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✈ | Cheers for blue, yellow, black, green and red smoke!Run through the city center of Blue Impulse

Photo Blue Impulse flying in color smoke

Cheers for blue, yellow, black, green, and red smoke!Run through the city center of Blue Impulse

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Blue Impulse is scheduled to fly on display on August 8th (Tuesday), the opening ceremony of the Paralympics.

The Air Self-Defense Force's 4th Air Wing 11th Squadron "Blue Impulse" will be held on July 2021, 7 (Friday), "Tokyo 23 Oh ... → Continue reading


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Paralympic Opening Ceremony

Blue Impulse

Camera-photo Upload.svgImage request: Image of the item of the exhibition flightImage providedplease.(August, 2013

Blue Impulse(British: Blue Impulse [2]) IsJapan Air Self-Defense ForceBelongs toAerobatic corps(Acrobat Flight Team)[3][4][5][6][7] OfNickname[3].

at firstTroopsPositioned as one team in1995Officially one in (7)TroopsIndependent as.The official unit name is4th WingSquadron 11th SquadronSo, the main task is public relations[8], A unit that specializes in exhibition flights[9]..Among the aerobatic corps in the world, it is a team that specializes in so-called "drawing" that draws in the air using smoke.[10]..We are good at precise performance in close formation with a small number of aircraft[6]..Current home baseMiyagi OfMatsushima Base.

In this section,Former Japanese Army and NavyWas doingAerobatic flightBased on the history of (acrobatic flight), we will also explain the system of the 11th Squadron.In addition, in the 11th Squadron, the flight that Blue Impulse performs at events etc. is called "exhibition flight"[11], Calling "development" to go to the venue of the exhibition flight[11] Therefore, the description in this section is similar to this.

Incidentally,Air traffic controlOf formation incallsignIs the nickname used as it is[3].


In this section, the ranks before the Self-Defense Forces are described by the ranks at that time.About the transition of the equipment usedSuccessive operation machinesSee section.


Genda Circus

1916It was opened in (Taisho 5)Old Navy OfYokosuka Air GroupThe initial mission was mainly education and flight training[12] However, from the time when the aviation corps was opened in various places, tactical research andaircraftWas supposed to conduct practical tests of[12]..In the Navy, from the general publicDonationManufactured byFighter,BomberIs called the "Houkoku-go"[12],1932From around (Showa 7), aerobatic flights began to be performed in front of the people at the dedication ceremony.[12]..This is the beginning of aerobatics in Japan[12]At that time, it was called "formation special flight"[13]..This formation special flight was considered by Captain Yoshito Kobayashi, who was the commander of the Navy's fighter squad at the time.[12], The formation special flight team led by Kobayashi was touted in the newspaper as "Three crows" and "Aerial circus"[14]..Also ahead of this1925(14th year of Taisho),Old army OfTokorozawa Air Field SchoolMade inAviation DepartmentAt the Independence Day celebration, various flight aerobatic techniques are being exhibited alongside the aerial branching ceremony with tens of thousands of spectators.[15].

on the other hand,1931Occurred in (Showa 6)Lake Yanagijo IncidentWith the opportunityManchuria(CurrentNortheastern China) Was suppressedKanto ArmyAt that time, Japanese society was uplifted, and the number of dedications of the "Houkokugo" increased.[14]. Just1933(Showa 8)Minamoto MinaWas assigned to the fighter squad and coincided with the time when he took over the formation special flight team, so the chances of aerobatic flight increased and the number of fighter aircraft used increased to nine.[14]..These formation special flights are exclusively九 〇 式 艦上 戦 闘 機Made using[16]..In the lesson, there was also a thing that "suddenly descended in a formation of three aircraft, only one aircraft flew back while causing it, and soared as it was", and it is said that the row aircraft hardly lost their attitude[17]..In this way, the formation special flight team became known as "Genda Circus".[18]..However, with the intensification of the war, formation special flights were no longer carried out.

After the establishment of the Self-Defense Forces

After the end of World War IIfor a while,Allied Supreme Commander General Command (GHQ)'s "301 instruction" continued the period when aircraft manufacturing and research were not allowed in Japan.[19]..This was releasedSan Francisco Peace TreatyBy JapansovereigntyHas recovered1952(Showa 27)[19], In August of the same yearSecurity forcesWas launched, the next1953(Showa 28) From January, flight training was started at the National Safety Forces Aviation School.[20]. further,1954ToSelf Defense Force ActIs established[21], The National Safety Forces will be reorganized into the Self-Defense Forces, and the Air Self-Defense Force was established in July of the same year.[22].

1955(Showa 30)MSA AgreementBy the Air Self-Defense Force from the United States of jet fightersF-86F SaberWill be donated[23]..Corresponding to thispilotPart of to go on to the instructor courseAmericaToStudy abroadDecided to[24]..At that time, the Japanese pilot was studying abroadUS Air Force OfNellis Air Force BaseSo, one of the international students, the pilot, saw at the baseThunderbirdsI was deeply impressed with the aerobatic performance of[24]..I also witnessed that being a member of the aerobatics team was a great honor for fighter pilots.[25].

This pilot will return homeHamamatsu BaseAs an instructor of the 1st Squadron of the 1st Air Wing[24]At that time, he was assigned to Hamamatsu Base as a chief instructor from the US Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAGJ) in Japan.[25] With the advice of Captain Joe Riley[26], Invite a colleague,1958From around (Showa 33), aerobatics training began to be conducted between flight trainings.[27].

This was a secret training that eventually became known to the flight captain.[28]..Instead of rebuking him, he sympathized with the purpose of the training and immediately contacted the upper ranks of the wing to create an environment where he could formally train.[28]..In addition, it was approved to open the aerobatics as an attraction at the Hamamatsu Base Opening Ceremony in the fall of 1958.[27]..Soon the third machine will join the training[28], Full-scale training in formation of 3 aircraft has started[27].. After completing student training as instructors, the three have been training in aerobatics since about 3 pm, and it is said that they have been flying for 4 hours in a month.[27]..The call sign of the 1st Squadron at this time is "Checker"[29], When flying in formation, a color name is given to this as the formation name.[29], The aerobatics team used the callsign "Checker Blue"[28].

On October 1958, 10, the three-member team made the first public aerobatics by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.[27]..The equipment used was the normally equipped F-86F, with no smoke or special paint.[27] However, it is said that the impact on the Air Self-Defense Force officials and spectators was considerable at a time when jet aerobatics were rare even in the movie.[29]..After this, the 4th machine joined[29], Next day1959(Showa 34) February 3AichiInuyamaOpening Ceremony of the Japan Peace and Defense Expo held in[28], May 3th of the same yearNational Defense AcademyGraduation ceremony[27], May 4th of the same yearNagoya AirportAn exhibition flight was held at the festival[29].

Here the team will take the form of dissolution once[28] However, aerobatics training continued[29]..Then, in August of the same year, the leader of the aerobatics team was replaced.[29], The callsign of the 2nd Squadron to which the leader belongs was "Impulse", so the aerobatics team decided to use the callsign "Impulse Blue".[30].

The US Air Force Thunderbirds came to Japan in December of the same year.[27], Saitama Prefecture on the 12th of the same monthJohnson Base (at that time)In supersonic jet fighterF-100D Super SaverShowed off aerobatics using[27]..At this time, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force's aerobatics team also observed the flight and observed the performance of pilots and ground personnel.[29] In addition, maintenance personnel were able to obtain information on how smoke was generated from members of Thunderbirds.[30].

F-86F era (1961 → 1981)

To official launch

During this time, the aerobatics team was temporarily suspended, but under the surface, preparations were underway for the establishment of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force aerobatics team.[29]..However, even within the Self-Defense Forces, "aerobatic flight over the base violates the rules."[31]"There is no need for government officials to do acrobatics shows."[32] The dissenting opinion was also deep-rooted.

However, in July 1959 (Showa 34)Chief of Flight StaffWas replaced, and the Chief of Staff, Japan, began to directly intervene in the establishment of the acrobatics team.[32]..At that time, the Chief of Staff, Air Force, had the experience of performing aerobatics under the name of "Genda Circus" before the war.Minamoto MinaIs[33]..From past experience, it is believed that Genda knew from past experience that aerobatics would not only have the effect of attracting the general public, but would also have the effect of improving the morale of the members.[29]..Also, if you remain unofficial, even if you die in an accident during trainingMartyrMay not be treated[34] Therefore, Genda thought, "In the unlikely event of an accident, we can take prestigious measures."[34].

In this way, the formalization of the aerobatics team was obtained with the consent of Genda, the Chief of Staff, Air Force.[29], The number of pilots was increased to 7 and the training was continued.[30].1960(Showa 35) On July 3,Hamamatsu North BaseThe commander of the 1st Air Wing and the Chief of the Air Staff Office will check the finish of the aerobatics.[29], Showed off the 16th aerobatics[30]..Initially, the exhibition flight was called "public flight".[35]..Although the aerobatics team has not yet been formalized, this is the first official exhibition flight of Blue Impulse.[30]..As a result of this censorship, the Commander of the 1st Air Wing and the Chief of the Air Staff Office decided to "pass".[30]..Upon receiving this report, Genda inspected the official exhibition flight on April 4, the same year.[30]On April 4th of the same year, he ordered the formation of an aerobatics team.[30].

In response to this order, the "Aerial Mobility Research Team" was officially launched within the 2nd Squadron.[29]..The purpose of the Aerial Mobility Research Group is to "research and train maneuvering skills, teamwork, trust, responsibility, and self-esteem, which are indispensable elements for fighter pilots, and to improve and improve their skills and mental strength."[36]The purpose of the exhibition flight was also stipulated as "to maximize the power of the team, to give many people an opportunity to observe a part of the fighting force, and to increase aviation motivation."[35]..The Aerial Mobility Research Team is not an independent unit, but a team of pilots selected from the instructors of the 1st Air Wing.[29]Aside from his duties as an instructor, he was conducting aerobatics training and exhibition flights.[29]..In addition, almost all of the items considered at this time followed the composition of the items of Thunderbirds.[29].

Nickname decision and introduction of special painting

On May 1960, 35 (Showa 5), an exhibition flight was held at the "Three Army Integration Memorial Day Open" held at Johnson Base.[30], Smoke was used for the first time at this time[27]..The aircraft had not been specially painted yet.[30]..On August 8, the same year, the unit name was changed from "Aerial Mobility Research Group" to "Special Flight Research Group".In addition, a friendly nickname will be set separately from this, and as a result of open recruitment within the Self-Defense Forces department, it will flow near Hamamatsu base.Tenryu RiverNamed after[29]The nickname "Tenryu" will be adopted.[30].. However,Air traffic controlWhen used as a call sign for the U.S. militaryAir traffic controllerIt's difficult for me to pronounce[29]There was also an opinion that it was old-fashioned[27]..So, I decided to use "Blue Impulse" (blue impact), which is the reverse of "Impulse Blue" that I used so far.[30], The pun was decided as a formal nickname because it is easy for the general public to understand.[29]..Atsumi Inada, who was the commander of the formation, was in charge of naming the nickname, and he was wondering whether to change it to "Impulse Blue" or "Blue Impulse".[37]..His wife said, "In the sense of shock,Atomic bombThere is nothing more shocking than the blue flash of "Blue Impulse".[36].

In this way, the formalized "Blue Impulse" made 1960 official exhibition flights in 13.[38]..However, on July 20, 1961, after the official exhibition flight exceeded 7 times.[30], The F-86F, which was training as the next formation commander, crashed off the coast of Cape Irago, and the pilot was killed.[38]..Became the first victim of Blue Impulse[38]..For this reason, Blue Impulse will be suspended for about a month.[27], Safety measures were put in place based on the results of the accident investigation[30]..In addition, at this time, not only Blue Impulse, but also crash accidents occurred frequently in various flight corps.[39]..Since it was urgent to train pilots from the air defense, it was a short period from the accident to the resumption of flight.[39].

Taking this accident as an opportunity, all the pilots who had been selected from the 1st Squadron and the 2nd Squadron were assigned to the 2nd Squadron, which made it easier for the pilots to adjust their schedules.[38].

Until this time, the aircraft used for Blue Impulse had a normal paint design except that it was equipped with a smoke generator.[38]..However, there are few landmarks for taking positions in formation flight.[38]Was lacking in flashiness[39]..For this reason, after soliciting paint design proposals from members, the first Blue Impulse paint was adopted.[38]..In parallel with this, research to generate color smoke is also underway.[38],1961(Showa 36) A special coating machine and color smoke were unveiled for the first time on the exhibition flight on October 10nd.[39].

1963(Showa 38) In May,TohoMovieI'm in the sky todayThe 1st Air Wing and the Blue Impulse pilot will cooperate in the shooting of[38]..During this shooting period, Toho offered to provide a painting design proposal for Blue Impulse.[38], Professional designer provided new painting ideas[39][Annotation 1]..This was officially adopted as the second generation Blue Impulse paint.[39]..The aircraft with this new design was released on October 1963, 10.Miho baseMade inAir festivalShown at[41].

Draw the Olympics at the Tokyo Olympics

In January 1963 (Showa 38), a little further back than this, the Tokyo Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games (OOC) responded to Blue Impulse.1964(Showa 39) August 10Tokyo Olympics(Tokyo Olympics) There was a request for a celebration flight at the opening ceremony[38].

However, Genda, who was the Chief of Staff of the Air Force at that time, was from 1961 (Showa 36) to 1962 (Showa 37).LDPParliamentarians, business people, and even the chairman of the Amateur Wrestling Federation were invited to Hamamatsu base for an exhibition flight.[42]..In addition, the Defense Agency also set up an "Olympic Preparatory Committee" to prepare for the Tokyo Olympics, and the Self-Defense Forces were supposed to cooperate.[43]..Ground Self-Defense ForceCongratulatory gunThe Maritime Self-Defense Force raises the Olympic flagmarchWas supposed to be done, but there was no part that the Air Self-Defense Force could cooperate with[44]..Genda was in 1962House of CouncilorsI ran for election and entered politics[45]Immediately before that, he proposed to "draw the Olympics in the sky above the opening ceremony" and added it to the business transfer items when he retired from the Chief of Staff, Japan Air Force.[43]..In addition, Genda was a member of the House of Councilors who was also the chairman of the preparatory committee for the Olympic Games even after he entered politics.Juichi TsushimaWas proposing to draw the Olympics in the sky[46]..Under these circumstances, it is said that this request from OOC is the result of Genda's nemawashi.[47].

As a result, it was initially just a request for a flyby.[48] However, the commander of the 1st Air Wing's flight group has ordered Blue Impulse to "draw the Olympics."[49]..On May 5, the same year, several staff members from the OOC secretariat visited Hamamatsu Base.[50]After observing the aerobatics of Blue Impulse, the mission of drawing the Olympics with smoke was materialized.[50].

In preparing for this, first make some plans on the Blue Impulse side.[47], OOC formulated the composition of the opening ceremony using this as a starting point[47] As a result, the request from OOC to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force was "I started drawing the Olympic mark at 15:10:20, and the position wasEmperor ShowaYou can see the whole view in front of the royal box where you sit. "[41]..In line with that, we decided on policies such as altitude and the size of the circle.[47]..However, no matter how many times he trained, he couldn't draw well.[51]..Also, for color smoke, we prepared to draw the Olympics in five colors: blue for the first machine, yellow for the second machine, black for the third machine, green for the fourth machine, and red for the fifth machine.[52]..However, the color of black did not go well, and it was finally completed 10 days before the opening ceremony.[41].

It was raining in Tokyo the day before the opening ceremony, and if it rained on October 10th, the day of the opening ceremony, the opening ceremony was to be cancelled.[53]..For this reason, the Blue Impulse pilots quickly agreed that "this is not tomorrow," and drank a lot of alcohol until midnight and kept it as it was.ShinbashiI have stayed at[44][54]..However, when the pilots woke up the next morning, the sky in Tokyo was clear, and the blue impulse pilots who ate the bubbles remained hangover.Iruma BaseI rushed to the production[44][54][55].

Blue Impulse is on departureIruma BaseObtained a takeoff clearance from the air traffic controller of "Any altitude OK."[44]..The Blue Impulse, which took off at 2:XNUMX pm as scheduled, was in Kanagawa Prefecture.Shonan coastWaited in the sky[54]..Due to the delay in the admission march, the progress of the ceremony specified in seconds was disturbed, and Captain Haruhide Matsushita was smart enough to use aeronautical radio equipment.NHK RadioI checked the status of the opening ceremony while receiving[54][56]..TorchbearerNational StadiumAt the same time as entering the Blue ImpulseEnoshimaPassed over the sky and headed for the National Stadium[44]..At the venuepigeonIs releasedYou areImmediately after the singing is overAkasaka MitsukeBlue Impulse, who reached the sky, began drawing the Olympics with smoke under the command of Matsushita, and 30 seconds later, the Olympics over 6 kilometers east and west were drawn in the sky of Tokyo.[52][54]..It was a result of conscience that I had never experienced in practice, and the pilots who received the "success" radio screamed in the cockpit.[54]..Blue Impulse, who finished the exhibition flight,GinzaPassing over the sky at low altitude[57],(I.e.-Ikebukuro-Shinjuku-Shibuya-ShinagawaIt is said that he made a "triumphant return flight" while pulling smoke over the sky and returned to Iruma Air Base.[44]..At that time, flights in Tokyo were not strictly restricted.[58] Above, as mentioned above, the air traffic controller gave permission to "fly at any altitude".[44].

This is an unprecedented attraction in the history of the Olympics[59][60], The opening ceremony was broadcast live by satellite all over the world, so Blue Impulse became widely known not only to the Japanese people but also to the world.[39]..Blue Impulse members were awarded the Defense Achievement Award and a letter of appreciation and trophy from OOC on October 10 for this exhibition flight.OOC also asked for the closing ceremony after the opening ceremony, but Matsushita declined, saying, "I don't know if I can succeed anymore."[54].

Late 1960s

Initially, the training airspace was not as far from the airfield as it is now, and it was easy to maintain the skill level.Therefore, the accuracy of the performance was high, and the altitude in the exhibition flight was low because the regulations were loose.The low altitude is 35 feet (about 11 meters) in the example of the item "High Speed ​​Low Pass".[61], There is even an anecdote that "plucked the grass"[61].. In addition,1965Hiroo Murata, who has served as a pilot for a single aircraft since (40), states that "only the pieces of grass that soared were attached to the wings."[61].

January 1965Construction baseThe 33rd Squadron moved to Hamamatsu Base and became a member of the 1st Air Wing.[58]In addition, the 11nd Squadron was dismissed on November 20, the same year.[58] Therefore, all Blue Impulse pilots belonged to the 1st Squadron.[62]..Also, the team name has been changed from "Special Flight Research Group" to "Tactical Research Group".[62]..This year, due to the replacement and replenishment of pilot members, it became possible to assign two pilots to each position.[58]..Insignia of the 1st Air Wing Tactical Research Group was created at this time, but it was created by Lieutenant Hiroo Murata, who was a pilot of Blue Impulse at that time.[63]. On August 7, the same yearMatsushima BaseAt the Air Festival in Japan, the 100th exhibition flight of Blue Impulse was held.However, on November 11th of the same year, a second accident occurred at Blue Impulse, in which one aircraft stalled and crashed during aerobatics training, and the pilot was killed.[62].

After that, the activity continued,1969(Showa 44) August 9Hill beadsAchieved a total of 200 exhibition flights at the Air Festival[58]..Around this time, in addition to the Air Self-Defense Force's Air Festival,1966(Showa 41) An exhibition flight will be held at the "11st Aerospace Show" held at Iruma Air Base on November 6th.[64] Increasingly, requests for exhibition flights are being made at events such as[58]The original purpose of improving the image of the Self-Defense Forces was bearing fruit.[58].. On the other hand,1967From around (Showa 42), noise problems had occurred along with the progress of residential land around Hamamatsu base, so the training airspace had to be moved to the sea.[62].

Draw letters at the Osaka Expo

In December 1969 (Showa 44), from the Japan World Exposition Association to Blue ImpulseJapan World ExpositionThere was a request for an exhibition flight over the opening ceremony of (Osaka Expo)[62].

Initially, the content of the exhibition flight was left to the Blue Impulse side.[41]..At that time, Blue Impulse was a stable period in terms of flight technology and organization.[62], We also have talented pilots[62], I decided to draw the letters "EXPO'70" by independent research[41]..The training was carried out immediately, and when an official of the Expo Association visited Hamamatsu Base, he showed the characters being trained.[65] As a result, it was decided to proceed as a full-scale project.[65]..This was more difficult than drawing the Olympics[66] But,1970(Showa 45) On January 1, we succeeded in drawing the letters "EXPO'12" over Hamamatsu base.[62].

Meanwhile, just eight miles from the Expo siteOsaka International AirportBecauseOsaka Aviation BureauReceived a notification from "Flight approval is not possible"[65]..In response, as a result of making a petition from the Expo Association, we were able to obtain a flight permit in mid-February 1970.[65].

Blue Impulse, which departed from Hamamatsu base on March 1970, 3 on the day of the opening ceremony, made the fourth aerobatics at the Expo site.[65], I drew the letters "EXPO'2" over the venue in 30 minutes and 70 seconds.[41]..After that, the characters were drawn in the same way on "Japan Day" on June 6th of the same year.[66]..On September 9th of the same year on the day of the closing ceremony, the characters "Goodbye" were originally planned to be drawn over the Expo site, but since it was a cloudy sky on that day, it was judged that "I could not draw" and only overflight was carried out.

1970 era

1971Even after entering (Showa 46), Blue Impulse has been steadily carrying out exhibition flights.However, on July 7, the same yearAll Nippon Airways Shizukuishi collision accidentDue to the occurrence of, it became a situation to refrain from the exhibition flight[62]..As a result of this accident, the number of exhibition flights until 1973 decreased.In addition, the air route and training airspace were reviewed in the wake of this accident.[66], Acrobatic flight training will also be severely restricted[66] As a result, the time required to train members of Blue Impulse has doubled.[62]..The exhibition flight was resumed on November 11, the same year.Nagoya Airport (at that time)From the "International Aerospace Show" held in[62] So for this international aerospace showUS NavyAcrobat flight teamBlue angelsWas also participating[62].

1972(47) On November 11, immediately after taking off from Iruma Air Base, the third aircraft was the engine.FlameoutCrashed due to[62] However, the accident did not have a significant impact on activities.[62]..In addition, the pilot of the third machineBailoutIt was safe and there was no damage to the ground.[67]..Up to this point, there were five Blue Impulse exhibition flights, but1976(Showa 51) At the "9th Anniversary Ceremony of the 26st Air Wing" held on September 1, the performance by two independent aircraft including the sixth aircraft was released.[66]After that, performances with 6 aircraft will be shown in special cases such as exhibition flights at the local Hamamatsu base.

However, in the production unit, it was a successor to the F-86F, not to mention it.F-104JAs a successorF-4EJIs introduced[67], As an advanced trainerT-2The introduction of[67]..As mentioned earlier, the pilot of Blue Impulse is also an instructor, and during this period Blue Impulse made more than 1 exhibition flights a year.[68]..This means that the number of flight education programs using the F-86F was decreasing, and the opportunities for exhibition flights were increased accordingly.[68]..Under these circumstances1978In March (53), the Chief of Staff, Air Force, instructed the 3th Air Wing at Matsushima Air Base to study aerobatics by the T-4.[66]From the same year, the T-2, which performs aerobatics at Matsushima Air Base, has been witnessed.[68]..Already in the Air Self-Defense Force1980All F-55F during the degree (86)DecommissionedThe schedule has been decided[66], It was officially decided that the exhibition flight of Blue Impulse using F-86F will end in 1980.[66].

Incidentally,1979(54) The 1st Squadron was dismissed due to the completion of F-86F pilot training in January.[69]..Therefore, Blue Impulse became a tactical research team belonging to the 35th Squadron.[69].

1981(56) The exhibition flight carried out at Iruma Air Base on February 2th was the last exhibition flight for Blue Impulse using the F-8F.[41]..In this final exhibition flight, a normally painted T-2 flew from Matsushima Air Base to show off its aerobatics.[70].. The number of exhibition flights using the F-86F was 545 times.[41]..After that, the flight training held on March 3 at Hamamatsu Kita Base was the final training.[41], The tactics research team of the 3th Squadron was also dissolved on March 31st of the same year.[41].

T-2 era (1982 → 1995)

Introduction of domestic trainer aircraft

Regarding the successor to the F-86F, it was thought that performing with "domestic aircraft" manufactured in Japan would be of great significance in showing off the defense capabilities of the country and the level of the aviation industry.[71]..For this reason, as mentioned above, research instructions were issued regarding aerobatics by the T-2 as a successor.[66].

Since the T-2 is a supersonic aircraft, the radius of turns (turns) and loops (somersaults) increases as the flight speed increases, and it takes time to return to the sky above the venue. Becomes longer[70]..For this reason, a research report was compiled stating that "for T-2, it is effective to carry out an exhibition flight with a six-aircraft system, which is an increase of one single aircraft."[71]..Along with this, in 1979 (Showa 54), six T-6s were budgeted for Blue Impulse.[71]..In other words, it is a device to fill the gap in the performance of formation flight with the performance of a single aircraft.[70].

In October 1980 (Showa 55), a public offering for the next Blue Impulse paint design was held.[71], 2,055 works gathered[72].. In January 1981 (Showa 56), a collaborative design proposal by four high school girls was adopted as the highest award.[72].1982(57) On January 1, a tactics research team was set up in the 12st Squadron of the 4th Air Wing at Matsushima Air Base.[69], All six newly built T-3s were delivered by March 10 of the same year.[69]..At the same time as the model change, the uniforms of pilots and ground personnel will also be redesigned.[70], And the performance on the ground has also changed[70].

Crash at Hamamatsu Base Air Festival

In this way, about one and a half years after the final exhibition flight of the F-86F Blue Impulse, on July 1, 1982 (Showa 57), at the Matsushima Air Base Festival, the first exhibition flight of the Blue Impulse using the T-7. Was carried out[71]..However, due to bad weather, aerobatics were not performed on the day, and only low-pass and formation flights using two aircraft were shown.[69]..From the Chitose Air Base Festival held on August 8th of the same year, a full-scale aerobatics exhibition flight began.[70].

However, when I was performing the performance of "downward aerial flowering" at the exhibition flight at the Hamamatsu Base Air Festival held on November 11, the same year, the cause of the 14th aircraft was not in time.[73], An accident occurred that crashed into a parking lot near the venue[74][75]..This is the first accident during an exhibition flight in the history of Blue Impulse.[73], The pilot of the crash plane was killed, and civilians on the ground were also injured.[74] In addition, since the news camera was also included in the aviation festival, the video recording the whole story of the accident was repeatedly shown in the news after the evening.[76]..Treated as a "dangerous aerobatic flight" in many reports[76], Blue Impulse faced the biggest crisis since its inception[73].

The cause of the accident was investigated, and the commander's break call was delayed by about 3 seconds from the usual time, and 0.9 seconds behind the turning point of crash or survival.[77]..The question was whether I could negligently ask this short time.[76]..Initially, all pilots were uncooperative with the accident investigation[78] But,Shizuoka Prosecutor's OfficeSugimoto Kazushige thinks, "If you don't know what the 0.9 second delay is, you can't judge whether it's a criminal charge."[79]After actually boarding the aerobatics training, the Blue Impulse pilot became cooperative with the investigation.[80].

Also, prior to this accident, there was a delay in the break call of the captain's aircraft during the training for "downward aerial flowering".[80]From this lesson, the Blue Impulse pilot had an agreement that "if it is judged that the instruction of the leader aircraft (former commander aircraft) is delayed, follow the leader aircraft as it is".[81] However, the pilot of the accident aircraft refused the agreement because "I will obey as long as it is the command of the commander."[82], It is said that he did not sign until the end even when the "Unification of Thought" that clearly stated the agreement was created.[83].. However,Accident investigationThe report finally concluded that the cause was a delay in the commander's break call.[76] However, he also questioned the mistake of the pilot of the accident aircraft, saying, "If I felt danger, I should have followed the commander without breaking."[77], The existence of "Unification of Thought" will also hold the responsibility of the pilot of the accident aircraft.[84]..On the other hand, the pilot of the accident aircraft has crashed in a place deviating from the original expected flight route.[85], Residential areas on the extension of the original routeTomei ExpresswayBecause there was[86]It is speculated that the pilot of the accident aircraft may have selected "a place where there is little damage even if it crashes".[87]..The accident aircraft was not equipped with a flight data recorder or voice recorder.[88] Therefore, the truth is unknown.

After this accident, Blue Impulse was completely refraining from activities.[76]..Even in the surrounding municipalities where Matsushima Air Base is located, the atmosphere was that "Blue Impulse should go out", and it was not a situation where training could be done very much.[74]..However, the Air Self-Defense Force could not lose a major pillar of public relations activities.[76]..Thorough verification by actual flight and simulator[73], As a result of considering safety measures[73],1983(Showa 58) August 10Asaka GarrisonSelf-Defense Forces inViewing ceremonyIt was decided to resume activities from the exhibition flight at[73]..However, the only activity at this point was overflight, and aerobatics were carefully considered thereafter.[73]..Finally, raising the flight altitude during the exhibition flight[76], Excluded from the "Downward aerial flowering" item[73] On condition such as1984(59) Exhibition flights including aerobatics were resumed from the Matsushima Air Base Festival on July 7.[73].

Term issues

Eight times in 1984 (Showa 59) when the exhibition flight was resumed[76]The following year, 1985 (Showa 60), 18 exhibition flights will be held annually.[76] After the accident, Blue Impulse was steadily repeating the exhibition flight.1990(2) October 4thInternational Flower and Green ExpoDrawing using all nine aircraft with a huge flower mark with a total length of 20 km above the venue above the opening ceremony of[89], May 6th of the same yearGifu baseAt the aviation festival, the T-2 Blue Impulse made its 100th exhibition flight, and it was superficially smooth.[73].

On the other hand, although Blue Impulse was part of public relations activities, until this time there were not many opportunities for members to interact with the general public.[74]..This is due to the idea that "a pilot is neither a movie star nor anything" and "if you feel good, you will have an accident".[90]. But,1986From (61), positive efforts to interact with citizens began.[90], Pilot autograph session is also held at the aviation festival[90].

However, as the activity as Blue Impulse became active in this way, problems arose.

The Blue Impulse pilot also serves as an instructor, which has not changed since the F-86F era.[90]..For this reason, it was not possible to secure sufficient time for aerobatics training, and as a result, the period of enrollment at Blue Impulse became longer.[73]..This is a working unit (TAC unit), Which was not a favorable situation for fighter pilots.[90]..In addition, when it comes to the time of the aviation festival, the schedule will be "move to another base for deployment on Thursday or Friday, complete the exhibition flight of the aviation festival on Saturdays and holidays, and return to Matsushima base".[73]In the remaining three days from Monday to Wednesday, I had to do aerobatics training and work as an instructor.[90].

Furthermore, on December 2, 1981 (Showa 56), shortly before the T-12 Blue Impulse began its activities, at Tsuiki Air Base as an organization for conducting more practical aerial warfare education.Flight Guidance CorpsWas inaugurated[91]..In such a situation, the number of pilots who wanted Blue Impulse, which specializes in aerobatics, while calling it the "Tactical Research Team" was decreasing.[90].

On the other hand, in the latter half of the 1980s, more pilots retired from the Self-Defense Forces and changed jobs to commercial airlines.[92], Because there are too many retireesscrambleWaiting work intervals become shorter, etc.[93], The situation was such that the actual mission was also hindered[93]..Even with Blue Impulse, half of the pilots moved out or retired in March 1990, making it impossible to perform with six aircraft for about nine months.[94].

Accident during training

Against the background of these problems1989Around (2), the examination of the successor team of the current Blue Impulse by T-XNUMX has begun.[95], Ministry of Defense1991In the budget plan for the degree (3), 6 T-4s were included as "for the tactical research group".[96].

However, on July 1991, 7,Mt. KinkaAn accident occurred in which two of the four aircraft that were training offshore crashed.[90]..The cause is the formation commander in the sea fogSpatial disorientationIt was alleged that the formation leaned to the left after falling into (Birdigo).[73]..However, the commander at that time was isolated in the aerobatic team.[97] In addition, the commander of the formation has not been transferred for 1979 years since he was transferred to the 54st Squadron in October 10 (Showa 21).[92] In some cases, it was thought that the above-mentioned term of office problem became apparent.[95].

Blue Impulse has refrained from flying for about a year[73]..After training and reviewing operational regulations[73],1992(4) The exhibition flight resumed from the Matsushima Air Base Festival on August 8.[98]..At this point, it was an exhibition flight with four aircraft.[98].

By this time, the introduction of the new Blue Impulse by T-4 has already been confirmed.[90]In October of the same year, the "T-10 Preparation Team" was established in the 4st Squadron of the 21th Air Wing.[99]..For this reason, even within the Air Self-Defense Force, it was reluctant to return to the 6-aircraft system because it was not possible to train solo personnel in time and it was difficult to replenish the aircraft.[90]..However, a person concerned with Blue Impulse thought, "I want to decorate the end of the Blue Impulse by T-2 with 6 aircraft."[90]At the time of training, there were times when an exhibition flight was carried out with a system of 2 aircraft, such as using the T-6 with normal specifications.[95]..Training of new personnel is also carried out[90],1994In (6), the usual exhibition flight was resumed.[73]. On August 8, the same yearMisawa Air BaseA competition with the Thunderbirds was also realized at the Air Festival[95]..In the patch created at this time, there is an episode that Thunderbirds advised to use the logo without permission.[100].

Meanwhile, preparations for a new Blue Impulse by the T-4 are underway, and the Blue Impulse by the T-21995The activity will be terminated in (7).The last exhibition flight was at the Hamamatsu Base Air Festival held on December 12rd of the same year.[73], T-2 Blue Impulse was the 175th exhibition flight in total[73]..Since the crash in 1982, the Hamamatsu Base Air Festival has only "horizontal flight performance" entitled "Hamamatsu Special", and this final exhibition flight is also only "horizontal flight performance". Concluded with[48]..The last training flight was December 1995, 12.[98], The tactics research team in the 12st Squadron of the 22th Air Wing was disbanded on December 4, the same year.[98].

T-4 era (since 1995)

Established as an independent squadron

In preparation for the new Blue Impulse, which had been underway since around 1989, the people concerned considered establishing an "independent squadron specializing in exhibition flights."[101].

Until the T-2 era, Blue Impulse pilots also served as instructors, and the burden on pilots was heavy.[99]..By having an independent squadron, you will be busy on weekends with events such as air festivals, but you will be able to take vacations at the beginning of the week.[10]..Also, becoming a Blue Impulse pilot will reduce your lifetime flight time as a fighter pilot.[95] By promising a term of three years and returning to the original unit after the term ends, morale will be maintained for the mission of Blue Impulse.[10]..In addition, if you also serve as an instructor, it may interfere with the training of Blue Impulse members.[102], It was thought that it was necessary to have an independent squadron to solve this[102].

It was not easy to create a new squadron specializing in exhibition flights[99] However, in the 1990s, the opportunities for the Self-Defense Forces to operate due to disaster relief and international contributions increased, and the understanding of the Self-Defense Forces was deepening from the public.[10], The Self-Defense Forces were more active in public relations[10].

Against this background, in order to solve the above-mentioned problems and perform safe and efficient operation, it was approved to become independent as a unit dedicated to exhibition flight.[102].1992(4) On November 11th, a public offering of Blue Impulse paint designs was held.[102], 2,135 works gathered[102]..Among them, as a psychiatristAirplane fanBut also[102]Design proposal was adopted[103]..In addition, the contents of the exhibition flight items that made use of the performance of the T-4 were examined.[96].

1994(6) On October 10, the "Temporary 1th Squadron" was formed in the 4th Air Wing of Matsushima Air Base.[10]..The following day, on July 1995, 7, an aerobatic flight called a research flight was opened to the public at the Matsushima Air Base Festival and competed with the T-7's Blue Impulse.[10]. On August 11, the same yearHyakuri BaseAlso competed with the T-2's Blue Impulse at the aviation training exhibition that was open to the public at[10]..At this time, the Blue Impulse painted F-86F was also exhibited.[104] Therefore, 3 generations of Blue Impulse will be exhibited at the same time.[105]..On December 12, the same year, the tactical research team in the 22st Squadron of the 4th Air Wing was dissolved, and at the same time, the 21th Squadron without "temporary" was established as a formal squadron.[102].

Thus,1996(8) Exhibition flight by overflight (flyby) at the entrance ceremony of the National Defense Academy on April 4[106], Exhibition flight by aerobatics at "Japan-US Friendship Day" held at Iwakuni base on May 5 of the same year[106] Starting with, the activity of the new Blue Impulse was started, and 22 official exhibition flights were held this year.[107].

First overseas expedition

In 11 (Heisei 1996), the year after the 8th Squadron was established, from the US Air Force to Blue Impulse, in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the US Air Force.ネ バ ダ 州 OfNellis Air Force BaseWe were invited to fly for an exhibition at the "GOLDEN AIR TATTOO" air show held at[106]..As a result of examining this, we invested 1 million yen.[108], Blue Impulse decided to expand overseas for the first time in history[106].

However, in the United States it is forbidden to fly in the direction of the audience[1], Altitude restrictions are also stricter in the United States[1] The standards for exhibition flights differed between Japan and the United States.Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)Visited Japan and checked the contents of the aerobatics at Matsushima Air Base.[109], Various concerns were pointed out[1]..Along with this, we were forced to make partial changes, such as changing the direction of travel for the items.[1].

The T-4 operated by Blue Impulse does not have the ability to fly across the Pacific Ocean.[110], Will be shipped by sea after being shipped on a transport ship[106],1997(9) The move to the continental United States began on March 3th.[111]..First of all, the Ground Self-Defense ForceKisarazu GarrisonTransport the aircraft and equipment to[1], There, it was loaded onto a transport ship by a crane and left Kisarazu Port on March 3, the same year.[112]..There is no equipment available for training until the pilot arrives in the United States[112] Therefore, training was conducted by leasing a normal specification T-1 from the educational groups of 4st Air Wing and 4th Air Wing.[113]..In addition, since the canopy for bird strike measures was not strengthened in the normal specification T-4, the training was conducted at a higher altitude than usual.[114].

The aircraft was on March 1997, 3.CaliforniaSan DiegoArrive at North Island Naval Air Station[112]..The maintenance staff who left Narita on March 3 of the same year received it and the maintenance was carried out.[113]..The pilot departed from Matsushima Air Base on April 4, departed from Narita on April 5, joined the maintenance staff there, and headed for Nellis Air Force Base on April 4.[115][Annotation 2]..Training was conducted at Nellis Air Force Base using the airspace used by Thunderbirds.[118]..Nellis Air Force Base is nearbyLas Vegas McCarran International AirportWe also used the Indian Springs Airfield, 40 miles north, for training.[119]..Nellis Air Force Base has a low air pressure due to its high altitude[118]The low air density reduced the power of the engine, and it was not easy to form a formation.[118]..In addition, training flights in the desert were difficult because there were few ground targets.[120].

The "Golden Air Tattoo" was held on April 1997th and 4th, 25.In addition to the US Air Force ThunderbirdsCanadian Air ForceFromBrazilian Air ForceFromChilean Air ForceFrom, and from Japan, Blue Impulse, from 5 countriesAcrobat flight teamWill be competing[121]..The U.S. Air Force also sent invitations to the aerobatics teams of the United Kingdom, Italy, Russia and France.[122] However, he gave up participating because he could not pay for the trip to the United States.[108]. However,Royal Air ForceAustralian Air ForceParticipated as an exhibition of fighters[123].

It seems that low noise is not enough for Americans[124]Was not as powerful as the Thunderbirds[111] However, accurate and precise performance[111], The maintenance and support system for Blue Impulse, which had no trouble despite the environment being completely different from Japan[106], Highly evaluated by the participating military personnel[111].. Thunderbirds pilots who saw the "Change Over Turn" tribute to their precise maneuvers.[125], The pilot of the South American team was also amazed at "Precise!"[125]..Of the lessons presented at this time, Blue Impulse's original lesson, "Star & Cross," initially seemed to have only five aircraft pulling smoke in different directions, and most spectators I didn't understand the intention[110]..However, as the smoke grew, I heard the children's "star!" Voices from all over the venue.[110]..A star that is a symbol of the United States itself as well as the United States Air Force[106] Was drawn in the air and was praised by the audience[121]..It is speculated that this "Star Cross" was considered by American spectators to be a special event commemorating the 50th anniversary of the U.S. Air Force.[117].

After the session, moved from Nellis Air Force Base to North Island Naval Air Base on April 1997, 4.[126][Annotation 2], Re-shipped there and departed on May 5 of the same year[126]Returned to Matsushima Air Base on May 5[126].

Since the expansion to the United States lasted for three months, the number of exhibition flights in 3 was only 1997 times.[127]..In addition, a new corps building was completed at Matsushima Air Base this year.[112].

Late 1990s

1998In (10)Nagano OlympicsReceived a request for a flyby over the opening ceremony of the (Nagano Olympics)[106]..Unlike the Tokyo Olympics, it did not "draw the Olympics", but the venue for the opening ceremony was a mountainous area in winter.[106], Because the venue is inferior in visibility like winter camouflage[128], Mobile beside the venueTACANWas installed[106]..In addition, on the day of the opening ceremony, the squadron commander of the 11th Squadron took a system to send instructions directly to the formation from the venue by radio.[106]..On the day of the opening ceremonyBeethoven OfSymphony No. 9 4th movementAt the same time as the performance and chorus of[106], Showed off the level opener while pulling 5 colors of smoke over the venue[128].

In July of the same year, a hangar dedicated to Blue Impulse and the "Blue Impulse Museum" were completed at Matsushima Air Base.[106]..The "Unveiling Ceremony" was held at the Matsushima Air Base Festival on July 7, the same year.[106].

1999Color smoke is no longer used from (11)[129]..On the other hand, since the accident in 1982 (Showa 57), only horizontal items have been conducted.[128] At the Hamamatsu Air Festival, an exhibition flight including vertical items was held for the first time in 11 years at "Air Festa Hamamatsu" held at Hamamatsu Base on November 14th of this year.[128].

Since becoming independent as a squadron, unit operation and management have been carried out smoothly.[130], Blue Impulse has become an attractive unit for JASDF personnel nationwide[10].

40th anniversary accident

Blue Impulse celebrates its 40th anniversary and the 11th Squadron also celebrates its 5th anniversary2000(12) isIwakuni baseAt the Friendship Day held in Japan, the characters "2000" were drawn, and the "drawings" that Blue Impulse is good at were incorporated into the exhibition flight.[131].

However, on July 7, the same year, the 4th and 5th aircraft were on their way home after completing the training off the coast of Mt. Kinka.MiyagiOshikaOshika Town(At that time, after 2005Ishinomaki) Crashed near the summit of Mt.[1], An accident occurred in which three people were killed[1]..Immediately after this accident, Blue Impulse stopped working[1], The Matsushima Air Base Festival scheduled for the end of July of the same year was also canceled.[128].

The cause of the accident was attributed to the fact that the altitude was lowered too much in the sea fog.[128].. A crash occurred on the same July 1991, 3 (Heisei 7).[1], It was an accident that happened even though all the members of Blue Impulse knew what kind of day it was.[111]..Moreover, in this accident, the crash point wasOnagawa Nuclear Power StationIn an area close to[128], It was regarded as a problem that it was flying over the no-fly zone set in the radius of 3.6 km of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Station.[130], Invited a mass repulsion of neighboring local governments[130].

For this reason, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force has implemented safety measures such as setting the minimum flight altitude after partially reviewing the training airspace and the approach route to Matsushima Air Base.[1], As a result of continuing discussions with the local government[130],2001(13) The training flight was resumed from February 2th.[130]..Due to the rebuilding of Blue Impulse, which lost the personnel of the 5th and 6th aircraft, which are independent aircraft.[1], The pilot who was a member at the time of the 11th Squadron's inauguration temporarily returned to Blue Impulse as an instructor[132], Conducted pilot training[133]..In addition, two aircraft have been lost, and two are normally in IRAN (regular inspection) at Kawasaki Heavy Industries.[130], 6 aircraft can no longer be exhibited[130].

Nevertheless, the exhibition flight resumed from the Matsushima Air Base Festival on August 8, the same year.[133]..At the Misawa Air Base Festival on September 9, the same year, an exhibition flight including aerobatics was also held.[130] However, it occurred on September 9th of the same year.American terrorist attacksDue to the occurrence of, all subsequent exhibition flights were canceled.[128].

2002(14) on December 4thNational Defense AcademyActivities resumed from the entrance ceremony[111]..This was the 4th exhibition flight of the T-100 Blue Impulse.[111]..Also, it was held on June 6th.FIFA World CupOf the venueSaitama Stadium 2002I made a flyby even in the sky[128]..During the same year, the 2001 budget draft approved the procurement of two aircraft.[133] Therefore, two T-9s were delivered by September.[133], It was from the Gifu Air Base Festival on December 6st of the same year that the exhibition flight with 12 aircraft became possible again.[130].

During this period, the rotation of pilots became irregular, and some pilots were enrolled beyond their original term of three years.[133] But,2003Was able to return to almost the same state as before[134].

Achieved 50 exhibition flights in total on the 1,000th anniversary

After that, there was room for research and development of new subjects.[133],2004In (16), new items such as "Sakura" were added to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.[133].

2006In (18), a commemorative event was held on February 11th and 10th of the same year to commemorate the 2th anniversary of the establishment of the 17th Squadron.[133]..At this commemorative event, the 11th Squadron's regular T-4 used for weather reconnaissance was specially painted.[135] In addition, a memorial service for pilots who were killed in the accident in 2000 was also held.[136].. Next day2007(19) At the Miho Air Base Festival on May 5, we achieved the 27th exhibition flight of Blue Impulse by T-4.[133].2009(21) On October 10th, a competition with Thunderbirds was realized at the Misawa Air Base Festival.[111].

2010(22) celebrates the 86th anniversary of Blue Impulse's activities on the F-50F.[133], Patches and hats have been redesigned[111] In addition, a 8th anniversary ceremony was held at Matsushima Air Base on August 21st of the same year.[137], A memorial service for pilots who were killed in an accident after 1982 (Showa 57) was held.[138]. Also,2011(23) February 1Naha baseAt the "Air Festa 2010" held in Tokyo, the 86th exhibition flight was held in the F-2F / T-1,000 era.[139].

Damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

2011(23) March, Blue Impulse is the same yearMay 3 OfKyushu ShinkansenOn the 10th of the same month for an exhibition flight to commemorate the opening of all linesAshiya baseExpanded to[140][141].. However,11th of the same month, Immediately after the exhibition flight rehearsal to commemorate the opening of all Kyushu Shinkansen linesTohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake(Great East Japan Earthquake)There has occurred[142][141]..Matsushima Air Base, the mother base of Blue ImpulseepicenterBecause it was close toHuge tsunamiWas hit directly by the aircraft, and 28 aircraft, including the main fighter, were submerged.[142][141]..The only aircraft deployed at Matsushima Air Base that escaped damage was the Blue Impulse aircraft that was absent.[143]..In other words, one of the spare aircraft left at the base was submerged.[144]However, fortunately, the Blue Impulse aircraft was able to avoid the damage.However, I can no longer return to the base[142]..Naturally, the Blue Impulse exhibition flight has been canceled along with all the events commemorating the opening of the entire Kyushu Shinkansen on March 3, the following day.[142][141].

Due to the time it takes to restore the base function, Blue Impulse members returned to work on the restoration of Matsushima Air Base and the surrounding area on the 14th of the same month, leaving the aircraft in Kyushu.[140]..Even after that, the Blue Impulse aircraft was not ready to be accepted at Matsushima Air Base due to the restoration of base functions and tsunami countermeasures.[145]Every time, the crew was forced to go to Ashiya Air Base from Matsushima in the form of "movement training".[140]..The training flight was resumed on May 5, the same year.[142]..The exhibition flight will be on August 8, the same year.Chitose baseResumed from the aviation festival held in[146]..At Ashiya Air Base, which became a temporary mother base13th Flight Training WingIt was carried to rent a meeting room in the corps building[147]..At Ashiya Air Base, it was not possible to train aerobatics due to environmental issues.[148] Therefore, as a result of coordination with the local community, from August 8, the same year.Construction baseAcrobatic flight training resumed over the sky[148]..Sometimes I took off and landed at Tsuiki Air Base during the takeoff training.[149]..It is a "remote training" format in which maintenance personnel fly from Ashiya Air Base to the sky above Tsuiki Air Base for training so that they do not have to move.[150], Ground control personnel were traveling by land to Tsuiki Air Base[149]..In addition, it is on the Sea of ​​Japan sideMishima Sub-BaseBut I was training at sea[151].

The Matsushima Air Base is locatedHigashi Matsushima CityThen in August of the same year, the evacueesEmergency temporary housingThe move-in is complete and allShelter May 8Closed to[152]..An exhibition flight was held at "Thank you! Higashi Matsushima Genki Festa" held in Higashi Matsushima City at this time (August 8th).[145]..At this timeMisawa Air BaseWas a remote show format from[145].

Due to the suspension of training due to the earthquake and the unstable weather that followed, there was a delay in training personnel at Blue Impulse during this period.[153], The transfer from the 11th Squadron was delayed for about half a year.[153]..Due to these circumstances, the main focus is on training personnel.[153], 2012 exhibition flights reduced to 12 times, less than half the normal year[149].

Return to Matsushima Air Base

After that, due to the restoration of Matsushima Air Base and the progress of tsunami countermeasures[140], Blue Impulse2012It was decided to return to Matsushima Air Base within the degree (24)[140].2013(25) On March 3th, it will be placed at Tsuiki Air Base to commemorate the mobility training.6th Squadron OfF-2-304th Squadron OfF-15Formation flight training with[151] But Blue ImpulseTAC unitIt is said that there are almost no precedents for flying with a fighter in formation.[151]..On March 3, the same year, an exhibition flight called "Blue Impulse Farewell Flight" and a return ceremony were held at Ashiya Air Base to commemorate the end of the mobility training.[154] However, even though the exhibition flight was in the morning on weekdays, 3,500 spectators visited.[155]..The items at this time included "Sakura," which was originally supposed to be shown on March 2011, 23.[156].

Blue Impulse departs Ashiya Air Base on March 2013, 3[157],Hyakuri BaseReturned to Matsushima Air Base on March 3[158], October 3OnoderaMinister of Defense[159] And local government officials also gathered[160] Return event was held[159]..In addition, a return event was held by the Higashi Matsushima City Chamber of Commerce on April 4, the same year, and although training flights were not conducted due to bad weather, taxiing andBlue Impulse JuniorWas exhibited[161].

At the time of return, the Blue Impulse hangar is under construction, so the newly constructed hangar and apron for tsunami are being used as a countermeasure against the tsunami.[162] However, from April 4th of the same year, aerobatics training was resumed off the coast of Mt. Kinka.[163].

2013May 6, To support recovery from the Great East Japan EarthquakeFukushimaFukushimaHeld inTohoku Rokutama FestivalAt the parade venueNational Highway 4With the above as the show center, the 12th division of Blue Impulse's formation cooperation maneuver was held.[164][165].

Flight stop due to engine malfunction

2019(31) On April 4, the normal specification T-2 belonging to Misawa Air Base made an emergency landing due to an engine malfunction during training.

As a result of the subsequent investigation of the cause, it was found that the turbine blades were damaged by the vibration in the engine, and it became necessary to replace the parts that suppress the vibration of the engine with improved ones, so the parts were replaced. No T-4 was suspended as it was.Blue Impulse, which uses the same type of aircraft, could not be trained until parts replacement, and the exhibition flights scheduled for April to June in Kagoshima, Yamaguchi, Shizuoka, and Tottori prefectures were canceled.

その後、5月下旬に訓練を再開し、2019年(令和元年)7月21日に宮城県松島町で行われたイベントで飛行を再開したが、部品交換の進度の関係上2機での再開となった。 また同年8月25日に開催された松島基地航空祭においては午前中に1番機・5番機・6番機の3機で飛行し、午後には1番機・2番機・3番機の3機で飛行した。


Color smoke testing and resumption

On August 2019, 8 (the first year of Reiwa), we conducted an actual test of color smoke, which had been prohibited from use.this is2020For the exhibition flight at the Tokyo Olympics related event (Reiwa 2nd year), the ground test was first conducted from August 8th to 29st, and the aerial test was conducted on September 31rd and 9th. ..In this test, the visibility of smoke and the effect of the dye improved to diffuse in the air on the ground were confirmed.

2020On March 3, when the "Torch Arrival Ceremony" was held at Matsushima Air Base, Blue Impulse drew the "Olympic Games" and improved color smoke was used for the first time.

Construction of the first two teams and 2 aircraft system in history

On March 2020, 3, at the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic torch arrival ceremony at Matsushima Air Base, the first flight of two teams and 20 aircraft in the history of Blue Impulse[Annotation 3]Was done. The A (Alpha) formation drew the "Olympic Games" and the B (Bravo) formation showed the leaders' benefits.

Support for healthcare professionals in the Corona Pandemic

2020EnterPandemic of the new coronavirusAs a result of the occurrence of this, the number of patients has increased explosively, and an excessive burden has been placed on medical staff and the like.As aerobatic corps from all over the world carried out exhibition flights to medical professionals, Blue Impulse also showed respect and gratitude to medical professionals and everyone in the country on May 2020, 5. An exhibition flight was held from 29:12 to 40:13, centering over the hospital in central Tokyo.[166]..The flight route was announced three hours before the start of the flight to avoid crowds.

2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games

2020 Tokyo OlympicsTo coincide with the openingOpening ceremonyOn July 7, the day before, I put out five color smokes and drew the Olympic mark over Tokyo.[167]..This time as well, a system of 2 teams and 12 aircraft was built in case of trouble, and one T-4 with normal specifications was additionally deployed to the 1th Squadron.For both teams, the 11nd to 2th aircraft were tactical research specifications, and the 6st was the normal T-1.

October 8 of the same yearTokyo 2020 Paralympic GamesOpening ceremonyEven at noon on the day, I drew a Paralympic symbol over Tokyo using three color smokes.[168], 3 spare machinesIruma BaseImmediately before landing at, color smoke injection was carried out below the appropriate altitude.Damaged about 300 cars around the base with particles that could not be washed off with water or detergent (Later).


As mentioned above, Blue Impulse was initially started as "one section in charge of aerobatic flight (acrobatic flight) in the squadron".Based on this, this section was established as the 1th Squadron.1995(7) Describe the system after December.


The internal organization of the 11th Squadron has the commander of the squadron at the top, and three departments, the flight team, the maintenance platoon, and the generalization team, are set up under it.[169] But this is similar to other Air Self-Defense Force squadrons[169].

As a characteristic of the 11th Squadron, the term of office for pilots and maintenance personnel is set to 3 years.[170] Can be mentioned.This is in consideration of the fact that many pilots do not want to leave the actual combat unit.[134]This is to make it easier to be elected to the 3th Squadron by setting a condition of 11 years.[134]..In addition, in the flight team / maintenance platoon, the rank is ""SkymanThere are no members[8][Annotation 4]..This is because the term of office of the second-class airman, the first-class airman, and the airman chief is limited to three years (two years after the second term).[171]In the limited term of 11 years of the 3th Squadron, consideration is given to not being able to afford to spend time on training new recruits and promotion tests to air sergeants as are done in other units.[8] .

In addition to the usual uniforms, there are also special uniforms called "exhibition clothes" for wearing during exhibition flights.Flight suitIs prepared[Annotation 5]There is a strong sense of solidarity between the maintenance staff and the pilot.[172] It is also a feature.To deepen mutual understanding, pilots have the opportunity to ride in the rear seats of other positions during training.[173].

Flight team

There are 1 to 1 pilots per aircraft, including the flight team leader.[169]..The pilot is called "Dolphin Rider"[174], The patch attached to the left arm of the pilot suit also says "DOLPHIN RIDER"[175].. There is also a period in which both the flight captain and the flight team leader are in charge of the first aircraft.[134] However, there are no pilots as substitutes for the 2nd to 6th aircraft.[134]..The 11th Squadron only performs exhibition flight missions[9] Therefore, daily missions are training for aerobatics and walkdowns / walkbacks.[9].

The personal name of the pilot to which he belongs is introduced, which is rare in the Self-Defense Forces.[174].

As mentioned above, the term of office is set at three years, and the business breakdown of the term is as follows.

Year 1
Acquire acting as TR (Training Readiness)[169]..In charge of narration during the exhibition flight[134], May board in the back seat for training[176].
Year 2
Exhibit flight as OR (Operation Readiness)[169].
Year 3
While conducting an exhibition flight as an OR, educate TR pilots on acting as an instructor in the position in charge[169].

Since it is necessary to complete training and exhibition flight within a limited period, there is no change in the position in charge on the way[134]Also, the pilots elected to the 11th Squadron cannot desire their own positions.[134]..The name tag on the left chest also has a position number[175].

Excellent maneuvering skills when selecting pilots[177] In addition, there is a need for cooperation due to the high level of teamwork required.[177]..In addition, public relations activities are the main task, and sociability is also required because it interacts with a large audience as a representative of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.[177]..The treatment is the same as for ordinary pilots.[134]..Transfers to Blue Impulse include "transfers according to the wishes of the person" and "transfers by order", and as of 2003 (Heisei 15), the latter was more common.[134] However, as of 2010 (Heisei 22), there are many requests from the person himself.[178].

Until thenTAC unitThen you have to learn the maneuvering technique that you have never done[134]At first, every pilot is confused[134]..Also, it is said that the training content is advanced and strict even for pilots who freely manipulated fighters in the TAC unit.[179]..On the other hand, during the training, the flight maneuvering skills of the formation improved significantly, and when I returned to the TAC unit after completing the three-year term, my colleague's pilot surprised me at the speed of the aerial assembly.[180], "Why are you so good at formation?"[181]..Regarding this, the first squadron commander of the 11th squadron said, "If you practice advanced maneuvering skills for three years, you will often be able to give feedback after returning to the general unit."[180].

Although the exhibition flight is conducted only during the daytime, night flight training is conducted several times a month to maintain skill.[105].

Basically, past enrolled students will not be re-enrolled, but in addition to being re-enrolled as an instructor when there was a shortage of personnel due to an accident, other than that, due to personnel reasons, the position in charge was changed several years after the transfer. There are a few cases of re-enrollment.In addition, at the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic torch arrival ceremony held on March 2020, 3, the OB was temporarily transferred from the TAC unit in order to make it the first two teams and 20 aircraft in history.After that, similar measures were taken at the 2 12 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Successive captains (T-4)

NameBy school / periodTerm of officeTAC namewordRemarks
First generationMitsunobu Tanaka24th aviation1994.10.1~1996.3.21
2 feeHidehiko Abe22th National Defense Academy1995.3.23~1998.3.25BEARCool
3 feeNobuyuki Shiozawa28th aviation1998.3.26~2001.7.31SHAWDream impression94-95 Preparation Team Leader
4 feeHiroshi Watanabe32th aviation2000.3.25~2004.3.25LUPPINWind
5 feeHirofumi Nishimura29th National Defense Academy2003.3.25~2006.3.22JOEink
6 feeHiroshi Kurata31th National Defense Academy2005.4.1~2008.3.31DUNKroad
7 feeHideaki YamaguchiGeneral 79th term (Saitama University)2007.4.1-2010.3.SERVEHeart
8 feeTakuya Watanabe35th National Defense Academy2009.4.1~2012.8.27WATTbonds
9 feeTanaka Ltd.38th National Defense Academy2011.5.9~2014.7.31JOESakura
10 feeHidaka masterpiece40th National Defense Academy2013.3.27~2016.3.23ASHpick
11 feeHitoshi InadomeGeneral 87th term (Nippon Sport Science University)2015.4.1~2018.3.25SUNJin
12 feeTetsuo FukudaGeneral 91st term (Gunma University)2017.4.1~2020.6.10TETSU
13 feeYuki EndoGeneral 92nd term (Tokyo International University)2019.4.1~CHERRY

* Successive captains of the T-4 Blue Impulse leave the words of their thoughts in the squadron when they leave the squadron.

Maintenance platoon

Of the ground crew, the maintenance platoon is in charge of maintenance, and around 20 people under the maintenance platoon leader are enrolled.[182]..The mechanic is called the "dolphin keeper"[183], "DOLPHIN KEEPER" is also written on the patch attached to the left arm of the maintenance clothes.[175].. Three maintenance personnel are assigned to each aircraft.[184], One of them is entrusted with the work on the aircraft that he is in charge of as the chief of the aircraft[184]..Unlike other units, the work of polishing the aircraft is emphasized[185] Is the characteristic of the business content.In charge of engine start and ground guidance at aviation festivals etc.[182] Not only that, we will show off a walkdown walkback during the exhibition flight.[185]..Since there are many opportunities to show the back to the audience, the Blue Impulse logo is also on the back of the exhibition clothes.[175].

As with pilots, the term of office is basically three years.[182], Usually arrive in January for practical training[185]..In addition, the personal names of the members are introduced.[183].

General team

Until April 2006 (Heisei 18), the general team leader was also the pilot of the 4th aircraft.[186] However, pilots who will not carry out exhibition flights have been appointed since April 2006.[182]..Being a pilot, the name tag has the same design as the flight team, and contains the position number of the 7th aircraft.[187].

The general team is a "lifesaving equipment" (LIFE SP) who maintains and manages flying suits, helmets, oxygen masks, etc.[182][Annotation 6], "Flight Manager" (DISP) who manages the flight plan (flight plan)[182][Annotation 7], "Supply" who procures goods (SUPPLY)[182], Other general affairs "general affairs" (ADMIST)[182][Annotation 8]At the time of the aviation festival, I will accompany the pilot and maintenance staff to prepare for the exhibition flight.[182] Therefore, exhibition clothes are prepared[188].

Support equipment

The hangar was built in July 1998 (Heisei 10).[189]..With a gentle arched roof[190], The words "Home of The Blue Impulse" are on the front[190]In the center of the floor inside the hanger, the size is about 10m in diameter.[191] The emblem of Blue Impulse is drawn[190].

The flight corps is adjacent to the hangar[192], There is a material exhibition room on the 1st floor[193] In addition, there are spectator seats on the roof for observing the training.[193].

The corps and hangar are in March 2011.Great East Japan Earthquakeby(I.e.Although it was submerged and damaged, the parking lot and hangar were raised by about 3.6 meters, and a waterproof door was installed in the hangar.A new taxiway with a length of about 200 meters and a width of about 23 meters has also been constructed between the runway and the runway.

As a commercial vehicle, for mobility support of local crewToyota land cruiserHonda actyWas introduced[194] But in 2010 (Heisei 22)Nissan X-TrailIntroduced[195] After that, Land Cruiser is not used[196]..Both are painted with the same image as the Blue Impulse aircraft.[196]..In addition, dedicated to Blue ImpulseTowing carPower carOwn[196]..Refueling vehicles belong to the maintenance and replenishment group, not the flight group.[196] However, one of them is a "refueling vehicle dedicated to smoke oil" and exists only at Matsushima Air Base.[197].

Training airspace

Blue Impulse training is conducted at the following locations.

Airfield training (field acro)
Performed over the base under the same conditions as the actual aviation festival[198]..High training effect can be obtained[172] However, during training, it occupies the control area around the base for more than 30 minutes.[199] Therefore, during that time, other aircraft cannot take off or land.[199]..For this reason, airfield training is conducted about three times a week.[172].
Jinhua Acro Training
It is a training to use the airspace off Mt. Kinka.This is a training airspace dedicated to Blue Impulse[199], Never used by the 4st Squadron, which belongs to the same 21th Air Wing[198]..However, because sea fog is likely to occur in this airspace in summer.[199], After the accident in 2000 (Heisei 12), after confirming the safety such as weather conditions in advance using the aircraft for weather reconnaissance[196], I try to fly the trainer[196]..This airspace will also be used for the development of new courses.[198].

Successive operation machines

F-86F (1960 → 1981)

First aircraftF-86FIs the main fighter of the time, which was provided by the United States when the Air Self-Defense Force was established.[23]..The aircraft used has been acquired by refurbishing all aircraft, and there is no newly built aircraft for Blue Impulse.in principleHamamatsu BaseFrom the aircraft deployed in, the aircraft that met the following conditions were selected and repaired.

The main renovation point is the conversion of the fuel tank on the rear fuselage to a smoke oil tank.[202], Smoke generator is installed behind the engine nozzle, and some instruments are relocated or replaced.[Annotation 10]..The tank capacity of smoked oil was 105 gallons, and it was possible to continuously smoke for about 50 minutes.[202].

However, with this modification, the amount of fuel originally used for flight has decreased.The F-86F permissible G (gravity acceleration) when not equipped with a drop tank (drop tank) is 7.0G.[201], When equipped with a drop tank, the allowable G is 5.5G even if the fuel in the drop tank is empty.[201], Allowable G is 5.0G when full of fuel[201], Depending on the performance, there will be no margin in the allowable G.For this reason, at the beginning, exhibition flights and training were conducted in a "clean form" with the drop tank removed.[30]..However, the lack of fuel tank capacity has become a problem as the number of items for exhibition flights increases.[189]From around 1966 (Showa 41), the drop tank was always installed from the viewpoint of safety.[201].

Initially, a normal painting (unpainted) machine was used to paint the aircraft.[30] However, from the design proposals solicited within the 1st Air Wing, in 1961 (Showa 36), a special design was given with diagonal stripes of blue, pink and light blue on the metal background.[203][Annotation 11]..In addition, only the formation commander's machine had the blue part in gold[203][Annotation 11]..The pink and light blue parts faded violently and became close to white, so the color of this part was darkened in the aircraft that was additionally refurbished later.[204]..After that, around 1963 (Showa 38), the team examined a painting plan.[40], Toho movie "I'm in the sky todayToho designers will cooperate in the wake of the shooting cooperation for[38].. In October 1963, Unit 10-92 was test-painted.[205], This was revised and the new paint was officially decided in November 1963.[40][Annotation 1].

The period of affiliation varies depending on the aircraft, and some aircraft have been used for only about one year, while others have been used for almost the entire period until dissolution.Of the 1 aircraft used, 34 were enrolled until the final flight in 1981 (Showa 56), and 9 were lost in the accident while still belonging to Blue Impulse.[206]..One of the latter was lost in an aerial contact accident that occurred during student training unrelated to Blue Impulse.[206]..Among these 34 aircraftU.S. ArmyAlso included are aircraft donated by the U.S. military, which have been returned to the U.S. military after their use has been discontinued.[206]..一部はSome areUnmanned target aircraftConverted to QF-86F and used as an aerial target[207]..The 1-02, which was one of the aircraft used until the end, was kept in a dynamic state for a while even after the use was abolished, and taxiing was shown at the Hamamatsu Base Air Festival on November 7960, 1985 (Showa 60). However, half a year later, due to a problem with the brake system, it was exclusively for taxiing.[208].

T-2 (1982 → 1995)

2nd generation aircraftT-2Is the first domestically produced supersonic trainer[209]..Some pilots recommended F-4EJ for Blue Impulse.[70] However, it has not been realized because it is too large and the fuel consumption is large.[70]..In the end, it was decided to introduce the T-2 because it is a domestic aircraft and because it is a training aircraft, it has excellent maneuverability and stability.[70].

However, the T-2 was a supersonic aircraft with a large wing loading and a large turning radius.[70]..The engine thrust may be relatively small[74], The slowdown was remarkable when high maneuverability was performed.[74]..For this reason, it was inevitable that the turn (procedure turn) for connecting the items would be larger than in the F-86F era, and that the performance would be delayed.[74]..In order to prevent this delay, the flight was changed to a 86-machine formation with one solo added to the standard 5-machine formation in the F-6F era.[74].

As for the aircraft operated by Blue Impulse, six late models were newly built for Blue Impulse.[70] In addition, two aircraft have been refurbished to Blue Impulse specifications from the previous model.[70].. In 1983 (Showa 58) and 1986 (Showa 61), one aircraft was refurbished to Blue Impulse specifications from the latter model for replenishment.[210].

The refurbishment point of the Blue Impulse specification is a smoke generator that converted the 7th fuel tank in the fuselage for smoke oil for aerobatics.[211] Is the main one[Annotation 12]..Do not spout smoke oil during takeoffAfterburnerWill melt the nozzle of the smoke generator[212] Therefore, smoke oil was used to flow when the takeoff thrust and afterburner were used together.[212][Annotation 13]..This caused the smoke oil to burn with the hot exhaust, pulling a long flame.[212] Was a product of chance[89] It made a strong impression on the audience[74]..This was called "torching" and was unique to the T-2 Blue Impulse, which is not found in any aerobatics team in the world.[89].

As for the painting of the aircraft, as a result of the open call for participants at T-2, the design by a group of four high school girls was the highest award out of 2,055 entries.[30], This design was painted on the actual aircraft after major modifications centered on the nose and the underside of the main wing.[30].. After 1987, the position number was written on the tail.[41], As feedback from the F-2 support fighter developed based on the T-1Bird strikeIt was also replaced with an integrated windshield with countermeasures.[41].

It was also used for student education after the dissolution of the tactical research group, but as mentioned above, the fuel load is small by about 400 liters because part of the fuel tank is diverted for smoke oil.[211] Therefore, a drop tank was installed under the fuselage.[89]..After that, it was repaired by IRAN (regular repair) to almost the same specifications as the normal T-2, and it became simply a Blue Impulse painted T-2.Currently, all aircraft are retired.

T-4 (since 1996)

3nd generation aircraftT-4From the shape of the aircraft,DolphinThere is also a nickname of "[176] It is a domestic secondary trainer[213]..Wing loading is as small as 260 kg[214], The weight ratio to engine thrust is also larger than that of F-86F and T-2.[214], Performance at low altitudeF-15Surpasses[215]..For this reason, it has become possible to carry out high-G continuous items such as "360 ° loop" and vertical high-load items such as "Vertical Cuban Eight" with a margin.

The aircraft operated by Blue ImpulseTactical research specification machineThe following points are different from the normal specifications.

Smoke generator
The third fuel tank at the rear of the fuselage is diverted to a tank dedicated to smoke oil.[213]..The amount of fuming oil loaded is about 320 liters (85 gallons).[216], The amount of fuming oil used in one normal exhibition flight is about 1 liters.[213]..Smoke oil pumps are installed at two locations above and below the tank so that the supply will not be interrupted even if the attitude of the aircraft changes due to rear flight, etc.[216]..In connection with this, the cockpit has an additional smoke oil fuel gauge, smoke oil pump switch, and smoke ON / OFF trigger.[213].
The standard T-4 is equipped with a rudder limiter that limits the rudder's operating angle to 240 degrees as a measure to prevent overloading of the vertical stabilizer when the speed exceeds 5 knots.[217] However, in order to improve maneuverability during aerobatics, the tactical research specification aircraft has expanded the operating angle limit to 10 degrees.[213].
Bird strike(I.e.
Since there are many opportunities to fly at low altitudes at high speeds, the windshield (canopy) is 11 thick in normal specifications.MmMade of stretch acrylic[218] However, the tactical research specification machine has a four-layer structure of acrylic and polycarbonate, and the thickness is also 4 mm.[218]..It weighs 450 at a speed of 4 knotslb(About 1.8kilogram) Is strong enough to prevent damage even if it hits a bird.[219]. Also,Head up display Changed the (HUD) display board from glass to resin[219], Reduces the risk of breakage[217] In addition, a protective structure is also applied to the front edge of the main wing where the control cable is stored.[219].
Low altitude alarm device
Landing gearflapIs equipped with a device that alerts when the altitude drops below the set altitude when both are stored together.[217].

Due to these changes, the specifications are significantly different from the normal specifications of the T-4.For this reason,F-86Unlike F and T-2, in principle it is no longer possible to train with normal T-4[217][Annotation 14].. All 2010 T-4 tactical research specification aircraft introduced by 11 have been acquired as new aircraft.[210][Annotation 15]Later, 10 aircraft were deployed as replacements for the 26-5804, which was damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the aircraft that had reached the end of their service life, with mid-career refurbishment from the existing normal specification aircraft.All of the aircraft, which had been tactical research specifications from the beginning of production, have been retired due to the abolition of use of 2020-3 around the end of March 46.In addition, about one T-5731 with normal specifications is also in operation, and it is used for missions that do not require a tactical research specification aircraft such as weather reconnaissance in the training airspace at sea.

As with the T-2, the painting of the aircraft was open to the public, and from the 2,135 entries submitted,Shigeta SaitoWas adopted by a psychiatrist known as a modeler and F-4 fan.[103].

In August 4 (Heisei 1995) after the introduction of the T-7, it was used as a successor to the T-8.F-2The introduction of support fighters is on the rise[220],1996Nine F-8s were included as Blue Impulse specifications in the defense budget for the degree (9).[220] But was not recognized[220].

Preservation machine

02-7960 and 02-7966Hamamatsu Public Information CenterStored in[206]..In addition, Unit 12-7995, which has a history of belonging to Blue Impulse,Hamamatsu BaseIt is stored as a monument in front of the north gate, but the serial number entered is that of Unit 92-7929, which has already been scrapped.[206]..The Kawaguchiko Motor Museum also exhibits the Blue Impulse painting No. 02-7960, which is a private collection, but as mentioned above, the real No. 02-7960 isHamamatsu Public Information CenterThe original serial number of the Kawaguchiko Motor Museum aircraft is 02-7962.[Annotation 16].
Unit 59-5111 at Hamamatsu Public Relations Center[210],MiyagiHigashi Matsushima City(Former Monou District Yamoto Town) JRSengoku LineKazuma StationBefore 69-5128[210],Ishikawa Aviation PlazaTo 99-5163[210],Gifu Kagamihara Air and Space MuseumTo 19-5173[210],Hyakuri BaseTo 19-5175[210],Aomori Prefectural Misawa Aviation Science Museum19-5177 units are exhibited in[210] In addition,Matsushima BaseNo. 19-5176 is stored in[210].
On the first floor of the Kawasaki Heavy Industries Gifu Factory General Building, Unit 1-46 is on display with a position number of 5726, and at the Hamamatsu Public Relations Center, Unit 1-66 is on display with a position number of 5745.

Exhibition flight


Exhibition flights are mainly held at "Air Festivals" held at the bases of the Air Self-Defense Force in various regions.[221] However, there are also participation in national events.[222]..In addition, around 2010 (Heisei 22), participation in events other than the bases of the Air Self-Defense Force, such as the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Ground Self-Defense Force, has begun to be seen.[222].

However, in the case of a base that shares a runway with civil aviation, no takeoff and landing will be possible while Blue Impulse is conducting an exhibition flight.[221] Therefore, no exhibition flight can be seen.[221] Sometimes.When exhibition flights are held at these bases, we have requested cooperation from commercial airlines long before the date of the exhibition.[223],NOTAMAviation information called (NOTAM) will also be delivered to the flight departments to that effect.[223]..On the day of the event, the private airlines can adjust the takeoff time of the departure point according to the information delivered.[224], Waiting for a turn in front of the airport[225].

In addition, for exhibition flights at places other than the airfield or at bases where the runway is short and T-4 cannot take off and land, the method is to deploy to another base and fly to the exhibition hall from there.[222], This is a "remote show"[222] And "remote exhibition"[226] Is called.

Meteorological conditions

The contents of the Blue Impulse exhibition flight are determined by the weather conditions and available airspace.[227].

Exhibition flight of aerobaticsVisibility(Visible distance) is 8KilometersIt is done with the above[227],Cloud bottomIt is classified as follows according to the height (sealing) of[227].

1st division
Ceiling over 10,000 feet
2st division
Ceiling over 7,000 feet
3st division
Ceiling over 5,000 feet
4st division
Ceiling over 3,000 feet

This division conducts exhibition flights in the highest possible division according to the weather at that time.[227] Therefore, it may be changed due to changes in the weather even during the exhibition flight.[227].

For exhibition flights with limited airspace or at venues other than airfields, if visibility is at least 5 kilometers and ceiling is at least 3000 feet.[228]An exhibition flight called "formation cooperation mobile flight" will be carried out[227]..It will be a combination of horizontal performances that the bank angle does not exceed 90 degrees and overflight (flyby).[222].

In addition, if the visibility is 5 kilometers or more and the ceiling is 1500 feet or more, a flyby will be carried out.[227]..In principle, Blue Impulse exhibition flights will not be conducted under lower weather conditions.[228].

Role of each machine

Normally, exhibition flights will be deployed with seven aircraft, including spare aircraft.[229]..The roles of the six aircraft, excluding the spare aircraft, are as follows.

Unit 1 (Captain, Leader)[187]
It is a formation commander who flies at the head of the formation, and it is the standard for formation of the formation, so accurate maneuvering is required.[230] However, careful flight is required because it is not possible to maneuver in a way that makes it difficult for wingmen to follow.[230]..Lead all members[230]In the role of taking full responsibility for altitude and safety[230], A veteran of the flight team leader class is in charge of the TAC unit[230].
2nd aircraft (left wing aircraft, Left Wing)[187]
Since it plays a role as a reference for the speed of movement during formation conversion, it affects the appearance of the item.[230].
3rd aircraft (right wing, Right Wing)[187]
The youngest pilot in the team is in charge[230].. It has the role of ensuring the symmetry of the formation according to the operation of the second machine.[230].
4th machine (tail machine, Slot)[187]
The role of checking the formation from behind[230].. Since it enters behind the No. 1 aircraft, the jet exhaust of the No. 1 aircraft hits the vertical stabilizer.[181], The canopy gets into the jet exhaust if the rudder is not properly steered in the vertical system.[231][Annotation 17]Therefore, it is also called "the tail machine of hell".[181], The toughest position in formation[181].
5th machine (1st independent machine, Lead Solo)[187]
Responsible for the "solo course" performed with only one machine and the "dual solo course" performed with the sixth machine[230]..There is also a role as the 2nd formation commander machine[222], If a problem occurs with the first aircraft, command the remaining aircraft[222]..In the case of Delta formation, enter the left side of the 4th aircraft[230].
6th machine (2nd independent machine, Opposing Solo)[187]
Responsible for the "solo course" performed with only one machine and the "dual solo course" performed with the sixth machine[222] In addition, in the item of 5 aircraft, we will join the formation led by the 1st aircraft.[222]..In the case of Delta formation, enter the right side of the 4th aircraft[222].


The smoke used in the exhibition flight is made to look like white smoke by heating the smoke oil with the engine exhaust to vaporize it and then cooling it in the atmosphere as it is.[172]..Smoke oil is mainstream in the field of aerobatic flightCutting oilUsing[Annotation 18].

An injection device is installed at the rear of the fuselage to inject smoke oil into the rear of the engine exhaust port, and a tank for smoke oil is also secured.There is also a smoke switch on the cockpit.

The timing to generate smoke is decided according to the item[172], Smoke is generated or stopped according to the instructions from the 1st and 5th machines.[172]..However, in the "solo lesson" performed by only one aircraft, it will be used at the discretion of the pilot.[172].

Color smoke, which was used until 1998, was generated by mixing cutting oil with a special dye.[232]..The reasons for not using color smoke are as follows.

  • Cutting oil mixed with dye needs to be sufficiently agitated.[Annotation 19]Therefore, it takes time and effort to refuel just before the exhibition flight (installed on the actual aircraft).[172].
  • If the dye splashes on the machine, it takes time to remove it.[172].
  • Cutting oil must be drained for each exhibition flight to prevent dye settling.[118].
  • It costs the purchase cost of the dye itself[172].
  • During the exhibition flights in Hofu City and Chitose City in 1998, complaints were received that "the car was colored", and as a result of the investigation, it was found that the cause was color smoke.[233]

The color of the color smoke is determined by the position, the 1st and 5th machines are white (white), the 2nd machine is blue (blue), the 3rd machine is red (red), and the 4th machine is yellow (yellow). , No. 6 was using green[234].

At the same time, the aerobatic corps of each country was banned from using color smoke for the same reason, but with the advent of dyes that are easy to stir and suppress the effect on ground objects,Patrouille de France,Frecce Tricolori,Red arrowsEtc. have come to use color smoke even over the city.Even at Blue Impulse, the idea of ​​drawing the Olympic mark again at the opening ceremony of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics was raised within the Air Self-Defense Force, and the momentum for resuming color smoke has increased, and the aviation development experiment group is using it for exhibition flights overseas such as France. We ordered dyes and verified whether they could be used in Japan, such as their impact on ground objects such as cars and laundry, and their compatibility with the aircraft.[233]After conducting an actual machine test during 2019, we exhibited using color smoke at the Tokyo Olympic Torch Arrival Ceremony held at Matsushima Air Base on March 3, the following year.

At the Tokyo Paralympics, a spare aircraft for the exhibition flight made an inappropriate injection for the purpose of using up smoke from an altitude of 135 m to 30 m just before landing at Iruma Air Base, causing damage caused by color smoke particles adhering to about 300 nearby automobiles. There has occurred[235]..The paint cannot be removed with water or detergent, so it needs to be repainted.[235], Air Self-Defense Force is considering compensation[236].

Paint design

Special for Blue Impulse dedicated machinesPaintingHas been applied, and has undergone four transitions from F-86F to T-4.

F-86F first paint

1960. 10~1963. 8

At the beginning of the team1th WingSame unpainted as other aircraftyellowblackAlthough it was only the checkered tail of the team, the number of aerobatic flights gradually increased and there was no mark for the team, so from October 1960 (Showa 35), design ideas were solicited within the department.[237]..As a result, the first painting design was decided.that isduraluminThe yellow and black checkered tails did not change to the bare unpainted, but the nose of the leader machinegoldpink,WingAnd the rear part of the aircraft is goldLight blueThe gold part of the leader machine is the wing machinedark blueIt was.At the tip of the main wingfluorescenceThe orange tape was stuck[237]..However, with this design, the top and bottom are difficult to understand, and the attitude during aerobatics cannot be determined immediately, so it was used for only 22 months.[237].

F-86F new paint

1963. 11~1981. 2

When the momentum for changing the paint design was increasing within the department, Blue Impulse and the 1st Air Wing made a movie "I'm in the sky todayWill cooperate with the shooting [237] .Toho movieWith the cooperation of the designer of, the aircraft is based on white and bluestripeAnd the undersideVermilionThe line has become a distinctive design.The upper surface of the main wing was blue, and the lower surface was unpainted, which contrasted with Vermilion.[237]..The 92-7872 was painted with a tentative design as a tentative machine.This aircraft continued to fly as a solo aircraft, but was repainted with new paint.[237]..The drop tank was painted orange and had the words "Blue Impulse" in white cursive near the front of the wing tip.This paint design was used for 86 years until February 1981, when the F-2F Blue Impulse retired.

T-2 painting

1982. 7~1996. 12

Blue Impulse, which has decided to change the model from F-86F to T-2, has decided to solicit new paint designs from the general public.This is rare in the world and generally follows the design of the previous generation (for example, in the United States).ThunderbirdsFollows the design when changing models).And surprisingly four people were selectedHigh school girlIt was a design proposal.It doesn't feel like the F-86F era at all.[237], Phthalocyanine blue (dark blue) is the basic tone, and light blue and white lines are arranged.This paint was applied to all Blue Impulse T-2 aircraft and opened to the public at the Matsushima Air Base Festival on July 1982, 7.The drop tank is lowered during the performance, but there is a specially painted one that is painted orange and has the letters "Blue Impulse" in white cursive near the center of the wing tip side.ferryI used it from time to time.This design seemed to be unpopular with fans in the F-86F era, but it was an event that showed that the fan base was wide due to the adoption of the idea of ​​a high school girl.[237]..However, to add to the honor of the high school girls who designed it, the actual painting was completely different from the original design of the high school girls in the color balance around the nose, and with the advice of experts. It was a change.It is unclear who made the change and what specialty it was, but the goodness of the original has been lost.This paint was used for about 1996 years until it retired in December 8.

T-4 painting

1997. 1~

1992(4)11, T-4 Blue Impulse painting design proposal was solicited from the general public as in the case of T-2.The choice was a design proposal by Shoji Saito, a psychiatrist and an enthusiastic fan of Blue Impulse.It is said that it is a work conscious of the design of F-86F Blue Impulse that left a strong impression when I was a child.[237]..The design is white on the top, like the F-86F, but blue on the bottom instead of Vermilion.Main wingHorizontal stabilizerThe upper surface is white and the lower surface is blue.TailIs entirely blue, and the number of the position is put there.As with the aircraft, the drop tank was painted in two colors, white on the top and blue on the bottom.This paint design is still in use as of 2.


Main items of the F-86 era

Formation takeoff
Units 1 to 4 take off in fingertip formation[238], Immediately after takeoff, the 4th aircraft moves after the 1st aircraft[239].. No. 5 takes off after 5 seconds[239]..At Hamamatsu base, where the runway is wide, aircraft 1 to 5 sometimes took off in a delta formation.[238].
High speed low pass
5th machine speed 500knot, Altitude 35フ ィ ー トPass over the audience seats[239]..After that, it was changed to pass over taxiways and runways.[61].
Clover leaf turn
Units 1 to 4 enter from the right side of the venue in a diamond formation[240]..Turn like a clover leaf and leave from the front to the rear[241].
Vertical roll
No. 50 enters at an altitude of 5 feet from the left side of the venue[241]..Raise it vertically in front of the venue[241], As it isrollSoaring to 13,000 feet[241].
Vertical 360 degree turn
Units 1 to 4 enter from the right side of the venue in a diamond formation[241], Make a 360 degree turn.
Inverted flight
Unit 5 enters from the right side of the venue and passes in front of the venue by back flight[242].
Diamond roll
Units 1 to 4 enter from the left side of the venue in a diamond formation[243], Right roll while maintaining formation[243].
4-point roll
Unit 5 enters from the left side of the venue[244]Roll 90 times, 4 degrees each[245].
Trail to diamond roll
Units 1 to 4 enter from the front of the venue in a trail formation[246], Move to diamond formation while rolling right[247].
Cuban Eight
After the 5th aircraft entered from the right side of the venue and passed in front of the venueLoop (somersault)To do[248]Right roll 225 turns after looping 2.5 degrees[248]..Repeat the same thing again and the smoke becomes a figure eight[248].
Vertical Eight
In a lesson that takes the place of "Cuban Eight"[249], Was not implemented unless the weather conditions were good[249]..Enter at a speed of 500 knots, raise in front of the venue and roll half a turn at the top of the loop[249]..Further causes one revolution in a loop with a smaller radius[249], Roll half a turn and return to the place where you first withdrew[249].
Double maneuver
Units 1 to 4 enter from the front left of the venue in a trail formation[250].. Transition to diamond formation during the first loop[251], Half-turn roll when the aircraft approaches straight down in the middle of the second loop[251], The flight direction changes and exits to the left[251].
Five Ship Loop
Units 1 to 5 enter from the front of the venue in a delta formation[251]Loop while maintaining formation[251].
Continuous roll
5th machine continues barrel roll[252]..The item that was done in the early days.
Inverted flight
In the item changed from "Continuous Roll", the 5th aircraft enters from the right side of the venue and passes in front of the venue by back flight.[253].
8-point roll
The 5th machine enters from the back of the venue and rolls 45 times at 8 degrees each.
Upward aerial flowering
1st to 4th aircraft enter in a diamond formation, followed by 5th aircraft[254]..Soaring in front of the venue.While climbing, the 2nd machine rolls 90 degrees to the right, the 3rd machine rolls 90 degrees to the left, and the 4th machine rolls 180 degrees.[254], 5,000 aircraft split in 4 directions at a height of about 4 feet[254]..The 5th machine that follows will climb further from the smoke where 4 machines are separated, and perform continuous rolls in a vertical position.[254]..On the other hand, from the 1st machine to the 4th machineSplit SIt descends with a maneuver called, and four aircraft intersect at one point in front of the venue[254].
Clover leaf
Unit 5 enters from the right side of the venue[255], Ascend while turning to the upper right, then draw a clover leaf with a descending turn[255]..Repeat this 4 times to draw a four-leaf clover three-dimensionally[255].
Downward aerial flowering
Units 1 to 4 enter from the front in a diamond formation[256], Start the loop.Start using smoke at the top of the loop[257], Divides into 4 directions when the posture becomes vertical downward in the middle of the loop[257].
Rolling combat pitch
Units 1 to 5 gather in the air and slowly descend in the Echelon formation[257].. The roll starts from the 1st machine, but after the 2nd machine, it rolls to follow the front machine.[258]..Transition to trail formation as it is[258], Landing one by one[259].

Main items of the T-2 era

High angle takeoff
Formation takeoff from 1st to 3rd aircraft with a pitch angle of 25 degrees[260].
Normal takeoff
The remaining 3 aircraft take off at a pitch angle of 8 degrees[260].
5 Ship Takeoff
The 1st to 4th and 6th aircraft took off in formation with a delta formation and a pitch angle of 25 degrees. Since the accident in November 2, which was an early task in the T-1982 era, only the Hamamatsu base, which has a wide runway, was held.
Roll-on take-off
Unit 5 rolls 30 degrees to the right when the pitch angle reaches 360 degrees after raising the landing gear and flaps immediately after takeoff. Since the accident in November 2, which was an item in the early T-1982 era, it has not been carried out in consideration of safety.
Smoke on takeoff
The fifth aircraft took off with smoke.
Delta roll
6 planes roll big in Delta formation[261].
Change over turn
Six aircraft entered from the right side of the venue in a trail formation, turned 6 degrees over the venue, became a delta formation, and further shifted to a dense formation[261].. At the beginning of the T-2 era, it inherited the "vertical 86 degree turn (diamond turn)" of the F-360 era, but developed its aerobatic technique. It was the aerobatic name.
Parallel inverted
5th and 6th aircraft fly backwards[261].
Trail to diamond roll
Units 1 to 4 enter in a trail formation and shift to a diamond formation while rolling[261].
Opposing Inverted
5th and 6th aircraft enter from the left and right and pass each other in the back flight[261].
Level opener
Also called "horizontal aerial flowering"[262]..Enter from the front of the venue with the 5th machine attached to the back of the diamond formation[262]First, the 2nd and 3rd machines are divided into left and right, then the 1st and 4th machines are separated into left and right, and the 5th machine goes straight.[262].
Opposing Vertical Climb Roll
5th and 6th machines entered from the left and right, and after passing each other, rolled while soaring[262].
Double clover leaf turn
Units 1 to 4 enter in a trail formation[262], Transition to diamond formation while turning 270 degrees[262], Shift to arrowhead formation while turning 270 degrees[262]..It is called this because it draws two of the four-leaf clover leaves with smoke.[262].
Opposing continuous roll
5th and 6th machines enter from the left and right and repeat the roll while passing each other[262].
Changeover loop
Units 1 to 4 enter from the right side in a trail formation[262], Transition to diamond formation while looping[262].. At the beginning of the T-2 era, the 1st to 4th aircraft entered from the front of the venue in a trail formation, shifted to a diamond formation during the loop, and exited to the left side of the venue while rolling 90 degrees to the right in the latter half of the loop.
Big heart
5th and 6th aircraft enter from the front and draw a heart with smoke[263].
Line abrest loop
1st to 4th machinesAbreastEnter in formation[263], Roll while maintaining the formation[263].
Parallel 4-point roll
5th and 6th machines enter from the left side and roll 90 degrees each 4 times.[263].
Delta loop
Six aircraft enter in a delta formation and make a big loop[263].
Cuban Eight
No. 5 draws a horizontal figure 8 in smoke[263].
Upward aerial flowering
After four planes soared in a diamond formation and four planes opened in all directions in the sky[264], No. 6 soars while rolling and passes through the center of the open smoke trajectory[264]..After that, the 1st to 4th machines will cross one point in front of the venue.[264].
Downward aerial flowering
This lesson was stopped due to the accident in November 1982[73].
Calypso break
No. 5 flies backwards, No. 6 goes underneath and passes back to back[264].
Rolling combat pitch
The 1st to 4th aircraft entered in the Echelon formation, and while rolling in order from the 1st aircraft, they moved to the trail formation and landed.[264].

T-4 era items

Item nameCommentaryFirst
Diamond takeoff & dirty turn
Diamond Take Off & Dirty Turn
Bule Impulse @Tuiki 2008 Tsuiki Air Base Festival (3097597313) .jpgUnits 1 to 4 take off in fingertip formation[265]..After takeoff, the 4th aircraft immediately moved to the rear of the 1st aircraft and became a diamond formation.[265].Landing gear(Landing gear) andHigh lift device(Flap) is out (dirty form)[265], With the landing light on[266], Turn 270 degrees and enter from the front of the venue[265]..Make a slow descent of about 500 feet per minute so that the landing lights can be seen shining from the venue.[267]..In addition, the crosswind is 10knotIf you are blowing above, take off one by one in order from the first aircraft at 5 second intervals.[265]..The direction of performance varies depending on the runway used[229].  
Low angle Cuban
Low Angle Cuban
JASDF Blue Impulse T4.JPG.JPGNo. 5 is immediately after takeoffPitch angleKeep low[268]Accelerate to 240 knots after raising the landing gear and flaps[268]..10 on the runwayフ ィ ー トFly low at the height of[268]After a surge at the runway edgeLoop (somersault)Roll one and a half turns[268]Moved to level flight at a height of 300 feet on the runway[268]..It may be done at the same time as the "roll-on / take-off" described later.[269]..The direction of performance varies depending on the runway used[229].  
Roll-on take-off
Roll On Take Off
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJSM Low Angle Cuban and Roll On Take Off.jpgAt the time of takeoff, the 6th aircraft reached 170 knots, and the pitch angle was increased while maintaining the dirty form.[270], 30 degrees to the right when the pitch angle reaches 360 degreesroll[270]..May be done at the same time as the "Low Angle Cuban" mentioned above[269]..The direction of performance varies depending on the runway used[229].  
Fan break
Fan Break
Blue Impulse @ Tsuiki 2008 Tsuiki Air Base Festival (3098433564) .jpgThe diamond formation from No. 1 to No. 4 will pass from the left side to the right side of the venue at a bank angle of about 60 to 70 degrees.[271]..The shortest distance between aircraft is about 1Meters[271], This is the most dense formation of all the lessons[268]..Smoke is not used in this lesson[272]. 
Four point roll
4 Point Roll
Four Point Roll performance of Blue Impulse, JASDF.jpgThe 5th machine entered from the left side of the venue[272], Divide the right roll into 90 times of 4 degrees and repeat to return to the original[272].  
Change over turn
Change Over Turn
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJNK Change Over Turn.JPG1st to 4th and 6th aircraft entered in a trail formation from the right side of the venue[273], Turn right at the signal of the first machine[274] At the same time, shift to Delta formation[274].. 180 when turning 1 degreesSideIs a delta of about 110 meters[273] But then gradually close the gap[275], One side of the delta is about 360 meters to turn 1 degrees[275]. 
Inverted & Continuous Roll
Inverted & Continuous Roll
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJNK Inverted & Continuous Roll.JPGUnit 5 entered from the left side of the venue, rolled 180 degrees to the right, and passed over the runway in a back flight.[276]..Roll back 180 degrees to the left at the end of the runway[274], Ascend and then roll to the right for back flight[274]After looping, enter the runway from the right side of the venue and roll 3 turns to the left[277].  
Rain fall
Rain Fall
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJNK Rain Fall.JPGAn item adopted in place of the "downward aerial flowering" of the T-2 era[96].. Units 1 to 4 and 6 enter from the right side of the venue in a delta formation and start a loop[276]..Start using smoke from the top of the loop[277], No. 2 and No. 3 are 20 degrees when facing straight down[276], 4th and 6th machines break 45 degrees outward[276].    
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Sunrise.JPGItems added in 50 to commemorate the 2010th anniversary of the founding of Blue Impulse[278].. Units 1 to 4 and 6 entered in a delta formation from the front of the venue[278], Enter the loop as it is[278]..Start using smoke at the top of the loop (near 6,000 feet altitude)[279], Continue to loop down to an altitude of 500 feet[279]..After that, the 4th and 6th machines are turned 60 degrees to the left and right.break[278]After that, the 2nd and 3rd machines break in the direction of 30 degrees left and right and the pitch angle is 15 degrees.[278], No. 1 breaks at a pitch angle of 20 degrees[278]..In addition, break without looping in the 3rd and 4th divisions.[279].  
Vertical Climb Roll
Vertical Climb Roll
Vertical Climb Roll performance of Blue Impulse, JASDF.jpgUnit 5 enters from the left side of the venue[276], 4.25 turns on the right roll while soaring vertically over the runway[276].. The speed of the 5th aircraft is 400 knots at the time of entry.[280] However, by the time it reached its maximum altitude of 9,000 feet, its speed had dropped to about 100 knots on the verge of stall.[280].    
Inverted roll
Inverted Roll
No-image.svgUnit 5 enters from the left side of the venue by flying backwards[281], Turn right in front of the venue and make two turns[281], Exit to the right with back flight[281].    
Slow roll
Slow Roll
No-image.svgUnit 6 enters from the left side of the venue[276], Slowly make one full turn with the right roll over about 10 seconds[276]..At first glance, it's easy, but the harmony of the elevator, aileron, and rudder is tested.[280], It is considered to be a difficult subject[280].  
Change over loop
Change Over Loop
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJNK Change Over Loop.JPGFrom the rear of the venue, aircraft 1 to 4 enter in a trail formation[282]After passing through the runway, move to the diamond formation while looping[282]..Roll 90 degrees in the second half of the loop and exit to the right side of the venue[283].    
Half slow roll
Half Slow Roll
No-image.svgFrom the right side of the venue, 5th and 6th aircraft entered in an abrest formation[284]..While maintaining the formation, roll 180 degrees to the right and fly back[282], Roll left in front of the venue and exit to the rear left[284].    
Letter Eight
Letter 8
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Letter 8.JPGFrom the back of the venue, the 1st to 4th aircraft entered in a diamond formation[285]..In front of the venue, the 1st to 3rd machines turn right[279], Only the 4th machine turns to the left with maximum performance[284].. After turning 4 degrees, the 360th machine will return to the diamond formation by shortcutting in the circle drawn by the 1st to 3rd machines.[285], Leave the venue[285]..The origin of the item name is that the smoke trajectory looks like a figure eight.[284].  
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Calypso.JPGItems that have been ongoing since the end of the F-86F era[286]..5th and 6th aircraft entered from the right side of the venue. The 5th aircraft rolls 180 degrees to fly backwards, the 6th aircraft moves and the 2 aircraft are back to back[285]..In the 1st and 2nd divisions, it may be done instead of "half slow roll".[285].    
Back to back
Back to Back
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJNK Back to Back.JPGItems added in 2010 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the founding of Blue Impulse[286]..5th and 6th aircraft entered from the right side of the venue. The 5th aircraft rolls 180 degrees to fly backwards, the 6th aircraft moves and the 2 aircraft are bottom-aligned.[285]..In the 1st and 2nd divisions, it may be done instead of "half slow roll".[285].    
Trail to diamond roll
Trail to Diamond Roll
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Trail to Diamond Roll.JPGFrom the left side of the venue, aircraft 1 to 4 enter in a trail formation[281]..While performing the right barrel roll, move to the diamond formation and exit to the right side of the venue[281].    
Opposite continuous roll
Opposite Continuous Roll
No-image.svg5th machine from the right side of the venue, 6th machine from the left side of the venue[285]..Both perform three right rolls[285], Passing in front of the venue[284].. The distance between the two aircraft is about 2 meters[287].  
Four Ship Invert
4 Ship Invert
Shizuhama AB Festival Shizuhama Air Base Festival (2551601582) .jpgFrom the right side of the venue, the 1st to 4th aircraft enter in a diamond formation[288]..At the end of the runway, the first and fourth aircraft[289]After that, the 2nd and 3rd aircraft moved to the back flight.[289], Pass through in a dense diamond formation as it is, roll 180 degrees on the left side of the venue and leave[289].  
Three Ship Invert
3 Ship Invert
No-image.svgMay be done in place of "Four Ship Invert"[287], 1 aircraft other than the 3st aircraft will fly backwards[287]..Introduced under the name "Ninja Pass" in the "Golden Air Tattoo" sponsored by the US Air Force[127].  
Double Fabel
Double Farbel
No-image.svgMay be done in place of "Four Ship Invert"[287], Only the 1st and 4th aircraft will fly backwards[287].  
(Vertical Cupid)
(Vertical Cupid)
BI vertical cupid.jpgAn item that developed the "Big Heart" that was held in the T-2 era[290].. 5th and 6th aircraft entered from the front of the venue in the Abrest formation and soared[288]..When the pitch angle reaches 85 degrees, it splits into left and right[288], Draw a heart while looping and leave left and right[291]..From the left side of the venue, the 4th machine entered while drawing smoke at a pitch of 30 degrees.[288]..Smoke once to make the heart look like an arrow[288].    
Slant Cupid
Slant Cupid
No-image.svgThe aforementioned "Cupid" that turns diagonally when drawing a heart[281].     
Original Level Cupid
Original Level Cupid
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Original Level Cupid.JPGThe aforementioned "Cupid" that makes a horizontal turn when drawing a heart[281]..No. 4 will not be added in this lesson[281].     
Line abrest roll
Line Abreast Roll
No-image.svgFrom the front on the right side of the venue, aircraft 1 to 3 enter in an abrest formation[288]..Perform a large barrel roll while maintaining the same formation[288]..Abrest formation is difficult to maintain even in level flight[292], It is considered to be an extremely difficult subject[292].    
Single clover leaf turn
Single Cloverleaf Turn
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Single Cloverleaf Turn.jpgFrom the left side of the venue, aircraft 1 to 4 enter in a trail formation[293]..Transition to diamond formation while turning up[293]..From the front of the venue, we will move to the arrow head formation[293], Exit to the right side of the venue[293].    
Three Sixty & Loop
360 ° & Loop
No-image.svgUnit 5 enters from the right side of the venue[292]..After making a 360-degree left turn in front of the venue, make a 360-degree loop[294].    
Opposite triangle
Opposite Triangle
Blue Impulse @Gifu 2008 Gifu Air Base Festival (3104787273) .jpg6 aircraft enter from the right side of the venue in a delta formation[281], At the end of the runway, No. 2 to No. 4 roll to the right and fly backwards.[281], It will be a dense delta formation up to the front of the venue[281].    
Wide to delta loop
Wide to Delta Loop
BlueImpulseMiyazakiNewtabaru.jpgUnits 1 to 4 and 6 enter from the right side of the venue in a delta formation and enter the loop as it is[295]..Close the interval between deltas during the climb[296], One side of the delta, which was about 1m on one side at the time of approach[295], Shrinks to 40m at the top of the loop[296].    
Double rollback
Double Rollback
No-image.svgItems added in 50 to commemorate the 2010th anniversary of Blue Impulse[293].. 6 aircraft enter from the right side of the venue in a delta formation[293], 5th and 6th machines roll outward while rising at the same time[293], Just before the 5th and 6th aircraft gathered in the formation, the 2nd and 3rd aircraft rose at the same time and rolled outward.[293], Swan formation and withdrawal to the left rear[293].    
Delta roll
Delta Roll
No-image.svgEnter from the front of the venue in a delta formation with 6 aircraft[297], Do a big barrel roll while maintaining the formation[298], Exit to the right rear.    
Delta loop
Delta Loop
No-image.svgEnter from the right side of the venue in a delta formation with 6 aircraft[298], Make a big loop while maintaining the formation[297].    
Bonton roll
Bon ton Roll
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJAH Bon ton Roll.JPG6 aircraft enter from the left side of the venue in a delta formation[234], 6 machines make one rotation with the right roll all at once[298].  
Cherry blossom
BlueImpulse sakura01.jpgItems added in 2004 to commemorate the 16th anniversary of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force[293].. 6 aircraft enter from the right side of the venue in a large point star formation[293], Turn 360 degrees to the left all at once by the leader's call[293]..When turning, Unit 2 is 200 feet below[293], No. 3 is 200 feet above[293], No. 5 turns at an altitude of 300 feet below[293].   
Vertical Cuban Eight
Vertical Cuban 8
Vertical Cuban 8 performance of Blue Impulse, JASDF.jpgNo. 5 enters from the right side of the venue[234]..Around the front of the venueImmelmann turnRepeat twice to rise[234]..From the topSplit SRepeat twice to descend[234], Draw the letter "8" in smoke[299].     
Cuban Eight
Cuban 8
No-image.svgNo. 5 enters from the right side of the venue[234]..Raise it past the front of the venue, enter the loop, and roll one and a half turns around the 225 degree loop.[281], Repeat the same thing again when the approach angle is reached[281].     
Star & Cross
Star & Cross
Star under the sky (2097057891) .jpgAn item acclaimed by an American audience at the "Golden Air Tattoo" sponsored by the United States Air Force[121].. 1st to 4th and 6th aircraft enter from the rear of the venue in a delta formation[300], As it is.When the pitch angle reaches 85 degrees, the first machine moves backward.[301], No. 2 and No. 3 are 70 degrees to the left and right[301], 4th and 6th machines are divided into 145 directions at an angle of 5 degrees to the left and right.[301]..Each aircraft descended with Split S maneuver and re-entered the venue at an altitude of around 5,000 feet.[302], Turn to the right by 15 degrees at the signal of the commander and start using smoke[300], Fly towards the smoke start point of each aircraft[303] By that, a big star is drawn in smoke[303].    
Tack cloth I
Tac Cross I
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJST Tac Cross I.JPG5th and 6th machines enter from the front of the venue, 5th machine on the right side and 6th machine on the left side when viewed from the venue[301].. Two aircraft went back flight at the same time[302] Also, after the 5th machine rolls to the right and the 6th machine rolls to the left, they cross each other.[301].. No. 5 goes up to the left and No. 6 goes up to the right, rolls two and a half turns, and then descends with the maneuver of Split S.[302]..It becomes a back flight on the runway, and the two aircraft pass each other as it is[304].   
Tack cloth II
Tac Cross II
No-image.svgIn the above-mentioned "tack cross I", after the 5th and 6th aircraft cross, it turns diagonally without climbing.[303].     
Rolling combat pitch
Rolling Combat Pitch
Blue Impulse @ Tsuiki 2008 Tsuiki Air Base Festival (3098432044) .jpgItems that have been ongoing since the F-86F / T-2 era[305].. Units 1 to 4 enter from the left side of the venue in the Echelon formation[306], After slowly climbing, roll 1 degrees to the right in order from the first machine[303]..The formation was disbanded here, and each aircraft turned 180 degrees to the left.[307], Then move to trail formation to get ready for landing[304].  
Cork Screw
Spiral Nyuutabaru 2007 (2151692902) .jpg5th and 6th aircraft enter from the front right in an abrest formation[307].. After the 5th aircraft went back flight, the 6th aircraft performed three barrel rolls centered on the 5th aircraft.[306], Smoke and cork screw-like trails are drawn[308]..Then get ready for landing[303].  
Knife edge
Knife Edge
No-image.svgUnit 5 enters from the left side of the venue and exits to the right with a bank angle of 90 degrees to the right.[309]..During this time, it is flying only with the lift of the fuselage.[309].     
Delta Three Sixty Turn
Delta 360 ° Turn
No-image.svgConducted only in formation mobile coordinated flight[310].. Units 1 to 4 and 6 entered in a delta formation from the right side of the venue[309], Make a 360-degree turn while maintaining the formation[309].     
Seven Twenty Turn
720 ° Turn
No-image.svgConducted only in formation mobile coordinated flight[310]..The 5th machine that entered from the front of the venue first turned 360 degrees to the right[309], Then turn 360 degrees to the left[309].     
Level opener
Level Opener
No-image.svgConducted only in formation mobile coordinated flight[310].. Units 1 to 4 and 6 entered in a delta formation from the front of the venue[309], 4th and 6th machines turn outward at 60 degrees, 2nd and 3rd machines turn at 45 degrees for 4 seconds and break[309].     
Delta Dirty Low Pass
Delta Dirty Low-pass
No-image.svgPass over the venue in a delta formation.Conducted only in formation mobile coordinated flight and overflight (flyby)[310].    
Leaders Benefits Low Pass
Leader's benefit Low-pass
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJAH Leader's benefit Low-pass.JPGPass over the venue in a leader's benefit formation.Conducted only in formation mobile coordinated flight and overflight (flyby)[310].    
Point star low pass
Point star Low-pass
Blue Impulse (Japan Air Self-Defense Force) .jpgPass over the venue in a point star formation.Conducted only in formation mobile coordinated flight and overflight (flyby)[310].    
Swan lowpass
Swan Low-pass
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJAH Swan Low-pass.JPGPass over the venue in a swan formation.Conducted only by overflight (flyby)[310].     
Grand Cross Low Pass
Grand Cross Low-pass
No-image.svgPass over the venue in a Grand Cross formation.Conducted only by overflight (flyby)[310].     
Echelon Low Pass
Echelon Low-pass
No-image.svgPassing over the venue in the Echelon formation.Conducted only by overflight (flyby)[310].     
Pyramid low pass
Pyramid Low-pass
No-image.svgPass over the venue in a pyramid formation.Conducted only by overflight (flyby)[310].     
Tree lowpass
Tree Low-pass
No-image.svgPass over the venue in a tree formation.Conducted only by overflight (flyby)[310].     
Trail low pass
Trail Low-pass
No-image.svgPass over the venue in a trail formation.Conducted only by overflight (flyby)[310].     
Christmas tree low pass
Christmas tree Low-pass
Japan air self defense force Kawasaki T-4 Blue Impulse RJAH Christmas tree.jpgPass over the venue in a Christmas tree formation.In addition to being carried out by overflight (flyby), it will be carried out after the regular course is completed and before landing for a limited time.[Annotation 20].     


Chronological Table

F-86F era

  • 1958(Showa33 years)
    • May 10 - Hamamatsu BasePerform aerobatic flight with F-86F at the opening festival[27]..The first public somersault by jet plane in Japan.
  • 1960(35)
    • May 3 --First official exhibition at Hamamatsu Kita Base[30]..This is an internal flight to the Air Staff Office, and although it was before the official launch, it was counted as the first exhibition flight.[30], Conducted exhibition flights covering 16 subjects[30].
    • May 4 - 浜 松1th Wing2th SquadronAcro team was born as "Aerial Mobility Research Group"[29].
    • May 5 ――The 5th exhibition flight.The first exhibition flight using smoke was carried out on the 3rd Army Anniversary held at Johnson Base (currently Iruma Air Base).[27].
    • May 8 --Renamed to "Special Flight Research Group"[29].
  • 1961(36)
    • May 7 --The first accident during training off the shores of Lake Irago[38].
    • May 10 --First time using color smoke[39].
  • 1963(38)
    • May 10 --The first debut of a new painting machine at the exhibition flight at Miho base[41].
  • 1964(39)
  • 1965(40)
    • May 11 --With the dissolution of the 2nd Squadron, the 1st Air Wing1th SquadronRenamed as "Tactical Research Team" under the command of[62].
    • May 11 --Take off roll accident[62].
  • 1966(41)
  • 1970(45)
  • 1979(54)
    • May 4 --Dissolution of the 86st Squadron due to the end of pilot education by F-1F[69]..Along with that, the tactics research team will be under the command of the 1st Air Wing.[69].
  • 1981(56)
    • May 2 - Iruma Base"F-86F Blue Impulse Final Exhibition Flight" will be held at[41].
    • May 3 --Perform the final training flight (final acro training) of "F-86F Blue Impulse" over Hamamatsu base[41].
    • May 3 --Dissolution of the 35th Squadron / Tactical Research Group (F-86F Blue Impulse)[41].

T-2 era

  • 1982(57)
    • May 1 - Matsushima Base4th Wing21th Squadron"Combat Research Group (T-2 Blue Impulse)" new edition[69].
    • May 7 --The first official exhibition flight of "T-2 Blue Impulse" will be held at the Matsushima Air Base Festival.[71]..Only "overflight" due to bad weather[69].
    • May 8 - Chitose base"T-2 Blue Impulse" first division official exhibition flight (full performance) at the aviation festival[70].
    • May 11 --The 4th aircraft (currently, while performing "Downward Aerial Flowering" at the Hamamatsu Base Air FestivalHonda logistics) Crashed into the motor pool (pre-shipment collection site for completed vehicles) on the premises.One pilot is killed and causes a major accident that injures 1 local residents[74].
  • 1983(58)
  • 1984(59)
    • May 7 --Resuming exhibition flights including aerobatic flights with 5 aircraft at Matsushima Air Base Festival[73].
  • 1990(Heisei2 years)
  • 1991(3)
    • June-Selected T-6 as equipment for the next (third generation) Blue Impulse[96].
    • May 7 --Two planes crashed during flight training off the coast of Mt. Kinka, and two pilots were killed[90]..Cancel the exhibition flight of this year[73].
  • 1992(4)
    • May 8 --At the Matsushima Air Base Festival, the exhibition flight will be resumed with four aircraft only in the horizontal division system.[98].
    • October-"T-10 Preparation Team" launched in the 21st Squadron[99].
  • 1993(5)
    • August --One solo aircraft added to the exhibition flight, and five aircraft will be exhibited.[98].
  • 1994(6)
    • May 8 - Chitose base6 aircraft from the aviation festival[98].
    • May 8 --US Air Force Acrobat Team "Thunderbirds"WhenMisawa Air BaseCompetition at the Air Festival[95].
    • May 8 --Delivery of T-4 Acro (T-4 Blue Impulse) specification No. 4 (1-46) to 5720th Air Wing[99].
    • May 8 --The "T-4 Blue Impulse" aircraft will be unveiled to the general public at the Matsushima Air Base Festival.[315].
    • May 10 --New edition to "Temporary 4th Squadron" in the form of promoting "T-21 Preparation Team" in the 4st Squadron of the 11th Air Wing[10].
    • August 10- Hyakuri BaseAt the "40 Air Training Exhibition," which doubles as the "1994th Anniversary of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force," the T-4 Blue aircraft was exhibited, one (1) was exhibited on the ground, and two (726 and 2) were exhibited. I do[10].
  • 1995(7)
    • May 7 --"T-4 Blue Impulse" will be unveiled at the "Air Festival" held at Matsushima Air Base, and both T-2 and T-4 Blue Impulse will be co-starring.[10].
    • May 11 --The "T-1995 Blue Impulse" was unveiled at the "4 Aviation Training Exhibition" held at Hyakuri Base, and both the T-2 and T-4 Blue Impulse will be co-starred again.[10].
    • May 11 -Miyazaki PrefectureNittawara BaseAt the aviation festival, the final first division official exhibition flight (full performance) of "T-2 Blue Impulse" will be held.
    • May 12 --Perform "T-2 Blue Impulse Final Exhibition Flight" at Hamamatsu Base[316].
    • May 12 --The final training flight (final acro training) of "T-2 Blue Impulse" will be conducted over Matsushima Air Base.
    • May 12 --Dissolution of the 21st Squadron Tactical Research Group (T-2 Blue Impulse), new edition of the 11th Squadron (T-4 Blue Impulse)[73].

T-4 era

  • 1996(8)
    • 4 month - National Defense AcademyAt the entrance ceremony, the first official exhibition flight of "T-4 Blue Impulse" (formation section only) will be held.[106].
    • May 5 - Iwakuni Air Base"T-4 Blue Impulse" first division official exhibition flight (full performance) on "Japan-US Friendship Day"[106].
  • 1997(9)
  • 1998(10)
  • 1999(11)
    • Prohibition of use of color smoke from this year[129].
    • May 11 --The first division of the exhibition flight was held at the Hamamatsu Base Air Festival for the first time in 18 years.[128].
  • 2000(12)
    • May 7 ――Two planes crashed during the return flight after flight training, and three pilots were killed.[1][317]..After the accident, all exhibition flights of the year will be cancelled[128][318].
  • 2001(13)
    • February-Resumed flight training[130].
    • May 8 --Resuming exhibition flight with 4 aircraft from Matsushima Air Base Festival[133].
    • May 9 - American terrorist attacksDue to the outbreak, all aviation festivals of the current year will be canceled after that.[128].
  • 2002(14)
  • 2004(16)
    • September / October-During the "Pacific Tour"ThunderbirdsAlthough the competition was held at Hyakuri and Hamamatsu, all exhibition flights were canceled due to unseasonable weather.
  • 2005(17)
    • Held in 12 monthNaha baseThe first exhibition flight of T-4 Blue Impulse (only for formation section) was held at the Air Festival.
  • 2007(19)
  • 2008(20)
  • 2009(21)
    • June 6-1-The 2th to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the opening of Yokohama PortYokohama Port FestivalIn, an exhibition flight (passing flight) was carried out over Rinko Park in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.
    • October 10-US Air Force Acrobat Team "Thunderbirds"WhenMisawa Air BaseCompetition at the Air Festival[111].
  • 2010(22)
  • 2011(23)
  • 2012(24)
    • May 11 --At the Iruma Air Festival, the second aircraft during the exhibition flightBird strikeOccurs and makes an emergency landing.Subsequent exhibition flights have been cancelled[320].
  • 2013(25)
    • May 3, -Before returning to Matsushima Air Base, we opened Ashiya Air Base to the general public and made the final exhibition flight at Ashiya Air Base with a feeling of gratitude to the local residents.[154].
    • May 3 --The Blue Impulse return ceremony was held at Matsushima Air Base.Blue Impulse left Ashiya Air Base, which had been the base since the earthquake, and returned to Matsushima Air Base for the first time in two years.[159].
  • 2014(26)
    • May 1 --On the Pacific Ocean about 45km southeast of Matsushima Air Base, the nose of Unit 1 and the left rear of Unit 2 contacted each other and made an emergency landing at the base.This is the first accident of contact between Blue Impulses since its inception.
    • May 5 --At the final event "SAYONARA National Stadium FINAL" FOR THE FUTURE "" of the National Stadium, an exhibition flight (overflight) was held over the stadium.
  • 2016(28)
    • May 8 --Exhibition flight was held at the "Matsushima Air Base Reconstruction Appreciation Event", which was open to the public for a total of 9,000 people, including 1,000 public offerings and 10,000 special invitations.It will be the first time in six years to show off an exhibition flight over the base.
  • 2017(29)
    • May 8 --Exhibition flight at "Higashi Matsushima Summer Festival".
    • May 8 -"Matsushima Air Base Festival(Completely open to the public), two exhibition flights were held in the morning and afternoon.It will be the first time in seven years since 2 that the exhibition flight will be open to the public at the base.
  • 2019(ReiwaFirst year)
  • 2020(2nd year of Reiwa)
  • 2021(3nd year of Reiwa)

List of machines used

Not all of the F-86Fs used were used by Blue Impulse until their use was abolished.

In the F-86F / T-2 era, there were few repair points from the normal aircraft, so if the number of aircraft is insufficient due to maintenance and rotation for the production during the training flight, the normal aircraft will be borrowed. Had been[329].

Due to the aging of the T-4, we started "repair of tactical research specifications" from 2012, and by 24, 2020 aircraft were renovated, 10 of which were mothballs at Komaki base. The stored aircraft was repaired, and one aircraft303th SquadronThe aircraft deployed in was repaired.As a result, since the 11th Squadron was established, all aircraft manufactured as tactical research specification aircraft have been retired.

Serial number[206]Normal painting[206]Old paint[206]Test paintingNew paint[206]Date of discontinuation of use[210]Remarks
62-7493   August, 1978After discontinuation of useU.S. ArmyReturn to[206]
62-7501   August, 1981Finally, the aircraft that was refurbished to Blue Impulse specifications[206]
62-7512   August, 1979 
72-7709   August, 1981 
72-7711   August, 1979 
72-7757  1969/5/11Crashed during operation in the 6th Squadron[206]
72-7772   August, 1977 
72-7773   1972/11/4Crash after takeoff from Iruma Air Base[206]
82-7809   August, 1980 
82-7812   August, 1980After discontinuation of useU.S. ArmyReturn to[206]
82-7821   August, 1980Smoke generator first installed machine[330]
82-7832   August, 1979 
82-7834   August, 1980 
82-7847 August, 1981Used with Blue Impulse for the entire period except one time[210]
92-7872 [40]August, 1980 
92-7873   August, 1981 
92-7894   August, 1981 
92-7901   1976/3/25Crashed during operation in the 10th Squadron[206]
92-7913   August, 1976 
92-7915  August, 1977 
92-7927   August, 1981 
92-7929   August, 1977 
92-7931   August, 1981 
92-7937 1978/2/16The old paint is the captain's machine[206]・ Crash during operation in the 1st Squadron[206]
92-7939 August, 1976 
02-7943   1961/7/4Crash during student training[206]
02-7948 August, 1978 
02-7960   August, 1981Hamamatsu Public Information CenterExhibited at[206]
02-7962   August, 1980 
02-7966   August, 1981Exhibited at Hamamatsu Public Relations Center[206]
02-7975   1965/11/24Crash during aerobatics training[206]
02-7976   1961/7/21Crash during aerobatics training[206]
12-7993   August, 1980 
12-7995   August, 1980Saved at Hamamatsu base with 92-7929 paint[206]
Serial number[210]Classification[210]New construction / renovation[210]Remarks
59-5111Early typeRefurbishmentSaved in Hamamatsu Public Relations Center after retirement[210]
59-5112Early typeRefurbishmentCrashed during training on July 1991, 7[206]
69-5128Late typeRepair (for replenishment)After retirementSengoku LineKazuma StationSave before[210]
99-5163Late typeRepair (for replenishment)After retirementIshikawa Aviation PlazaSave to[210]
19-5172Late typeNew constructionCrashed during training on July 1991, 7[206]
19-5173Late typeNew constructionAfter retirementGifu Kagamihara Air and Space MuseumSave to[210]
19-5174Late typeNew constructionCrashed during an exhibition flight on November 1982, 11[206]
19-5175Late typeNew constructionAfter retirementHyakuri BaseSave to[210]
19-5176Late typeNew constructionAfter retirementMatsushima BaseSave to[210]
19-5177Late typeNew constructionAfter retirementAomori Prefectural Misawa Aviation Science MuseumSave to[210]
Serial number[210][331]Year of introductionNew construction / renovation[210][331]Remarks
46-57201994[96]New constructionCrashed during training on July 2000, 7[210]
46-57251994[96]New constructionRetired on December 2016, 12[331]
46-57261994[96]New constructionRetired in 2017
46-57271994[96]New constructionCrashed during training on July 2000, 7[210]
46-57281994[96]New constructionRetired in September 2017
46-57291994[96]New constructionRetired in September 2018
46-57301994[96]New constructionRetired in 2018 
46-57311994[96]New constructionRetired in September 2020 
66-57451996[96]New construction (additional)Retired in September 2020
26-58042002[133]New construction (for replenishment)August 2011, 3,Great East Japan EarthquakeSubmerged by the tsunami[332]
26-58052002[133]New construction (for replenishment)Retired in September 2019
16-56632020Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 10
16-56662017Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 4
26-56862018Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 6
26-56902018Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 5
26-56922017Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 3
36-56932020Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 9
36-56942019Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 8
36-56972019Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 7
06-57872016Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 1
06-57902016Repair (for replenishment)Tactical Research Specification Machinery Refurbishment Unit 2

Basic formation


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b It is said that the designer of Toho devised it, but in reality, the designer of Toho reworked the painting plan examined by the team, and the official design was decided.[40].
  2. ^ a b The call sign at this time was "Blue-1"[116][117].
  3. ^ However, since 26-5692 was in IRAN, the first aircraft of formation B used the normal specification T-1.
  4. ^ About classSelf-Defense Forces rankSee.
  5. ^ The exhibition clothes are bright blue,ThunderbirdsFrom (dark navy blue)US Navy OfBlue angelsThe color is close to.
  6. ^ "LIFE SP" stands for "Life Supporter"[175].
  7. ^ "DISP" stands for "Dispatch"[175].
  8. ^ "ADMIST" stands for "Administrator"[175].
  9. ^ Aircraft have a gravitational acceleration (G) limit, and if you fly beyond this limit, you will need to inspect the aircraft.[201].
  10. ^ Not usedmachine gunThe muzzle was closed with a plug, but the machine gun itself was left as a ballast so that the position of the center of gravity would not change.
  11. ^ a b Due to the diagonal band on the body, it was also called "tasuki" inside the unit.[203].
  12. ^ Another modification is that the afterburner can be used even if it is not full throttle because it is powerless. The part throttle afterburner (PTA) can be used only for the left engine because the smoke oil will burn completely if the right engine is also used. Additional switch,cockpitAddition of grips to, change of arrangement and specifications of some instruments, addition of smoke oil fuel gauge, etc.Also, in the early days, the blue specification machine was equipped with a ballast instead of the machine gun in the latter model as well as the normal early model, but since there was a problem when using the aircraft for student education, it was later equipped with a machine gun. It was decided to do.
  13. ^ Repairs have been made to relocate the nozzle to the rear, with the aim of improving smoke smoke during normal use.
  14. ^ With the F-86F and T-2, there were almost no changes related to maneuvering characteristics other than the smoke generator, so it was possible to train aerobatics with a normal aircraft.[217].
  15. ^ A re-evaluation program for the degree of fatigue of the aircraft is being carried out, and there is a possibility that the aircraft will be replaced after being modified to the same specifications as other units in the future.
  16. ^ According to the 2001 edition of the serial list published by JARG (Japan Aircraft Research Association).In addition, 02-7962 is an aircraft that has belonged to Blue Impulse.Kasuga baseThe 82-7777, which is stored in, is only painted in the "Blue Impulse" style, and has never belonged to Blue Impulse.
  17. ^ When using the F-86F, the jet exhaust of the first aircraft sometimes entered the air intake of its own engine.[231].
  18. ^ In recent years, it is a little expensive considering the impact on the environment,パ ラ フ ィ ンSmoke using is also developed,Red Bull Air Race World SeriesIt is used in etc.
  19. ^ Because the cutting oil and dye separate over time
  20. ^ Bases for air festivals in late November and December (Construction base,Nittawara Base,Naha baseEtc.).
  21. ^ A strong wind was blowing from early morning, and the torch transport plane arrived at 1 am, about an hour earlier than planned.There was a possibility that the destination would be changed to Haneda, but this was avoided by accelerating the arrival.
  22. ^ Blue Impulse "Thanks Flight" Live Broadcast with Over 10 Cameras # Ale to Healthcare Professionals - UAF YouTube - ANN NewsOfficial channel, May 2020, 5, 29 minutes 9 seconds.
  23. ^ [Uncut version] Blue Impulse's "thank you flight" seen from the sky # Ale to medical staff - UAF YouTube --ANN News Official Channel, May 2020, 5, 29 minutes 22 seconds.


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  310. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Perfect Guide" (2010 edition) p.84
  311. ^ Takeda (2011) p.12
  312. ^ Blue Impulse "Heisei Major Repair" Completion Commemoration at Himeji Castle
  313. ^ About the decision of the celebration flight of Blue Impulse
  314. ^ Himeji Castle: Celebration, Blue Impulse flight for the first time in 49 years March next year "Major repair" completion ceremony / Hyogo
  315. ^ "Perfect Guide" (2010 edition) p.98
  316. ^ "Blue Impulse 50 Years Trajectory" p.83
  317. ^ Miyagi Prefecture Environment and Living Department Nuclear Safety Measures Office. “News from Nuclear Energy Miyagi Vol.75 (October 12 issue)". 2013/4/13Browse.
  318. ^ Miyagi Prefecture Environment and Living Department Nuclear Safety Measures Office. “News from Nuclear Energy Miyagi Vol.77 (October 13 issue)". 2013/4/13Browse.
  319. ^ "Yume Peninsula Chiba National Athletic Meet September 9-26 years at the opening ceremony of the festival, 37 people enthusiastic battle 3 days: Chiba> Planning / serialization: YOMIURI ONLINE (Yomiuri Shimbun)". Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2010, 9). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/e-japan/chiba/feature/chiba1283956566203_02/news/20100925-OYT8T01077.htm 2012/11/12Browse. 
  320. ^ "Blue Impulse, Iruma Air Base Air Festival Drawing Art in the Sky". Sankei News(July 2012, 11). http://photo.sankei.jp.msn.com/kodawari/data/2012/11/1103iruma/ 2012/12/6Browse. 
  321. ^ Blue Impulse Rugby World Cup at the Opening Ceremony(September 2019, 9) Asahi Shimbun
  322. ^ Torch Arrival Ceremony Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Official Website
  323. ^ "Blue Impulse flies over the city center Thank you to medical professionals"NHK NEWS WEB"NHK, August 2020, 5.2020/5/31Browse.* There is a video (34 seconds).
  324. ^ "Blue Impulse Flight Thanks to healthcare professionals"Mainichi Newspapers"Mainichi Shimbun, August 2020, 5.2020/5/31Browse.* There are 15 images.
  325. ^ a b Higashi Matsushima City Construction Department Construction Division (October 2020, 10). “About recruitment of Higashi Matsushima city road nicknames (previous announcement) <Regular press conference materials (PDF)”. Higashi Matsushima City. 2021/3/11Browse.
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  327. ^ a b Higashi Matsushima City Construction Department Construction Division (created on April 2018, 4, updated on January 26, 2021).About road nickname”. Higashi Matsushima City. 2021/3/11Browse.
  328. ^ "Birth of "Blue Impulse Street" Why even the name of the street? A local area full of "likeness""Vehicle News" Co., Ltd.Media Vague, August 2021, 1.2021/3/11Browse.
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  332. ^ "J Wing" Vol. 155, p.17




  • "Blue Impulse 2000" "J Wing" No. 20, Ikaros Publishing, April 2000, pp. 4-28.
  • Eisuke Kurosawa "I want to know more, Blue Impulse!" "J Wing" No. 106, Ikaros Publishing, June 2007, pp. 6-8.
  • Eisuke Kurosawa "Ganbare! Matsushima Air Base" "J Wing" No. 154, Ikaros Publishing, June 2011, pp. 6-4.
  • Eisuke Kurosawa, Hiroo Kawai "The long-awaited Air Self-Defense Force Festival & Blue Revival Chitose Airline Blue Adhesion Report" "Aviation fanNo. 707, Bunrindo, November 2011, pp. 11-1.
  • Eisuke Kurosawa "" New Blue "Begins! Blue Impulse 2013" "J Wing" No. 178, Ikaros Publishing, June 2013, pp. 6-10.
  • Eisuke Kurosawa, "Welcome Home, Blue Inpulse, Return to Matsushima," "Koku-Fan," No. 726, Bunrindo, June 2013, pp. 6-1.
  • Yukihisa Kamino "Naha Air Base Air Festa and 50th Anniversary Season Final, TR Training in Matsushima" "Aviation Fan" No. 700, Bunrindo, April 2011, pp. 4-1.
  • Yukihisa Kamino, "Resurrection from the Blue Impulse Earthquake-Introduction," "Koku-Fan," No. 704, Bunrindo, August 2011, pp. 8-8.
  • Toshiharu Suzuzaki "Matsushima Air Base Restoration Progress !!" "J Wing" No. 155, Ikaros Publishing, July 2011, pp. 7-16.
  • Katsumune Tanaka "Blue Impulse that flew over Matsushima for the first time in five and a half months" Thank you! Higashi Matsushima Genki Festa "" "Koku-Fan" No. 5, Bunrindo, October 706, pp. 2011-10.
  • Katsumune Tanaka, Eisuke Kurosawa, "Blue Impulse 2012 Season," "J Wing," No. 167, Ikaros Publishing, July 2012, pp. 7-6.
  • Masayuki Tanaka, "Blue Impulse, Resuming Field Acro Training at Tsuiki Air Base," Aviation Fan, No. 706, Bunrindo, October 2011, pp. 10-24.
  • Shunji Nakai, "Blue Impulse, Return to Matsushima," J Wing, No. 178, Ikaros Publishing, June 2013, pp. 6-22.
  • Toyoichi Matsuzaki, "The Existence of" Blue Impulse "Thinking Again," "J Wing," No. 106, Ikaros Publishing, June 2007, pp. 6-21.
  • Hiroo Murata, "Turbo's Nellis Diary," "Aviation Fan Illustrated," No. 95, Bunrindo, August 1997, pp. 8-68.
  • "US Air Force 50th Anniversary Air Show," Air Fan Illustrated, No. 95, Bunrindo, August 1997, pp. 8-22.
  • "Blue Impulse: The Path to the United States," Aviation Fan Illustrated, No. 95, Bunrindo, August 1997, pp. 8-76.
  • "Blue Impulse 2009" "J Wing" No. 130, Ikaros Publishing, April 2009, pp. 6-22.
  • "Matsushima, which was hit directly by the tsunami, is also undergoing reconstruction!" "Aviation Fan" No. 702, Bunrindo, June 2011, pp. 6-8.

Related item

  • Blue Impulse Junior --Club activities by volunteer maintenance staff at Matsushima Air Base.
  • White Arrows --The official aerobatic corps of the Maritime Self-Defense Force organized by flight instructors.The only fixed-wing propeller aircraft in the Self-Defense Forces is used.

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