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So-called flowing blinkers are installed in the front and rear.
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Direction indicatorWhat is (Hokokoujijiki)?Automobile,オ ー ト バ イAttach toSecurity partsWhen turning right or left or changing course, it is a device for showing the direction to the surroundings. In an emergency, it can also be used as a hazard lamp by blinking both sides at the same time (English translation is "hazard flashers" instead of "hazard lamps").
JapanThen,Turn signalorTurn signalとPopular nameTo be done. Pointing to a turn signalBritish EnglishColloquial expression of "winker(Meaning "blinking thing")transliterationIs. thispartsNameMaintenanceIn the calligraphyTurn signal lampHas been used, but todayuserForCatalogs,Instruction ManualsAlsoTurn lampIt has moved to the notation such as.
It is rare in the UK to be referred to by the word "winker" in 2020.(directional) indicatorIs used.American EnglishThen, as a simple expression "blinker, Or "turn signal"SingaporeThen "signal".GermanyBut before that, "Winker(Vinker)”. Especially in the English-speaking world, the Yaba type and arm type aretrafficator","semaphore", in Japan, sometimes it was distinguished as "Apollo" (below,HistorySee). By blinking all the lights at the same timeHazard lampAlso used as.
Front direction indicator (front turn signal lamp, front turn lamp), side direction indicator (side turn signal lamp, side turn lamp, side marker)[Annotation 1]), rear direction indicator (rear turn signal lamp, rear turn lamp) and so on. In modern cars,door mirrorIn addition to increasing the number of vehicles that have a built-in side turn indicator (see below,Door mirror turn lampSee), someTaxiThere is also an example where the roof is equipped with a lamp as well (see below,Taxi turn signalSee).
The direction indicator is justSecurity partsTherefore, even if a failure occurs, it does not affect the traveling function of the vehicle. However, many vehicles run at the same timePublic roadAbove,Traffic safetyIt is an indispensable equipment to secure the equipment, and in most countries including Japan, rules regarding structure, operation, and operation are established (see below,Laws and standardsSee).
In the early cars, the absolute traffic was light andOpen bodyThere was no turn signal as equipment because most of them were.If you need to communicate your diversion to others,CarriageFollowing the gestures of the timesHand signalIt is said that this was sufficient. The hand signal is stillRoad Traffic LawStipulated in.
after that,mass productionTraffic volume has increased explosively in the era of traffic, and signals when changing course have become important from the viewpoint of smoothness and safety of traffic, and at the same time, with the spread of closed bodies, some kind of signal equipment is required outside the vehicle. ..
In 1893, JB Freeman of England invented a dial-type turn signal.This is a roll-type bulletin board that can change the display contents at the rear of the car body, and manually operated "left"rightWas made possible to display the characters.
In the early 1900s, the British F. Faulkner invented the arrowhead-type (both spring-type or arm-type = umigashiki-type) direction indicator equipped on the body side. The arrow type is a system in which a movable display is normally housed on the body side (external type is a lamp), and when operating, the arm is projected from the vehicle body to convey the intention to the surroundings. The arrow-shaped direction indicator is based on the flag signal,Railway traffic lightsAsSemaphore type traffic lightIt is called worldwide and is widely used. In automobiles, in addition to the "semaphore" which is an abbreviation for semaphore direction indicator, it is also called "trafficator". Operation is manual via cable,Intake pipeUsing the negative pressure ofvacuumIt was a ceremony.
In 1908,イタリアAlfredo Barackini in the armlight bulbAnnounced the one that put. At that time, electricHeadlightSince it has already begun to be popularized, it was possible to make direction indication with high visibility even at night by using a transparent resin for the wings and an illumination type. The operation was still manual via cable, but in 1918 the UK's Naelic Motor Signals patented a motorized arm with a small motor. However, this system also works for Gustave Donnet and Maurice Boisson.FranceThe idea of a human inventor quickly makes it obsolete. Of the arm in 1923ActuatorTheelectromagnet, And announced a smaller and more concise system where all the indicators fit perfectly on the pillar. Furthermore, in 1927,driverI added an in-vehicle indicator that notifies the operation to, and summarized it in the standard after that,GermanyMax Rule and Ernst Neumann (there are many wire-type indicators). Electromagnetic manufacturers in the United KingdomLucas,Germany'sSpatulaAre typical.
In Japan, the spread of automobiles and the law maintenance of lighting were slow, soPassenger carThe adoption period of the built-in body type is very short, and after the compulsory use of the left and right independent blinking direction indicators, Apollo's external type arrow head type direction indicator is widely used, mainly for vehicles not equipped Almost monopolized the market as a product. for that reason,Apollo products have become synonymous with the arrow head type direction indicator, and all of the arrow head type direction indicators including the built-in body type are called "Apollo".It was so common.
Even after the flash type became mainstream in small cars,Tricycle,largeTrack,busSo, for new cars, Apollo and itsLicensed productWas used.Since these external types are compatible with many vehicle types, various sizes are available, large and small, and voltages of 6V, 12V, and 24V are available, and the indicator light in Yaha is always on at the beginning. However, it was later changed to a flashing type.In addition, the combined use of blinking turn signals and Apollo was also seen.
After that, Apollo rapidly declined due to the slump in demand due to the shift to the flashing type, and the Apollo industry itself was in 1964 (Showa 39).Sunwave industryHas been absorbed and merged with.The Apollo turn signal itself1973It became impossible to install due to the law from (48).
The Yabane type and the blinking type have been coexisting for a while, but the blinking type has good visibility especially in the daytime, and the reliability due to the elimination of the electromagnet and the mechanical moving part that may cause disconnection or burning. Due to its height, it became mainstream in Europe and America relatively soon, and in Japan by the 1950s.
In the 1960s, especially in the United States, road traffic became denser and faster, and it became necessary to transmit more information to ensure the safety of the vehicle and its surroundings. Therefore, the direction indicator has also come to have a function as a hazard lamp by flashing all of them (front and rear, left and right) at the same time to notify that the vehicle is stopped.Japanese carButOutputIt started to be adopted in the market and spread to all cars.
Also, the blinking mechanism is made of bimetalTransistorとrelayInstead of using, the improvement continued, and the double-speed flashing function was also included to make up for the defect that the light would remain on when the ball was out.
As the electronic control of vehicle electrical equipment progressed in the 1990s, the direction indicator was stolen because it was easily visible from the outside and originally equipped with a blinking mechanism.alarm,リ モ コ ンIt will also be used for the purpose of confirming some cues from outside the vehicle, such as confirmation of operation.
The equipment of the direction indicator in the motorcycle isFour-wheelerIt was later than that, and it started with the optional equipment of the Yaha type in the 1950s, and it immediately changed to the blinking type.
The basic structure of the turn signal is to send a current to a circuit that controls the blinking of lights by a switch operated by the driver. In addition to flashing lights, the control circuit activates an indicator that displays the operating status to the driver and a device that makes a supplementary sound.
Light flasheslampIs. In the case of passenger cars, three pairs are equipped on the front, rear, and side of the vehicle. In the case of large vehicles, one pair is also installed on the side of the center of the car body. In the case of a motorcycle, two pairs are equipped at the front and rear of the car body. Motorcycle front turn signalrearview mirrorIt may be attached to both ends.It is not a side turn signal because the light is distributed in the direction of travel of the vehicle so that it can be seen from the front of the vehicle.A pair of turn signals may be added at the edge of the roof or at a high position behind the loading platform.
Usually, most of the rear turn signals blink one light on each side,Toyota crown,Nissan Cedric/グ ロ リ ア,Mitsubishi Aero SeriesPast models such as and trucks (especiallyDecorator),Mitsubishi ChallengerIn later modelsTo bring out a unique presence[Original research?],Garbage truck,Transit BusAnd so onDue to the high frequency of parking and stopping on the street[Original research?]Some flash more than one light on each side.Since taxis frequently stop suddenly, change direction, and get on and off passengers, it is highly necessary to let the surroundings recognize the lighting of turn lamps and hazard lamps.Tokyo,SendaiSome companies such as on the roofAndonThere are auxiliary turn signal lamps on both sides.This in JapanTaxi turn signalorRoof turn signalCall.[Original research?]Similar equipment is often seen outside Japan,New York City OfYellow cabHas similar equipment.In addition, some vehicles were equipped with a device that blinks the word "Caution" in conjunction with the turn signal on the rear window.
For passenger cars and small freight carsdoor mirrorSome of them have built-in turn signal lights from the front to the side, and are now widely used as genuine parts for commercial vehicles.Daihatsu industryIn consideration of reducing costs by sharing parts in many mini vehicle models and increasing repair costs in the event of damage, we will only introduce some models such as custom models. There are also manufacturers..This equipment安全 性There is a survey result that it can contribute to the improvement of.. The world's first adoption in a commercial vehicle appeared in 1998Mercedes-Benz S-Class (4th generation),Japanese carFirst adopted by Nissan in 2001 (Heisei 13)4th CimaIs. In the United States, where there is no obligation to equip a direction indicator on the side of the vehicle body, a direction indicator with a blinking display is sold on the mirror surface of the door mirror that can be seen from diagonally behind.
In the case of passenger cars, the traditional lamp unit is a body in which the reflection part of a pressed metal product and the base (socket) that holds the light bulb are welded together,rubberMade ofgasket(シ ー ル) Scissors and coloredResinlensThescrewIt was a structure to stop it, and it was attached to the vehicle body by screwing. Now that the production volume has increased,For cost reduction[Original research?], The reflector is integrated with the resin housing,high frequencyWeldingSome have a structured structure. The welded housing is highly airtight,Internal due to temperature changeCondensationprevent[Original research?]It has a breather. There is a mounting method that employs a stake-in type by combining a boss provided on the housing and a rubber bush attached to the vehicle body.In the past, there was a gap between manufacturers in welding technology, and water intrusion was often seen in certain vehicle models due to poor welding.[Original research?].. The body ground cannot be used in the lamp unit whose housing is made of resin, and it is connected to the ground with a conductor from a socket that is made into a coupler.
Most of the lenses are colored orange, but some are colorless. Currently, it is specified as orange by the regulations of many countries, but in the past, the front direction indicator was mainly white. For example,In the United States1963From now on, the use of orange turn signals,1968Legislated to[Source required].. However, the law does not specify the color when the light is off, so currently, a colorless lens is used as a design method, and some are designed to appear orange when turned on. Add a cover that covers the light bulb to the inside of the colorless lens to make the transmitted light orange by coloring the cover orange or the surface of the light bulb to orange, and use an LED that emits orange light. In some cases. It may be sold as an after part or adopted as a genuine product. In some products with the surface of the light bulb colored, the paint may peel off due to the heat generated from the light bulb, causing a white blinking and not meeting the safety standards.Similarly, remodeling to make the entire rear combination lamp red from the design side has become widespread (Spocon,Bird carSuch). In this case, orange light can be obtained by replacing the light bulb with a type that emits green light.[Original research?]
light bulb(Valve) base shapespecificationHas beenJIS BA types specified in C 7506, especially BA15s are often used[Original research?]..As with other lights, there are two types of light bulbs for turn signals: one that uses a base called the swan type and the other that uses a wedge type.The swan type has a short pin on the side of the cylindrical mouthpiece hooked into an L-shaped groove cut on the side of the socket and incorporated into the bottom of the socket.SpringIt is a method of pressing and fixing the base of the light bulb with the force of.Light bulb polarity is centralelectrodeMost of the models have a plus and a minus (earth) base.Compared to the Edison type that uses screws, it is less likely to loosen due to vibration, and the contact pressure of the contacts is maintained by the force of the spring at the bottom of the socket.The wedge type has a rectangular insertion port provided in the socket with a contact fitting that presses from both sides of the long side, and the light bulb can be inserted.Wedge(British: wedgeIt is a method of inserting between the contact fittings as shown in ).
Light bulbs used in passenger car direction indicators are generally 15 or 21-27W for the front and 21-27W for the rear (21W and 23W are the mainstream). For the side, a small one (mainly 5W) is used. However,I hate being touched by users who do not have the knowledge and skills to replace light bulbs in recent compact car and family car models.[Original research?], There are also some instructions in the instruction manual that you should consult a dealer or a mechanic when it stops blinking.2002From aroundLEDWith the higher brightness of, the longer life and improved visibility of light bulbs,power consumptionFrom merits such as reduction to turn indicatorsLED lightingThe number of vehicles that adopt[Source required].. LED lamps such as a base type for replacing light bulbs are also on sale,There are some products that use inexpensive general-purpose products, and some are inferior products that do not diffuse light and the irradiation range does not meet the safety standards.[Original research?].. When the light bulb is off, the filament is cold and the resistance is lower than when it is on, soA large current of about 10 times the steady current flows at the moment of lighting[Source required](Inrush current), but the LED does not generate inrush current. In vehicles originally designed to be fitted with light bulbs,Mechanical type using inrush currentrelayIt is designed to burn off the dust on the contacts and prevent contact failures.[Source required]Therefore, if you replace it with an LED, it may not light up due to poor contact of the turn signal relay. In a vehicle model equipped with a mechanism for detecting a ball out using the value of the current flowing to the light bulb, the detection mechanism may display a ball out warning if an LED with a smaller current than the light bulb is attached.To solve these problems[Source required]A semiconductor relay has also been put on the market to make the relay controlling the turn signal compatible with LEDs.
Directional indicators inside the bus
There is a case where a part of the route bus is provided with an indicator light, which is turned on in conjunction with the turn signal indicator, inside the vehicle in front of the passenger seats. It is installed in a position that is easily visible to passengers, along with an indicator light linked to the operation of the foot brake.
Auxiliary device by sound
Among large vehicles such as trucks, some vehicles for Japan are equipped with a device that sounds an external chime when operating the turn signal or outputs a voice saying "turn right (left)" together with the chime. is there. On some route bus vehicles, the chime only sounds when the left turn signal is issued.
Operate the turn signalswitchUsually has a switch used for signaling such as turning left and right, and a switch that functions as an emergency stop light (hazard lamp).
In an arrow blade carDashboardBy lever equipped onwireSome were operated with. Electric switches such as a toggle switch have been installed on the dashboard for the electric arrow-blade type and flashing type. As the electric switch, a switch having contacts in two directions, left and right (or up and down), was used, and it was necessary for the driver to operate both the start and end of the signal.1950 eraFrom around[Source required],Steering columnEquipped on the side,Steering wheelCan be operated without taking your hands offleverBecame the mainstream. Ring type inside the steering wheelhornFor models with switches, rotate the horn switch in the circumferential direction (Clockwise/counterclockwiseThere was also a directional switch that made it possible to rotate (in the 1960sToyotaCar adopted). At the same time, a mechanism that utilizes the rotation of the steering shaftSteeringWhen returning the to neutral, the lever automatically returns to the neutral position and the signal is turned off. While auto cancellers have been popular since the early days when they were installed on steering posts in American cars,European carsIn recent years[When?]There were some cars that didn't have an auto canceller.
In the case of a standard switch with an auto canceller, there is a click feeling when the lever is operated and the position exceeds a certain position, and the switch is fixed at the switch-on position.The switch is turned on before the click position is exceeded, but the lever is not fixed, and when the hand is released, it returns to the neutral position (switch off) by the force of the spring.The auto canceller works when the rotation angle when returning the steering to neutral exceeds a certain level, but when the steering operation angle is small such as when changing lanes (lane change), the auto canceller does not operate and the switch is manually turned off. In some cases, it may be necessary to perform an operation.The function that the switch is turned on when the lever is not fixed can omit the operation of manually turning off the switch when changing lanes.Not included in early auto-cancellers, and in the early days of this featureManufacturers named "with lane changer"[Source required]There was also. At present, there are also some vehicle models that automatically operate the lever for a preset number of times by lightly operating the lever once.German carSuch). PresentBMWcar(MINIAnd some)LexusCars use a method that always returns to the center position without being locked in the on position even if the lever is operated.
For Japanese cars, use a direction switchHeadlightThe mainstream is a combination switch in which a switch for operating lights such as is built into one lever. In the case of European and American car models, switches such as headlights may be installed separately on the dashboard, and the lever of the turn signal switch alone can also be seen (however.passing・Low/high beam switching function remains). Rarely from the dashboardpaddleMethod to extend the operation switch in the shape of a steering wheel near the steering wheel (Mitsubishi-Galant), a meterNacelleMethod with a rocker switch on the edge of (Citroen-BX) Is also seen.Mercedes-BenzOut of the car modelsW201,W124,W126Until the era, the right-hand drive specification was placed on the right side of the steering column and the left-hand drive specification was placed on the left side, but in later models, it was unified to the left according to ISO standards. The major Mercedes-Benz models have long adopted a multifunction lever that integrates a turn signal and wiper switch into a single lever.
The location of the turn signal switch is for Japanese cars, Korean cars, Australian cars, etc.Oceania,Southeast Asia OfOn the leftIn the specifications for the country of adoption, the lever is usually equipped on the right side of the steering column, but for models by manufacturers in other countries and other specifications of Japanese manufacturers, it is installed on the left side regardless of the steering wheel position. Often. this is,ISOspecificationBecause it is strongly recommended by [Annotation 2].. Therefore, even for Japanese cars with right-hand drive, specifications that are sold in Japan and European left-hand driving countries (UK,アイルランド-マルタ-CyprusThe layout of the direction switch is different from the specifications sold in ). North American productionGMcar(Cadillac,Saturn),HyundaiFor cars, etc. for JapanImported carThere are some vehicles that use a right-hand steering wheel and a right-side turn signal.
The direction switch of a motorcycle is often equipped with a slide type switch near the grip of the left handle. There is a method that the switch is turned on by operating left and right or up and down with respect to the traveling direction, and a method of turning the switch off is returned to neutral, and there is a push cancel method that has a cancel button in the center of the slide switch. The push-cancel slide lever returns to the neutral position when you release your finger, and the switch is turned off when you press the cancel button at the neutral position. The push cancel type isFocusing on medium-sized and higher displacement classification (over 400cc)[Source required]It became popular, but eventually it spread to other displacement categories.Harley-DavidsonIn some models such as BMW and BMW, the left and right independent push button type switches are equipped near the left and right grips, respectively. Once pressed, the switch turns on, and when pressed again, the switch turns off. Old-fashionedHonda super cubFrom the consideration that "soba shop owners can drive with one hand"throttleIt is equipped on the right grip side that handles operations.
Since a steering angle of a motorcycle is smaller than that of an automobile, a mechanical canceller mechanism such as an automobile has not been popular.Kawasaki Z1-R/Z1R-IIFor example, a timed / distance type auto canceller that turns off at the mileage after a certain period of time has passed since the turn signal was activated was adopted. 1982 (Showa 57)Honda CBX400F IntegraAngle detectionSensorAlthough an auto canceller using such as was adopted,The operation was not stable at that time[Original research?]Disappeared.Honda fusionHowever, it was equipped with an auto-cancel function that automatically terminates the operation of the turn signal at the end of a right or left turn. Fusion's auto cancel functionIt was relatively accurate, but if the cost incurred for the simplicity of the function of simply terminating the turn signal automatically[Original research?], Was not widely used in other car models.
The switch of the hazard lamp is provided independently of the direction switch. Passenger cars and smallCommercial vehicleIn the past, in the past, it was equipped as a small pull switch or seesaw switch on the upper surface of the steering column,DashboardPush switches are now installed in the center, between the driver's seat and the passenger's seat, where it is easy to operate from any seat. Some of them are larger than they used to be, and some switches flash in synchronization with the operation of hazard lamps.largeIn trucks and buses, there used to be a lever that was pulled toward you to turn it on, and returned to the back to turn it off (or vice versa). It is common.In a strange thingToyota Japan TaxiHas a hazard switch on the steering wheel.
In case of emergency, the hazard lamp operates even when the ignition key is off or removed. In addition, some vehicle types operate automatically even during sudden braking or when an impact is detected. Even if you are operating with the direction switch, pressing the hazard lamp switch gives priority to the function of the hazard lamp and it is common to blink all the direction indicators at the same time, but part of the German car (Mercedes-Benz, In BMW, including MINI), some models give priority to the function of direction indication when operating the direction indicator switch while the hazard lamp is operating.
Motorcycles are not obliged to equip hazard lights.Kawasaki Heavy IndustriesAs soon as possible[Source required]It is equipped with a hazard switch, and in recent years, it has come to be equipped on many of the 250cc class or more Japanese specification on-road vehicles of all manufacturers. Motorcycle headlightsAlways onAs a result, it became popular by equipping it with a hazard switch instead of abolishing the headlight switch.In the aftermarket, there are products that add an independent switch for vehicles that do not have a hazard lamp switch (however, even if it is mounted on the relay, if it is omitted because there is no switch, the hazard lamp is still When replacing the relay for operation, it will not operate unless the ignition is on, or if it can be operated even if it is not on, the normal turn signal will also operate when it is not on), and the direction indicator switch will be specified ( For example, right, left, cancel, etc.) are used to activate the hazard lamp.
Equipped with an indicator to inform the driver of the movement. The meter panel is equipped with a lamp that blinks in synchronization with the display, and the indicator is usually equipped with a left and right lamp, but some European cars have only one lamp for both left and right. .. As an exampleOpel Corsa(Up to B model),Renault TwingoNot only in some small cars made in Europe, such as (both original and current models), but also until the early 1990sFerrariEach car (348The same equipment can be seen in). In the case of motorcycles, the left and right common type is relatively common due to space problems in the meter panel.
In automobiles, a sound is emitted in synchronization with the blinking, and the operation is audibly notified.relayIn many cases, the operation sound of was used as it was, but now that electronic circuits have advanced, electronically synthesized sounds are increasingly being used.buzzerIn addition to the sound, there is a reproduction of the conventional relay operating sound.
Unlike other lights that only turn on when turned on, the direction indicator has a built-in mechanism that controls the lamp to a constant blinking speed. The blinking rate is defined by the laws of Japan and the United States as "constant at 60-120 times per minute", and in other countries and regions as well,EuropeThe standards established by the standardization committee centered on.. Also, because of safety concerns, it is necessary to be perfectly synchronized (differences in the blinking timing can lead to dazzling by apparent motion perception), and all lamps are controlled by one control mechanism. It is normal to Some exceptions are battery-less motorcycles,It may not be possible to supply enough power to turn on all the lamps at the same time.[Source required]Therefore, there are some lamps that are driven alternately in the front and rear.
The device that controls the blinkingrelay(Turn signal relay) has been used for a long time. When a relay is energized with a direction switch or a hazard switch, the circuit that energizes the lamp repeatedly energizes and disconnects at regular intervals, causing the lamp to blink. As a method that has been used since ancient timesthermal relayHas been adopted, but with the development of electronic components, capacitors andsemiconductorRelays that used to have come to be used. Furthermore, in today's highly electronic vehicles, there are also computer-controlled examples.
Thermal relaythermostatSimilar to those used forbimetalIn addition to bimetal, it is equipped with a heater. The bimetal is a contact fitting made by bonding two kinds of metals having different coefficients of thermal expansion, and is arranged so that heat can be applied by the heater. In the standby state, the contact of the bimetal is in the energized state, and when the relay is energized, the main circuit for supplying the current of the lamp and the heater is energized. When the heater generates heat, the bimetal is eventually deformed, the contacts of the bimetal are separated, and the main circuit is disconnected. The bimetal, which has stopped receiving heat, returns to its original shape over time and closes the main circuit again. By repeating this, the main circuit repeats opening and closing, and the lamp blinks. Bimetal uses metal properties, so it is highly durable,Characteristics do not change easily[Original research?](=Because the blinking cycle is stable)[Original research?]This method has been mainstream for many years. Since heating/cooling is repeated for the heater partHighly stable metal[Original research?]Was adopted,This made the parts relatively expensive[Source required].CapacitorとresistancebyOscillator circuitAlthough relays that use the will come to be used, the change of the blinking cycle easily occurs due to the deterioration of the capacity of the capacitor,The bimetal method was superior in terms of life.[Original research?].. TimerICSuch assemiconductorElectronic by controlling element (TransistorAfter the advent of relays, automotive relays have been using mechanical relays to open and close the main circuit, unlike semiconductor relays for other purposes.
In recent years, electronic relays that open and close the main circuit with a power transistor element have been adopted.On a route bus with a large number of times the direction indicator is operated, from the viewpoint of avoiding failure of the direction indicator due to defective relay contacts,1980 eraElectronic relays have been adopted by some operators since the middle[Source required].. The electronic relay has the most stable blinking accuracy, and the unit price of parts can be suppressed. In a vehicle model equipped with a computer unit that controls other electrical components such as interior lights and door locks, blink control of the turn signal indicator may be integrated into the computer unit.
Japanese, American, and EU laws and standards stipulate that the driver should be notified when a lamp burns out with a turn signal.[Annotation 3]The control circuit also has a function for this. Each lamp of the turn signalParallelIs connected to the other lamps can be turned on (blinking) even when one lamp is out of electricity due to burnout. On the other hand, since the amount of current flowing through the relay changes, the operation of the relay changes. Or, if it is an electronic type,電流Change the control by detecting the change of the value. As a result, an abnormality is notified by increasing the blinking speed of the direction indicator or by continuously lighting without turning on the blinking.
In addition to the driver's operation, the circuit of the hazard switch isCar alarmOr as an answer back function to display the response such as remote control door lock, orAirbagIt may be automatically controlled according to the deceleration of the vehicle during sudden braking in conjunction with collision safety equipment such as. The control circuit used for these functions is installed separately from the circuit of the turn signal indicator, so that even if the answer back function fails, it does not affect the operation of the turn signal indicator.
Laws and standards
There are the following laws and standards regarding direction indicators.
According to the current Japanese vehicle safety standards, the color of the light of the turn signal is橙色Must be.. However, the current security standards will be enforced1973This does not apply to vehicles registered (manufactured) before November 48, (11) (many of the vehicles manufactured by the 30s are red.Tail lampWas also used as a direction indicator, but since the 1970sFull model change,Minor changesAfter that, the red tail lamp and orange direction indicator became separate),US Army in JapanAs for the vehicles in Japan, the Japanese Vehicle Law and Road Traffic Law do not apply, so there are vehicles where the front part is also used as a side light and the rear part is also used as a brake lamp or a tail lamp. The mounting position is also determined in detail, firstly one of the direction indicators must be visible from 360 degrees around the vehicle body, and the operation visible range of each direction indicator is also determined, for example the right front In some cases, the blinking action must be visible within the range of 45 degrees counterclockwise and 80 degrees clockwise from the center line in the front direction of the vehicle body starting from the center of the direction indicator.
Apart from the side turn indicator, dealer options andAftermarketDoor mirrors and auxiliary turn indicators that are installed on both ends of the roof are sold and sold under the provisions of Article XNUMX-XNUMX (Auxiliary Turn Indicators) of the safety standards for road transport vehicles. In the case of the manufacturer's option door mirror, it may be classified as a side direction indicator.
PastAmerica,JapanPart of the passenger car[Annotation 4]When,Bus cooperative型taillightIn some parts, there were three rear direction indicators on each side, which were sequentially lit to gradually increase the area of the lighting part, and there was a so-called "sequential type" in which the lighting part moved in a flowing manner. But neither was recognized. The bus cooperation type has three red lenses that combine all of the tail, brake, and turns, and in accordance with the revision of the safety standards, three orange lenses are on the top and three red lenses are on the bottom. There is an improved version with 6 lamps. Customs that imitate this can be seen in Decotra etc. (There are some that greatly exceed three stations), but since the movement of bright spots and the change of lighting area are not recognized, security compliance measuresviolationBecomes
However, from October 2014, 26 (Heisei 10), the safety standards were partially revised, and only those that meet certain requirements will be allowed to turn on the turn signals sequentially (chain lighting). Ta[Annotation 5].
In addition, there are users who modify the turn signal to function as a side light (small lamp) (common name: winker position), but this is for vehicles after 2006 (18) and 2005 (17). Year) The availability of vehicle inspection changes depending on the previous vehicle. From the vehicle produced in 2006, the side lights are only approved for white and light bulb colors, so they cannot be used as turn signals (orange).The safety standard states that "the one that is structurally integrated with the direction indicator or emergency flashing indicator light and is also used in orange color is acceptable", but this is for vehicles that have been approved by the automobile manufacturer under this specification. It is not applicable to modification. Before 2006, orange can be used for the side lights, so if the conditions are met, it will be permitted.The permission conditions are as follows.
- Make all colors the same color (orange) and do not light the original white. As a condition for operating the turn signal, "the side light that is emitting the turn signal is turned off (only the direction indicator blinks), and if not, the side light is turned on as it is.
On the contrary, it is not suitable to turn on the blinking type instead of the blinking type without turning off the side lights on the side that outputs the turn signal. In addition, it is not possible to turn off the side-lights on the side where the turn signal is not output. Regarding the area, it is necessary to have 20 cubic centimeters or more both in the front and rear, and if the direction indicator of the after parts is attached by modification, it is necessary to pay attention to the area standard. If lighting cannot be confirmed from the side due to modification, it is considered legal if an auxiliary direction indicator such as a door mirror winker is installed.[Source required], No problem at all.
There are several types of bulb standards for automobile lights, such as T20, T16 / 10, S25, and G18, but of these, the one for blinkers has not been decided in particular, and if the standard changes due to modification, there will be problems with visibility and brightness. Without it, it would be legal.
- Road Transport Vehicle Act
- Article 41 Paragraph 1, Item 15 (Prohibition of operation of automobiles (including motorcycles) that do not have turn indicators)
- Article 44, Paragraph 1, Item 9 (Prohibition of operation of motorized bicycles without turn indicators)
- Safety standards for road vehicles
- Article 41 (Details about direction indicators for automobiles and motorcycles)
- Article 41-2 (Details about auxiliary turn signals)
- Article 41-3 (Details about emergency flashing indicator light)
- Notification that specifies the details of safety standards for road vehicles
- Article 48, Article 104, Article 160 (Technical standards for turn indicators for automobiles and motorcycles)
- Articles 49, 104, 161 (Technical standards for auxiliary turn indicators for automobiles and motorcycles)
- Articles 176, 182, 188 (Technical standards for direction indicators for motorized bicycles)
- Attachment 59 (Details of technical standards for turn signals)
- Attachment 1 (Type of turn signals)
- Road Traffic Law
- Article 53 (How to signal when changing course of a vehicle)
- Article 120 Paragraph 1, Item 8 (Penalty for failure to signal when changing course)
- Article 120, Paragraph 2 (Penalties for unnecessary cues)
- In addition, although there are red tail lamps with export specifications, there is no problem even if the lens is red because the lamp is colored orange to make it an orange lamp.
The United States of AmericaThe regulations for turn signals in the world are unique in the world.American carAnd in American specification cars, the front turn signal is specified in orange (amber), but in many cases it is also used as a side light (small lamp, position lamp), in which case only the increase or decrease of light is required. It is a "flickering type" that shows the operation.The rear turn signal may be red as well as orange, and in the case of red, it is often used as a brake lamp or a tail lamp.In addition, there is no obligation to equip a side turn signal.
In Japan and Europe, these are no longer security compliant, so operating vehicles with these US-specific specifications in Japan is based on older vehicles before the current security compliance measures were enforced, or Japanese security standards. Exceptions that do not apply (US Army in JapanVehicles andPresident of the United StatesNot allowed except for private vehicles).When importing and selling American-spec cars to Japan, security compliance measures such as repairing front turn signals, adding side turn signals, and installing rear turn signals independently are required.It is also essential to modify the headlight irradiation range to match the independent side lights and left-hand traffic.
- Federal Regulations part571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No.108 "Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment" (Law concerning lights including turn indicators)
- SAE Standard J588e "Turn Signal Lamps for Use on Motor Vehicles" (Structure standard of direction indicator)
- UNECE Regulations (1958 Agreement and addenda) Addendum 5: Regulation No. 6 "UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF DIRECTION INDICATORS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES AND THEIR TRAILERS" (Structure regulation of direction indicator)
- UNECE Regulations (1958 Agreement and addenda) Addendum 47: Regulation No. 48 INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING AND LIGHT-SIGNALLING DEVICES (Implementation rules for lights including turn indicators)
In Japan, a turn signal is a signal to turn right or left or change course., Hazard lamps show that your vehicle is an obstacle (= hazard) of traffic (including use while parked on a street that is not illuminated at night in Japan)) And the road law. However, it may be used for various cues other than those required by law to provide turn signals and hazard lamps.
On the other hand, some usages of hazard lamps, which will be described later, do not have laws and regulations that can affirm or directly deny the act. The usage of lights defined as “Sign” in Road Traffic Law and Enforcement Ordinance is only right/left turn, diversion, turn (other stop, slow down, backward), and when not performing these actions, Do not give the signal."
Usage of turn signals
- When turning left or right
- Intersection in Japan (Roundabout CirculationTurn right to get out of the road (at intersections where traffic control is carried out)Two-step right turnIt is a signal when turning left.Article 53 of the Road Traffic Act and Article 21 of the Road Traffic Act Enforcement Ordinance stipulate that when turning left or right, the signal should start 30 m before the intersection or the point where you are going to go out of the road... It is a violation of the Road Traffic Act that the driver does not blink while waiting for a right or left turn and gives a signal only immediately before entering the direction of travel requested by the driver.
- In Japan, as a preparatory step for turning left or right to get out of an intersection or road, you may need to change your course because you are approaching the left edge, center, or right edge of the road in advance.Since the signal to turn left or right starts 30 m before, the course change should be completed by 30 m or more before the intersection along the traffic flow.The signal when changing course will be described later.
- Roundabout CirculationWhen leaving
- JapaneseRoundabout CirculationSo, you need a signal only when you exit the roundabout. Specifically, after passing through the exit before the exit you are about to exit (when entering the roundabout if you are about to exit immediately after the entrance), start the signal to turn left. Has been defined. It will turn left at the entrance, but it does not correspond to a left turn, so be careful not to signal a left turn with that intention.[Annotation 6].
- Before entering a roundabout in Japan, the course is changed as it approaches the left end of the road in advance. However, unlike normal intersections, you have to stop the signal once the course is changed toward the left side (because it is an intention to turn left at the next exit, as mentioned above). The signal for changing course will be described later.
- When changing course
- It is a signal when changing the course (whether the course is moved to the left side or the right side regardless of whether the vehicle crosses a lane). Article 53 of the Road Traffic Act of Japan and Article 21 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Road Traffic Act stipulate that a signal should be given 3 seconds before the course change operation..
- When parking and starting
- If you try to park on the shoulder of a road, or if you park on the left side (right side) while parked or parked, give a signal with the left (right) turn signal. As a legal signal in Japan, it is necessary to give a signal for the left turn signal between when trying to change the course to the left for parking and stopping until the course change is completed, but when it stops completely and it becomes a parking and stopping state. Has no signal duty.
- It is not strictly a legal signal of the Road Traffic Act of Japan to continue signaling with only one direction indicator, such as the left, while parking or stopping, but for example, a Japanese route bus is trying to stop at a stop, or When it is there, it is done as normal.
- Also, when starting after parking or stopping, for example, when starting from the left side (right side), the right (left) direction indicator is issued. This signal is a signal for course change if it involves a course change at the time of departure. However, if it is not accompanied by a change of course, it is not strictly stipulated by the Road Traffic Act of Japan, but when it starts, it is not limited to route buses but is carried out as usual.
- Directional indication when moving backward
- The Japanese Road Traffic Law stipulates left turns, right turns, and turns assuming forward movement, and when moving backward, it must be stopped when it interferes with the traffic of other vehicles or pedestrians, as with turning. Must be (lowest priority). From the above, it is legal to turn left or right when reversing when reversing, and to signal the reversing light when turning. Also, in the United States, there are states in which you must signal with a back light and a turn signal when you change course while retreating.
- Warning display for low-speed vehicles
- See also usage in hazard lamps below. Normally, it is indicated by a hazard lamp on a four-wheeled vehicle, but it may be indicated by a left turn signal at the left end of the road. For motorcycles that do not have a hazard lamp mechanism, show them with a left turn indicator (or a right turn indicator when driving on the right). Both are non-statutory uses.
- Substitute for passing
- If you want to give way to the front car, the original signal isHeadlightFlashing the high beam ofpassingHowever, since it may give an unnecessarily intimidating impression to the other party, the right turn signal in the rightmost lane (the left turn signal in the leftmost lane in countries with right-hand traffic) is used instead. There is something to do. It is a non-statutory usage.
- When using the exhaust brake
- Long time agoExhaust brakeSince it was not possible to interlock the brake lights with, it was possible to use a turn signal as a signal to the following vehicle when using a powerful exhaust brake, mainly in large trucks. In Japan today1993Because of the revision of the law, it became possible to turn on the brake lamp when using the exhaust brake, so this usage is rarely seen.
Usage of hazard lamps
In general, hazard lamps are used in many cases in Japan except at night or when parked on a highway, and they are not clearly prohibited (corresponding to a violation) in many cases. ..
- When retreating
- In a parking lot of a commercial facility, etc., if you want to enter the vehicle in the back after passing through the target parking frame, you can blink the hazard lamp in advance and tell the following vehicle "Because you are in the garage position, do not approach. Used to convey the meaning of "to".
- Warning display for low-speed vehicles
- Due to vehicle failure, towing by another vehicle, or stormy weatherSpeed LimitWhen driving at a speed significantly lower than, or when driving at low speeds such as road maintenance work vehicles and snowplows, this is a method of blinking the hazard lamps to call attention to surrounding vehicles. Recommended by the SAE standard in the United States for usage similar to emergency notification.. If there is a rear fog light, it can be used as a substitute or in combination when there is a danger on highways.[Annotation 7].. In addition, as a signal for slow driving in Japan, it is legal to turn on a brake light.
- Traffic jam end warning
- There is a method of blinking the hazard lamp to warn the following vehicle not to collide with it when it reaches the end of a traffic jam on a highway... This usage is also used in the sense of notifying surroundings of a dangerous state.JAFMentions this usage in the member's magazine "JAFMATE", and this usage is also seen in Europe. Also,NexcoThe three companies have issued a public relations article saying "Let's burn a hazard if you find a traffic jam ahead" and recommend this usage. In Japan, it is a non-statutory usage.
- When parked (except at night and on highways)
- This is a method of blinking a hazard lamp when parking or stopping on the road even at night or in an emergency. There is also an opinion that it is not preferable when the left side is shaded by another on-street parking vehicle, etc., because it is indistinguishable from the right direction indicator and confused with the start signal... on the other handYamato TransportSo, we are instructing the driver to turn on the hazard lamps when parking or stopping... In Japan, it is an outside legal use.
- In Japan and the United States, a school-to-school bus (School bus) Is a law that allows the hazard lamps to blink when the child, student or infant is parked for getting on and off.Is obligatory in. Especially in the United States, in order to prevent accidents such as children jumping out, ordinary cars must not pass by the side of a school bus that has a hazard lamp blinking and must wait until the school bus starts. Has been defined. In the case of Japan, it is stipulated that you should drive slowly or stop when you pass by that side to check safety.[Annotation 8]However, as with the case of passing the side of the vehicle just before the pedestrian crossing, the suspension will beHighly recommended.
- When parked (at night and on highways)
- On general roads, at night, the width of both sides of the road is 5.5 m or more (generally two or more lanes).[Annotation 9]When parking or parking the vehicle, it is legal to flash hazard lights or turn on tail lights or side lights.Is obliged by[Annotation 10].
- On expressways (national expressways and motorways), if it is unavoidable to park or stop due to a failure in the main lane, acceleration lane, deceleration lane, climbing lane, etc. Instead, after using a flare as appropriate, it is possible to place a stop indicator for both day and night as a notice and turn on the hazard lamp about 100 m or more behind.Highly recommended[Annotation 11].
- When driving in dense fog
- When driving in dense fog, there are also examples where it is used to let the surroundings know the position of the vehicle by blinking the hazard lamp along with the use of headlights... In Japan, it is not legally used.
- If there is a rear fog light, it is desirable to use it together when there is a danger on a highway (the original usage of the rear fog light).
- Thank you hazard (thank you hazard)
- There is an example of blinking the hazard lamp a couple of times in order to express gratitude to the other driver's driver when the course is given up at the time of merging or changing lanes... However, there are some views that recommend greeting with a bow or a hand as it may differ from the original usage and may have different meanings depending on the region and situation... In Japan, it is not legally used.
The United States of America
In the United States, turn signals (blinkers) are called turn indicators, turn signals, or simply signals, and are used mainly for alerting in an emergency or danger..RoundaboutThe cars running on the ring road are prioritized,State of WashingtonIn such cases, the left winker is operated only when leaving the roundabout..
Hazard lamps do not mean "thank you" and may be taken as provoking if you blink them in situations other than emergency or danger.
Direction indicators other than cars and motorcycles
There are the following direction indicators other than those equipped with automobiles and motorcycles.
Bicycle turn signals
Some types of bicycles are equipped with a direction indicator, also called a flasher. The purpose of use is the same as for automobiles and motorcycles, but there are no regulations by law, so their shapes and movements are various. .. In the past, there were not a few cars that used a colorless bulb and an orange lamp cover together, as in automobiles, but in many cases, the sequential action that seems to flow light by the light emission pattern of red lamps arranged in a horizontal row is electrically controlled. To do. Also, since the bicycle does not have a power supply onboard,Dry cellTo use.
Bicycle turn indicators have been widely used in children's bicycles since the late 1960s, but due to many gimmick factors, there were doubts about their practicality, and the weight of bicycles increased. Most have disappeared.
Tank turn indicators
tankRepresented byArmored combat vehicleIs treated as an exception to the application of general vehicle laws and regulations in many countries, and is not obliged to equip a turn signal. However, in recent years, many vehicles are equipped with a turn indicator in consideration of safety to the surroundings when traveling on a general road. However, these are not in compliance with laws and regulations, but are equipped as voluntary judgments, and are mounted differently from the direction indicators of general vehicles. As an example of JapanType 90 tankIn the case of the full length of, the direction indicators need auxiliary direction indicators not only on the front and back but also on the side, but they are not actually equipped. These circumstancesEUThe same applies to tanks in the area.
Equipped with a turn indicator at the base of the rearview mirrorLeopard 1
Tram turn indicator
Unlike other vehicles, railroads run on railroad tracks, so there is no need to tell in advance which direction to turn. But on the old railway,PointSince the switching operation of was manual, it was necessary to switch the points by looking at the approaching vehicle, especiallyTramThen, while cars and other trains were confusing on the road, the tentetsu hand had to change the point where the train arrived more irregularly than the ordinary railway.[Annotation 12].
If the weather is normal, the trainCurtainYou can perform accurate point operation by looking at the system board and the system board, but in bad weather or at night, the turning hand may overlook the display of the direction curtain or system board and cause an accident on another line due to incorrect point operation. It was For this reason, it is necessary to more accurately inform the trolley tower from the tram approaching the point of the signal to turn to, and some city/railway trams use turn indicators. It was As you can see from the above, this is not required by law, so each company had various shapes and colors.
From 1950 to 1953, a tramcar with a turn signal indicator was installed at an early stage.Tokyu Tamagawa LineWas thrown into80 typeThere is. The Tamagawa Line at that time wasSankenjayaAt the intersectionShibuyaFrequently coming from the directionFutakotamagawaenWith the going trainShimotakaidoIn order to ensure the accuracy of point operation of the going train, we installed direction indicators on both sides of the upper part of the front window when the 80 type was newly built. "Targo" that was manufactured after that200 type,150 typeA direction indicator was attached to the, but it appeared first70 typeIt couldn't be installed on the previous vehicle.
Next to the Tokyu Tamagawa Line, a direction indicator was introducedYokohama tramThen, a 1953-made model appeared with a turn signal attached, and a 1958-made model also had a turn signal attached from the beginning. However, at this time, no direction indicator was installed other than these two types.
on the other hand,Kobe tramSo unlike these companies,500 typeLaterbogieAll vehicles were remodeled by installing direction indicators and started to be used from August 1958, 8. Both the Yokohama tram and Kobe tram are in the centerPress workingI used a direction indicator (a part for a bus) with an elliptical cover punched out with the arrow, but the cover was chrome-plated at Kobe streetcar, but the same as the body color at Yokohama streetcar. Besides being painted[Annotation 13]Also, the installation position was different under the front window on the Yokohama tram and on the front hem on the Kobe tram.[Annotation 14].. After that, at Yokohama City Tramway, a direction indicator was installed at the time of one-man remodeling in 1967, but unlike Kobe City Tramway, the installation work of the direction indicator was not carried out to the end for bogie cars operated such as and. In addition, a large number of motorcycles on both Yokohama and Kobe streetcars were out of the scope of direction indicators installation.300-400 typeAs an alternative to a motorcycleOsaka tram Of801-901 typePurchased100-200 typeCouldn't attach a turn signal. As a tram that used direction indicators other than these operators,Kure tramExisted.
However, after that, on the overhead wire in front of the point, which was developed by the Osaka City Tram around 1950.Trolley contactorThere is a contact point to change the point depending on the passing and stopping position,Kyoto tramPatented inTrack circuitA method of converting points by using the timing when the train passes in front of the points usingBy the development of the, the point operation of the tram was also unmanned, the trolley tower was completely abolished from the Japanese tram[Annotation 15].. In this way, the role of the turn signal ended.
After the abolition of the Kobe tram,Hiroshima Electric RailwayTransferred to500 type,1100 type,1150 typeThere was a turn indicator in the car, but it was painted in the same color as the car body, and was eventually removed. The last tram that was used for commercial operation with the turn signal leftTokyu Setagaya Line[Annotation 16]Although it was a 150 type, even after the Tamagawa Line was abolished → only on the Setagaya Line, it was in the state that the headlight was turned on and the direction indicator was turned on until it was removed by renewing the car body. It was All vehicles on the Setagaya line300 seriesWas replaced, the tram equipped with turn signals on the business line was abolished.
As a similar thing, there are vehicles equipped with lights other than tail lights on the lower left and right of the front of the tram.[Annotation 17]. this isLarge car, It calls attention to the contact of a large traffic object on the road and has nothing to do with a turn signal.
"Direction indicator" of airplane, ship
In the case of an airplane or a ship, it is not called a direction indicator, but it may be commonly called as follows.
airplaneIn the case of, as a device that displays the traveling direction of the aircraft outside the aircraftAviation lightSome aircraft have (Navigation Light, Navigation Light, Position Light). The aviation lights are green at the right wing tip and red at the left wing tip, and are always lit in the direction of 110 degrees, from the front to the left or right, 70 degrees to the left or right, and the white tail, 140 degrees to the left or right. The direction of flight can be discriminated from other aircraft by the aviation light.
Ship'sNavigation lightsThe same is true for color and direction.
- ^ There is also a light that is linked to the side lights of the American specification car and is also installed on the front and rear ends of the side of the carSide markerCalled.
- ^ There has been debate about the revision of the ISO standard for this matter, but in the case of right-hand drive cars,Line symmetryIt has been permanently accepted that the arrangement ofGoogle search of Automotive Engineering Association site
- ^ The laws and standards of Japan, the United States, and the EU are shown below.
- Japanese Decree: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Notification No. 619 "Notification that stipulates the details of safety standards for road transport vehicles" Attachment 40 "Device type designation standards for lighting equipment, reflectors, and mounting devices for indicator devices" Section 18.104.22.168
- US Decree: Federal Regulations part571 "Federal Motor Vehicle Safety" Standards No.108 "Lamps, reflectivedevices, and associated equipment" Section 5.5.6
- EU Conventions: UNECE Regulations (1958 Agreement and addenda) Addendum 47, Regulation No. 48 "INSTALLATION OF LIGHTING AND LIGHT-SIGNALLING DEVICES" Section 6.5.8 "Tell-tale"
- ^ In a Japanese carNissan OfLaurel(C30 type system),Bluebird(510 type coupe only),Cedric,グ ロ リ ア(230 type system) etc.
- ^ In addition, it is the first time to adopt sequential lighting after this revisionLexus RX.
- ^ When a left turn signal is issued at the entrance, the vehicle will indicate that it will turn left at the next exit, so the vehicle waiting at the exit may start approaching slowly.
- ^ However, on a main road that is not a two-way street on a highway, it is possible to drive by a broken vehicle (including lack of gas) by towing (both rope tow and tow truck).Minimum speedAs a violation, it is prohibited in principle. Therefore, when pulling out a broken car independently, a car-car (car carrier) or the like is required. Cranes, rope tow, and tow trucks will be introduced only when the police force, highway public corporations, etc. close the road or restrict lanes. Expenses for the carrier car and other measures (excluding expenses for dispatching police and public corporations) will be borne by the driver of the damaged vehicle.
- ^ Not only when overtaking from the back, but also when passing a school bus that is stopped by turning on the hazard lamp in the opposite lane.
- ^ Motorcycle,Motorized bicycle,Small special motor vehicleIs not applicable.
- ^ However, if there is very bright lighting on the public roads to ensure a viewing distance of 50 meters, or for nighttime use.Stop display equipmentThis is not the case if is placed at the rear.
- ^ Traffic rules, "Expressway etiquette guide (NEXCO Central Japan)etc. Also, some of these are required by law, but for details, refer to the applicable law.
- ^ The place where such a switch is permanently stationed is called a shunting tower, and it is either a hut that rises one step from the road or one step lower.TotikaIt had a mold like.
- ^ Even at the Yokohama City Tramway, the 1600 type turn indicator cover was initially plated with chrome.
- ^ Even on the Kobe City Tram, on some vehicles of the 1150 type, a direction indicator was attached under the front window.
- ^ The steering tower itself was left as a backup for a while. Even now, manned operations still remain in the garage.
- ^ Tokyu Tamagawa LineHowever, after being partially abolished, the name was changed to Setagaya Line.
- ^ Kumamoto TramenOlder vehicles includebusAre often installed inJapan Bus AssociationSome are equipped with a standard tail lamp (commonly known as a bus cooperative tail).
- ^ Safety standards for road vehiclesNotification that stipulates necessary matters for organizing the application relationship of the rules of Chapters 45 and XNUMX Article XNUMX
- ^ What are the merits of "turn signals on door mirrors"? Spread from luxury cars to popular cars Some manufacturers go against the trend?"The cost of hitting the door mirror is ..." 』\(Vehicle News, updated August 2018, 8, viewed January 16, 2021)
- ^ "Geometric Visibility of Mirror Mounted Turn Signals". SAE International. 2017/2/23Browse.
- ^ ISO 4040 Road vehicles Location of hand controls, indicators and tell-tales in motor vehicles
- ^ "Regulations (1958 Agreement and addenda) Addendum 47: Regulation No. 48 Section6.5.9 "Other requirements"”. UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). 2005/12/21Browse.
- ^ Notification stipulating the details of safety standards for road vehicles: Article 249, Paragraph 3
- ^ "Partial amendments to "Device Type Designation Rules" and "Notifications that specify details of safety standards for road vehicles" (Press Release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, (October 2014, 10) 2015/4/26Browse.
- ^ a b c Road Traffic Act Article 53, Paragraph 1, Road Traffic Act Enforcement Ordinance Article 21
- ^ Road Traffic Act Article 52 Paragraph 1, Road Traffic Act Enforcement Order Article 18 Paragraph 2
- ^ a b c d "Meaning of hazard lamp signal". One point adviceHonda Motor Co., Ltd. 2018/10/31Browse.
- ^ SAE Standards 890688 The Interaction of Tun, Hazard and Stop Signals
- ^ Asahi Shimbun, October 1993, 10, 10th page of the morning edition.
- ^ "(PDF)”. Yamato Transport Co., Ltd. p. 12. As of October 2007, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2007/9/25Browse.
- ^ Road Traffic Act Enforcement Order Article 26-3 Paragraph 2
- ^ Road Traffic Act Enforcement Order Article 18 Paragraph 2
- ^ "Expressway etiquette guide Protect everyone and drive happy♪”. Central Nippon Expressway. 2014/10/13Browse.
- ^ "What to do when "Dense fog warning" is issued". Trouble ChSompo Japan. As of March 2016, 3オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014/6/2Browse.
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