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🚄 | Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line New car participates in Kinki Sharyo, scrapped to conventional car 10 series


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Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line New model car participates in Kinki Sharyo, scrapped to conventional car 10 series

 
If you write the contents roughly
It seems that there are some similarities between the Tobu 70000 series and the new Karasuma Line train, such as the looks on the front and the single arm pantograph.
 

Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line International Hall-Takeda 13.7km, which connects the city of Kyoto underground from north to south.Opened on this Karasuma Line ... → Continue reading

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Current collector

Current collector(Shudensochi,English: current collector) IsRailway car,trolley bus ElectricalRefers to a device for obtaining.CollectorAlso called (shudenki), as a typical examplepantographIs mentioned.

Overhead train line system OfElectric trainSo usually in the formationElectric carHowever, it is not powered due to weight distribution and restrictions on the mounting position.Control car,Accompanying vehicleThere is also a case where it is attached to[Annotation 1]..In the anomalous exampleRescue carIt was a control car that did not require self-propelled power, but some had a current collector because it required a power source for rescue activities.[Annotation 2].

Trolley pole

A trolley pole is mounted on the roof of a railroad car or trolleybus.Overhead wireA type of device that collects electricity by contacting it with a (trolley). Also called "pole" or "denkon".The body is鉄-Light metal-Stainless steelEtc.パ イ プIt is made ofTrolley wheelと 呼 ば れ るpulleyA U-shaped cross-section sliding plate called a slider shoe is attached to the wheel, and it is brought into contact with the overhead wire so that it fits into the overhead wire.mineIn railways, etc., from the viewpoint of accident prevention, a combination of a wooden pole and a power cable covered with an insulating material was also used.When using the trolley pole at an angle to the overhead wire, contact the trolley wheel and slider shoe, and use it in the direction of plunging into the overhead wire.OfflineIn principle, it should be used in the fluttering direction because it may damage the trolley pole itself or the overhead wire or the overhead wire (spun wire) that supports the overhead wire.As the speed of the vehicle increased, the number of accidents in which the trolley poles that came off the overhead line cut the overhead line and the overhead line increased.MainspringA retriever (retriever, trolley catcher) was devised to wind up the drawstring and prevent the trolley pole from jumping up.

Electric railwayIt was widely used in the early days, but when it is used by making diagonal contact with the overhead wire and the height of the overhead wire is displaced, the contact angle of the trolley pole with respect to the overhead wire is also displaced, so the pressure applied to the contact surface with the overhead wire (overhead wire). The force that pushes up) is large[Annotation 3]..AndmassIs largerigidityIs also low (becomes)

  1. The followability of the overhead wire is poor, and the trolley wheel and slider shoe fitted in the overhead wire are likely to come off the overhead wire.
  2. Once a disconnection occurs, it is necessary for the crew to re-land on the overhead line.
  3. If a disconnection occurs while driving, the trolley pole jumps up and an accident that cuts the overhead wire or the suspension wire of the overhead wire is likely to occur.
  4. TurnoutOperator on each trolley pole when passing (usuallyconductorIs also required)GangwayIs also difficult to use.

Therefore, it was not suitable for high speed, high output, and long train formation.

Therefore, there are many curves and branches.LinkWith the development of electric railways in Japan, where driving is heavily used1920 eraSince then, the transition to pantographs has progressed rapidly, but the trolley pole has a simple structure, low manufacturing cost, a large body size and a wide range of action, so it is resistant to deviations and tension fluctuations in the vertical and horizontal directions of the overhead wire. Can be used without installing with very high accuracy, so the installation and maintenance costs of overhead wires can be reduced.[Annotation 4]For the reason that, for a long time after thatTramAnd small regionsPrivate railwayContinued to be used for use.

AmericaThen.Inter UrbanThere were many examples of using trolley poles after that.[Annotation 5]..On the tram1929From (Showa 4)PCC carHas been developed1936Basic specifications completed in (Showa 11)[Annotation 6]..Since then, it has been mass-produced and used all over the United States.MassachusettsDuffel BagMattapan branch line of the red line running through the city[1]Then.2012(24) It is still in use and uses a trolley pole with a slider shoe.PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia OfSEPTABut it was introduced as an alternative to PCC cars in the 1980s.Kawasaki Heavy IndustriesMadeLight trainAppeared and used with a trolley pole.Also in the United StatesSan Francisco Municipal RailwayF line,WisconsinKenoshaIn some cases, old-fashioned trams such as PCC cars equipped with trolley poles have been revived in the city.

There are one trolley pole (single pole) and two trolley poles (double pole) in the direction of travel.In prewar Japan, mainly on trams in big cities, the return power from the railroad tracks leaked and corroded the iron pipes for water services buried underground (Electrolytic corrosion) There is a case to make[Annotation 7]In order to prevent this, the number of lines was reduced to two because the method was to return the power to the overhead line.After that, the material of the water pipe was changed to lead, etc., which is less affected by electricity, so after the war, all the pipes were changed to one.Due to the structure of the trolleybus, it is not possible to return to the ground, and since it returns to the overhead line, there are only two.

For small vehicles, it is mounted in the center of the roof[Annotation 8], When the direction of travel changed, the crew was turning with a drawstring.In Japan, this work is called pole turning.After that, as the size of the vehicle increased, one pair was provided for each direction of travel, and in the case of two poles, the total number was four.In this case, the rear side was always used, and the crew members were raising and lowering at the end.Built in to raise the poleSpringHowever, in order to ensure the followability to the overhead wire, the pushing force is stronger than that of the Bugel or Pantograph, and it is necessary to pinpoint and accurately fit the trolley wheel or slider shoe into the overhead wire. Skill was required to operate the trolley cord (pull string)[Annotation 9]. Also,BranchWhen changing lines, it is necessary to switch from the overhead line on the main line side to the overhead line on the branch side, so the crew must lean forward and operate the pole regardless of the weather, which is a heavy burden. rice field[3]..In order to reduce the trouble of lowering and replacing the trolley pole at the branch, install the branch of the overhead wire slightly behind the turnout on the track side, and simply pull the trolley cord lightly to the branch while driving. It was improved so that the turning of the trolley pole was completed, but it was also used in combination with the conventional type that performs replacement work because it is easy for disconnection to occur.

Depending on the road conditions, the trolleybus may need to run far outside the overhead line, but the improved trolley pole with a U-shaped cross section equipped with movable slider shoes in the horizontal and vertical directions to improve the followability of the overhead line. Suitable for this usage situation2012(24) The trolley pole is still used today.The slider type was developed for trolley buses, but there are cases where it has been changed from the wheel type mainly for routes that operate at high speed even on railways because it has excellent followability to overhead lines.[Annotation 10].

In the case of a trolley bus, the direction of travel is one, so at the endTransfer lineIs provided, and on the wayBranchLess is.Raising and lowering the trolley pole is (1) a few branches (2) at the time of entry and exit (3)ElectrificationOf the railway line of the sectionRailroad crossing(4) When crossing a line or when a vehicle breaks down, the frequency is lower than that of a tram.Table speedWe are aiming for higher speed by improving.Initially, the trolley pole itself had the same structure as for trams, but in most cases in later years, the retriever (trolley catcher) was used to increase speed and prevent accidental disconnection of overhead lines and suspension lines at the time of disconnection. ) Was installed[4].

A manually operated overhead line turnout was developed and used in places where the vehicle can be stopped and operated, such as in a garage or at a bus stop.An automated overhead wire branching mechanism was also developed and used in trolley buses around the world.[5]Due to the complicated structure and the widespread use of Bugel and pantograph, which will be described later, both manual and automatic types have not been generalized in railways and trams.

Various trials and errors were carried out in the early days of electric railways, and future research is awaited for the complete identification of the origin of the trolley pole.1888In (Meiji 21), an electric locomotive using electric goods of Van Depoele on the American DERBY HORSE RAILWAY uses a trolley pole.In the same year, the Richmond Union Passennger Railway in the United StatesFrank Sprague(Frank Julian Sprague) The electric railway system devised was adopted and opened, and the trolley pole is also used.The use of trolley poles on Japanese commercial railways1895(Meiji 28) January 2thKyoto Electric Railway(1918(Taisho 7nd year)Kyoto tram/Kyoto City Transportation Bureau(Acquired by) and take it as the beginning (1890(Meiji 23) From May 5th, using a trolley pole at Ueno Park in Tokyo, "Tokyo Electric Light Sprague Train』(Sometimes referred to as Sprague in the field of iron orbit) is running, but it is a limited operation during the National Industrial Exhibition and is a sample existence)[6]..Wheel type1975(Showa 50) DecemberKeifuku Electric Railway Arashiyama Main Line-Kitano Line, Slider type1978(53) Keifuku Electric Railroad Eizan Flat Line / Kurama Line in October[Annotation 10](CurrentEizan Electric RailwayEizan Main Line-Kurama Line) At the endpassengerThere are no more routes used for railways, and now there are vehicles that carry passengers.Meiji villageIt is used only in railways for preservation such as[7][8]..On the other hand, the slider type for trolley buses is the only existing trolley bus route in Japan.Tateyama Kurobe Alpine RouteIncluded inTateyama KurobeTateyama Tunnel Trolley BusUsed only in.

Bugel

Bugel is a type of device that is installed on the roof of a tram or railroad vehicle, presses a sliding plate (slider shoe) against an overhead wire, and slides it to collect current.Various methods were devised for the current collecting system from the overhead wire in the early days, but the prototype of the Bugel also started to be used near the prototype of the trolley pole and pantograph.[Annotation 11]..Further research is awaited for the complete identification of the origin, as with the trolley pole, but the German noun Bügel (frame) for the American origin trolley pole.[Annotation 12]) Is used and is a system developed mainly in Europe.[9]..In English, it is called a Bow collector, and in its Japanese translation, it is called a bow collector.[Annotation 13].

The main body is made of pipes made of iron, light metal, stainless steel, etc., and is frame-shaped and usually has no joints.Some have a special structure with joints in the middle, but unlike the pantograph and Z pantograph, they do not have a mechanism to prevent the main body from collapsing, and like the trolley pole, the angle of contact with the overhead wire is displaced to displace the overhead wire height. Follow.Unlike the trolley pole, it does not shake its head in the left-right direction.The feature is that the left and right ends of the horizontal sliding plate (slider shoe) are closed to draw a curve and connect to the frame.Beating the futonWas called.The roundness of the frame is provided for the purpose of smoothing the restoration when the overhead wire is greatly deviated and preventing damage to the view gel and the overhead wire, but there is also a type with a square frame and a current collector similar to a pantograph.[10].

Unlike the trolley pole, which makes contact with the overhead wire by fitting the trolley wheel or slider shoe, the slider shoe with a wide width slides into contact with the overhead wire.Even if the overhead wire and the Bugel bounce and a disconnection occurs, it is automatically restored, so the operation can be continued without the operation of re-landing the overhead wire like a trolley pole.Since it does not come off the overhead wire and jump up, it is unlikely that the overhead wire or the suspension wire will be cut.Monitoring and operation while driving became unnecessary, the burden on the crew was reduced, and it became widespread from locomotives to trams.The pressure contact force to the overhead wire is obtained by some kind of spring device,Leverage principleThe point of action is the sliding plate (slider shoe) that comes into contact with the overhead wire.

  • Install one set of coil springs at right angles to the rotation axis (fulcrum of the lever) of the part to be attached to the pedestal of the main body (direction of forward and backward movement of the vehicle), and act on the upper or lower part of the fulcrum of the main body (power point of the lever) What to make (Ninomiya style).It is necessary to keep the height of the overhead wire constant in order to keep the pushing pressure on the overhead wire constant.
  • The central part of the main body frame (power point of the lever) and the pedestal are connected by a set of coil springs incorporated in the cylinder via a link device (Taipei Electric Railway Machinery).The links before and after receiving the force of the spring are switched in each direction of travel to reduce the fluctuation of the pushing pressure to the overhead wire.
  • A coil spring is installed coaxially with the rotation axis (fulcrum of the lever) of the mounting part of the main body to the pedestal, and acts as a torsion spring (torsion spring) at the lower part of the main body frame (power point of the lever) (Akashi Seisakusho, Toyo Electric Co., Ltd.) Manufacture).Increase the diameter of the spring with increased number of turnsSpring constantSet low,Restoring forceFluctuations in the push-up pressure are reduced by suppressing fluctuations in the pressure.

There are examples of practical application in Japan such as[11][12].

As with the trolley pole, in principle, it is used in the direction of fluttering according to the traveling direction of the vehicle, and when going backwards, the overhead wire is lifted and inverted.Just by reversing the vehicle, it reverses naturally due to the friction between the overhead wire and the slider shoe, but if it does not slip and reverse, pull the drawstring to reverse it.The overhead wire at the point of reversal must be installed in advance so that it can be lifted by the view gel.[Annotation 14].

In many countries around the world, larger types are also used, in which the pedestal is turned 180 ° in the opposite direction to the direction of travel and inverted.[Annotation 15], This type can be reversed without lifting the overhead wire, but the crew must get off the work.In addition, there was also a type in which two main bodies were equipped on one pedestal and raised and lowered according to the direction of travel.[14]..Unlike the trolley pole, the Bugel does not require replacement of the overhead wire at the branch point, and the crew members basically do not need to monitor the current collector except for the reversal at the time of turning back.

in Japan1902(Meiji 35) Enoshima Electric Railway (currentlyEnoshima Electric Railway),1903(Meiji 36) Miyagawa Denki (laterMie Kotsu Shinto Line) In Germany at the time of openingSiemens und Halske(CurrentSiemensWe use Bugel made by AG), but all of them stay in a short period of time and are replaced with trolley poles.[15][16].1941(Showa 16), Hiroshima Electric Railway (currentlyHiroshima Electric Railway) Is part of the blackout during World War II (at the time of the trolley pole departure)arc(For prevention) After using the view gel and pantograph on a trial basis[Annotation 16]1944In (Showa 19), the entire line became a view gel.[17]..The Bugel used was called the Ninomiya style, which was developed in-house, and was the first case in Japan for a route that continued to use Bugel for a short period of time.

Then, after the war, trial production of prototypes of each electric machine manufacturer began on trams in urban areas.1949(Showa 24) DecemberYokohama tram(Yokohama City Transportation Bureau) Taihei Electric Railway Machinery (currently)Taihei Electric) Developed a constant pressure bow gel current collector (1948(Developed in August 23) is the first full-scale adoption[18]..Since then, other manufacturers (Akashi Seisakusho,Toyo Denki Seizo), Both of which are popular in trams and local private railways, which have low overhead line voltage and current and low running speed.[Annotation 17]Has been used for a long time[19][20]..Although it was a Bugel that was much easier to handle than a trolley pole, it also had the following drawbacks.

  1. Since it contacts the overhead wire diagonally like the trolley pole, the contact angle of the view gel with respect to the overhead wire is displaced when the height of the overhead wire changes.The pressure that pushes up the overhead wire fluctuates greatly and it is easy to separate the wire.Even when reversing, the overhead wire and Bugel often bounce and separate.
  2. The arc flies due to the disconnection, and both the overhead wire and the slide plate (slider shoe) of Bugel are significantly consumed.
  3. It is difficult to increase the current collecting capacity of the general type in consideration of the occurrence of disconnection.
  4. Since the heavy overhead wire is lifted when reversing, the Bugel body, which is manufactured by reducing the weight with a pipe, may be damaged.

Due to these drawbacks, pantographs have become mainstream in high-speed vehicles.Even on trams in Japan, they will be replaced with Z pantographs and pantographs one after another.Tokyo TodenArakawa LineOf the air conditioner due to a momentary power outage caused by disconnectionInverterSwitched to pantograph to prevent breakdown[21]Finally, there are no routes to use as standard equipment,Nagasaki Electric Orbit OfDynamic preservationCars andTosa Electric Railway Co., Ltd. Type 1It remains in.

Y gel

Abbreviation for "Y-shaped view gel", which resembles the letter "Y" in the alphabet.

When shifting from pole current collection, the existing trolley pole is modified to form a truss structure by branching the tip in a Y shape, and the slider shoe is processed so as not to shake the head from side to side. Like the trolley pole, one unit is installed on the roof of the front and rear of the car body, and the front and rear Y gels are raised and lowered according to the direction of travel.Because it is significantly cheaper than buying a new Bugel,Nankai Osaka Orbital Line,Shizuoka Railway Akiha LineIt was adopted in such as.On the Shizuoka Railway Akiha Line, this Y gel is further remodeled, and construction is also being carried out to combine the two and provide joints in the middle to make a diamond frame-shaped pantograph.[22].Hanshin national highway lineHowever, although it was used, it has a Y-shape, but the length of the main body is short and it has almost the same structure as the normal type Bugel, and it is a type that can be flipped back and forth and equipped with one on the roof.[Annotation 18].

Y-Gel is currently unregistered in Japan,Echizen Railway OfML6 typeHas this[23].

Bow collector

It is a type of view gel, and the transition of introduction is almost the same as the above-mentioned Y gel, and the Y gel is sometimes called a bow collector. The difference from Y gel is that two existing trolley poles are lined up in parallel and a slider is attached to the tip, and the beam between the poles is connected to the truss structure with a steel pipe. Like the Y gel, this is an example of reusing a trolley pole, but there are few examples of its adoption.Keihan Electric Railway,Hankyu CorporationUntil the early Showa period, mainly open four-axis electric freight cars and oldKitano LineIt was used for the XNUMX-axle passenger car, but it did not last long.[Annotation 19].

pantograph

A pantograph in a railway is a current collector in which a current collector is pressed against an overhead wire by the force of a coil spring or air pressure, and a joint structure or an expansion / contraction structure is provided to follow a change in the height of the overhead wire.In recent years, it has been most commonly used as a current collector in the overhead line system.For shortPanta, ま た はBreadOften called.

The structure of the pantograph is roughly divided into four parts, which are used to take in the power of the overhead wire while sliding in direct contact with the overhead wire.Current collector boat, To improve the followability of the overhead wire while the current collector boat moves freelyCurrent collector boat support device, Consists of steel plate / aluminum alloy / stainless steel pipe linksframework, To support the entire pantograph and fix it to the car bodyframeThe sliding part with the overhead wire of the current collector boat isSliding plateCarbon or copper alloy, which has good conductivity and does not easily damage the overhead wire, is used and requires regular replacement due to wear, so it is divided into several parts so that it can be easily done. It has a structure.

It is not clear to date who the inventor was,Baltimore and Ohio RailroadAt (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad)1895(25th year of Meiji),Electric locomotiveUses a diamond-shaped current collector with a current collector trolley attached to the tip.[Annotation 20]..A route network was formed around Oakland on the opposite bank of San Francisco, USAKey system (en: Key System)[Annotation 21] 1903It is clear from the photographs taken on the day of the opening that the train equipped with the diamond-framed pantograph was already commissioned at the time of opening (Meiji 36).

The etymology of "pantograph" isDrafting,friesBy processing etc.copyUsed for,Link mechanismIt is a tool in the shape of connecting rhombuses withpantograph (Pantograph) This is the name taken because the operation was similar to.Nowadays, it does not necessarily mean only diamond-shaped ones, but it is a general term for current collectors installed on the roof with joint structures, including those with other shapes.

diamond

This type of current collector is the most classic and common structure of the rhombus, because its shape and movement resembled a pantograph that could magnify or reduce the picture. It came to be called a pantograph.Strictly speaking, it is not a rhombus (quadrangle) but a pentagon.Generally, steel pipestrussAssembled into a structure, but partlyRamenSome structures were also seen.

In particular, it has good follow-up performance at low and medium speeds, and even though the lower frame crossing type became widespread, it still dominated the mainstream of overhead line type current collectors, such as being adopted by most of the conventional line trains of the Japanese National Railways. ..However, there are drawbacks such as a large mass of moving parts and a large air resistance at high speeds.1990 eraSince then, it has been replaced by the single arm type.Currently, there are almost no cases equipped with new cars.

Major formats in Japan

The main diamond-shaped pantographs used on Japanese railways are as follows.

  • Ministry of Railways-National railway-JR East-JR ShikokuFormula: Toyo Denki SeizoMost of them.For some modelsPrivate railwayThere are also products for, and most of them are given the manufacturer format (PT ○○ for Toyo Denki Seizo).
    PS2 type
    Toyo Denki Seisakusho C type1923(Taisho 12nd year)FormulaTransformed.Spring-raising type with upper and lower frames made of steel pipe, X-shaped on the upper frame (Tasuki(Shape) members are attached to improve the strength.For spindle bearings unlike conventional modelsball bearingHas been adopted to reduce friction and improve followability.
    PS10 type
    1930(Showa 5)ED16 typeDesigned jointly by the Ministry of Railways, Toyo Denki Seizo, Mitsubishi Electric, and other electric manufacturers for subsequent ministry-type electric locomotives.The basis wasWestinghouse ElectricCompanyED53 type-EF51 typeThe PS9, which is a model-saving model that was installed in the above, has an air pressure increase type, and an X-shaped sash-shaped strut is attached not only to the upper frame but also to the lower frame to improve the strength.
    PS11 type
    Based on the PS10 frame structure, the number of main springs has been reduced from four to two, and the spring has been changed to a rising type.Designed for ministry trains1932Production startMoha 40 typeIt was adopted by such.
    PS12 type
    The basics are the same as the PS13 type, but there is a ceiling pipe.
    PS13 type
    1944The top priority was to simplify the work and save materials, which was adopted in (Showa 19).Wartime designGoods.A rigid frame structure made by bending and welding steel plates has been adopted for the lower frame, the sash-shaped columns for reinforcement have been abolished, only lateral support rods have been adopted, and carbon sliders have been fully adopted to save non-ferrous metal resources.Moha 63 type,EF13 typeUsed for spindle bearings, etc.Plain bearingsAlthough there was a decrease in followability due to the above, it was easy to handle due to the simplicity of the structure, and the decrease in performance was less than expected.For this reason, after the war, with some improvementsMoha 90 typeTo prototype carJNR trainProduction continued as a standard current collector for use.also,Sagami RailwayThen.8000 seriesWas used up.
    PS14 type
    The PS13 was a success on the train, but it didn't go well with the spring-up type for electric locomotives.Therefore, it is a redesigned format based on PS10.EF58 type-EF15 typeAdopted for.Air pressure rise type.
    PS15 type
    The PS14 has been improved, a parallel link mechanism has been incorporated into the current collector boat support device, and the width of the frame has been reduced to improve followability and reduce weight. Late production group of EF58 and EF15, andEH10 typeAdopted for.Air pressure rise type.Since production was discontinued in a relatively short period of time, some of the vehicles equipped with this model later replaced it with the PS22B.
    PS16 type
    Initially carry out high-speed operation153 seriesFor (old 91 series)1957Designed in (Showa 32), continues151 series (former 20 series)For PS16A, the followability of the current collector boat was improved and it was completed for the time being.It returns to the steel pipe welding structure with a spring rise type, and the lower frame has an M-shaped truss structure with the addition of columns.In addition, the upper frame also has an N-shaped steel pipe welded structure to achieve both weight reduction, high-speed followability, and strength. Replace PS13New performance trainAs a standard current collector for JNR, it has been mass-adopted for about 30 years while changing the specifications of all conventional railway trains, and it has also been adopted for some old-fashioned trains.AC / DC train401/421 series --403/423 series initial carHowever, the pantograph mounting part had a low roof in order to secure the pantograph folding limit because extra high voltage insulation was required.For cold regions (Cold climate specifications) Has a snow-resistant cover attached to the spring, and since it was also manufactured for AC trains, there is a suffix (suffix) that suits the application. The A type is for direct current without a spring cover or a simple cover, the B type is for AC type A, the J type is for cold regions of A type, and the H type is for cold regions of B type.In addition, it will be PT16 for private railways.
    PS17 type
    Designed for electric locomotives by changing the PS16 to an air pressure rise type1958From (Showa 33)ED60-61 typeIt was widely used as a standard pantograph for JNR electric locomotives until it was adopted for use and switched to the successor PS22 series lower frame crossing pantograph.
    PS18 type
    Crab 22 typeDesigned based on PS16 for use.Emergency descent in the event of an abnormality is possible by remote control from an electric locomotive equipped with sleeper express towing equipment.
    PS19 type
    EF30 type-EF80 typeAdopted for such. Based on PS17, it supports exchange.
    PS21 type
    Rigid overhead wireDesigned as a subway line compatible car using301 seriesFor use, a small spring was added by changing the design of the boat support device part of the slider shoe based on PS16.Since the follow-up performance was excellent, regenerative braking was performed and derailment was not preferable.201 seriesIn addition to being adopted in the series, it was also adopted in each subway line car after the 301 series.
    PS23 type
    Improvements such as downsizing of the current collector boat and relocation of the equalizer to the outside of the underframe based on PS3980 as measures for narrow limit sections such as the Chuo Line west of Takao (folding height 3,960 mm) and Minobu Line (folding height 16 mm) A model with a reduced minimum folding height.
    PS24 type
    An improved successor model that has improved overhead wire tracking performance by adding a small spring similar to PS23 to the current collector boat support device of PS21. Installed as a split train for 201 series trains registered in JR East and for defrosting expansion on a part of 115 series for Chuo Main Line.
    PS26 type
    A model that supports AC / DC based on PS23.651 series Other253 seriesBut adopted,E351 seriesThen adopted before making a single arm pantograph.
    PS28 type
    A miniaturized version of PS16.209 series(However,Late 500 series carIs PS33A type,1000s The203 series,207 seriesThe same PS21 type was adopted),E217 seriesMounted on.
    PS29 type
    The PS28 has been further miniaturized to support AC and DC.E501 seriesMounted on.
    S-PS58 type
    Dosan Lineas well as the Kotoku LineA pantograph developed to support a folding height of 3,900 mm in anticipation of electrification.[Annotation 22]7000 series,6000 series, Installed in 113 series.
  • For private railways
    • Toyo Denki Seizo: Holds the top share as the largest manufacturer of current collectors in Japan.
      A type
      Based on the original drawing of the general electric pantograph1921ToHanshin Express RailwayDead copy for the purpose.In fact, it is believed to have been the first domestically produced diamond-framed pantograph.Spring rise / air pressure drop type. The B type is a miniaturized version of the spring-raising hiki-string lowering type.
      C shape
      It was an improvement based on the A type, and was a customer of the company's products while making repeated improvements as the de facto standard for pantographs for electric railways in Japan before the war.南海-Keihan-Hanwa-MeitetsuIt was delivered in large quantities to various companies such as.As mentioned above, the Ministry of Railways has officially adopted the initial model as PS2.
      PT42 type
      A best-selling diamond-shaped pantograph for postwar private railway trains that supports PS16 for national railways.The first machine is1955It was designed in (Showa 30).Including PT44 type with similar frame structureKintetsu-Hankyu-Keihan-Tokyu-Odakyu-Keio-KeiseiIt was adopted in large numbers by major private railway companies.It is similar to PS16 in terms of structure, but the lower frame is not M-shaped but N-shaped like the upper frame, and lateral columns are attached to the joints, and the main spring (rising spring) ) Is hung parallel to the roof.It started with a model in which the hull was curved as it was to make a horn, but later it was made lighter as a pipe-shaped horn like the PT43.
      PT43 type
      Bestseller for private railways along with PT42 series. It is one of the derivative models of PT42, and realized overhead wire followability and weight reduction by separating the hull and horn from the slider.In addition, the minimum height is 400 mm, which is 42 mm lower than the PT50 series, in order to accommodate routes with low overhead lines. Compared to PT42, the frame structure is closer to PS16, but the appearance is different in that lateral columns are attached to the joints like PT42 (some were omitted at the beginning).The main spring has the same diagonal cliff as PS16.Seibu-Tokyu-Keikyu-Keisei-Shin-Keisei, And it was adopted by companies such as Hankyu.
      PT44 type
      3000 series trainIt is a model developed for this purpose with miniaturized vertical dimensions.As a basic structure, it can be said that it is a private railway version of S-PS58 and PS105.Same as the corpsHibiya LineTobu and Tokyu, which prepared vehicles for direct communication, adopted PT43B, which has almost the same basic structure and dimensions as PT44.Most subways that adopted the diamond-shaped pantograph were sufficient for PT42 or PT43, and the number of cases of adoption was extremely depressed.In fact, the successor to the Hibiya Line system is the conventional type of the company car and the lower frame crossing type of the Tobu car. From around 1985, many Tokyu Corporations introduced it in search of space saving, but by this time the lower frame crossing type had already become widespread in terms of space saving, and it was not attractive as an option. It was adopted in the Seibu Railway 1990 series in the 6000s.
      PT45 type
      Kintetsu1961Nara Line, which started production in 36820 seriesAdopted PT45-Q for use.One of the small models that meets the limit of reduced vehicles.
    • Mitsubishi Electric: Mainly Kintetsu and Nankai,Kobe Electric RailwayTo each company that delivers in-house equipmentWestinghouse ElectricIt manufactured and sold current collectors based on a license agreement with (WH) or by improving it independently.For this reason, the model number basically followed the numbering system of WH, but there were some peculiar models that were given model numbers that deviated from that system.Currently, it has withdrawn from manufacturing and sales.
      S-514 type
      Osaka Electric Tramway Devo 1000/1300-1400 typeThe model adopted for such.Models with the -A suffix were mainly delivered.It is equipped with horizontal insulators, and X-shaped columns are provided for each of the upper and lower frames.It has been heavily used for a long time after the war, and is Kintetsu's first high-performance prototype vehicle equipped with the Ku 1560 type.Type 1450S-514-DC is installed even when it is remodeled to.
      S-516 type
      As a successor model to the S-514 seriesKintetsu Railway Model 2250Used for cars in the previous term.It is designed with consideration for weight reduction.
      S-520 type
      An improved version of the S-516 type.It was adopted by the Kintetsu Mo 2250 late group.
      S-710 type
      Vehicle limits are more stringent than the Osaka LineKintetsu Nara LineThe model adopted as standard for vehicles for Kobe Electric Railway and Kobe Electric Railway.The adoption of horizontal insulators is the same as the S-514 / 516 series, but the frame dimensions have been reduced and the structure has been simplified.Iyo Railway100形101-104、200形にS-710-B、105-106と300形304にS-710-CCを採用。
      S-750 type
      Kintetsu is the Nara LineType 800S-750-DC was adopted for this purpose.
      S-752 type
      Kobe Electric RailwayDe 300 type, Nagano Electric Railway2000 series, Adopted S-1100-A for 752 series. It has a structure that combines an N-shaped upper frame and an M-shaped lower frame, and does not have a horizontal support rod.It is equipped with a horizontal insulator in the front-back direction.
      P-900-A type
      Hanwa (Mota 300, Moyo 100 type)Toyoko / Meguro KamataUsed for (part of Deha 510 type).A large European-style air-pressure-increasing pantograph supported by horizontal insulators and equipped with a wide slider shoe. It is a product that belongs to a numbering system different from the usual Mitsubishi Electric pantographs that are given model numbers starting with S, and among enthusiasts, it has long been from Brown Boveri & Co. Ltd (BBC) in Switzerland.OEMIt is said that it was a product[Annotation 23]However, its origin is still a mystery.
    • Hitachi: Mostly used in the company's private railway electric locomotives, Sotetsu, Keio, Tobu prewar models, etc., but most companies switch to Toyo products early after adoption.
      K-100 type
      Adopted by Sotetsu, Keio, etc.It is smaller than the model delivered to Tobu.Insulators are placed above and below the underframe, and the lower frame is similar to the PS13 support removed, and the others are similar to the PG16 described later.It seems that the lateral rigidity was poor, and both Sotetsu and Keio adopted only the initial car, and since then it has been replaced with PS13.
      K-110 type
      Iyo Railway 300 series trainK-303C is adopted for 110.
    • Toshiba: The set was found to be used in vehicles made by the same company. As of 2014, it has been reduced to the level of parts maintenance for Hankyu and rural areas.
      PG16 type
      Tokyu Series 5000 train (first generation)からTokyu Series 6000 train (first generation)It was adopted up to B formation, and went to various places at the time of local transfer.The appearance is similar to the Oriental PT35 and PT42.
      PG18 type
      Adopted PG18-H at Hankyu[24].
    • Koshin Seikosho: Many deliveries were made to Seibu.Shinkansen N700 series,Shin-Keisei Electric Railway 8900 type train,JR freight EF200 type electric locomotiveWe have a track record of delivering single-arm pantographs for.
      KP62 type
      It is a format adopted by Seibu for a long time and is very similar to PS16. It was adopted up to 3000 series.Initially, it used an aluminum main frame, but since 1988 it has been remodeled to stainless steel.

Lower frame crossing type

By crossing the diamond-shaped lower frame, the upper frame can be made smaller without impairing the working height (without narrowing the movable range of the current collector boat), and the weight is reduced to improve the overhead wire followability. ..

1962(Showa 37)Shinkansen 1000 trainAfter testing with the prototype PS9009 adopted in1964(Showa 39)Shinkansen 0 seriesThe PS200 type was mass-produced and adopted.For conventional lines, also in 1962ED30 type (2nd generation)PS20 type is adopted in1968(Showa 43)Sea of ​​Japan TransitForEF81 typeAndHakodate honsenForED76 type 500 series,711 series[Annotation 24]Such,Heavy snow-Snow areaFull-scale adoption began from.Other types of JNR electric locomotives were also changed to the lower frame crossing type from the middle of the expansion, and became popular for maintenance and replacement of conventional cars, but the adoption on trains was limited to the Hokkaido area.

The Shinkansen is also compatible with overhead lines on the premise that the pantograph will be lighter from the beginning.In the subsequent Shinkansen trains, the pantograph was further miniaturized by bringing the pantograph closer to the overhead wire, and all the equipment in the underframe such as the rising spring, the key release cylinder, and the balance link (equalizer) were placed inside the streamlined cover. By accommodatingAir resistanceAnd the wind noise is reduced.

Compared to the conventional rhombus, private railway cars have attracted attention because of their lighter weight, reduced air resistance, and space saving.also,Air conditionerKansai private railways (mainly Kansai private railways) until the single-arm type became mainstream because it was suitable for the new generation railway vehicles with the increased number of on-roof equipment.Hankyu Corporation,Hanshin Electric Railway,Kinki Nippon Railway,Keihan Electric Railway[Annotation 25],Nankai Electric Railway[Annotation 26]),Tobu Railway,West Japan Railway Company(JR West Japan)[Annotation 27]Is actively adopted.

On the other hand, railway operators (Tokyu Corporation, Keio Electric Railway) who avoided the increase in manufacturing costs and did not hire them.[Annotation 28]And Nagoya Railroad, etc.)

However, with the advent of the single-arm type, which has a simpler structure, after the 1990s, the above-mentioned Hankyu[Annotation 29], Hanshin, Kintetsu, Nankai, JR West[Annotation 30]Since the mid-2000s, the single-arm type has been adopted even by railway companies that have adopted the lower frame crossing type.[Annotation 31]..KintetsuSeries 21A part of[Annotation 32],Keihan 13000 seriesThere are exceptions such as using the lower frame crossing type due to the diversion of scrapped car products.

Z type / single arm type

The names and appearances are different, but the basic principles are exactly the same. Some countries call it "legged".When this type was not popular in high-speed vehicles in Japan, it was called "Z Panta" as in Europe.

The main beam has a dogleg shape when viewed from the side, and also has a link to balance the current collector boat and prevent deformation of the entire pantograph.It reduces the number of joints that cause sliding resistance, reduces the weight of the frame and increases the rigidity, and improves the followability of the overhead wire at high speeds.It is also advantageous that it is difficult to receive wind and the snow accretion area is small, and it is actually snowfall area (especially on the Sea of ​​Japan side).Heavy snowfall) In some cases, it is replaced for the purpose of preventing disconnection.

Single arm pantograph1955Developed and patented by Faiveley SA, a major French railway equipment manufacturer, in 30.For this reason, it is widely used in Europe from trams to high-speed vehicles, and is particularly enthusiastic about speeding up.French railwayThen.1960 eraIt has been adopted as standard since the latter half.Trenitalia,West German National RailwaysDue to the problem of overhead line height, single-arm pantographs have been used for a long time.

In the United StatesEast coastHad a route in the urban area ofPennsylvania RailroadHigh-speed train "Metroliner"(1969It was used for the start of operation), and there was an example of its adoption in the company's electric locomotive.Takes over the company's passenger transportation and routesAmtrakBut it was the first new car(English edition)Latest sinceACS-64 typeUp to high speed trainAcela ExpressIt has been consistently adopted in trains and electric locomotives including.

In Japan, Taihei Electric Railway Machinery Co., Ltd. (currently, a major manufacturer of Bugel for trams in 1955)Taihei Electric) Developed Z pantograph was used in the tram stations.This has a joint structure in the frame of the view gel, and a link device is provided to prevent the main body from collapsing.It is similar in shape to Bugel, but structurally a companion to the pantograph.Since the direction of the force that the slider shoe pushes up the overhead wire is made closer to vertical to reduce the fluctuation of the pushing pressure with respect to the displacement of the height of the overhead wire, the frequent derailment, which is a drawback of Bugel, is greatly reduced.The reversing operation when changing the direction of the vehicle is no longer necessary, and the accompanying problems have been solved.It is different from the "Z-type pantograph" of European-type vehicles because it does not have a slider shoe balancer (equalizer) and does not support high-speed driving.

On the other hand, for high-speed trains1971In (Showa 46), a genuine product of Febley's single arm pantograph was released by Keihan Electric Railway.2000 seriesIt was installed in and tried, but it was not adopted.[25]This became common in high-speed trains and locomotives because the company's patent protection period has expired and there are no restrictions on manufacturing by Japanese manufacturers.1980 eraAfter the end[Annotation 33]..The first vehicle in Japan to be fully adopted1990Commercial operation started in MarchOsaka Municipal Transportation Bureau Series 70 Train.

The upper frame that supports the current collector boat is an inverted triangle, and many of them are Y-shaped when viewed from the front, but in recent years it has been further simplified, and both the upper frame and the lower frame can be viewed with a single steel pipe. Then, a T-shaped one appears.The type adopted for the Shinkansen has a hollow upper frame and lower frame, and the structure exposed to the outside is minimized by passing the equilibrium link inside, reducing air resistance and wind noise. I am trying.Although it is customarily called a "frame", it does not already have a frame structure, and of course, it does not have a truss structure like a conventional pantograph.This type has a large range that can correspond to the top and bottom of the overhead wire height.[Annotation 34], The point that the minimum effective action height and the folding height are low issubway,Chuo Main LineTakao - Nagisowhile[Annotation 35]-Minobu LineBecause it is especially advantageous in sections with many narrow tunnels such as[Annotation 36]In Japan, where the speed range is not so high, the usefulness of this aspect is more important than high-speed performance.[Annotation 37].

Furthermore, since the number of parts is small, both manufacturing and maintenance costs are low, so it is becoming mainstream in recent years. There are cases where the pantograph of the mold is completely replaced with this.[Annotation 31][Annotation 38].

Since the area occupied by the roof when folded is smaller than that of the diamond-shaped pantograph, the degree of freedom in arranging the air conditioning and other various equipment placed on the roof is increased, and it also contributes to the reduction of the weight on the roof.recent yearsTramIs becoming mainstreamUltra low floor trainSince the main equipment cannot be placed under the floor, the single-arm pantograph, which occupies a small area and is light, makes it easier to place the equipment on the roof and reduces the complexity.

ShinkansenHowever, in recent years, the number of cases where single-arm pantographs have been adopted is increasing.For the ShinkansenOverhead wireThe main focus is not only on followability to the vehicle, but also on reducing the "wind noise" that occurs when driving at high speeds.The single-arm type, which is currently the mainstay of the Shinkansen, is a complete "dogleg" shape when viewed from the side, with all the normally exposed equalizer arms housed in a hollow frame. It is an arm.Furthermore, by providing a small hole in the horn part, the wind noise generated from the pantograph itself is reduced (as described later).insulatorIt was installed in front of and behind the car body that covers the base of the pantograph.slopeThe mainstream of noise control and aerodynamic resistance reduction is to suppress wind noise with a pantograph cover and a sound insulation plate on the side, but in recent years.JR Kyushu 800 series,JR East E2 series 1000 seriesIn some cases, the insulator and the base of the pantograph are aerodynamically treated, and the pantograph cover itself is abolished.In the case of the Shinkansen, the idea of ​​reducing noise with a pantograph cover was the mainstream in the past, but the cover itself is a source of noise.JR Tokai OfType 955 "300X"The "wine glass type" type that was tried inJR East OfType 952/953 "STAR21",JR West 500 series 900 series "WIN350"High-speed test car, andJR Research InstituteAtWind tunnel experimentSince it has been identified by the data accumulated in the above, the idea of ​​reducing noise with the pantograph itself without relying on the cover is now the mainstream.

after thatN700 seriesLike, the single arm type lower frame is extremely short and both the base are housed in a streamlined cover (in this case, a sound insulation plate and a slope cover are combined), and JR EastE954 type "FASTECH 360"Trial and error of aerodynamics and noise countermeasures are continuing, such as the appearance of a completely single arm without joints (actually, the lower frame is extremely short and covered with a cover) that was tried in.

Ishizu style

Okayama Electric TrackThis is an original pantograph devised by Ryusuke Ishizu, who was the 1951th president of the company, in XNUMX, and is also called "Okaden type" or "Okayama type" from the company name.

Instead of following the overhead wire with air pressure or spring force like a normal pantograph, the lower frame of the pantograph is extended further below the main shaft and underframe, and the lower frame crossing type pantograph is turned upside down under it. A small pantograph mechanism is formed, a weight is hung directly under it, and the pantograph is pushed up by the force obtained by the descent due to its gravity to follow the overhead wire.

Due to the structure, a small pantograph mechanism for the weight is built under the underframe, so the underframe cannot be directly fixed on the roof via insulators, and a turret with a height of about 800 mm is assembled. It is necessary to store the mechanical part for the weight there (in the past, there was an example in which advertising boards were attached to both sides of the weight), and the underframe was placed on it.

It is not equipped with a mechanism for maintaining the equilibrium of the frame structure, it is difficult to follow at high speeds, and it is easy for derailment to occur, so it is suitable only for vehicles running at low speeds such as trams, but the spring is also air. It has the advantage of being easy to maintain without the need for piping.

From its development to the present, only Okayama Electric Tramway (9200 type "MOMO"(Excluding) has adopted.

Type T

Without using a joint structure, the double structure (tube, case) expands and contracts to follow the overhead wire, and it looks like a T-shape in the front-back view and an I-shape in the side view, and the roof when in use. It will stand upright.Therefore, it does not have a joint structure. JR WestShinkansen 500 seriesIt was used only for 16-car trains.

When driving at high speedTurbulenceYou can glide without noise to prevent wind noise.フ ク ロ ウThere is a convex mold on the surface of the outer tube, which was developed based on the structure of the blades ofVortex generatorIs a kind of).Inside the case for stable expansion and contraction at high speedsDamperIs equipped, but this is manufacturedF1We have a lot of data and know-how at 300 km / h or more through the production of shock absorbers forShowaWas asked to.

The advantages of the airfoil are that the moving parts are simple and lightweight, and it is advantageous in reducing wind noise, but the disadvantages are the high manufacturing and maintenance costs and the fact that it cannot be expanded or contracted too much due to its structure. , Large fluctuation range of overhead wire heightConventional lineIt cannot be used with.

In addition, since a single-arm type, inexpensive and high-performance Shinkansen pantograph was developed in later years, even in JR West, which developed the 500 series, the T-type pantograph was not adopted in subsequent new Shinkansen vehicles.echoEven the 500 series, which was converted to "", will not be relocated because it is essential to cut out the car body when relocating the pantograph due to the composition change (aluminum).HoneycombStructureFor drillingStrengthIs greatly impaired), so it has been replaced with a single-arm pantograph.The T-type pantograph disappeared because the W1 formation, which had been operated with the T-type pantograph until the end, was scrapped on March 2014, 3.

In addition, it is often called "airfoil pantograph", but this is a name that confuses the airfoil hull and the T-type pantograph, and to be exact, they are different names, so they are incorrect names.[26].

A pantograph similar in shape to the T type used to beKusugaru Electric RailwayWas used in.Like the Ishizu type in the previous section, a weight is used for raising, but the point that a spring is used to secure the pantograph pushing force is different from the Ishizu type and the 500 series.

parts

frame

The basic parts of a current collector.It uses a steel pipe and consists of an upper frame and a lower frame.In order to suppress disconnection at high speed, it is necessary to be lightweight and have sufficient rigidity and strength. Those used under conditions above 200 km / hAerodynamicsIs also an important design requirement.

slider

The part where the pantograph contacts the overhead wiresliderIt is called (sliding board, sliding board) or current collector boat, but since this slider runs in a state of contact with the overhead wire, it is always in a state of friction during running.Therefore, it wears out during use and needs to be replaced regularly.

The material of the slider is carbon (Graphite) AndcopperSystemSinteringAlloys are the mainstream and are used properly according to their characteristics.In general, carbon shavings are resistant to arcs due to disconnection, and metal shavings have good conductivity, so large currents can easily flow.[27]..As another material, to reduce wear鉄Use a system-based sintered alloy, or use a copper-based alloy with oils and fatsMolybdenum disulfideIt may be made by mixing lubricants such as.However, when using a material with less wear for the slider, it is necessary to consider that the overhead wire wears faster.[28].

In addition, in order to prevent the wear points of the slider from concentrating on one point, the overhead wire of the straight part is generally stretched in a loose zigzag shape on the pantograph current collector line.[Annotation 39].

Normally, two sliders are attached to both the rhombus and single arm types, but on the Shinkansen, the number of sliders has been reduced to one to prevent noise.There was also one train on some trains before and after World War II.Often there is only one in the diamond-shaped pantograph of a tram.

Roller slider

The part that comes into contact with the overhead wire rotates as a roller, with the aim of suppressing wear of the contact part.

in Japan1914(Taisho 3) Railway InstituteDeha 6340 seriesHowever, it is too heavy and tends to cause disconnection troubles during high-speed operation (overhead line followability is poor, and arc discharge often occurs to break the overhead line, and the pantograph moves violently up and down in sections with poor track conditions. This caused tamping), which caused a fatal trouble that the train could not be operated during the opening commemorative operation, so the train operation was stopped and the train was remodeled into a normal shoe type.Operate at low speedUnderground orbitThen it was used in some parts after that[Annotation 40].

Split spring slider

ShinkansenE5 seriesas well as the E6 seriesAdopted in.The slider itself is divided and a spring is incorporated in each.As a result, the followability was significantly improved, and we succeeded in reducing the number of current collectors used during operation to one.

Horn

The curved parts at both ends of the slider, what is a horn?Corner(One) meaning.Overhead line obstacles (during normal driving)TurnoutIn the unlikely event that the deviation becomes extremely large at the intersection of overhead lines, etc., it helps the current collector to be restored and prevents deviation.Depending on the type of vehicle and pantograph, there are various shapes such as one with one tip, two with one tip, and Y type with one tip.In Japan, the rhombus pantograph has a slider itself that has been a horn for a long time since its appearance, and this is called a flat shape or a boat shape.After that, PT43 (with some exceptions) and PT44 for private railways, and PS21 for JNR, a horn pipe was installed separately from the slider, and the slider itself is dedicated to collecting electricity.As a result, the slider is shortened, which contributes to weight reduction.Currently, fluorescent paint or tape is widely used around the tip of the horn.

For the Shinkansen, many elongated holes are drilled in a wavy line, and the airflow that passes through the holes causesKarman vortexIs made smaller to suppress the occurrence of "()" at high speeds.

Equalizer

PantographEqualizerWorks between the overhead line and the overhead line when drivingFrictionIt is a balancing device that prevents the frame and slider from tilting.

Key

To prevent the current collector from jumping up due to the force of the spring, such as when indwelling.hookShaped clasp.

Insulator

Located between the vehicle and the current collector,InsulationParts used for.

Alternating currentWhen the voltage is high, such as for use, the number of stages increases to secure the insulation interval,Undersea tunnelAnd windyAlong the coastWhen used in a departmentSalt damageTo prevent furthersiliconA system insulating material may be applied.

Normally, it is inserted vertically between the roof and the underframe of the current collector to secure the insulation interval, but the cross-sectional shape of the tunnel etc. is small.Vehicle limitIf there are restrictions on the insulator, there is an example of placing the insulator sideways and lowering the height of the underframe as much as possible.Kinki Nippon RailwaySeen at.

As mentioned above, depending on the Shinkansen vehicle, there are an increasing number of cases where the insulator itself is aerodynamically shaped to reduce noise.

The shape of the insulatorWind tunnel experimentIt is also an accent on the appearance of the vehicle.

Special pantograph

Defrosting pantograph

Adhered to the overhead wire using the current collector on the car in the cold seasonFrost,æ°·Those that scrape off such things are called "for defrosting" and "for defrosting".Some are dedicated to defrosting and do not have a current collecting function.Also, it occurs when the line is separated by frost.arcIn some cases, two pantographs are used to prevent the problem, or in some cases, the existing pantograph is used to defrost while collecting electricity with the pantograph added for defrosting work due to the traveling direction.

Example of spark when overhead wire frosts on a vehicle with few current collectors: Nico Nico DougaThan Passing video(If it is hard to see, it is recommended to hide the comment).This vehicleJR West JapanKakogawa Line Of103 seriesSo, it is not equipped with a defrost pantograph, and there is only one pantograph for current collection.

Pantograph for three-phase AC electrification

in JapanNew transportation systemAlthough it was not put into practical use on general railways except for, in some parts of Europe, it was an overhead line.Three-phase exchangeIt is being electrified.Similar to the double pole in pole current collection, two overhead wires are laid in parallel, and two current collectors are arranged side by side to collect current, and two current collectors that are electrically independent from one current collector. In addition to the method of equipping boats side by side, there was also a method of collecting electricity by arranging three overhead wires vertically and three current collectors vertically in the early three-phase AC electrification.

Japanese manufacturer

Pantographs are currently available in JapanToyo Denki SeizoとKoshin SeikoshoIs manufactured in.

Long time agoHitachi, Ltd.,Toshiba,Mitsubishi Electric,Fuji ElectricBut it was manufactured.Of these, Hitachi madeSagami Railway, Toshiba madeHankyu Corporation(Shinpo LineOnly in the jurisdiction)[Annotation 41], Made by Mitsubishi ElectricKobe Electric Railway, Made by Fuji ElectricSanyo Electric Railway[Annotation 42]However, none of the companies are currently using it except for a small number of vehicles due to the aged scrapping of vehicles and the renewal of the pantograph itself.

Pantograph push-up force

The push-up force of the pantograph is 50N (about 5kgf) or less in a stationary state in consideration of the wear of the sliding plate and the followability to the overhead wire, and even if wet snow is piled up, the line is separated.

Low roof vehicle / equipment relocation vehicle

In the overhead line system, the height of the current collectorOverhead wireAnd height (Building limits-Vehicle limit) Etc. may run in different sections.When traveling in such a section, usually adjust to the one with the lower height.This is a direct connection to other companies' suburban routessubwayAnd so on.Japanese oldNational railwayThen,ElectrificationAt the time of construction, for the purpose of shortening the construction period and reducing the construction costMeijiEquipment built in the era (mainlytunnel) Was used as it is without major renovation, and these limits are narrower than other lines.Chuo Main Line OfTakao - Nakatsugawaof,Shinonoi Line,Private railwayThenationalizationIs the routeMinobu Line,PrivatizationLater electrifiedYosan line OfEhimeLines such as inside are known.Iida LineAlsoWartime acquisition private railwayHowever, this is not the case.

During the JNR era, vehicles used or directly connected to these "narrow tunnel" sections should be lower than usual in order to maintain a certain distance from the overhead line when the pantograph is folded (for the normal DC section of the JNR). For vehicles, it is more than 4,000 mm from the top of the track. The central main line is 3,980 mm. The tunnel line is 3,960 mm.Lightning arresterPeripherals, on the roofHeadlightIt was required to relocate such as, and it was dealt with by remodeling the existing car and changing the design of the new car of the existing series.These are especially because the most prominent relocation device was the lightning arrester.Lightning device relocation work vehicleIt was said.Also, the roof of the pantograph part is cut out to lower the installation position.Low roof vehicleEspecially for vehicles destined for the Chuo Main Line, it was lowered due to the slope.Electric car OfGear ratioIn combination with, it was sometimes called a "mountain train".These specifications42 series-71 series-72 series-80 series-101 series-115 series-165 series・ JR Central211 seriesSeen in, etc., mainly in the 72 series etc. for applicable vehicles after 800 seriesNumber divisionHas been made.

But originallyCenter of gravityThe overall height was suppressed for the purpose of loweringdesign OfLimited express trainIn addition, vehicles introduced on the relevant routes after the JNR division and privatization are not called low-roof vehicles.also,AC train-AC/DC trainFor about 20,000 V OfExtra high pressureUse electric currentAC electrificationThat in the sectionSecurity guardAbove, the base of the overhead wire and pantograph must be located higher than in the DC section, and at the same time, it is necessary to secure a space for equipping the related equipment on the roof. The design is close to a low roof.Therefore, it does not correspond to the above-mentioned low roof vehicle.

For the Chuo Main Line, pantographs (PS23 / PS24, single-arm PS35) with reduced minimum working height and folding height have been developed, and existing or new high-height vehicles will also be equipped with these pantographs. It is now possible to clear the distance to the overhead line when descending the pantograph, eliminating the need to manufacture low-roof vehicles (corresponding vehicles are marked with a ◆ in front of the vehicle number).Low-roof vehicles manufactured before that are agedScrapped carIs progressing, and the number is decreasing.However, since the Minobu Line still cannot pass through, a special low-roof vehicle (20 series 115 series train) with the pantograph mounting part lowered by 2600 mm was manufactured.In addition, JR Tokai's current new model car (373 series-313 series) Is designed with a roof height that assumes that it will run on the Minobu Line, such as by installing an improved single arm (C-PS27A type).

In the case of the Yosan Line, the conditions are even worse, so a special pantograph (S-PS58 type, S-PS59 type) is installed, and the entire roof is lowered in the new car.

Third rail current collector shoes

Third rail systemThen,TrolleyCurrent collector mounted on the outside ofCurrent collector shoes(Shudenka)British: contact shoe..In Japanese, it is called "collector shoe") to collect current from the third rail.Unlike overhead lines, it is not flexible and is not suitable for high-speed operation (the highest speed line in the third rail section in Japan isKintetsu Keihanna Line95km / h).BritishEuro starAlthough it operates at 160km / h in the driving section,FranceDue to the large speed difference from the domestic section, a new high-speed overhead line system (CTRL) Are sequentially switched to.

In Japan, it is mainly adopted by subway operators, and other operatorsKita Osaka Express Electric RailwayとKintetsu Keihanna LineOnly adopted in the ground section.These routes areOsaka Metro Midosuji Line,center laneToMutual direct operationTherefore, the third rail system is adopted.It was once used for a while in the Apt section of the Usui Pass between Yokokawa and Karuizawa on the Shin-Etsu Main Line (the section is the first electrified section of the main line in Japan).Other than business routesKagoshimaIchikikushikino CityA tourist facility that utilizes the remains of Kanayama inSatsuma Kanayamazo], The former dedicated track that adopted this method is operated for sightseeing.

London UndergroundHas adopted the "Four-rails system", which is extremely rare in the world.DC +420 V is applied to the third rail of the normal arrangement, and DC-210 V is applied to the "fourth rail" placed between the running rails, and a total of 630 V is obtained. It is a mechanism.

Ground level power collection method

TramUse the third rail inGround level power collection methodThere is an example of.

AlstomAlimemtation par le Sol (APS) developed by INNORAIL, a subsidiary ofBordeauxUsed in trams.This is a system in which a power supply rail is laid in the center of the track and current is collected by the current collector shoes attached to the vehicle side, but if it is left as it is, if a pedestrian steps on the current collector rail, an electric shock will occur.Therefore, the current collection section is divided into an 8 m current collection segment and a 2 m insulation segment, the power supply segments before and after the insulation segment are separated by a power supply box and laid, and a signal is sent from the installed antenna attached to the vehicle body side to supply the power supply segment. By repeating ON / OFF while traveling, the section where the current is flowing is moved together with the train to prevent electric shock.constructioncostIs more expensive than the overhead line method, but depending on the overhead lineCityscapeIn Bordeaux, the APS system is used for the section where landscape protection is emphasized.From now on, France's Reims, Angers and Orleans B lines have decided to adopt this method.

As a ground-level power collection method other than APS, "Conduit method"ButBordeaux,UK,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIt was used in trams such as.This was to collect current from a feeder buried underground with current collector shoes attached to the "legs" attached to the vehicle body side.This method requires excavation of about 60 cm on the ground and has various problems such as laborious maintenance, so all routes have been abolished so far.A description of the system is now on display at the Railway Museum in London, and Bordeaux preserves the cars of the time.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ AC to DC conversion system equipment is centrally installed in the control and accompanying vehiclesJNR 781 series,JR West Japan 521 seriesThere is.
  2. ^ JNR Que 9420 typePart ofTobu Railway Que 7000etc.
  3. ^ The pushing force is maximum when it is horizontal to the overhead wire (angle is 0 °), and the pushing force decreases as the angle increases, and becomes zero when it reaches 90 °.
  4. ^ Hanamaki Electric RailwayOn the orbital line ofPower distributionForTelephone poleSince the overhead line was stretched using the same as it was, the interval between the overhead lines was wide, and there were many slacks and bends and bends in the curved part of the overhead line.In countries around the worldPortugal OfLisbonThe Z pantograph is used on roads with wide streetcars, and the trolley pole is used only on routes running in the old city area where steep slopes and sharp curves are continuous and overhead lines are difficult to install.
  5. ^ Fumio YoshikawaFumio Yoshikawa, "Traveling Technology and History," pp. 136-137.The heyday on the west coast of the United States1926It had an orbital extension of about 15km in (Taisho 1870), and while reducing the route.1961It was operating until (Showa 36)Pacific Electric RailwayA pole car was running by connecting two or three cars at (Pacific Electric Railway).
  6. ^ Yasuharu Nakata, Tram-The Disappearing Citizen's Feet-, pp. 121-122.AutomobileThe state-of-the-art vehicle at that time, which was developed in opposition to.
  7. ^ 1911(Meiji 44) In MayNagoya Electric RailwayThen, the leakage current from the orbit corroded the lead pipe of the telephone cable, causing a temporary call failure.[2].
  8. ^ In some cases, such as electric open wagons that do not have a roof in the center of the car body, beams are passed from the front and rear cab roofs to a place corresponding to the center of the roof, or pillars are erected from the floor.
  9. ^ Koichi Yoda, "Chinchin Train Disposal: 70 Years of Running in Yokohama," pp. 94-95, pp. 268.A crew member who was operating the trolley pole by grasping the trolley cord was frequently lifted by the reaction force of the spring and suspended in the air, and a fall accident also occurred.
  10. ^ a b The Keifuku Electric Railroad Eizan Main Line and Kurama Line are open using wheel-type trolley poles,1970(Showa 45)Keihan Keitsu Line-Ishiyama Sakamoto LineThe slider-type trolley pole, which was no longer needed when the pantograph was made, was taken over and switched.
  11. ^ Yukichi Ishimoto, "About the Current Collector of Trams," p. 80.1899(32th year of Meiji)スイス OfThree-phase exchangeThe electric locomotive is equipped with a large lower framed view gel.
  12. ^ Frame-shaped object.Stirrup for horse riding, frames for eyeglasses, orthodontic appliances for medical use are also view gels.
  13. ^ This name comes from the fact that the cross-sectional shape of the sliding plate in the front-rear direction is bow-shaped to correspond to the displacement of the angle.On the other hand, in pantographs, it is usually a flat sliding plate (slider) OrRoller sliderTo use.
  14. ^ Tokyo TodenIn the Sugamo garage, the overhead line was attached to the roof covering the entry / exit line, so it could not be reversed at that location.In the Sugamo garage, a vehicle equipped with Z pantograph was deployed to prepare for the retrograde operation under the roof, and the vehicle equipped with Bugel was turned over avoiding the under roof.[13].
  15. ^ Amsterdam,Vienna,RomeThere are examples of use in many other cities.
  16. ^ Fumio Yoshikawa, "Traveling Technology and History," p. 168.The pantograph is used for vehicles for the Hakushima line.
  17. ^ On the other hand, in some cases, such as Nishitetsu Orbital Line and Eizan Electric Railway (Keifuku Electric Railroad era), the trolley pole was directly replaced with a pantograph without going through the Bugel.
  18. ^ Fumio Yoshikawa, "Traveling Technology and History," p. 144.The 205 parked at Hamakoshien is equipped with this Y gel.
  19. ^ Tokyo Publishing Planning Co., Ltd. "Chinchin Train 80 Years", p. 102.Keihan Electric Railway 901 (later1947(Showa 22)Keihan Keitsu Line20 type body renewal remodeling)1937Equipped with a bow collector in (Showa 12).
  20. ^ Yukichi Ishimoto, "About the Current Collector of Trams," p. 81.Rigid overhead wireCollect electricity from the dolly above.
  21. ^ after that,1936(Showa 11)Bay bridgeWith completion1939From (Showa 14), we started to enter the Transbay Terminal in San Francisco.1958(Showa 33) Completely abolished.
  22. ^ Yosan line OfKanonji StationSince the pantograph folding height limit to the west is 4000 mm, it is possible to use an equivalent pantograph compatible with the Chuo Main Line and Minobu Line.The limit of the folding height of the Torigoe Tunnel is 3,900 mm, which is also incorrect because the EF65 type PS22 equipped vehicle (folding height of 3,980 mm) is passing through.
  23. ^ this isYoshino RailwayIt seems that one of the reasons is that the structure is very similar to the pantograph made by BBC, which was installed in the type 1 electric locomotive imported from BBC at the time of electrification.
  24. ^ Before the opening of electrificationED75 501, And the 711 series prototype car used a diamond-shaped pantograph, but with the opening of electrification, these were also unified into the PS102 series (locomotive is PS102A type, train is PS102B type).
  25. ^ 3000 series (2nd generation)andOtsu LineExcludes vehicles.
  26. ^ Initially manufactured with a rhombus6000 series,7000 series / 7100 series primary carWas replaced with a lower frame crossing type when the air conditioner was remodeled.
  27. ^ 207 series,221 series,223 series(Excluding 9000 series),281 series,321 series,681 series,683 series(Excluding 4000 series. Including modified 289 series) etc. are applicable.JNR trains remain diamond-shaped,443 seriesIt is used in the pantograph for inspection.In addition, the 103 series constitution improvement prototype car used the lower frame crossing type for a while.
  28. ^ Comprehensive high-speed inspection carKuya 900 type (DAX)It is used in the pantograph for inspection.
  29. ^ Among Kansai private railways, switching to the single arm type is quick,1995Appeared in8200 seriesAll subsequent new vehicles have adopted a single arm type, and in addition,5000 seriesSome renewal vehicles have been replaced with a single arm type.
  30. ^ The first adoption of the single-arm pantograph in JR West was relatively early,1996Appearance283 seriesWas adopted for the first time in.After that, it is used properly according to the model, and even in the new series after 521 series and the existing series, the 683 series 4000 series all adopt the single arm type.
  31. ^ a b On the Shinkansen, the lower frame crossing type was adopted.300 seriesWas later replaced with a single-arm type for all cars as a measure against ride quality and noise.
  32. ^ At Kintetsu, the lower frame crossing type pantograph was equipped at the beginning of the new construction, but in later years there are cases where it is replaced with a single arm type, and conversely, there are cases where the single arm type is replaced with a lower frame crossing type. Can be seen.In addition, limited express type vehicles21020 seriesSince then, the single arm type has been consistently adopted.
  33. ^ In Japan and Europe and the United States, when an overhead wire accident occurs, there is a difference in which protection of the overhead wire or current collector is prioritized (Japan: overhead wire priority, Europe and the United States: current collector priority), which also contributed to the delay in adoption. Has been done.
  34. ^ Nagoya Municipal SubwayOf which, the overhead line method is adopted.Tsurumai Line,Sakuradori LineVehicle is equipped with a single arm typeN3000 type,6050 typeIs equipped with one unit per car from the beginning, but it is not equipped with a single arm type3000 type-3050 type-6000 type TheMeasures for disconnection during regenerative brakingInitially, two cars were installed per car (currently one is installed).alsoKamiida LineFrom the beginning, all the vehicles operated in are equipped with a single arm type, and each vehicle is equipped with one.
  35. ^ However,Midori LakeViaShiomine TunnelIs a tunnel with a standard cross section.
  36. ^ JR East Of211 seriesWas replaced with a single arm type for all cars, so it is in charge of the operation of the Chuo Main Line.NaganoIt was possible to divert it.
  37. ^ Especially for the Minobu line, even with the PS23 type developed for the Chuo line, there was no choice but to lower the roof (115 series 2600 seriesetc,373 seriesWith the single arm pantograph introduced in, it is no longer necessary to lower the roof, and since thenTokai passenger railwayThen there is no entry record285 seriesAll new conventional trains, including the ones, are single-armed.Later of the companyField addition excitation controlAll cars were replaced with single arm type.
  38. ^ JR HokkaidoThen.711 seriesSince then, the lower frame crossing type has been the mainstream2000 eraSince then, the replacement with a single arm has been promoted at once.
  39. ^ In the case of trolley pole current collection, it is stretched in a straight line, so when changing the current collector from the pole to the pantograph, it is necessary to change the support metal fittings as well as the method of suspending the overhead wire.
  40. ^ 1980As of (55), cases of Mitsui Coal Mining Ashibetsu Mining, Mitsui Kushikino Mine, and Meinobu Mining "Platinum" were seen.[29].
  41. ^ Nose Electric Railway 1700 series train (former)Hankyu 2000 series), 3100 series trains (3100 series) are also applicable.The Hankyu 5000 series was replaced with a single arm type manufactured by Toyo Denki at the time of the second update.
  42. ^ Fuji Electric's current collector manufacturing divisionKoshin SeikoshoFor Sanyo Electric Railway, the model number used was the PK type of the same company.but,6000 seriesLet's manufactureToyo Denki SeizoSince it was changed to, the format is the company's KP type (KP-86).

Source

  1. ^ Kazumi Tanikawa, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Ryotaro Mizuno, "Basic Knowledge of Trams" <Ikaros Mook> Ikaros Publishing, 1999, p. 179.
  2. ^ "Meiji Industrial History Electricity Edition", 1928, p. 388 (Reprint Hara Shobo, 1995).
  3. ^ Yukichi Ishimoto, "About the Current Collector of Trams," "Railway Pictorial-Extraordinary Special Issue," Vol. 688, 2000, p. 82.
  4. ^ Fumio Yoshikawa, "Japanese Trolley Bus," Denkisha Kenkyukai, 1994, pp. 148-151.
  5. ^ Masayuki Miyamoto "New Trolleybus" Railway Book Publishing Association, 1957, pp. 87-91.
  6. ^ Fumio Yoshikawa, "Traveling Technology and History," Grand Prix Publishing, 2003, pp. 16-20.
  7. ^ Yasuharu Nakata "Tram -Disappearing Citizen's Feet-" <Color Books 264>,Nursery company, 1977, pp. 139-140.
  8. ^ Takayuki Haraguchi "Japanese Road Train I-Active Routes-" <JTB Can Books> JTB, 2000, pp. 82-83.
  9. ^ Yukichi Ishimoto, "About the Current Collector of Trams," "Railway Pictorial-Extraordinary Special Issue," Vol. 688, 2000, p. 82.
  10. ^ Michikazu Miyata and Katsutaka Sekida, "Tamaden of the Day" <RM LIBRARY 15> Neko Publishing, 2000, p. 16.
  11. ^ Tokyo Publishing Planning Co., Ltd. "Chinchin Train 80 Years" Rippu Shobo Publishing Co., Ltd., 1979, pp. 122-123.
  12. ^ Seiichi Okada・ Kazuaki Sawauchi, "Yokohama Streetcar (below) Postwar History and Its Vehicles," Neko Publishing, 2009, p. 23.
  13. ^ Masakazu Iwanari "Interview with Mr. Koichi Emoto for more than 12 years with trains" "Railway Pictorial-Separate Volume Tram Age-" <Archive Selection 2007>, Railway Book Publishing Association, 12, pp. 13-XNUMX.
  14. ^ Toyo Denki Giho No. 108 September 2001 "History of Pantographs in Japan and Toyo Denki 9-Toyo Denki Seizo" (published on Web page and PDF file) Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  15. ^ Shonan Club "Enoden-Nostalgic Train Directory" JTB, 2003.
  16. ^ Kichitaro Takamatsu"History of Japanese tram transitions spelled out in photographs" Railway Book Publishing Association, 1978, p. 57.
  17. ^ Yasuo Wakuda, Japanese City Train -1895 --1945-, Narishando Bookstore, 2009, p. 26.
  18. ^ Koichi Yoda, "Chinchin Train Disposal: 70 Years of Running in Yokohama," Kanashin Publishing, 1988, pp. 296-298.
  19. ^ Koichi Emoto "Toden Vehicle Overview" Taisho Publishing, 1999, pp. 106-107.
  20. ^ Tobu Museum, Arts and Sciences Division, "Nostalgic Nikko Orbit," 2010, p. 23.
  21. ^ Kazumi Tanikawa, Yoshiaki Nishimura, Ryotaro Mizuno, "Basic Knowledge of Trams," p. 84.
  22. ^ Fumio Yoshikawa and Yoshinari Hanaue, "Shizuoka Railway Akiha Line-Ishimatsu Train Disposal" <RM LIBRARY18> Neko Publishing, 2001, p. 39.
  23. ^ Keifuku Fukui "Railway of Ha-san's Memories, Railroad Scenery 40 Years Ago" Updated May 2010, 5
  24. ^ Iwao Iijima "Reprinted Private Railway Vehicle 5 Hankyu Railway" Neko Publishing, 2002. Pages 126-127.
  25. ^ Yoshifumi Shimizu "Keihan Electric Railway"JTB publishing, 2017, p.61
  26. ^ "Railway Journal" May 2008 issue, Railway Journal, 5, p. 2008, ISSN 0288-2337.
  27. ^ "Morinomiya watching over Orange Vermilion" "Railway Journal" Vol. 570, April 2014, Railway Journal, p.4
  28. ^ Special Feature: Longevity Technology> Materials> Pantograph Reduce wear of sliding plate (PDF) - Railway Technical Research Institute RRR Vol.71 No.2 (February 2014 / January 2, 2016)
  29. ^ "Rail Guy Separate Volume Unknown Narrows" Maruzen Publishing, 1981.

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