Photo Customs officer inspecting eels at the peak of imports = 20th, Narita Airport
Eel imports are at their peak Narita Airport is busy with customs officers and inspections ahead of "Day of the Ox"
If you write the contents roughly
Due to strong cultivation of glass eels and a decrease in demand due to the new corona, the wholesale price is 2 to 1 yen per kilogram, which is 3% lower than last year.
A week ahead of "Day of the Ox", eel imports are at their peak, and customs officers are on the 1th at Narita Airport ... → Continue reading
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|saturated fatty acid||2.358|
|14:0 (Myristic acid）||0.58|
|16:0 (Palmitic acid）||1.585|
|18:0 (stearic acid）||0.191|
|Monounsaturated fatty acid||7.19|
|16:1 (Palmitoleic acid）||1.255|
|18:1 (oleic acid）||2.772|
|Polyunsaturated fatty acid||0.947|
|18:2 (Linoleic acid）||0.196|
|18:3 (α-linolenic acid）||0.432|
|20: 4 (unidentified)||0.095|
|20: 5 n-3 (Eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA))||0.084|
|22: 5 n-3 (Docosapentaenoic acid(DPA))||0.074|
|22: 6 n-3 (Docosahexaenoic acid(DHA))||0.063|
eel(eel, Izumi sea fish,eel) IsEel family(Anguillidae) Anguilla (Anguilla)FishesIt is a general term for.all around the world熱 帯からTemperateIt is distributed over.Japanese eel,Giant mottled eel,European eel,American eel19 types (of which 4 are edible) have been confirmed in the world..
Saccopharynx,Electric eel,Swamp eelThe appearance is slender and resembles an eel.FishesIsTaxonomyAbove, there are species with the eel name in another group.Also,Lamprey,Hagfish TheBony fishNot even primitiveJawless fish(Cyclostomata)are categorized.
It is edible depending on the type and region.Mainly Japanese eels in JapanHagi Yaki,Eel bowlIt is a fish that has been deeply involved in food culture since ancient times.Both fishing and aquaculture have been widely practiced in Japan, but in recent years imports from overseas have increased.
This section mainly describes the cultural aspects of eels.On the biological sideEel familychecking ...
Swimming is not very good and swimming speed is slow.Unlike other fish, it gains propulsion by waving its body sideways like a snake.Such a swimming method is called a meandering type,Moray eel,Spider,CongridaeIt is found in fish with a body shape similar to that of eels.
Although it has scales, it is buried in the dermis and its body surface is covered with mucous membranes.
Genus name Anguilla TheLatinAnd the meaning of eel.
in JapanNara periodof"Manyoshu] To "TakenaIt first appeared as "(Munagi)", and this is the old name for eels.Kyoto UniversityIn the Man'yoshu (Amagasakimoto), which is digitally released by, there is a kana written next to the Man'yogana, and the kana of "Munagi" is assigned to the "Takena" section.
PeriodAround that time, the word "eel" appeared and then became established.In the first place, the etymology of Munagi
- Because it is round and slender like the "munagi" of a house
- From "Munagi" whose chest is yellow
- From "Munabiraki" that opens your chest when cooking
In addition to this, pay attention to the "Nagi" part
- "Nagi" means "mu (body) nagi (chief)", which is similar to "naga (chief)".
- "Nagi" is a general term for snakes, meaning snakes and rainbows.Okinawan dialectIt is a word of the same origin as Nagi Noga → Reference: Kusanagi no Tsurugi # "Snake Sword"
- "Nag-" means "an elongated creature in the water (long fish <Nagauo>)".This root isCongridae,Japanese sand lanceIt is also included (creating a huge (often elongated) school of fish in the water)
There is also a theory that.
KinkiIn the dialect of, it is called "mamushi".
"kettleIn the Edo Kouta titled "Cormorant, it was difficult for the cormorant to swallow, so the cormorant, eel, and eel."Ground mouthIs being told.Also, when I didn't have a habit of eating eels, the rakugo pillow was unexpectedly delicious when the eel dish was served by a small restaurant, so I said, "Give me another eel, eel, eel, eel." There is.
Eels in the fishing industry
It is one of the important edible fish in Japan, and 11 tons of eel are consumed annually.In addition to importing adult and processed eels20st centuryAround the second halfAquacultureThe technology has been established and the fry required for aquaculture輸入Has also come to be done.However, the popularity of wild eels (natural ones) is deep-rooted.fishing,LonglineIt is caught in such places.There are also traditional fishing methods that focus on eels.
- Eel scratching
- Skillfully manipulate the stick with the hook attached to it and hook the eel.
- Eel mound
- Fist-sized or larger stones are piled up in the eel habitat to catch eels hidden in the gaps between the stones.If left untreated, it will be clogged with mud and eels will not enter, so it is necessary to reassemble it regularly.Recreational fishing tickets are also on sale.
- Eel tube
- bambooSet a tube etc. in the eel habitat, and when the eel is resting in the tube, pull up the tube and catch it.Some of the cylinders are released only on one side, some are released on both sides, and some are returned and cannot be exited once they are entered.Newly made eels need to be submerged or buried in the soil for several weeks, as eels do not fit into new-smelling eels.
In fishing as recreational fishingEarthwormIt is common to use bait as bait.Since eels have a good sense of smell, they do not eat anything that smells unnatural, such as general fish collectors.The best fishing time is generally around 2 hours after sunset, but depending on the location, you can catch from sunset to sunrise.As a method of bait fishing, bukkomi fishing (carpDeformation of bukkomi gimmicks such as, single needle is basic), standing fishing (stick a bamboo pile with a needle and thread in a place where eels are likely to pass and leave it for a while), hole fishing (small in a hole where eels are likely to be in the daytime There is a bamboo stick with a straight needle at the tip for attaching fish etc., and a needle and thread, and you can directly insert it for fishing), etc. Is.However, although eels themselves can be easily caught, it is not easy to find a place to catch them, so anglers aiming for eels do not want to disclose the places where they can be caught.In particular, hole fishing is a fishing that remembers holes because even after catching an eel once, a new eel will soon enter a good hole.In addition, eels that live in brackish waters and open seas, not in rivers, are called blue eels and are highly prized without the odor peculiar to river fish.Especially Okayama prefectureKojima BayThe blue eel is famous.
Landing fishing port
Eel farming begins with catching natural'boke's eels.KuroshioA large number of glass eels, the eel cubs that arrived on the coast of Japan, are caught and raised.The aquaculture method is in Japanvinyl houseAquaculture using is the mainstream.Taiwan and South ChinaGuangdongThen, open-field aquaculture just by digging a pond.House aquacultureboilerThe water temperature is kept at about 30 ° C by burning, and the growth can be accelerated.However, the food was derived from the process of aquaculture.SalmonellaContamination is occurring..All "cultured eels" currently on the market are grown from natural fry and become uncultivated when natural resources are depleted.For farming from fertilized eggs that do not require natural fry#Complete aquacultureSee section.
Japanese eelAquaculture(Nursing)1879(Meiji 12) TokyoFukagawaSo, it was first tried by a breeder.afterwards,1891(Meiji 24) presentShizuokaKosai CitySo, he built a 7-hectare pond and tried to raise eels in an artificial pond for the first time in Japan, as well as Kurajiro Hattori.1897(Meiji 30) presentHamamatsu cityNishi-wardI have started raising eels at.This is the root of the farmed eels of Lake Hamana, which later became the center of Japanese eel farming...In addition to the warm climate and groundwater that are suitable for eel growth, many glass eels were caught at Lake Hamana and the mouth of the Tenryu River, which is said to be the reason why the eel farming industry flourished here.After that, Shizuoka prefecture centered around Lake HamanaEnshuIn addition,AichiMikawa district,Gifu,MieNakase region,Kagoshima,MiyazakiEtc. are the main production areasGreat East Asian WarAlthough it temporarily declined due to the war, it will generally recover after the war.2000Or later2013Until then, the yields of farmed eels by prefecture have changed, but Kagoshima, Aichi, and Miyazaki prefectures are always in the top three, and Shizuoka prefecture and Shizuoka prefecture are below that.Kochi,TokushimaEtc. maintain a relatively stable yield.But if you look at Japan as a whole,2011Until then, about 2 tons were cultivated almost every year,2012After that, it started to decrease2013Has decreased to about 1 tons.
Imported goodsTaiwanHas a history of more than 20 years, but now[When?] TheEuropean eelGlass eelChugokuEels imported and cultivated in Japan are the mainstream[Source required][Needs verification]..The type is Japanese eel in Japan Anguilla japonica Only in TaiwanAnguilla japonica, Japanese eel in China Anguilla japonica And European eel Eel anguilla Is about 8: 2[Source required].Moji CustomsAccording to Hakata Customs HakataDay of the oxIn July, imports peak throughout the year[Source required].2005Had nearly doubled to 6 tonnes in July compared to June imports.2006Is increasing in Taiwan due to the strengthening of inspections and the Chinese side refraining from exporting.[Source required].
According to 2013 data, aquaculture production accounts for 95% of total production...In addition, as a way of distinguishing between farmed eels and natural eels, it is generally said that natural eels have a thick waist and a yellowish belly, but the actual natural eels have a color, pattern, and body shape depending on the habitat and food. It is not easy to distinguish by appearance because of various changes.
Japan imported a total of about 2018 tons of Japanese eel fry "Shirasu eel" from Hong Kong, whose source is unclear, in December 12 and January 19, and put them in Japanese aquaculture ponds during the same period. It became clear that it accounts for about 1% of the total.It has been pointed out that there is almost no actual fishing of glass eels in Hong Kong, and it is highly possible that they were illegally taken out from Taiwan, which bans exports..
Of eelArtificial hatching The1973ToHokkaido UniversitySucceeded for the first time in2002ToMie OfFisheries Research CenterAquaculture Research Institute(Currently "Zoyoshoku Research Institute")Larva (larva)Succeeded in transforming eels into glass eels for the first time in the world..However, artificial hatching and aquaculture technology immediately after hatching still cost a huge amount of money and the success rate is low, so research is underway. Not.It is directly linked to the decrease in the number of individuals and the number of fry in the natural world, and the aquaculture industry itself is being hit.
In such a situation2010, Fisheries Research and Education Center will grow artificially hatched eels into parent eels and give birth to the next generation of fry.Complete aquacultureAnnounced the world's first success.. It is reported that more than 25 eggs were born, 75% of which hatched, and it is expected due to the decrease in the catch of fry mentioned above.However, as a raw material for fry food immediately after hatchingsharkEggs are needed, water must be changed every day, and since only males are born in an artificial environment, many problems remain, such as the need for females with hormones for spawning..
In 2012,Marine snowWas found to be a bait..In addition, it was found that chicken eggs and testes of yamame trout were also used as food, and about 9% of the larvae grew up.However, as of 2013, it is said that the cost of one glass eel cannot be less than 1 yen such as feed cost, capital investment, labor cost, utility cost, etc...The Fisheries Agency has set a target year for commercialization of complete aquaculture in 2020.
In 2019, we outsourced artificially raised glass eels to a private aquaculture company and succeeded in the cycle of making them adult fish for the first time..This is expected to lead to stable eel production.
Amount of resources
Reduction of resources
Eel resources1970 eraContinues to decrease from, Accounts for over 99% of consumption,AquacultureGlass eel used for eelJapanThe catch was over 200 tonnes at its peak,2013Dropped to 5.2 tons.
In addition,European eelabout,1990 eraFryPeople's Republic of ChinaWhen the sales channels for aquaculture and export to Japan became established and exports began in earnest, resources fell sharply... Designated as an endangered species on the IUCN Red List in 2008, As described below20076 of the monthWashington ConventionAt the 14th Conference of the Parties, it was decided that it would be subject to distribution restrictions.2009From March, it will take effect..
Although it is not clear because there are unclear parts in the ecology of eels, the reason for the decrease is
- Glass eelPoaching, And of adult fishoverfishing
- Estuary weir,damChanges in the river environment, such as construction of rivers and concrete revetments
- El Nino phenomenonChanges in the marine environment
Since 2007, the People's Republic of China has been the largest consumer, and in 2013, Japan's eel consumption in the world dropped to just over 1%, and the consumption of the People's Republic of China was about 7%. Has become.
Since 2010,Glass eelThe price of glass eels is 1kilogramIt rose to 300 million yen per hit.In response to this situationFisheries Agency The2012In June, announced the implementation of eel emergency measures, Japan, China, from September of the same yearTaiwanInformal talks are underway on the international resource management of Japanese eels among the three parties..
on the other hand2012In July, Japanese eelsConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and FaunaWhen considered as a subject of transaction regulation under (Washington Convention)Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesGunji AkiraClaimed "not depleted enough to be regulated".
In contrast to resource management movements, Japanese glass eels have been poached since the 1960s, with more than 5% of the total being pointed out as "illegal fishing or trading through the black market.".
また2012In May,ShizuokaHamamatsu cityEel from Africa by a trading companyAnguilla mossambica) Was reported to be imported for the first time.The Pacific OceancoastalAround andIndian OceancoastalAnguilla bicolor that inhabits the surrounding area (Anguilla bicolor) Also as an alternative to Japanese eelsNihon Keizai ShimbunWas introduced toThe following year, in 2014, it was designated as a Near Threatened Species on the IUCN Red List..
The main reason is that Japan considered commercial use of Anguilla bicolor as a fishery resource with a small amount, no ecology, and no local resource management system in place.American eels have also been designated as an endangered species as an alternative to Japanese eels, as eel farmers have begun commercial use..
Mie University OfToshio KatsukawaCriticizes this trend, saying, "It is irresponsible to eat as much as you can and import from another region if resources are exhausted.".GreenpeaceIt is,2018"Procurement of processed eel productsSupply chainIs extremely opaque,TraceabilityHas a serious flaw in it. ".
On March 2017, 3, about 31 researchers from Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, and China will participate in the conservation of Japanese eels as a species and resource.East Asian Eel SocietyThe establishment general meeting was held.
2007,European Union European eel OfextinctionAnnounced a policy to regulate the export of glass eelsWashington ConventionEU proposal passed at Conference of the Parties, European eel transaction regulation enforced,EuropeExport restrictions have begun.Also,Republic of ChinaHowever, local aquaculture companies are requesting export restrictions for excessive exports to Japan.On the Japanese side as well, there is a conflict of interest between a trader made up of glass eels collected in Japan and a trader who relies on imported goods, and it is not possible to express a consensus.As a result, eel prices have generally continued to rise.
In addition, despite the start of export restrictions, the procurement of juvenile European eels continues, and eel kabayakiDNA testAs usual, illegal imports and exports have been pointed out...Comparing the production volume and export volume figures published by various places, it has been confirmed that there are differences in the data, making it difficult to grasp the whole picture..
Food loss problem
Greenpeace JapanAccording to the survey, on June 2018, 30 (Heisei 6), 4 major Japanese retailers estimated that the amount of Japanese eels discarded was about 18 tons, and Japanese eels were mass-discarded due to unsold items. ,UselessFood lossAnnounced that.
As a means of protecting eels and responding to rising prices, attempts are being made in Japan to develop and use substitutes that have a similar texture, taste, and aroma to eel kabayaki.Issho KamabokoIs a fish other than eelSurimiPasteProduct launch.Pangasius family OfcatfishMeat is also sold as kabayaki.
Eel as an ingredient
Eels are highProtein, HighVitamin A-Vitamin B1-Vitamin B2,Vitamin D,Vitamin E,DHA-EPA-registered household disinfectants, mineral(鉄,zinc,calcium,copper) Is abundant and digestible, in JapanJomon PeriodEel bones that have been eaten have been excavated from the ruins of.Japanese cuisine OfFoodstuffThere are also many eel restaurants called eel restaurants.Since the habitat's water odor and food odor remain on the skin, it is cooked in clean water for 1-2 days regardless of whether it is natural or farmed.The custom of eating eels to prevent heat fatigue is very old in Japan.ManyoshuThe trace goes back to.The following songOtomo Ichimochi(The numbers in parentheses are the Kokka Taikan numbers). "Munagi" is an old form of eel.
Two songs that mock a thin person
I'm telling Ishimaro that it's summer thin and good food somunagi eating (3853)If you lose weight, if you live, if you catch it, don't let it flow into the river (3854)
What has become established as food in earnestTokugawa IeyasuIn the age ofEdoWhen developingReclamationEels became a food for workers as they settled in the wetlands created by the eels...At that time, literally Kabayaki,BulrushIt's a way of eating eels that are chopped like ears and grilled on a skewer, and the price is also high.SobaDid not change.
Noguchi in EdoSoy sauceWhen is developed, eelsSauceI started to season it with.The reason why I started to open it and put it in the sauce and bake it like it is nowAbove,EdoBothKyohoIt seems to be around (1716-1736).Japanese buckwheat noodlesThoroughaestheticsAlthough there is no such thing, "What is the eel shop?Yabo(It takes time to tear and bake one by one after receiving an order), "Until Kabayaki comes outXinxiangでliqueur"Drinking" (It is a bad idea to take white ware and connect between them. Therefore, the eel shop was supposed to care about Shinka), etc.EdokkoFor me, it's also a food that has a family word.DeliveryAfter that, the bowl was covered to prevent it from getting cold, and then from the eel shop "Jubako".Heavy boxAlso started to use.
Day of the OxSummer bateAlthough it can be eaten as a preventive measure, the season for eels is from late autumn to early winter, when they store nutrients in preparation for hibernation, and the taste of summer eels is lower than that of autumn to spring...He is also a leading researcher in fatigue research in Japan.Osaka City UniversityAccording to Osamu Kajimoto, a specially appointed professor at the graduate schoolmeatIn the present age when it has become commonplace to eat nutritious foods such as, due to lack of nutrition such as energy and vitamins.Summer bateIt is unlikely that you will become eel, and the act of eating eel to prevent heat fatigue is said to have little medical basis and is not very effective..
Of eelblood TheIchthyotoxinIncluding humanToxic to and other mammals..However, this poison is a 100 kDa protein and can be heated at 60 ° C for at least 5 minutes.DegenerationThere is no danger in cooking because it loses toxicity..
From ancient times, "with eelDried plum TheDisagreementIs bad. "This is often cited as a typical example of food ban,Kaihara Ekikenof"Cure], And it is considered to be a popular belief peculiar to Japan that spread after the middle of the Edo period.No medical science basis (at least at this time) can be found.
Actually, by eating umeboshi after eating eel, the acidity of umeboshi has the effect of alleviating the fat of eel, so it is said that the meal is good.
People's Republic of ChinaIs eels in addition to JapanMalaysia,フィリピン,ThailandIt exports to more than 50 countries in total.Domestic consumption in China has also increased, reaching 1 tons per year.The background seems to be that the number of Chinese who came into contact with eel dishes on their trip to Japan has increased.Besides kabayaki, eelpizzaEtc. are offered at restaurants, and there are also specialty stores.
In Europe as well as AsiaThe United Kingdom, Netherlands,イタリアThere is an eel food culture in such places, and there are dishes using freshwater eels even in the inland area.Ancient romeIt was also a favorite of people.In ancient Rome, eels were opened on the back,Fish sauceWhile applying the sauce mixed with honeypapyrusIt is said that he was grilled with charcoal while fanning with a fan and a feather fan, and sprinkled with pepper to eat...Ancient Greek doctorHippocrates"Obesity due to overeating eels is the greatest enemy of the human body," he wrote.It seems that eel was an expensive dish in ancient Rome.on the other hand,Jewish,IslamThen, from the precept that "fish without scales should not be eaten", until recent years it is not possible to eat eels with inconspicuous scales.taboo(Even now, it is generally taboo).
Cooking with eel
Made from eelCuisineMany dishes are developed according to the local food culture.Although there are individual differences such as likes and dislikes, it is generally an extraordinary treat and is treated as a high-class dish.
- Hagi Yaki
- The most common cooking method in Japan.Skewer the meat that has been opened and removed the bones, add a sweet and spicy sauce, and bake.KantoThen, open the back, drop the head, unglazed, steam, and then sprinkle with sauce to make the main roast.KansaiThen, open the belly with the head (half-assisted) attached, and slowly roast it without steaming.KyusyuThe mainstream is to open the back and bake deeply without steaming.
- Baked without sauce.In the Kanto region, it is steamed once after being cooked, and then baked again.Eat with wasabi, grated radish or ginger soy sauce.
- Shizuoka ware
- teaHow to roast eels using.
- My rice, my boiled
- A local dish of Hamamatsu City, where eel is grilled and burdock is simmered in soy sauce and sugar.If you put it on rice, it will be my rice, and if you eat it as it is, it will be boiled.Put the eggYanagikawa styleIn some cases.
- Eel bowl(Eel）
- Bowl of ricericeKabayaki on top.UseTableware Heavy boxIn the case of, it is called Unadon.Before eatingJapanese pepperIt is common to sprinkle with the powder.
- Liver sigh
- stomachCentered on内 臓PartSoupToEel bowl,EelOften served with.
- Liver grill ――Skewer the stomachs of several animals and soak them in the sauce to bake.
- lever - liver..Served on skewers or boiled.
- Flippers-The dorsal fin is wrapped around a skewer and baked.
- Kabuto-yaki-Skewer the heads of several eels and soak them in a sauce.
- Kurikara-yaki-Skewered pieces of eel that come out when you handle it. Fudo FudoHaveKurikara SwordIt is called like that.
- Hansuke tofu
- Boiled eel head (Hansuke) and tofu.A dish unique to the Kansai region.In the Kansai region, eels are baked with their heads attached and then cut off, so only the heads are sold at a low price.In the Kanto region, eels that have dropped their heads are steamed and then baked, so their heads are not distributed.The head of eel kabayaki is rich in collagen, and you can get a rich soup stock with eel flavor.
- Eel headBoiled..Hard bones are softly processed and cooked.
- Steamed eel
- Seasoned with kabayaki and sauce baked in Kansai styleOwaWrapped in bamboo skin and steamed.
- With eel kabayaki cut into small piecescucumber,MyogaUsedVinegared food.
- Eel roll.White-grilled eel orHagi YakiWrapped around the coreFried eggsThat thing.For beaten eggssoup stockAnd roll it up with the eel as the core.Cut into small pieces, put them in a bowl so that the cuts can be seen, and serve with tree buds. Also known as "Umaki egg".However, on rare occasions, "eelBurdockMaki "(Kyoto cuisineHachimanmaki) Is sometimes called a winding.
- BurdockBoiled or baked eels, etc. wrapped around the axis in a spiral.However, eels may not be used.
- Steamed steamer
- Kabayaki baked in Kansai style is steamed on top of rice sprinkled with sauce.FukuokaYanagawaFood.
- Slice the eel that has been thoroughly drained and eat it with soy sauce or ponzu sauce.Boil the skin and chop it into small pieces.
- Shabu shabu-Chiri-nabe
- Use raw eel with bone cuts.
- Eel chazuke
- Kabayaki or white-grilled eel is made into chazuke with condiments.
- Cut the eel kabayaki into small pieces with a width of 5 mm to 8 mm.OhitsuServed on top of the rice served in.BowlIt is eaten by adding condiments or sprinkling tea or soup stock to make ochazuke.Nagoya cityCentered onChukyo regionIn the local cuisine ofNagoya riceOne of the so-called.
- Grip of eel
- Seed eel kabayakiHand-rolled sushi.
- Unari sushi
- Inari SushiThe eel is turned upside down and the eel is cut into kabayaki.The origin of the name is a compound word of "eel" and "inari".
- Unagi bone
- Of eelboneDeep-fried food, snacks.
- Eel pie
- The sweet pie with "eel powder" is famous.There are other sweets that use eel ingredients such as "eel".
- Unagi pie (eel pie, a local dish of southern England)
- The United KingdomTraditional food.Puff pastry with chopped eel and baked.to thisMashed potatoesIt is a dish with a green sauce called liquor.Fish and chipsLine up withUKIt has been popular as a taste of the common people,River ThamesRare eels and used cheaper beefMeat PieIs being used as a substitute.
- Eel jelly
- Regional cuisine in England, mainly in the East End of London.In the fieldjellied eelsIt is written as.Chopped European eelSoup stockStew ingelatinA dish that has been chilled and hardened.ChilevinegarIt is common to hang it and eat it.
- Fried eel and pepperソ ー スAnd eat it.It is rarely seen in Japan, but it is served in Europe.
- Boiled rice
- Other eels such as European eels and American eelsイタリア,スペイン,FranceMainly in Southern EuropeBoiled riceIt is edible in various places as a dish.The Italian one is similar to the British aspic, but not the chili vinegarBalsamic vinegarTo use.
- Glass eelCuisine
- In Spain, it is customary to eat glass eel, which is a fry of eel.As a typical one, the glass eel is used as it isOlive oilBoiled inAjilloThere is an oil boiled called.Glass eels are rare and expensive in Spain as well.SurimiThe fry-like eels made in Japan are on sale.
- GermanyThen of the eelSmokedIs a popular ingredient.Besides grilling and eating as it is, it is also used for stewed dishes.
- Stew (soup), hot pot cooking
Eel cooked by either boiling, roasting, or frying is eaten with a separately prepared pickle juice.In Latin regionsEscabecheA dish that often comes up under the name.
Safety of imported eels
2003In 7 monthPeople's Republic of ChinaSynthetic antibacterial agents from eels produced in OctoberRepublic of China(Taiwan) Synthetic antibacterial agents are detected in eels produced, and investigations on residual pesticides begin to become stricter... In 2005Lady ShuttleboatSold Taiwanese products as domestic products, and the synthetic antibacterial agent enrofloxacin was detected in the kabayaki..
August 2007, 6,The United States of America OfFDAAre Chinese eels, shrimp,catfishTo 1/4 ofCarcinogenicThe import method was changed because the substance was detected.Until now, it was possible to import without inspection, but it was obligatory to attach a certificate from a third party...The Chinese government is in talks to allow customs clearance with its own inspection certificate.Of the detected substancesNitrofuran[Source required]とMalachite greenWas confirmed to be carcinogenic in animal experiments and was a substance whose use in seafood was banned in China as well...Malachite green has previously been detected in Japan from Chinese eels.Of the 10 tons of eel consumed in Japan, about 6 tons are from China.As a result of this, the sales of eels in Japan dropped sharply.Regarding this detection case, President Takashi Moriyama said that although the above substances were detected in eels imported into the United States, "Chinese eels imported into Japan are inspected by the Chinese government and voluntarily inspected at each factory in Japan. It is safe because it has passed the order inspection of eels. "" Eels are reported daily that they are dangerous, and consumer anxiety has been fueled, and sales of eels have dropped sharply. I want you to do it. "(Safety of Chinese foodSee also).
As for the actual situation of inspection on the Chinese side, the National Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People's Republic of China suspended exports on July 2007, 7, saying that there was a problem with the safety management of 11 Chinese food companies...Of these, 11 companies exported marine foods to Japan, and 5 of them were eel kabayaki...These factories have caused violations at the time of customs clearance in Japan, and imports to Japan have already been stopped.It is also known that 15 companies have escaped the quarantine procedure on the Chinese side...In July 2007, Kasei Foods Co., Ltd., to which Chairman Takashi Moriyama belongs, was ordered to dispose of eels due to a large number of bacteria in violation of the Food Sanitation Law...For that reason, each of the 2007 Day of the OxConvenience store,supermarketAlthough the price was higher than the previous year, it appealed to the eels using domestic eels.
Coop SapporoIs the day after the day of the Ox in 2007, on July 2007, 7.Japanese FisheriesAnnounced that a carcinogenic antibacterial agent was detected in Chinese eel that had been outsourced to a subsidiary of..This eel is advertised on the web as "almost no chemicals such as antibiotics are used", and at the store, "The eels handled by Co-Op Sapporo are different from the eels featured in the press, so they are safe. It was advertised.
Food fraud problem (production area / fish species)
Some eels sold in Japan under the name of domestic eels should actually be labeled as foreign eels (Camouflage),TaiwanThere was a case where eels imported from Japan were distributed under the "Aichi Mikawa Isshiki Fish Plaza" brand...In response to this, June 2008, 6,Ministry of AgricultureIs such an eelJAS methodIssued a document requesting proper labeling from industry groups, etc. as violating.
In addition, according to a DNA test conducted by Greenpeace Japan in the fall of 2017, there were cases where the eel sold as a Japanese eel was a different species of American eel (although some of the retailers in question are unique). According to the result of asking an external research organization, it was a Japanese eel).
Eels in culture
- Tokugawa IeyasuOf the eraEdoThen, because many eels were caught in the reclamation project in Edo Bay, I would like to talk about eels.EdomaeThe eel kabayaki became very popular. The book "Edomae Daikabayaki Banzuke" was released..
- According to "" in Sakaicho (currentlyTokyoNihonbashi Ningyocho)soImasuke OkuboIs said to have come up with this eel bowl..The taste of this rice soaked in sauce is thisplayIt became very popular in the town and is located (next to Sakai Town)OnoyaIs said to be the first to sell it with a sign called "Original Eel Rice".The date when it started selling has not been specified,Nakamuraza,IchimurazaIs Tenpo 12 years (1841), It is estimated that it was put on the market before that time.Anyway, the famine of Tenpo (1844),Tenpo TsuhoIt is said that selling it as a single piece has gained a reputation.
Faith / folklore and literature
- Eel food contraindications-eelKokuzo BosatsuThere are some areas that have a tradition of avoiding eating as a messenger of eels or because eels have been saved from disasters..
- There are about 20 people in Japan who have the surname "eel".The reading is eel / eel / man, etc.About the direct line, about the eelFood tabooMay exist.Gin Shari (laughter) #member
- On the banks of an old pond (or river), villagers were consulting to poison the pond and catch fish, and an unfamiliar old monk in black appeared.Poisonous fishingI advised the villagers that I shouldn't go because it is a fishing method that uproots the fish in the pond.The villagers were afraid to act as dumplings to the monks, but the next day they decided to poison them again.Among the fish caught in the pond, there was a giant mottled eel that seems to be the owner of the pond, and when I hungry, it was said that there was a dumpling that the old monk had eaten yesterday.[Note 1].
- That it is often killed for foodsnakeBecause of its appearance similar tocurseWas the subjectGhost storyThere is also.Okamoto Kidou"A man cursed by an eel",Kotaro Tanaka"Unagi no Kai" etc.
- Since the breeding process of eels was a mystery because no young fish or eggs were found, it has been around for a long time.YamThere was a myth that the eel would change and become an eel.Therefore, there was an expression "become a yam eel", which means that a boring person becomes fine..
- In medieval Europe, eel was a high-class ingredient.Pope OfMartin IVIt is,White wine(Vernaccia) DrownedLake BolsenaThere is a legend that he died by overeating roasted eels, and based on thisDante AlighieriIsDivine Comedy],PurgatoryDepicts the appearance of Pope Martin IV atone for the crime of eating in.
- Eel bed-narrow frontage (width) and long depth, that is, elongated like an eelFloorThat.
- Unagi nobori
- Yam turns into eel-a big change happens.
- Jun Aoyama "African Nyorori Journey" Kodansha, February 2007 ISBN 978-4-06-213868-0
- Tetsuji Ida "Unagi, a fish that talks about the global environment" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho> 1090, August 2007 ISBN 978-4-00-431090-7
- ^ http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/
- ^ Tetsusai Hirase, "Nippon Sankai Specialty Zukai", Volume 1754, XNUMX, etc.
- ^ "Japanese and eel"Tokyo NewspaperSunday Edition April 2012, 4
- ^ Japan Fish Trivia Study Group 2002, p. 124.
- ^ Japan Fish Trivia Study Group 2002, p. 123.
- ^ Salmonella pollution in the eel pond Journal of Japanese Society of Fisheries Science Vol. 55 (1989) No. 4 P 675-679
- ^ "History of eel farming”. Japan Federation of Fish Farming Cooperatives. As of March 2016, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/9/23Browse.
- ^ "Eel farming production by prefecture”. Japan Federation of Fish Farming Cooperatives. As of March 2016, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/9/23Browse.
- ^ a b "Eel Market Dynamics: Analysis of Production, Trading and Consumption in East Asia”. Traffic East Asia Japan (July 2015, 7). 2017/7/22Browse.
- ^ “6 tons of Hong Kong eels of unknown origin imported from Japan, 8% of farmed fry criticized by the Washington Treaty”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2019, 3)
- ^ "The world's first" complete aquaculture of eels "is finally successful! -Opening the way to the production of eels that do not depend on natural resources-Attachment reference material" (pdf) (Press Release), Fisheries Research Agency, (April 2010, 4) 2013/2/2Browse.
- ^ "The world's first" complete aquaculture of eels "is finally successful! -Opening the way to the production of eels that do not depend on natural resources-" (pdf) (Press Release), Fisheries Research Agency, (April 2010, 4) 2012/7/24Browse.
- ^ "Achieved complete aquaculture of eels"FRANEWS" Vol. 23, Fisheries Research Agency, July 2010, pp. 7-4, ISSN 1349-6816.
- ^ "Understanding the eating habits of eel larvae-What are eel larvae eating?" (Press release), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, (March 2012, 11) 2019/11/7Browse.
- ^ "~ "When will you do it, not when you can do it", revealed by Hideki Tanaka, Group Leader of Fisheries Research Institute, Zoyoshoku Research Institute ~ In the lecture "Current Status and Issues of Eel Artificial Seedling Production Technology"”. Japan Aquaculture Newspaper. 2014/6/7Browse.
- ^ "Aquaculture Industry Study Group 4th Meeting Handout 4 About inland aquaculture (pdf) ”. Fisheries Agency. P. 7. 2014/9/17Browse.
- ^ “Successful complete aquaculture of eels, stable supply with high expectations”. FNN(July 2019, 6) 2019/6/29Browse.
- ^ a b "(PDF)”. (January 2012, 3). As of January 19, 2015オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ a b c Tetsuji Ida (July 2012, 7). “Resources are at stake due to the first overfishing, and habitat destruction is also a factor". The day when eels can no longer be eaten.Nikkei National Geographic. 2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ a b Fisheries Research Center Eel Research Project Team (July 2012, 7). “(PDF)". Fisheries Research Center. 2013/7/4Browse.
- ^ "Glass eel catch record low". NHK (February 2013, 7). As of February 2, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ "About the publication of the XNUMXth Red List (brackish water / freshwater fish) (Notice)" (Press release), Ministry of the Environment, (March 2013, 2) 2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ a b c Akemi Kanda, Keisuke Katori, Dai Naruzawa, Yoichiro Kodera (June 2014, 6). “"Luxury several times a year ..." Japanese eel becomes an endangered species". Asahi Shimbun.As of August 2014, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/11/17Browse.
- ^ a b Toshio Katsukawa (July 2012, 7). “[Issue] Depletion of fishery resources Soaring eels“ Food ”reconsidered by Toshio Katsukawa (contribution)”. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo morning edition (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 10
- ^ "Anguilla anguilla (European eel)" (English). IUCN. 2013/7/4Browse.
- ^ "Anguilla anguilla, European eel" (English). FishBase. 2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)". Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (September 2009, 1). 2013/7/4Browse.
- ^ Ayumu Katano (August 2012, 8). “Fishing industry A magical spell called "environmental change" Japanese perpetrators who are unaware of the drastic decrease in eels". Wedge. 2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ Toshio Katsukawa (October 2013, 4). “Who can put a brake on eel eating?". 2013/7/3Browse.
- ^ “Eel emergency measures” (Press release), Fisheries Agency, (March 2012, 6) 2013/7/4Browse.
- ^ "About the results of" Informal Consultations on International Resource Conservation and Management of Japanese Eels "" (Press release), Fisheries Agency, (March 2012, 9) 2013/7/4Browse.
- ^ "Eels are not depleted enough to be regulated-Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries". Nippon Television Network(July 2012, 7) 2013/7/17Browse.
- ^ a b c Hiromi Shiraishi; Vicky Kruk (2015-07) (pdf). Eel Market Dynamics: Analysis of Production, Trading and Consumption in East Asia (Report). Traffic East Asia Japan 2017/7/22Browse..
- ^ “Rising eels are saved by African products. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Evening Edition (Yomiuri Shimbun). (October 2012, 7)
- ^ Koichiro Yoshino (April 2013, 4). "The savior of the eel world? I ate" Anguilla bicolor "". Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei Inc.) 2013/7/17Browse.
- ^ Teru Okumura (November 2014, 11). “Pacific bluefin tuna is an endangered species, including American eels". Asahi Shimbun.As of August 2014, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2014/11/17Browse.
- ^ ""If you don't have eels, you can eat Anguilla bicolor."”. Refine Co., Ltd. (May 2013, 5). As of July 3, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2013/7/17Browse.
- ^ Toshio Katsukawa (April 2013). “Toshio Katsukawa (@katukawa) / April 2013 --Twilog”. Lopros. 2013/7/17Browse.
- ^ a b c “Endangered eels discarded over 2.7 tonnes, major retail survey”. ITmedia Business Online(July 2018, 6)
- ^ "Greenpeace Survey: Endangered Japanese Eel Reveals Uncertain Procurement and Mass Disposal of Major Retailers”(Japanese). International Environment NGO Greenpeace. 2021/8/3Browse.
- ^ "Establishment of" East Asian Eel Society "for Japanese Eel Conservation". Nihon Keizai ShimbunMorning edition. (May 2017, 4)
- ^ July 7, "Unajiro" Day Eel-flavored paste / Ichimasa Kamo, registered on anniversary"Nikkei" morning edition July 2017, 7 (Niigata Economics).
- ^ To sell giant catfish kabayaki The price is one-third as a substitute for eelTele morning news(September 2017, 5) Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- ^ 
- ^ "Japanese and eel"Tokyo NewspaperSunday Edition April 2012, 4
- ^ "Did the "about 3 yen Unadon" lined up at the convenience store on the day of the Ox sold?Is Chinese product sufficient for taste and quality now?”. Business Journal (July 2018, 8). 2020/11/23Browse.
- ^ a b Yasuhiro Tsuji ed., "Dignity of East-West Deliciousness-Taste of East-West Compared by Cooking Method-Eel," "Sarai," August 2012, Shogakukan, p. 8.
- ^ a b c "Really!? TV』(Fuji Television Network, IncSeries, broadcast on August 2016, 8) "Summer habits full of mistakes / Summer heat is caused by tired brain due to disturbance of autonomic nerves"
- ^ “Daily fatigue is caused by“ snoring ”Chicken works for recovery”. Daily Gendai(July 2016, 6) 2016/8/5Browse.
- ^ "List of health information articles by Dr. Osamu Kajimoto, a leading researcher in fatigue and sleep research". YUMBLE 2016/8/5Browse.
- ^ Hiromi Watanabe (June 2016, 6). "Eel and yakiniku have no effect? The fatigue recovery method is" all wrong "". Livedoor News 2016/8/5Browse.
- ^ "Poison in the Blood of the Eel", New York Times, 9 April 1899, viewed at , accessed 22 January 2010
- ^ https://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/syokuchu/poison/animal_det_06.html
- ^ "The plight of the eel", BBC online, as seen at , accessed 22 January 2010, mentions that "Only 0.1ml / kg is enough to kill small mammals, such as a rabbit ..."
- ^ "Blood serum of the eel." M. Sato. Nippon Biseibutsugakukai Zasshi (1917), 5 (No. 35), From: Abstracts Bact. 1, 474 (1917)
- ^ "Hemolytic and toxic properties of certain serums." Wm. J. Keffer, Albert E. Welsh. Mendel Bulletin (1936), 8 76-80.
- ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. “Risk profile of natural poisons: Fish: Serum poisons". 2012/7/5Browse.
- ^ "Youth-centered, increase in consumption in China" to ask eel supply and demand officials Mr. Xu Toshiaki"Nikkei" morning edition November 11 (market product side)
- ^ "Roman dining table-from the common people to the emperor Takao Tsukada". www.athome-academy.jp. 2021/5/16Browse.
- ^ "Nagoya Sightseeing Information Nagoya Concierge "Hitsumabushi"”. Public Interest Incorporated Foundation Nagoya Convention Bureau. 2014/9/23Browse.
- ^ “Antibacterial agent for eels imported from China Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare orders inspection”. Chunichi Shimbun morning edition (Chunichi Shimbun): p. 33. (December 2003, 7)
- ^ Tsutomu Suyama (November 2003, 11). “Detection of synthetic antibacterial agents in Taiwanese eels-quarantine stations in Osaka and Okinawa”. Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo morning edition (Mainichi Newspaper): p. 30
- ^ “Agricultural product delivery company mixed with Taiwanese eels sold as domestic products”. asahi.com (Asahi Shimbun). (March 2005, 7). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2005, 7. 2013/7/5Browse.
- ^ a b c Ryuichi Otsuka (June 2007, 6). “Rice regulates imports of Chinese eels Antibacterial agents are detected in 29 types of seafood”. Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Evening Edition (Yomiuri Shimbun): p. 2
- ^ Akita Sakigake Shinpo October 2007, 7
- ^ a b c "China, XNUMX food companies" safety problems ", export suspension, XNUMX companies to Japan. ”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun evening edition (Nikkei newspaper publisher): p. 2. (March 2007, 7)
- ^ "Cases of violation of the Food Sanitation Law for imported foods by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (July 19)". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2013/7/5Browse.
- ^ Hokkaido Shimbun February 2007, 8
- ^ Tatsuya Kakita "The Truth About Female Brand Eels in Food" The "Confidence Criminal" of the Fisheries CooperativeSankei Shimbun2008 pages of the morning edition dated June 6, 20.
- ^ "apology”. Isshiki Eel Fisheries Cooperative (June 2008, 6). As of November 17, 2013オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.200806-20Browse.
- ^ "Appropriate indication of origin of farmed eel". Ministry of Agriculture (September 2008, 6). 2008/6/20Browse.
- ^ "History of eel "food" and its benefits”. Mikawa Freshwater Group. 2012/2/8Browse.
- ^ "Dr. Ibaraki Knowing: Traditional Japanese taste "Unadon" born in Ibaraki". Ibaraki Prefecture. 2013/7/5Browse.
- ^ a b Mori, Senzo "Meiji Tokyo Ibunshi』2, Heibonsha, 1969., p.270: "Unadon was started at Onoya in Tachibana-cho, Japan, and at the time of the famine of Tenpo, it was a hit to sell Unadon rice with a single Tenpo coin."
- ^ Hen "Kokuzo Faith"Oyamakaku Publishing(Folk Religion History Series), 1991,ISBN 4639010222
- ^ Kido Okamoto. “Kido Okamoto A man cursed by an eel”. Aozora Bunko. 2017/4/25Browse.
- ^ "But it doesn't become a yam in the mountains, and it's still poor" (Tokaido Naka Knee Chestnut Hair・ Beginning)
- ^ "World Map of Food" edited by the 21st Century Study Group, Bungeishunju <Bunshu Shinsho>, May 2004, p. 5.
- ^ Dante "Divine Comedy』Purgatory XXIV, 21-24
- Japan Fish Trivia Study Group "Encyclopedia of Fish Trivia that Makes You Smarter" Gentosha <Gentosha Bunko>, November 2002.ISBN 4344402944.
- Eelof fish
- Leptocephalus-Eel larvae.It is transparent like glass and has a thin body like willow leaves. It is also called "leaf-shaped fry" or "leaf-shaped larva".
- An organism with the name "eel"
- UnaG - Japanese eelPresent in the muscles ofFluorescent protein
- eel - movies.Shohei ImamuraDirected work
- Urawa Unako-chan ――As the birthplace of KabayakiTakashi YanaseCharacter created by.Saitama Tourism Ambassador.
- Eel dog - manga artistFujio AkatsukaIs a character that synthesizes eels and dogs
- Growling -ChibaNarita CityMascot character.Narita City Special Tourism Ambassador.The motif is an eel and a jumbo jet.
- Numanouchi Benzaiten(FukushimaIwaki) --Kenshikonumadera in the precincts has long been a closed fishing pond and has been designated as a natural monument due to the habitat of giant eels.
- Urawa Unagi Festival -Every JulySaitama City HallEvent to be held in.
- Inland fishery
- Day of the Ox for cold soil
- Eel tear --Knife for cooking eel
- Eel shop (Rakugo) --There is a story about eelsClassical rakugo.
- The secret of cleaning up --A rakugo story about the smell of eel.
- Loach - CypriniformesLoach familyof fish.