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✈ | Northrop Grumman launches successfully from rocket mother machine Tristar


Photo Pegasus XL rocket mounted on Stargazer

Northrop Grumman launches successfully from rocket master Tristar

 
If you write the contents roughly
The "Stargazer" is owned by the former Orbital Sciences and has been used as a mother aircraft to transport the air-launched rocket "Pegasus" to the sky.
 

On Sunday, June 2021, 6, the U.S. Space Force used Northrop Grumman's organic "Stargazer" to ... → Continue reading

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Air launch rocket

Air launch rocketWhat is (Kuuchiyu Hassha Rocket)?rocketTransported to high altitude and launched by means other than propulsionrocketIs.As a means of transportation to the skyaircraft,balloonIs used.

Overview

From an aircraft in flight, manned or unmannedParasite fighter The means of launching another aircraft, such as launching an airplane from an airship, has been used for a long time.Because it was difficult to achieve both cruising range and maximum speed,Aerial refuelingIt was partly done until it became widespread.Then someMilitary aircraftIt was done in.afterwards,Artificial satelliteWill be noticed as a means of launching.

利 点

Facility
Necessary ground equipment is for starting the mother machineRunwayLarge scale because it is only a launcher or launcherRangeDoes not need.As a result, land securing costs, investment in ground equipment, and maintenance costs are relatively small.
Launch conditions
When launching from the ground or the sea, whether or not it is above the rangeThundercloudWith or withoutthe weatherHas a great influence on the launch plan.On the other handstratosphereSince the weather is stable, it is possible to launch the aircraft regardless of the weather on the ground as long as the mother aircraft can fly.

Also, of the rangelatitudeSince it is possible to fire in any airspace regardless of the targetOrbitIt is possible to fire under the optimum conditions according to the conditions.SimilarlyHigh seasIt is possible to select the upper part as the launch airspace, and the flight safety of the area directly under the flight path and the surrounding area due to the falling objects such as rockets and fairings after combustion and the falling objects after the command destruction due to the occurrence of a defect. It is relatively easy to secure.JapanlikeFishery:If there is a limit on the launch time due to the activity, it is also effective as a means to avoid this limit.

Launch environment
Lower than the ground at high altitude重力And the air densityAtmospheric pressureBecause it is also low, gravity loss,Air resistanceloss,thrustLoss is reduced.This makes it possible for a smaller rocket to reach the desired altitude and orbit with a payload equivalent to that launched from the ground or sea.For launch from the ground or sea, after the first stage ignitionPlume OfReflectionIs the aircraftvibrationAlthough it is the main cause of deterioration of the environment, the vibration environment is relatively calm because plume reflection does not occur during air-launching.Also, due to the low air densityAerodynamic heatingThe thermal environment is also relatively calm because it is reduced.

problem

Large size that requires a large amount of thrust due to problems with the mounting method of the base unit and limited mounting capacity.Artificial satelliteOr need a big speedupPlanetary probeIs difficult to launch.In addition, if the number of flying aircraft is small annually, the maintenance cost of the mother aircraft pushes up the cost, and as a result, the cost may increase accordingly.

Aircraft launch type

mainlyParasite fighter,Air-launched ballistic missileIt was developed by inheriting the technology of.There are a method of suspending under the wings of the master unit, a method of suspending under the fuselage, a method of mounting on the fuselage, and a method of mounting inside the fuselage.We may develop a dedicated base unit, but from a cost perspectiveSubsonicCan navigatePassenger plane,Transport aircraft,SupersonicCan navigateFighterIn many cases, a modified aircraft is used.It is being studied in each country as a low-cost artificial satellite launch method, and in the futureTwo-stage space transport machine Studies aimed at achieving (TSTO) and research and development of elemental technologies are also being conducted (, ATREXetc).2021An example that is currently in practical use for launching artificial satellitesNorthrop GrummanCompanyPegasusVirgin Orbit OfLauncherOneOnly.Historically developed by the U.S. NavyPilot 2Is the first attempt, but all launches have failed.

From 2012F-15EUse a fighterOne-component propulsion systemIt was usedALASAThe plan isDefense Advanced Research Projects BureauWas being promoted by, but was canceled in 2015[1][2][3].

Major rockets and aircraft that have been considered as slaves or have a track record of actual operation
Major aircraft that have been considered or actually operated as a mother aircraft

Balloon launch type

James van AllenRaga1949It is the method proposed inRockoonIs called.It is mainly used in ballistic flight for scientific observation and technical testing.RomaniaHearthA rockoon for launching an artificial satellite called is under development.Once old in JapanTokyo UniversityInstitute of Industrial ScienceAVSA team (currentlyJapan Aerospace Exploration AgencyInstitute for Space Science) Was studying a rockoon for satellite launch in the Satirune project.

References

  1. Research report on air-launch system for microsatellite launch - Japan Space Systems Research and Development Organization(USEF) March 2007

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