Photo Kanden tunnel trolleybus 300 type 301 car stored in the Trobus memorial hall
[Summer vacation] Trolleybus running on the Tateyama Kurobe Alpine Route, birthday event
If you write the contents roughly
It is said that August 8st, the date of the event, is the birthday of Trolleybus, which has such a history, so it was decided to hold a "birthday party event" at this Trolleybus Memorial Hall.
The Tateyama Kurobe Alpine Route (long ...), one of the world's leading mountain sightseeing routes, runs through the Northern Alps, which is lined with mountains at an altitude of 3000m. → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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trolley bus (British: trolley-bus,Rice: trolley bus) Is stretched over the roadOverhead wire(Overhead line) Taken fromElectricalThepowerRun asbusPoint to. What is a "trolley"?Current collectorThat.appearanceAlsoControlThe law is similar to an ordinary bus.For shortTrolleybusAlso called, in JapaneseRailless trainTranslated as (Mukijodensha).
TrolleybusTramWith transportation that has the advantages of busesExhaust gasDo not issueOrbitIt has the advantage that there is no need to lay it.However, in rare cases, a trouble occurs in which the trolley pole (current collector) comes off the overhead line.Trouble is likely to occur at points where overhead lines branch or intersect, and it is necessary to decelerate before that, and if the following vehicle line does not maintain a sufficient inter-vehicle distance.Traffic jamInvite[Annotation 1]..Currently, in addition to the increase in automobile traffic, the performance is good.diesel engine,Hybrid methodLarge sizeTransit BusWith the advent of, the abolition is progressing, and in Japan, all trolleybus routes running in the city area have been abolished.However, the road is wide and there are relatively few cars.Socialist country・ Many are still left in the cities of the former socialist countries.AlsoカナダSuch asHydropowerIt is also used in tourist areas such as Kurobe Dam in Japan, where abundant and inexpensive electricity is stably supplied.
Small for running in places where overhead lines for power supply cannot be stretchedDisplacementSome have an auxiliary engine.This engine was used to propel the vehicle directly, not for power generation, and was once in JapanToei Trolley Busso,ElectrificationOf the railroadRailroad crossingThere was something to use to cross.recently,diesel GeneratorHybrid system equipped withStorage batteryVehicles have been developed that can travel longer distances on roads without overhead lines.Chugoku 北京市Then,WangfujingLandscape measures for downtown areasChang'an StreetCrossing measures (National Foundation DayIsAnniversary of foundingLarge scale in the year ofMilitary paradeBecause there is, it is not possible to stretch the overhead line).
From the overhead wire (trolley wire) on the roadCurrent collectorCollect electricity using (trolley pole)electric motorTurn to power.It is called a "trolley bus" because it receives power from this trolley and runs.The part of the tip of the trolley pole that comes into contact with the overhead wire is similar to a tram at the very beginning.pulley(Trolley wheel) was used, but depending on the road conditions, the trolleybus needs to run far outside the overhead line, so pulleys have insufficient followability when the angle with the overhead line is large. Therefore, a slider type that can rotate freely with a U-shaped cross section was developed and became widespread.
タ イ ヤIs normalAutomobileIt is the same rubber tire as.The appearance is almost the same as a normal bus except for the trolley pole on the roof[Annotation 2]ButpowerSourceMain controllerIs equal to a train.However, unlike ordinary trainslineToGroundSince it is not possible to make it, there are two overhead lines +/-, and two trolley poles are applied to the parallel overhead lines.
Trolley pole and overhead wire respectivelyrigidityAnd trolley poleCentrifugal forceDue to the problem of, if you try to speed up too much when turning a curve or try to make a sharp curve, the trolley pole may often come off the overhead line, in which case the vehicle is stopped once and the crew (Driver,conductor) Turns behind the vehicle, pulls the trolley pole cable, and rehangs the trolley pole on the overhead wire.To prevent the pole that came off the overhead wire from jumping up and cutting the suspension wire (spun wire)OfflineA catcher that prevents the pole from rising at the time,springA retriever that winds up the pull string by the action of a spring and lowers the pole.Is provided at the rear of the vehicle body.Even if you do not leave the line, if you make a mistake in the lane, or if the trolley pole is slightly shaken and you are connected to the overhead line on the side different from the direction you should go, you can manually lower the trolley pole to make it regular. It is necessary to reconnect to the overhead line.
In addition, when moving the vehicle to a place that is safe and does not interfere with traffic when the line is separated for the reason mentioned above, the section where the overhead line cannot be partially attached (railway)ElectrificationIn the sectionRailroad crossingWhen driving, road construction, etc.ACCIDENT,火災,disasterWhen the road on the original route is closed due to such reasons, when temporarily using a road outside the route to make a detour, etc., an auxiliary engine orbatteryVehicles equipped with are becoming mainstream.Also, once the car bodyInsulationOften due to inadequateleakageWake up and passengers and driversElectric shockSometimes I did.
Comparison with similar transportation
Comparison with iron wheel type tram
- No orbit required.
- No need for its construction or maintenance.
- There are no steps that get in the way of other vehicles.
- You can avoid obstacles to some extent.
- Change the direction of the front wheels and turn (Steering) Therefore, it is possible to drive even on a sharp curve.
- The advantage of running on rubber tires.
- The tires are made of rubberRolling resistanceIs largepower consumptionThere are many.
- Trolley poleDue to current collection, the structure of the train line branching / converging part is more complicated than that of a tram, and breakdowns and pole deviations are likely to occur.
- Since it is a rubber tire, it wears more than iron wheels and must be replaced relatively frequently.
- Unlike the iron wheel type where the iron rail is installed on the ground, a separate grounding measure is required.
- If the road is not straight and vast, there is a risk that the rear part will protrude and there is a limit to the lengthening of the train.
Comparison with bus (built-in power source)
There are many things in common with the superiority of trains over diesel railcars in railways.
- Vehicles are cheap because they do not require an engine or battery.
- electric motorBecause it runs on the road, it does not emit exhaust gas directly.
- It's like an electric car that doesn't have to be loaded with heavy batteries, and has low overall carbon dioxide emissions (including electricity sent).
- Because it runs on an electric motorInternal combustion engineIt is cheaper than the operating cost of.
- Since it runs on an electric motor, there is little noise.
- Since it runs on an electric motor, there is no shift vibration.
- Because it runs on an electric motorfuelNo need to replenish.
- A large torque can be output from the start.Acceleration and deceleration are frequent in urban areas, and it is advantageous because it is operated on steep slopes.
- The ratio of power packs (motors / control devices) is relatively small.
- Compared to internal combustion engine type buses, there are fewer maintenance items and the vehicle body life is longer.
- The output does not decrease even in places where the altitude is high and oxygen is low.
Running on an electric motor can have the above advantages compared to an internal combustion engine bus, but it is powered by electricity.Electric busIt is equivalent in comparison with, and is not an advantage.
- Overhead line is required.
- It costs money and time to lay and maintain overhead lines.
- It is difficult to revise and abolish routes, and detour operations cannot be performed when roads are obstructed.
- The maximum height of other vehicles passing through the route road is limited to less than the height of the overhead line.
- Overhead line is along the lineLandscapeTo spoil.
- Substation facilityNeed to be installed.
- There is a limit to the distance that can be deviated from the overhead line.
- Because the overhead line is shared, you cannot overtake the previous bus.
- Trouble that the trolley pole comes off at the branch or intersection of the overhead line is relatively easy to occur, and temporary deceleration to avoid it may cause traffic trouble.However, at present, batteries and auxiliary power are also being developed, and it is not always necessary to constantly supply power from the overhead wire.
- Problems from being subject to laws and regulations as railroads and tracks.
- Compared to a fixed-route bus, the amount of work required for notifications to regulatory agencies is large and complicated.
- Training and training of crew members is complicated, and it costs a lot compared to a fixed-route bus.
- There are many areas where trolley buses are not common.
- Compared to both trams and buses, especially in Japan, there are few manufacturers in Japan, the manufacturing cost is high, and maintenance is likely to be disadvantageous.
- Due to technological improvements in electric buses that use in-vehicle batteries as their main power source, the meaning of collecting electricity from overhead wires (meaning that the trolleybus is kept alive) is diminishing.
History and current situation
Birth of a trolleybus
1882On September 4,Germany OfWerner von Siemens BerlinIt is said that the world's first trolleybus started operation in a section of 540 meters near Halensee in the suburbs.(""Electromote"Test run). The car body is open typeCarriageWas used as it was.This experiment continued until June 6, the same year.After this experiment1900Held inParis ExpoExperiments were conducted in various parts of Europe, such as demonstrating at, and were transmitted to the United States and other countries.Initially, a method was adopted for the current collection method, in which small wheels were placed on an overhead wire, which was connected to the vehicle body by a flexible power transmission line and pulled while running.Trolley poleCame to be used.
The world's first commercial operation1901July 7, GermanyDresdenIt is generally accepted that the route was between Königstein and Hutten in the suburbs, but this line was abolished in 1904 and is short-lived.In the vehicle at this time, a method of collecting current with two trolley poles arranged in front and behind was adopted..
Germany is the birthplace of the trolleybus and the first commercial operation.It is still active as urban transportation in Potsdam etc..
The United Kingdom
1911The first business line inEnglandNorthernLeedsとBradfordOpened during..Many British trolley buses are double-decker cars, and they used to beUKA double-decker trolleybus was also seen in the city.However, trolley buses for urban transportation are now completely abolished..
The United States of America
In the United States, mainly tourist destinations, trolley buses or buses called trolleys (en: Tourist trolley) Are in operation, but these are regular buses with diesel or gasoline engines that use a retro-style body..
Also, not only commercial operation in these cities,And so on of the old trolleybusDynamic preservationSome organizations are working on.
Moscow, the capital of Russia, was the world's largest trolleybus city, carrying 1251 kilometers of routes, 1,851 vehicles owned, and transporting 6 million people annually., Was virtually abolished as of the end of August 2020.The reason for the abolition is said to be the shift to electric buses and the improvement of convenience, but the clear reason has not been clarified, and some residents are repulsing due to the interests of the mayor of Moscow..
1912(Meiji45 years)Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of ElectricityA prototype trolleybus vehicle was prototyped and operated from the Hamamatsucho factory to the Sukiyabashi garage on April 4.Also, in 11 (Taisho 1926)Hitachi, Ltd. FordA three-phase AC trolleybus is being prototyped by remodeling a car made by the manufacturer.
The first commercial operation of a trolleybus in Japan1928(Showa3 years) April 8Hanshin Express Railway(CurrentlyHankyu Corporation）Hanayashiki Station(CurrentlyHibarigaoka StationIntegrated withHibarigaoka Hanayashiki Station) And (currently around Kawanishi City), the service started in the section connecting 1.3 kilometers.Japan trackless trainIs said to be.At that time around hereSpaThe hot spring inn that developed itamusement parkAs an access route to, the bus at that time (gasoline engine) Suddenly impossible to climbSlopeIt was to overcome.However, the performance is not good,1932(Showa 7) Closed in January, abolished in April of the same year, and ended in a short life of just under four years after opening.
The first city transportation system to open1932Kyoto City Electricity Bureau (laterKyoto City Transportation Bureau)ofKyoto municipal trolleybusIs.Then in 1943 (Showa 18)Nagoya City Transportation Bureau OfNagoya Municipal Trolley BusThis route was the only trolleybus route in Japan until it opened.After the warTrolleybus routes have opened in some big cities.In the background, the internal combustion engine at that timebusAlthough it was able to cope with the increase in size, the output performance was still low, frequent maintenance was required, and noise and vibration also needed to be improved. It is said that there were high expectations for a trolleybus that could handle the increase in size of the train, and that the construction cost was one-third that of a tram.
However, it can only run under the overhead line,motorizationDue to the increase in automobiles caused by the increase in road congestion, it became difficult to operate on time, and the development of large buses with high-performance engines progressed.1960 eraFrom the second half1970 eraIt was gradually abolished toward the beginning.The last city trolleybus to open or abolishYokohama City Transportation Bureau OfYokohama Municipal Trolley Busso,1959Opening of business,1972It is abolished.The Yokohama City Transportation Bureau's trolleybus business was in the black until the end, but most of the trolleybuses in other cities were abolished, which hindered the construction of new vehicles and the procurement of vehicle parts.Fiscal rebuilding organizationIt will be abolished by being designated asYokohama tramIt was abolished because it was difficult to maintain a substation shared with the company alone.
on the other hand,1964ToKansai Electric Power Kurobe Gorge(Toyama) ConstructedKanden tunnelでKanden Tunnel Trolley Bus(Kurobe Dam Station - Ogisawa Station) Started operation.It continued to operate even after the trolleybus as urban transportation disappeared from Japan, and was known as Japan's only trolleybus for a long time.and1996Same as the Kanden tunnel trolleybusTateyama Kurobe Alpine RouteComposeTateyama KurobeUntil thendieselConvert from the busTateyama Tunnel Trolley Bus(Murodo Station - Daikanbo Station) Has started operation.This is because the entire section of the line is a tunnelventilationAnd the surrounding areaNational parkDue to consideration for the natural environment due to the fact that it is inside, it was replaced with a trolleybus that does not emit exhaust gas, following the Kanden tunnel trolleybus.After that, the Kanden tunnel trolleybus ended its operation on November 2018, 11.Electric busReplaced by, after December 2018Tateyama Tunnel Trolley BusIs the only trolleybus in Japan.
Japan OfdecreeAbove isNoRailElectric train(Mukijodensha)TrainIt is treated as a kind of.Long time agoTrackless trainIt was called (Mukido Densha), but it was changed to "railless train" because "railless" means "out of the ordinary" and gives a bad impression.1947Since (Showa 22), the law saysRailless trainIt is classified as a type of railway calledOrbit methodorRailway Business LawIs applied.Ruleless train driving rulesBesides, if the route is on a public roadRoad Traffic LawIt will be operated according to.The driverLarge type XNUMX licenseIn addition toMotor vehicle driverYou must also obtain a driver's license (railless train driver's license).Those who hold a large class XNUMX driver's license are exempted from tests other than the proficiency test for a railless train driver's license (although all the tests were once exempted).2009(21) The proficiency test is no longer exempt due to the revision of the ministerial ordinance).note that2001I used a bus vehicle that opened inGuide rail type railway(Guideway bus)Nagoya guide way busAlthough it is not an "electric car", it is classified into these by law.
On the other hand, although trolley buses are regulated by the Road Traffic Act as mentioned above, even vehicles running on public roadsRoad Transport Vehicle ActIs not regulated.ThereforeLand Transport OfficeRegistration to (at that time),Liability insuranceand車 検Is unnecessary, (as a car)License plateIs not attached.
- Tateyama Tunnel Trolley Bus(Tateyama Kurobe) Murodo Station-Daikanbo Station (3.7km)
Trolley buses (railless trains) in the narrow sense are only on the above routes,Unzen Golf Course(NagasakiUnzen City), Nago Pineapple Park (OkinawaNago) "Pineapple", Kouri Island Ocean Tower (Okinawa Prefecture)Nakijin VillageKouri Island) Electric cart, Maipari (Miyakojima Tropical Orchard, Okinawa Prefecture)Miyakojima City) "Tropical guided tour" is autopilotGolf cartAlthough it is a kind of (electromagnetic induction cart), it is close to a trolleybus in principle.In addition, even in Kyushu, where there is no regular trolleybus operation case, an electromagnetic traveling cart test operation was carried out on public roads, and trolleybus operation was also realized in Kyushu.However, all of them are treated as amusement facilities in the facility and are not routes based on the Act on Rail Tracks and the Railway Business Law.
- Miyama City, Fukuoka Prefecture --February 2018, 2 --February 17, experimental operation.
- Ashikita Town, Kumamoto Prefecture --September 2017, 9 --October 30, etc., experimental operation.
Abandoned railway ・ City where trolleybus used to exist
- Tokyo Ward - Toei Trolley Bus(Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation):1952Opened on May 5th,1968Abolished on September 9th.The orbital method is applied.
- Kawasaki City - Kawasaki Municipal Trolley Bus(Kawasaki City Transportation Bureau):1951Opened on May 3th,1967Abolished on September 5th.The orbital method is applied.
- 横 浜 市 - Yokohama Municipal Trolley Bus(Yokohama City Transportation Bureau):1959Opened on May 7th,1972Abolished on September 4th.The orbital method is applied.
- Nagoya city - Nagoya Municipal Trolley Bus(Nagoya City Transportation Bureau):1943Opened on May 5th,1951Abolished on September 1th.The orbital method is applied.
- Kyoto City - Kyoto municipal trolleybus(Kyoto City Transportation Bureau):1932Opened on May 4th,1969Abolished on September 10th.The orbital method is applied.
- Osaka - Osaka Municipal Trolley Bus(Osaka City Transportation Bureau):1953Opened on May 9th,1970Abolished on September 6th.The orbital method is applied.
- Takarazuka-Kawanishi City - Japan trackless train : 1928Opened on May 8th,1932Suspended in January, abolished in April of the same year.The orbital method is applied.
- Omachi-Tateyama(Tateyama Kurobe Alpine Route)- Kanden Tunnel Trolley Bus(Kansai Electric Power）
- 1964Opened on May 8th,2018Business abolition on December 12 (last service is November 1).
- Between Kurobe Dam Station and Ogisawa Station (6.1km) in the Tateyama Kurobe Alpine Route.It was a railless train line to which the Railway Business Law was applied.
- 2019From April 4th, in-vehicle pantograph type quick charging is possibleElectric busConverted to a bus route that runs on a dedicated road.
- Nagaoka --Nagaoka City (Nagaoka Municipal Railless Train）
- Nishinomiya - Settsu Electric Vehicle(Hanshin Electric Railway(Under umbrella)
- Himeji ――Himeji City is in front of Himeji City Station ――Idei ――Nibuno and Nishikicho ――Shimoteno, Honmachi ――Ichikawabashidori is plannedThe unopened line will be abolished in 1953.
- Hiratsuka-Isehara - Kanagawa Central TransportationIs from Hiratsuka station via Isehara station on the current route of Hiratsuka 94 (Unfinished line:Mt. Ooyama Kanko Electric Railway Mt. Ooyama Steel Cable LineI was planning a route to Mt. Ooyama station (ropeway between Oiwake station) that connects to Mt. Ooyama station..
- Yoro Electric Railway - Yoro Station-Yoro ParkBetween, 1 mileThe plan is to use two super-large (capacity 24 people) vehicles on the bus at that time at Nippon Transport Machinery Works (currently).Mitsubishi Logistics Next-Japan trackless trainWas supposed to be made with.
Besides,Kumamoto-shiWas planned in.
Latest trends in trolleybus technology
Also new for sections where overhead lines cannot be stretched due to landscape issues or other reasons.Dual mode carHas also been developed.diesel GeneratorHybrid type with trolley power supply equipped withbatteryDue to technological improvementsStorage batteryVehicles equipped with this have been developed to enable longer distances on roads without overhead lines.The hybrid trolleybus equipped with a diesel generatorNew ZealandAnd America Duffel Bag OfSilver lineHas been adopted byNeoplanThere are Cristalis made by Iveco Bus, which is mainly used in France.In China, vehicles that charge batteries at a bus stop by pressing a pantograph against the power supply rail attached to the bus stop have been put into practical use.イタリアThen for a whileMagnetic pickup methodRoad surface powered trolleybus byStream) Was tested, but the results were not good and it has not been fully adopted.RomeTrolleybus is at the endTermini stationThere is no overhead line on the 3km round trip nearby and it runs on batteries.
Another innovation is the introduction of guideway technology that does not require steering wheel operation.A non-contact guideway trolleybus was prototyped in the early 21st century to replace the roller type that had been in operation for a while in Germany.The typical one isOpticsWith formulaMagnetic forceIt is an expression.The optical type steers by reading the white line painted on the ground with a camera.The magnetic force type steers by relying on a magnet embedded in the ground.The former is from Iveco BusCIVISEtc., the latter Netherlands OfPhileasIt is adopted in. Both CIVIS and Phileas are designed as electrically driven hybrid buses, and can run as diesel-powered buses as well as trolley-powered buses.In addition, CIVIS adopts only the bus specification of diesel power generation only[Annotation 3]It has not been.
FrenchNancyThen.Bombardier TransportationOf the system called "TVR" developed byRubber tire tramHas been adopted.This is similar to a tram that runs along a single guide rail with rubber tires, but some sections have no guide rail and run like a trolleybus.However, due to frequent connection troubles with the guide rail, TVR was with Nancy.KhanOnly two cities have been hired.also,Guide railIn the curve section ofDerailingIt has also been pointed out that it is not possible to drive at high speeds, such as a series of accidents.
Also, it has become popular in recent years.Hybrid busThe technological development of trolleybus has a great influence on the trolleybus, but especially the installation of diesel generators and batteries in the trolleybus is a hybrid busContactless chargingCompared to a bus that runs only on a conventional battery, it can be evaluated in that the battery is less deteriorated due to frequent charging and discharging and the cost of battery replacement is low.
Major cities with trolley buses
It was the only Southeast Asian service in Singapore, but was abolished in 1962.There is no (narrowly defined) trolleybus in South Korea, but near SeoulSeoul Grand Park(Similar to a trolleybus in that it is powered from the outside while driving)Online electric car"Elephant train" is in operation.Asia PacificThen, the (narrowly defined) trolleybus is tending to be abolished.On the other hand, the electromagnetic traveling carts and online electric vehicles, which are variants, have started to operate.
People's Republic of China
In China, trolley buses are called "railless trains" or simply "trains."
North Korean standard language (Culture language) Then "trackless train" (무궤도 전차, Mugwedo jŏncha) ("Trolleybus" on the Korean side (트롤 리버스, TuroLeRibos, Teurolli beoseu)).
- Operates with the bus at the municipal Ulaanbaatar City Transport Authority.The state-owned "Electric Orbit" company manufactures car bodies.
- Ulaanbaatar Station --The trolleybus that runs between Botanik is 300 Tugrug.
ネ パ ー ル
- It was in service until 2009.
- St. Petersburg
Trolley buses operate in many other cities in Russia.
The United States of America
- San Francisco - San Francisco Municipal Railway
- Duffel Bag --Strictly speakingCambridgecity,"Boston metropolitan transportation networkIt is operated as "a part of".
- Philadelphia --The service is suspended.
- Wellington --Abolished in 2017.
- Arnhem --A "Duo Bus" that has both a diesel bus and a trolley bus mechanism has been introduced.
- Lyon --Has the largest trolleybus route network in France. There is an intersection with the LRT.
- Saint-Etienne --There is an intersection with LRT.
- Nancy,Khan --A type of rubber tire tramTVROperates as a trolleybus in the suburbs.
- Rome --Newly opened in 2005.Approximately 1 km near Termini station runs on batteries without overhead lines.
- Ventimiglia - Sanremo
- La Spezia
- パ ル マ
- Bari - Dormant.
Trolley buses operate in other cities in Switzerland.
- Castellon de la Plana --Opened in 2008.Optical guide type.
ベ ラ ル ー シ
チ ェ コ
Major trolleybus manufacturers
- Osaka Sharyo(Japan) --Japan's only trolleybus manufacturer.Tateyama Kurobe Kanko 8000 type railless train,Kansai Electric Power 300 type railless trainManufactured.
- Iris bus(Irisbus, France)- RenaultとFiat・ A bus manufacturing company where Iveco's bus divisions have joined.Currently Fiat capital.The trolleybus manufactures Cristalis, which features a wheel-in motor and diesel hybrid, and CIVIS, an optical guide.
- Neoplan(Neoplan, Germany) --A long-established German manufacturer.Many deliveries to Germany and Switzerland.
- Hess(Hess, Switzerland) --We have developed a large trolleybus with three connections called Light Tram.
- Solaris(Solaris, Poland) --A new bus manufacturing company born from the reform of Eastern Europe.The trolleybus is manufactured under the Trolino brand.Has a track record of delivery to Rome.
- ^ Temporary deceleration is said to trigger traffic congestion. "Congestion # Causes of congestion"reference.
- ^ The body of the trolleybus is a complete box type, and it is an internal combustion vehicle.Bonnet busIn the days when was the mainstream, the appearance was very different.Also, the internal combustion vehicle has no hood.Cab over,Rear engineEven after shifting to, for internal combustion vehiclesradiatorThere was also a large opening for the trolleybus, which was also different from the appearance of the trolleybus.
- ^ Rouen,Las VegasAdopted in.
- ^ retriever - Weblio(Update date unknown) Retrieved October 2018, 10
- ^ a b c d e Japanese trolleybus Trolleybuses in JapanElectric vehicle study group. (March 6, 3)
- ^ West Yorkshire BBC
- ^ a b c d "Trolleybus Directory (Kurobe Dam Official Site)". Kansai Electric Power. 2017/9/28Browse.
- ^ ArizonaSedna"Sedona Trolley" etc."Sedona Guided Tours with Sedona Trolley". Sedona Trolley Official Website. 2018/5/28Browse.
- ^ "Tokyo NewspaperSeptember 2020, 9 Evening edition E version page 9 "Trolleybus mysterious exit" History of Moscow "citizen repulsion"
- ^ Trolleybus last run of the curtain Kurobe Dam in the history of more than half a century SBC Shin-Etsu Broadcasting 2018/11/30
- ^ Supervised by the Railway Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, "30 Railway Handbook" Electric Vehicle Study Group, September 2018, 9, p. 30.ISBN 978-4-88548-131-4.
- ^ About change of trolley bus to electric bus in Kanden tunnel --Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. (August 2017, 8)
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ "Tateyama Kurobe Alpine Route All Lines Opened Electric Bus Starts Operation Nagano". Nagano Broadcasting(July 2019, 4) 2019/4/20Browse.
- ^ From Choi Shobo "Chiba no Railroad First Century"
- ^ "Ministry of Transport Notification No. 10" "Government Bulletin" August 1951, 1(National Diet Library Digital Collection)
- ^ Makoto Moriguchi, “Walking on the unfinished railway line <Private railway edition>” JTB, 2001, p.178
- ^ Sobu Electric Railway Kamimizo Asamamori Train Depot Attached Museum
- ^ On the 1929nd, the Kokumin Shinbun, which issues a private railway license same-day directive, July 7, 4(Kobe University Library Newspaper Article Library)
- ^ Toru Yuguchi "Phantom Yoro Electric Railway Trolley Bus" "Railway Historical Materials" No.131
- Rubber tire tram ――It is guided by the guide rail and runs on rubber tires.With a trolleybusTramIntermediate transportation.
- Guideway bus
- Articulated bus
- Online electric car
- Hybrid car
- Trolley boat
- Bus Rapid Transit
- Dual mode vehicle
- Guide rail type railway
- Tateyama Kurobe Alpine Route / Company Profile
- Kurobe Dam Official Site Japan's only trolleybus that runs on electricity --The trolley buses in Japan and around the world are listed, centering on the Kanden tunnel trolley buses.