOnly select the reducing agentammoniaIt is a purification catalytic action that reacts with and reduces to nitrogen and water.Conventional NO because an ammonia reducing agent is usedxHigher performance than reduction catalysts.It is divided into two by the method of obtaining ammonia.

  1. Urea SCR system
    • Urea water is replenished in a separate tank, sprayed in front of the SCR while driving, and ammonia is obtained by hydrolysis reaction in high-temperature exhaust.
    • However, an oxidation catalyst is also required before and after SCR.NO in a wide exhaust gas temperature rangexHigh reduction performance
    • It has been put to practical use in trucks and buses that can replenish urea water and secure a place to install the entire system.
  2. DO NOTxAmmonia storage SCR
    • A new combined type with a NOx storage layer and an ammonia storage layer added to the SCR.DO NOTxStorage reduction catalyst
    • First, NO during lean combustionxIs taken into the storage layer, and the control device starts rich combustion as appropriate.
    • CO and H by platinum catalyst during rich combustion2O and NOxAmmonia is generated from and occluded
    • The next time lean burning, the SCR will work and a new NOxTo nitrogen and water
    • Cleared US emission regulationsHondaUsed as a catalyst for
    • In addition, Benz also NO to SCR that does not inject ureaxCombines storage functions
    • Nissan also announced that it will develop a similar new catalyst and install it in vehicles sold domestically in 2008 (as of April 2009).X-TrailOnly sold in Japan).

DO NOTxStorage reduction catalyst

NO in exhaust gasxIt is a catalyst that takes in during lean combustion and then reduces it by rich combustion. NOxThe above SCR is not used for reduction, and the reducing agents are HC, CO and H.2And NO to the three-way catalystxIt can be said that an occlusion layer has been added.It has been used in gasoline direct injection engines and is partly used in diesel engines.

European specifications for passenger diesel enginesAvensisPM and NO integrated with the DPF used inxAt the same timeToyotaThere is a DPNR.

DO NOTxThe disadvantages are that rich combustion is required to reduce the amount of sulfur and the sulfur content in the light oil deprives the catalyst of its function.

fuel

A variety of diesel engine fuels can be used as long as the ignition point is around 225 ° C.kerosene-Light oil-heavy oilIs used.Accidentally on a diesel enginegasolineWhen refueling, the ignition point is as high as about 300 ° C, so it cannot be ignited and the engine stops.It can be recovered by removing gasoline from the refueling pipes and injection pump, but non-lubricating gasoline can damage the injection pump.

On the other hand, regarding the flash point, light oil has a flash point of about 50 ° C, while that of gasoline has a flash point of about -40 ° C, which makes gasoline dangerous.Gasoline is dangerous just by bringing it close to fire at -40 ° C or higher, but even if it is brought close to light oil below 50 ° C, it does not burn immediately.Nevertheless, if these two temperatures are raised in a fire-free environment, it is light oil that ignites first due to the difference in ignition point.The low ignition point and high flash point of this light oil make it easy to use in diesel engines that rely on self-ignition for fuel explosion.

In aircraft, it has properties similar to kerosene and is cheaper than aviation gasoline.Jet fuelCan be used.This is the mainstream of modern fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraftTurbo jet engine-Turbo fan engine,Turbo shaft engine such asGas turbine engineIt is more advantageous than a gasoline engine in that it can share fuel with a gasoline engine, and the advantage of low fuel consumption of a reciprocating engine including a diesel engine is greater in a low-power engine.knockingUsed as a countermeasureLeaded gasolineIs toxic, difficult to handle, and has a large environmental impact, so it tends to be regulated both domestically and internationally.Therefore, in modern times, gasoline engines for aircraft, which still rely on fuel, often hinder refueling.For the above reasons, light aircraft including unmanned aerial vehicles and some small helicopters require light weight and high output, which are the strengths of turbine engines, and low temperature environment and high altitude performance, which are the weak points of diesel engines. For equipment that does not, both the military and civilians have several major merits.

In vehicles, in addition to the general feature that diesel engines tend to be more advantageous than gasoline engines as the equipment becomes larger, there is an advantage that the flash point of fuel is high and the risk of fire at the time of impact is low, especially for military use. It is widely used in.In addition, as mentioned above, the fact that fuel can be easily shared with military aircraft is also a great advantage, especially on battlefields where supply routes and equipment are limited.

In Japan, to vehicles other than self-propelled vehicles on public roads and to bring fuel tanksSelf standMany gasoline and light oil refueling are prohibited by ordinance[Review required] There is also the merit that kerosene can be refueled and taken back to the tank that you brought. (Use as fuel for self-propelled vehicles on public roads may result in tax evasion)

New fuel

Synthetic oil

Natural derived from mineral oil that hinders the reduction of emissions (exhaust gas)fuelInstead, it is attracting attention as a next-generation diesel fuel.GTL(Gas To Liquid),BTL(Biomass To Liquid),CTLSynthetic oil such as (Coal To Liquid).These fuels can be used alone orLight oilBy mixing it with and using it in a diesel engine, it is expected that the exhaust gas will be less polluted.

The raw material for GTL fuel isNatural gas, CTL fuelcoalIt has a higher cetane number than light oil and is SO.xCause ofsulfurGenerate minutes and PMbenzene-XyleneSuch asAromatic hydrocarbonAlmost no.CNG,hydrogenUnlike the current fuel sales route, it is easy to get used to because it is liquid even at room temperature.However, CO for energy during processing2It is not friendly to the global environment because its emissions are higher than those of burning it as it is.[47]..Also, since it does not contain sulfur,lubricatingSince it is inferior to light oil in terms of action, it is necessary to use additives.

BTL fuelplantAs a liquid fuel, it does not contain sulfur or aromatic hydrocarbons like GTL / CTL fuel, and is emitted during combustion.CO2Is the CO absorbed as the plant grows2the amount[Annotation 8]There are features such as being equal to.

These synthetic oils are highCetane numberSince it is a fuel, the compression ratio can be reduced to 13–15 as a single-use diesel engine.Energy efficiencyRaise lowFuel efficiencyIt is also an advantage that it can be converted.The prices of these products are expected to decrease as the production volume increases, and are expected to become the mainstream of diesel fuel in the future.[48]

DME

Dimethyl ether The use of (DME) as diesel fuel is also being put to practical use.methanolTheDehydration condensation reactionRather than synthesizing to increase energy densitySyngasLow-purity, low-cost mass production by direct synthesis from is being established.Any material that can be converted into synthetic gas, such as natural gas, coal, and plants, is good as a raw material, and it has the advantage of being an aerobic fuel with less synthetic energy loss than synthetic oil derived from gas.

DME fuel is equivalent to light oilCetane numberso,sulfurMinutesAromatic hydrocarbonDoes not include.With mechanical fuel injection, it was difficult to control the injection amount because the volume changes at low pressure, but the increased pressure on the common rail made the injection amount control more accurate, making it a suitable fuel.

It is also becoming clear that purification of exhaust gas is desired by mixing heavy oil and DME. NO when mixed with A heavy oilx, COxAlso declines in volume percentage.

BDF

Vegetable oilTheTransesterification(Metanolesis)GlycerinRemovefatty acidMethyl ester (FAME) Is the fuel (Bio Diesel Fuel; BDF).

BHD

greaseTheHydrogenationHydrogenated oil (Bio Hydrofined Diesel) made by decomposing and decomposing using processing technology BHD).

History

1885, British inventor Herbert Akroyd Stuartパ ラ フ ィ ンI started investigating the possibility of an engine using.This was difficult to evaporate with a carburetor unlike gasoline[49]..Invented by himHot-bulb engineWas manufactured by Richard Hornsby & Sons in 1891.This was the world's first internal combustion engine using a pressurized fuel injection system.[50]..This Hornsby-Akroid engine had a relatively low compression ratio, and the temperature was insufficient to ignite the fuel by compression heating.Modern diesel engines incorporate direct injection and compression ignition, and the two ideas were patented in May 2 by Akroid Stuart and Charles Richard Binney.[49].. On October 1890, 10, another patent was granted detailing the basic workings of a complete engine that separates fuel and air into the engine.What is the difference between an Akroid engine and a modern diesel engine?Cold startSometimes it is necessary to supply special heat to the cylinder. In 1892, a year before the invention of the diesel engine, Akroid Stuart created an improved version that did not require an additional heat source. [51]

In 1892, Akroid Stuart patented a water jacket vaporizer that allows for increased compression ratios.In the same year, Thomas Henry Burton experimentally eliminated the vaporizer and produced a high compression ratio version with a cylinder head.Therefore, it ignited through a high compression ratio and did not rely on preheating air.

Rudolph DieselDeveloped the Acroid engine and patented it in Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States in 1892.[Annotation 9].

In 1893 Akroid stopped developing the engine.

Chronological Table

  • 1892: On February 2, Rudolf Diesel obtained a patent (RP 23) entitled "Arbeitsverfahren und Aus führungsart für Verbrennungskraftmaschienen".
  • 1893: Diesel publishes a treatise entitled "Theory and Construction of Rational Heat Engines to Replace Known Steam and Internal Combustion Engines".
  • 1897: Diesel on August 8thAugsburgProduced the first working prototype in.
  • 1898: Diesel is a Russian oil company Branobel Licensed a diesel engine to.The company was interested in non-distilled oil-powered engines.The company's engineers spent four years designing diesel engines for ships.
  • 1898: Diesel is a manufacturerKruppSulzerLicensed a diesel engine to.Both companies will soon become major diesel engine manufacturers.
  • 1902: By 1910MANManufactures 82 stationary diesel engines.
  • year 1903: Nizhny NovgorodThe world's first diesel engine-equipped oil tanker "Vandal" was launched at a shipyard in Japan.
  • 1904: France's first diesel in the worldsubmarine Build Z.
  • 1905: Alfred Büchi for diesel enginesTurbochargerIntercoolerDevised.
  • year 1908: Prosper L'Orange DeutzTogether with the company, we have developed an injection pump that can be precisely controlled with a needle-type injection nozzle.
  • 1909: Prosper L'OrangeBenz & SeaDeveloped a pre-combustion chamber type hemispherical combustion chamber together with the company.
  • year 1910: ノルウェーExpedition shipFramEquipped with a diesel engine.Shelandia is the first merchant ship.
  • year 1912: デンマークThe first diesel ship Shelandia (Zealand) Construction.World's firstDiesel locomotiveProduction.
  • year 1913: US NavySubmarine uses a diesel engine manufactured by NELSECO.On the liner DresdenEnglish ChannelWhen crossingRudolph DieselDies a mysterious death.
  • 1914: GermanU boatIs equipped with a MAN diesel engine.
  • 1919: Prosper L'Orange Pre-combustion chamber type patented and needle injection nozzle manufactured.CumminsStarted production of diesel engines.
  • 1921: Prosper L'Orange builds a continuously variable output injection pump.
  • 1922: Mercedes-Benz's first diesel engineト ラ ク タ ーReleased.
  • year 1923: MAN, Benz,LimererIs equipped with the first diesel engineTrackAnd started the test.
  • year 1924: Frankfurt motor showA truck equipped with a diesel engine will be exhibited at.Fairbanks MorseStarted production of diesel engines.
  • year 1927: Bosch TrackStarted production of injection pumps and injection nozzles.StoewerProposed the first passenger car equipped with a diesel engine.
  • 1930s: CaterpillarThe company begins production of diesel engines for its own tractors.
  • 1932: MAN launches the world's highest output diesel truck with 160 horsepower at the time.
  • year 1933: CitroenIs equipped with the world's first diesel enginePassenger car Produced (Rosalie).Adopted an engine designed by a British diesel engine researcher[54]..It was not released because the use of diesel engines was restricted.On the other hand, in JapanYanmarSucceeded in developing a small general-purpose high-speed diesel engine in-house ("HB type" diesel engine).
  • year 1934: MaybachIs the first in the worldRailway caruseturboManufactures diesel.
  • 1934-35: GermanJunkersStarted production of the "Jumo" series of diesel engines for aircraft.famousYumo 205 TheSecond World WarMore than 900 units have been produced by the outbreak of.
  • year 1936: Mercedes-BenzIs a diesel passenger car260DProduced.Hanomag,KnowAlso produces diesel passenger cars one after another.Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe RailwayToSuper chiefDiesel locomotive will be adopted.Airship under constructionHindenburgAdopted a diesel engine (Daimler-BenzEngine 602LOF6).
  • year 1936: Soviet Union BT 7tankThe VD-2 diesel engine was installed in the vehicle for experimentation, and later mass-produced as the BT-2M equipped with the improved V-7 engine.
  • year 1937: Soviet UnionIs under developmenttankThe A-20 and A-32 are equipped with a V-2 diesel engine. In 1939, the expanded and improved version of A-32, A-34, was introduced.T-34Is adopted as.
  • year 1937: BMWIs an aircraft diesel engine BMW 114 Prototype.
  • 1940: Aircraft diesel engineYumo 207AEquipped withJu 86P High-altitude bombing / reconnaissance aircraft was developed and launched in the same year.
  • year 1944: Klöckner Humboldt Deutz AG (KHD)Air coolingDeveloped a diesel engine.
  • 1953: Mercedes-BenzturboLaunched a series of diesel-equipped trucks.
  • year 1968: Peugeot 204Adopted the first diesel engine as a compact car.HorizontallyFront wheel drive.
  • year 1973: DAFUses an air-cooled diesel engine.
  • 1976: February,VolkswagenIs a passenger carGolfStarted testing diesel engines for.Zurich Institute of TechnologyDeveloped a common rail injection system.
  • 1977: Production of the first turbo diesel-equipped passenger car begins (Mercedes-Benz 300SD).
  • 1994: Bosch develops unit injector system for diesel engines.
  • year 1995: DensoWas put into practical use for the first time in the worldHinoInstalled in the rising ranger.
  • year 1997: Alfa Romeo 156Realized the first common rail for passenger cars.
  • 1998: BMW with 320d with diesel engine24 Hours of NürburgringWon.
  • 2004: Passenger car diesel engine coverage exceeds 50% in Western Europe.
  • year 2008: SubaruIs for passenger carsHorizontally opposedIntroduced a diesel engine.EGRAlso compatible with "Euro 5" in the system.

Manufacturer

Japanese manufacturer

As of 2021.

ManufacturerPassenger carCommercial vehicleShipAgricultural machineryindustryTrain
Iseki agricultural machinery
Isuzu Motors
Mitsubishi Fuso Truck/Bus
Hino Motors
UD Trucks
(Old: Nissan Diesel)
Toyota
Nissan Motor
Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Overseas only
マ ツ ダ
SUBARU
(Former: Fuji Heavy Industries)
Overseas only
(Abolished in 2020)
Mitsubishi MotorsOverseas only
Daihatsu industryOverseas onlyOverseas only
Japanese sea bassOverseas onlyOverseas only
Yanmar Power Technology
(Yanmar Holdings
Kubota
IHI Shibaura
Komatsu Works
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Licensor of Mitsubishi UE organization and licensee and some joint development of Sulzer products of Wärtsilä
Kawasaki Heavy Industries MAN B & W Licensee
Mitsui Shipbuilding MAN B & W Licensee
Hitachi Shipbuilding Licensee of MAN B & W and Wärtsilä
IHI(Diesel United) Former SEMT Pielstick licensee of Wärtsilä and MAN SAS
Niigata Power Systems
(Old:Niigata Ironworks
Shinko Engineering
Akasaka Diesels Licensee of in-house 4-stroke engine and Mitsubishi UE engine
Hanshin Internal Combustion Machine Industry In-house 4-stroke engine and Kawasaki MAN B & W licensee
In-house 4-stroke engine and licensee of Mitsui MAN B & W
Daihatsu Diesel
Kobe engine Licensee of Mitsubishi UE Organization

Manufacturers in Asian countries (excluding Japan)

South Korea

Manufacturers in European countries

In Europe and the United States, a large-scale reorganization is underway, such as the acquisition of a holding company that has acquired multiple manufacturers by another holding company, and many manufacturers have disappeared.

Germany

France

スウェーデン

フィンランド

The United Kingdom

  • Rolls-Royce Holdings Mainly the marine diesel of the former Bergen (Norway) that was acquired, also acquired MTU

Others

American manufacturer

Core parts manufacturer

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ DieselFine charcoalWe planned to use various fuels including, but we did not succeed in using powdered fuel.1900 OfParis World ExpositionThen.PeanutsDemonstrated driving in oil (BiodieselSee).
  2. ^ FlywheelSomewhere on the ring gear of the starter motor always comes to the position of the pinion gear of the starter motor → Cause of uneven wear
  3. ^ Although the diesel engine is not controlled by the throttle valve, it requires negative pressure like a combined governor in order to suppress intake noise at idle and in the low speed range.GovernorTherefore, some intake pipes are equipped with a butterfly valve in order to suppress NOx generated due to excessive oxygen when the accelerator is fully closed.In this case, the generally-called "diesel engine intake system does not have negative pressure" does not apply.
  4. ^ The engine that put this method into practical use for the first timeマ ツ ダ OfSKYACTIV-X.
  5. ^ DizeWith Le CycleOtto-Because it has the nature of a cycleMercedes-BenzNamed byCoined word.
  6. ^ However,Cylinder block,Fuel tankIf you receive a direct hit, the risk of explosion is less than that of a gasoline engine, but the possibility of burning is not so different.
  7. ^ Mainly in agricultural machineryCultivator,ト ラ ク タ ー,combineAnd more than 6 plantsPassenger rice transplanterand so on.
  8. ^ BTL fuel is CO in production and consumption processes2Because the amount ofCarbon neutralIs consideredKyoto ProtocolIt is very effective in achieving the goal of.Made from whole plants such as leaves and stemscelluloseBTL fuel made from is obtained from plant seedsStarchBased onVegetable oilfuel(BDF/ Biodiesel fuel, SVO / straight vegetable oil), compared to plantmassIt is said that the amount of energy per unit is doubled, and the yield obtained from the same cultivated area is more than 2 times.Since weeds can be used as raw materials, it also helps to solve problems such as soaring food prices and water shortages.
  9. ^

    refrigeratorWas prominent in the invention ofKarl von LindeIt is,Malaysia OfPenang IslandAs a souvenir when invited to a lecture atPressure igniterAnd returned to Germany[52].. Around 1877, LindeMunich Technical SchoolDemonstrated this pressure igniter and ignited a cigar in a lecture in the morning.[53][52]..Rudolf Diesel was listening to this talk[53].."This experience was one of the biggest stimuli for inventing a high-pressure internal combustion engine," Diesel recalls.[53]

Source

  1. ^ Chapter 2 High-pressure droplets and droplet train combustion Tohoku University Hideaki Kobayashi
  2. ^ a b Takuya Yamaguchi,Study of premixed compression ignition combustion in a highly supercharged diesel engine Dissertation. Graduate School of Engineering, Oita University 2010
  3. ^ Overcome the disadvantages of Mazda "Sky Active D" technology / low compression
  4. ^ Technical systematization survey of large 2-cycle low-speed diesel engine for marine Keijiro Tayama
  5. ^ a b c Kazutoshi Sugimoto, "A Book That Understands Diesel Vehicles" Sankaido July 2006, 7 First Edition First Edition ISBN 4381077709
  6. ^ HCCI (premixed compression ignition) Nissan Motor> Future Technology / Initiatives
  7. ^ Analysis Report on Overall Efficiency and GHG Emissions March 23 Japan Automobile Research Institute Table 3-2 Calorific value and CO2Emission intensity
  8. ^ Analysis report on overall efficiency and GHG emissions March 23 Japan Automobile Research Institute Figure 3-4 Energy consumption per unit mileage (JC6 mode)
  9. ^ Analysis report on overall efficiency and GHG emissions March 23 Japan Automobile Research Institute Figure 3-4 Energy consumption per unit mileage (4/10 mode)
  10. ^ Analysis Report on Overall Efficiency and GHG Emissions March 23 Japan Automobile Research Institute Figure 3-5 WtW Energy Consumption / CO in Standard Case2Emissions (J-MIX; JC08 mode)
  11. ^ Analysis Report on Overall Efficiency and GHG Emissions March 23 Japan Automobile Research Institute Figure 3-5 WtW Energy Consumption / CO in Standard Case2Emissions (J-MIX; 10/15 mode)
  12. ^ Analysis report of total efficiency and GHG emissions March 23 Japan Automobile Research Institute Figure 3-3 WtT energy consumption / CO in standard case2Emissions (J-MIX) / Table 3-20 Large-scale domestic process (Part 1)
  13. ^ Occupational accident case While loading a tire roller onto a truck, it is caught between rollers that suddenly start to move. - Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Workplace safety site
  14. ^ Image - YouTube --backs running diesel
  15. ^ Reversing gears of a marine diesel engine --Machinery Spaces.com
  16. ^ Reversing Of Marine Engines --Bright Hub Engineering
  17. ^ MARINE ENGINES -splashmaritime.com.au
  18. ^ CLUTCHES AND REVERSE GEARS --Integrated Publishing
  19. ^ Operational Information Lost Motion --marinediesels.info
  20. ^ Wellington, BF; Alan F. Asmus (1995). Diesel Engines and Fuel Systems. Longman Australia. ISBN 0-582-90987-2 
  21. ^ a b c "FIE system; diesel fuel system; boat fuel system”. Tb-training.co.uk. 2012/6/22Browse.
  22. ^ "Intake air matters”. Www.primempg.com. 2015/6/7Browse.
  23. ^ Launer, Donald; William G. Seifert; Daniel Spurr (2007). Lessons from My Good Old Boat. Sheridan House, Inc .. pp. 161–162. ISBN 1-57409-250-2 
  24. ^ What is runaway? --carthrottle.com
  25. ^ Here's How You Quickly Stop a Runaway Diesel --autoevolution.com, October 2014, 10.
  26. ^ US Navy(English editionDiesel Engine Maintenance Training Manual, January 2015, 1, pp. 15-115.
  27. ^ A General Electric ES44AC locomotive in the process of a runaway
  28. ^ Paul Dempsey, Troubleshooting and Repairing of Diesel Engines, 4th Edition,McGraw Hill Education, Nov. 2007, 11, p. 5.
  29. ^ Runaway is a manufacturing defect Mitsubishi Motors recalls 7800 units - Red flag, August 2003, 7.
  30. ^ Controlling Runaway Diesel Engines --punsandsystems.com, May 2012, 5.
  31. ^ Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Training Center --Warbirds
  32. ^ Stinson model SM-IDX "Detroiter," registration number X7654
  33. ^ About
  34. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/thielert-gains-diesel-engine-certification-131821/
  35. ^ http://www.dglr.de/literatur/publikationen/kolbentriebwerke/TAE_AERO2003.pdf
  36. ^ ILA: EADS unveils hybrid eco-helicopter concept --6/7/2010 --Flight Global Retrieved February 2015, 5
  37. ^ one of four concepts
  38. ^ NASA's electric vertical-takeoff airplane takes first flight, aims to eventually replace the helicopter | ExtremeTech Retrieved February 2015, 5
  39. ^ a b Airbus Helicopters starts flight tests with high-compression engine for cleaner, more efficient and higher-performance rotorcraft
  40. ^ Cessna 172P | Alpha Aviation
  41. ^ Cessna 172 diesel engine equipped aircraft passed airworthiness inspection | Alpha Aviation
  42. ^ "IARC: DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST CARCINOGENIC (PDF)”. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (June 2012, 6). 2015/10/6Browse.
  43. ^ "IARC: Carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust gas”. Central Occupational Accident Prevention Association (July 2012, 7). 2015/10/6Browse.
  44. ^ [1] (PDF)
  45. ^ a b Survey on development trends for extremely low-emission and efficient marine engines in Europe March 2012 Japan Marine Industry Association Japan Ship Technology Research Association
  46. ^ Development of new series of Mitsubishi UE large 2-cycle diesel engine Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Report Vol.38 No.4 (2001-7)
  47. ^ Akira Ishii "Natural Gas Saves Japan" Nikkei BP September 2008, 9 First Edition ISBN 9784822247027
  48. ^ Micro Energy. “BTL Petroleum Alternative Fuel Manufacturing System". 2010/4/22Browse.
  49. ^ a b "The Akroyd Oil Engine”. Ray Hooley's—Ruston-Hornsby—Engine Pages. 2007/7/29Browse.
  50. ^ Ransome-Wallis, Patrick (2001). Illustrated Encyclopedia of World Railway Locomotives. Courier Dover Publications. P. 28. ISBN 0-486-41247-4 
  51. ^ "Who invented Diesel Engine?". 2012/12/17Browse.
  52. ^ a b Bulletin of Kansai University Museum 2003, p. 86.
  53. ^ a b c Needham, East and West Scholars and Craftsmen (above) 1974, p. 276.
  54. ^ Sir Harry Ricardo

References

  • Diesel, Rudolf: Die Entstehung des Dieselmotors. Erstmaliges Faksimile der Erstausgabe von 1913 mit einer technik-historischen Einführung. Moers: Steiger Verlag, 1984.
  • Written by Rudolf Diesel / Translated by Shigeki Yamaoka / Commentary: How was the diesel engine created? Tokyo: Sankaido 1993.8
  • Rauck, Max J .: 50 Jahre Dieselmotor: zur Sonderschau im Deutschen Museum. München: Leibniz-Verlag 1949.
  • Joseph Needham"East and West Scholars and Craftsmen (1974)" Translated by Keiji Yamada, Kawade Shobo Shinsha, XNUMX.NCID BN01279791.
  • Yoichi Shimoma, "Ask the Origin of Machinery and Humans at the Origin of Technology: Various Developments of Wisdom in Life," "Journal of Mechanics, Japan," Vol. Sun, pp. 85-758, NOT 110002473858.

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