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Kinetic energy regeneration system
Kinetic energy regeneration system(Undo energy system,Kinetic Energy-Recovery System) Is a general term for systems that recover, store, and reuse energy during braking.Car racing OfFormula 1In (F1)2009 seasonIntroduced in 2010 and laterSports car racingBut now it is installed.
In F1, "KERS(Cars[Annotation 1]) ”, But2014 By changing the regulation ofPhysical energyAs wellHeat energyDeveloped into a new system that also regenerates.The name should not touch the form of energyGeneralizationAnd simplyEnergy recovery system(Energy-Recovery System = ERS, Ards, ERS) Became..For convenience, this section also deals with ERS.
When braking in front of a corner, a typical racing car is in the forward direction.Physical energyTheHeat energy(Brake disc padFrictional heat) Is thrown away to reduce the vehicle speed. KERS temporarily stores this surplus energy in the car body and releases the energy within the specified range to assist the rotation of the drive wheels.Of mass-produced carshybridIt is an application of technology to racing,Internal combustion engineOvertaking by adding extra power to the output of the (engine) (Overtake) Is expected to increase opportunities and activate race development.
Even with the same hybrid technology, in the case of mass-produced cars, the points of improving fuel efficiency and maintenance-free are emphasized, but in the case of racing cars, shortening the lap time is the first priority, so the required performance is different. "Response to sudden deceleration / acceleration (power density)" "Lightweight and compact" "Freedom of installation position (front and rear weight distribution and lower center of gravity)" "Reliability in harsh usage environment (heat and vibration)" Must meet requirements.
There are three ways to store and reuse energy.
- In the drive systemelectric motor/GeneratorUnit (Motor Generator Unit = MGU) Is installed.When decelerating, the resistance of the generator is used as the braking force, and the kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy (so-called).Regenerative brake),battery(Lithium ion battery) To charge. When using KERS, an electric current is sent by the reverse route to drive the motor and reconvert it into kinetic energy.
- The feature is that the technical know-how accumulated in commercial vehicles can be used.However, the batteryChemical reactionThe power density is low because it stores electricity.There are also issues with battery pack weight and heat management.ion OfPhysical reactionTo useElectric double layer capacitor(Supercapacitor) has three times the power density of lithium-ion batteries,, Because the energy capacity is small, the size becomes large.
- Small flywheel in the drive system (Flywheel) Is installed.Toroidal type of surplus energy during decelerationCVTAccelerate with and save by rotating the flywheel in the vacuum case at high speed.. When using KERS, the CVT decelerates and returns the kinetic energy to the gearbox.
- The structure is simple and lightweight, and since kinetic energy is directly exchanged, there is little energy loss...However, since energy is stored in the high-speed rotating body, there is some concern about safety.In addition, since the shape and mounting position of the unit are restricted, the degree of freedom in packaging is lacking.
- Electric + mechanical (Electric flywheel）
- The electric energy generated by the generator of the drive system is sent to the flywheel with built-in MGU, and the motorrotorIs rotated and stored as kinetic energy. When using KERS, the rotation of the rotor activates the generator and sends electrical energy to the motor of the drive system.
- It is an eclectic type of the previous two types, is lighter than the electric type, and has the advantage of being installed anywhere compared to the mechanical type.
Regulation and mounting method
KERS operation is limited to the rear wheels, maximum output 60kW, The maximum energy that can be exerted per lap is 1kJWas decided.If this is converted into horsepower and time, it will be calculated that 81.6 horsepower power assist can be used for 6.67 seconds per lap...When converted to lap time, it is possible to reduce 1 to 0.3 seconds per lap..
Also, because of the interpretation that "passing the start line and reaching the start line again is one lap", if KERS can store 800 kJ of energy, it is possible to use KERS almost continuously for 13.33 seconds.[Annotation 2].. EspeciallyFuji SpeedwayIt was thought that a home straight like this would have a great effect on the maximum speed on a long circuit..
The release of energy occurs while the driver presses the KERS button on the steering.Coordinated control with the brake / engine is not permitted as in commercial vehicles, and the regenerative force and output are adjusted with the dial on the steering.
The system configuration is free, but all the teams using it chose the electric type of motor + lithium-ion battery.WilliamsAcquired a flywheel developer and was aiming to switch from batteries to electric flywheels on its own, but eventually shelved.I intended to install the flywheel device on top of the fuel tankThis is because the 2010 regulation change prohibited refueling during the race, and the larger fuel tank made packaging difficult..
The main components are located low in the center of the vehicle to reduce the impact on athletic performance... The MGU is in front of the engine and through the gearCrankshaftConnect to..How to put the battery pack in the bottom of the monocoque (under the fuel tank)Is the mainstream,McLarenIs the side of the side pod,Red bullWas mounted on the side of the gearbox.
Background and progress of introduction
recent yearscrudeSoaring prices andGlobal warmingIn connection with the problemEnergy Conservation-EcologyDue to growing public interest inFossil fuelTo consume[Annotation 3]Motor sportsI was afraid that the wind would increaseInternational Automobile Federation(FIA) announced the introduction as a measure of environmental protection appeal.again,2007 seasonTo engines used for the purpose of reducing development costsHomologationWas applied, and the engine development itself was almost banned, let alone the update during the season, but the dissatisfaction of the automobile manufacturers participating in F1 increased, so by presenting the possibility of new technology development, It is said that it also has the purpose of suppressing the dissatisfaction of those manufacturers.
Although there were pros and cons to the start of introduction in 1 due to its safety among F2009 officials, KERS was decided to be used as planned.However, mounting and use was not obligatory and could be decided by each team and driver's free will.For a while2010 Although it was said that it will be mandatory for all vehicles, there was no change in the end, and it remained voluntary until the end of 2013 when KERS was removed from the regulation.
- In the first year of introduction, KERS was installed by 4 works teams (Ferrari・ McLaren ・BMW Sauber,Renault) Only, and the rest of the team did not install it.As a result, the onboard team suffered from insufficient maturity of the machine from the opening, but in the latter half of the development, it showed its power by accelerating at the start, and won 2 McLaren and 1 Ferrari.However, it was the non-equipped team that competed for the championship.Brown GPWas Red Bull Racing.
- Formula One Teams Association (FOTA) says "KERS is not used"Gentleman agreementWas tied, so it was still usable under regulation, and there was no hiring team. FIA PresidentJean ToddExpressed dissatisfaction with this situation and set up a working group to reintroduce KERS.2011 regulationThe change item mentions the use of KERS.
- All except the bottom 3 teams (Caterham, Marcia, HRT) are equipped with KERS.Since the gentlemen's agreement of the previous year gave each team a grace period to develop and mature KERS, it became almost standard equipment, but the mid-level and lower teams who can not afford to develop in-house are Ferrari Renault・ I purchased KERS as a set from an engine supplier such as Mercedes.Its price is about 1000 to 1500 millionEuroIs said to be.
- 2012 to 2013
- In 2012Caterham, In 2013MarciaIs equipped with KERS, and all the machines running at this point are equipped with KERS.
Problems and improvements
- Safety / reliability
- As each team is testing2008 In 7 monthJerez CircuitInBMW SauberA mechanic touches a KERS-equipped machine and gets an electric shock.Red bull racingSmoke and toxic gas generated during KERS testing at our factoryThere were also opinions that the introduction of KERS should be postponed until safety can be ensured due to a series of accidents during the development of KERS.
- Although no serious accidents have occurred in the actual race, there have been cases where the car could not be used during the race due to a breakdown.In particular, Red Bull was forced to take countermeasures in 2011 due to a series of KERS troubles.
- When it was first introduced in 2009, the electric battery system weighed up to 40 kg or more, which had a large impact on the maneuverability of the machine.Normally, F1 cars are made lighter than the minimum weight regulation, and excess ballast is loaded on each part to adjust the weight distribution. The KERS-equipped vehicle became rear heavy and the degree of freedom in weight distribution was reduced, so it was revived in 2009.Slick tireIt became difficult to balance.
- Since then, the weight of the system has increased, and McLaren announced that the KERS on board the team was reduced to 2009 kg at the end of the 25 season. From 2011, the minimum weight has been increased by about 2kg compared to two years ago, and the weight disadvantage of KERS has been almost eliminated.Still, drivers are required to make efforts to lose weight so that they can carry as much ballast as possible.[Annotation 4].
- As F1 cost reductions progressed, it was argued that the development of KERS was too expensive. FOTABudget capIn the midst of a conflict with the FIA over the issue, it revisited this issue and reached a gentlemen's agreement to refrain from using it in 2010..
- For the revival from 2011, FOTA considered supplying standard units, and there was a plan to keep the supply price to 100 million euros, but it was not implemented, and Mercedes was reported to have raised the price to 600 million euros...In the case of Renault, the engine costs 1000 million euros and the cost of KERS and support is 500 million euros..
- In addition, since the amount of regeneration / release and output are set low by regulation, the effect is unlikely to appear in situations where KERS-equipped vehicles compete with each other.OvertakeIntroduced in 2011 in terms of promotingDrug reduction system (DRS) is more effective, and KERS is increasingly used as a defensive measure to prevent being overtaken by following vehicles that can operate DRS.
Challenge to energy efficiency
In addition to kinetic energy recovery, the Energy Recovery System (ERS) introduced in F2014 in 1 can also regenerate thermal energy from exhaust gas.The former isMGU-K (Motor Generator Unit --Kinetic), The latterMGU-H (Motor Generator Unit --Heat).
These two MGUs are batteries (Energy Store, ES) AndInternal combustion engine(1.6L V6Direct injectionEngine + singleturbo) And onePower unit (Power Unit, PU).In other words, the engine supplier will be in charge of the development of ERS comprehensively.
At the same time, the maximum fuel load during the final race was limited to 100kg. The V2013 engine up to 8 consumes about 1 to 155 kg of fuel per race, and unless it achieves a 160% improvement in fuel efficiency compared to the past, it cannot be expected to finish in race pace...In addition, the maximum number of revolutions is 15,000rpmSince the instantaneous fuel flow rate is regulated to a maximum of 100 kg / h, power is of course "Energy efficiencyIs the most important issue.
In the case of a general gasoline engine, the limit is about 30% extracted as driving force from the total energy contained in the fuel, and about 40% even if it specializes in thermal efficiency.In that respect, nearly half of the total energy can be extracted.diesel engineAt least two-thirds of the total energy is discharged as heat energy in the exhaust gas.It is important that the new power unit reuses these wasted exhaust heat to achieve energy efficiency equivalent to that of the excellent diesel engine installed in commercial vehicles..
The method of reusing exhaust heat energy was adopted in large engines of aircraft and ships.Turbo compoundHowever, the technology for generating electric power and reusing it in a complex manner is still in the testing stage, and there is a possibility that the technology refined in the race will be fed back to commercial vehicles.While kinetic energy recovery is suitable for stop-and-go on street riding, thermal energy regeneration can be used to improve engine efficiency during long-distance cruising on highways... In factHondaWhen it announced its return to F2015 from 1, it stated that the new regulations would be in line with corporate strategy and lead to the development of commercial vehicles in the future..
Heat regeneration and regulation
The regulation does not specify how to generate electricity using exhaust heat energy, so water is boiled.Steam turbineTurning theRankin cycleAndThermoelectric elementDirect conversion bySeebeck effect) Is also possibleHowever, in the regulation, "Turbocharger OfTurbine/compressorSince it is a condition that it is mechanically connected to the turbocharger, it is realistic to insert the MGU-H between the turbocharging mechanisms and receive the exhaust heat energy to generate electricity from the turbine shaft that rotates at high speed. Become.
- The driving force is assisted only from MGU-K. Like KERS, it is transmitted to the crankshaft of the engine via gears (variable ratio is prohibited).The upper limit rotation speed is 50,000 rpm.Maximum torque is 200Nm.
- The maximum output of MGU-K is 120kW (= 163 horsepower), which is twice as much as the conventional one.When added to the 2 horsepower of the turbo engine, it will be 600 horsepower, ensuring the same output as the V761 engine up to 2013..
- The amount of regeneration from MGU-K to ES is up to 2 MJ / lap (twice that of KERS), and the amount of release from ES to MGU-K is up to 2 MJ / lap (4 times that of KERS). When 10MJ is used at a maximum of 4kW, the operating time is 120 seconds per lap (1 times that of KERS).
- Unlimited amount of regeneration of MGU-H..The obtained power is distributed to three uses depending on the situation.
- Direct supply to MGU-K. Since it can be supplied unlimitedly apart from 4MJ / lap from ES, the power assist of MGU-K will be extended to 1 seconds + α per lap..
- MGU-H accelerates the turbo compressor as a motor and improves supercharging characteristics (Turbo lagElimination).
- Temporary storage in ES.
- The upper limit of the MGU-H is 125,000 rpm.clutchIt is also permitted to cut from the turbine shaft with.
- The minimum weight of the power unit excluding ES is 145kg. The weight of ES is 20 to 25 kg.
Since the exchange between MGU-K and ES has a difference of "regeneration amount 2MJ / release amount 4MJ", it is not possible to assist with a full charge every week.Therefore, the unlimited auxiliary power provided by the thermal regeneration of MGU-H affects the operating time (= shortened lap time) of the ERS.
In addition, with the introduction of ERS, electronic control of the rear brake (semi-Brake by wire) Has been lifted.This is because, due to the side effect of doubling the output of the MGU-K, it was expected that stability and safety during braking could not be ensured if the driver manually adjusted the brake balance as in the past.
Design and usage
Since the ERS is not equipped with the equivalent of the conventional KERS button, it will continue to function all the time while driving according to the control program written in the ECU...The degree of freedom is allowed in the setting of the control program, and the driver selects "power priority mode", "regeneration priority mode", etc. with the knob on the steering wheel according to the driving situation.
Honda's commentary site for specific ERS work stylesSee.
- When decelerating, the MGU-K regenerates kinetic energy and charges the battery.
- In the corner rising section, the electric power charged in the battery is discharged to the MGU-K to assist the engine output.Furthermore, the MGU-H is used to rotate the compressor to eliminate turbo lag.
- During full throttle acceleration, the power generated by the MGU-H is sent directly to the MGU-K to assist the engine output or charge the battery.
Example of use other than F1
World Endurance Championship
Has been held since 2012FIA World Endurance Championship (WEC) allows only the highest peak LMP1 class to be equipped with a kinetic energy recovery system. According to the 2012 regulations, the system is selectable for the front and rear wheels and is linked to the driver's accelerator operation (coordinated control with the brake / engine is possible). The energy released in one operation is 1kJ, and in the pit lane, it is necessary to run only with regenerative energy.In addition, a regenerative braking zone is specified for each circuit, and the use of four-wheel drive vehicles is restricted to 500 km / h or higher.
Under the new regulations after 2014, all LMP1 works machines must be hybrid specifications (LMP-H).In addition to the recognition of all-wheel energy regeneration, thermal energy regeneration will also be introduced. The amount of energy released per lap can be arbitrarily selected from 1 stages (4/2/4 / 6MJ per lap of the Salt Circuit), but the larger the assist amount, the smaller the fuel consumption and instantaneous maximum flow rate of the engine. became.
At WEC, where the technical appeal of commercial vehicles is emphasized along with the race results, the ecology development concept of the participating manufacturers (automobile manufacturers) is reflected.dieselとgasoline, TurboNA, Battery type and flywheel type, front wheel assist and rear wheel assist, etc. are interesting.
- Peugeot 908 HYbrid4
- V8 diesel turbo engine + lithium-ion battery + KERS (rear wheels).. We tested it with the aim of launching it in 2012, but it was not realized due to the withdrawal of Peugeot.
- Audi R18 e-torn quattro
- V6 diesel turbo engine + electric flywheel + KERS (front wheel).The system is F1WilliamsTeam subsidiary "Williams Hybrid Power (WHP)"Was developed by24 Hours of NürburgringParticipated inPorsche 911 GT3Has a track record of being installed in. In the 2014 regulations, the energy release amount of 2MJ is selected.
- Toyota/TS030 HYBRID/TS040 HYBRID
- TS030 is a V8 NA engine +Supercapacitor+ KERS (rear wheel).Originally it was designed to be equipped with two KERS front and rear wheels, but due to changes in regulations, it was changed to only the rear wheels. In the 2 TS2014, KERS was installed on the front wheels as originally planned, and an energy release amount of 040MJ was selected.
- Toyota/TS050 HYBRID
- The TS2016 introduced in the 050 season is a V6 twin turbo engine + lithium-ion battery + KERS (front and rear wheels).A new energy release of 8 MJ was selected.
- Porsche 919 Hybrid
- V4 gasoline turbo engine + lithium-ion battery + KERS (front wheels) + thermal energy regeneration (→ battery → front wheels). In the 2014 regulations, the energy release amount of 6MJ is selected.
JapaneseSuper formula(OldFormula Nippon), A system equivalent to KERS will be installed under the name of "System-E" in the future.Initially, it was planned to be a system that does not regenerate energy, but now it is being developed as a complete KERS-equivalent system.
Commercial passenger car
- Japanese sea bassHas developed a system called "ENE-CHARGE" that regenerates the energy during deceleration as electric power to operate the electric equipment in the car.This is the 2012th generation in XNUMXWagon RIt was installed for the first time in.
- マ ツ ダRegenerates during deceleration and stores electricity in the capacitori-ELOOPDeveloped. Third generation in November 2012AtenzaFirst installed in.
- HondaIs also used in the above Mazda i-ELOOPNippon Chemi-ConElectric double layer capacitor manufactured by the company "DLCAPThe third generation of the regenerative storage idling stop mechanism "" that uses ""fitInstalled in a gasoline car.
- FerrariIs an application of the KERS technology used in F1HY-KERSDeveloped. In 2013, the company's first hybrid vehicle equipped with HY-KERS,La Ferrariannounced.
- McLarenWill be equipped with F2013-derived IPAS (Instant Power Assist System) in 1, like Ferrari.P1announced.
- VolvoAnnounced "Flywheel KERS" that uses a mechanical flywheel in 2013.It is planned to be installed in commercial vehicles as it has a maximum fuel efficiency improvement effect of 25%..
- ^ It is read as "cars" in Japanese, but the actual pronunciation is "Cares(Source: "F1 Bulletin PLUS Vol.17", Idea, 2011, p. 106).
- ^ By activating KERS at 6.67 seconds before the start line, stopping KERS just before passing the start line, and activating KERS again immediately after passing the start line, the effect of KERS can be obtained almost continuously for 13.33 seconds. ..
- ^ For F1, the engineFuel efficiencyIs said to be about 2008km / l on average as of 1.5.
- ^ The minimum weight is measured as vehicle weight + driver weight (including equipment such as helmets).
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- ^ Broadcasted on August 2008, 2F1GP NewsInKazuhito KawaiRemarks.
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