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🚗 | Pininfarina to release "Battista" debut commemorative watch by the end of the year ... Partnership with a long-established Swiss watch brand

Photo Photo of a special mechanical watch teaser to be released within 2021 to commemorate the debut of Automobili Pininfarina "Battista"

Pininfarina to release "Battista" debut commemorative watch by the end of the year ... Partnership with a long-established Swiss watch brand

If you write the contents roughly
Automobili Pininfarina has released a teaser photo of this mechanical watch.

Automobili Pininfarina said on August 8th, "Bovet ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


clock(clock,British: clock..Portable onlywatch) IsTimes of DayA device that indicates, orTimeDevice to measure[1][2].


A clock is a device that indicates the time, and is called a time measuring instrument together with a time counter (a device that only measures the time but does not indicate the time).[3]..A clock that can measure time as well as indicate timeChronographThere is (chronograph)[3].

In the old days, how to know the time in daily life(I.e.Was the movement of[4].1500 BCAroundSundialWas invented[5].

11st centurySince then, mechanically driven clocks have been put into practical use, but until the early modern period, they were extremely large devices, and they were expensive and uncommon for ordinary people.[4]..Also, early mechanical clocks were not very accurate and had to adjust the time on a regular basis.[5]..Since the modern era, even if more accurate mechanical clocks have become widespread, it is not easy to set the time of mechanical clocks based on accurate times until wireless and radio broadcasting become widespread. A noon clock (a type of sundial) specialized for knowing the inside was also used.[4][5]..In Japan, it used to beJapanese,Yamato languageSo, the device that measures time was called a "time scale."[6].

Mechanical clocks have the force to move, the force to move at a constant speedGovernor, There are three elements of the part that conveys the measured time to the outside.As power, pull the weight重力Has existed for the longest time, but since then, it has been put into practical use in the early modern period.Mainspring(Spring) was widely used until the latter half of the 20th century as a power storage device suitable for watches.Also after the 20th centuryElectricalWas used, and it became mainstream not only as power but also as governor energy.As a speed governor, it was put into practical use in the 17th century.pendulumIs widely used in stationary watches, and even though the role of the pendulum has been replaced with a small part, the balance spring, it can be put into practical use and carried around.Pocket watch) Has come to be made.For speed control in the electric drive era after that,tuning fork, Power line,crystal, Atoms, etc. are used.As a means of communicating the time to the outside, generally a hand (analog) And characters (デ ジ タ ル) Is the basis, and sounds such as bells, bells, and alarms are used in combination with this.

1970 eraUntil around that time, wristwatches and table clocks were mechanical, and wall clocks were electric.Transistor) Most of the formulas1980 eraSince then, electricity has been used for power and a crystal oscillator has been used for the governor.Quartz watchBecame mainstream.Most of the quartz watches on the market are 1 per second (32,768 of 2).Riding) Vibrates (32.768kHz) Crystal oscillatorTo tick the time with.It does not have to be this value, but it is a frequency that is likely to occur with an oscillator of an appropriate size to be incorporated into a watch, and it is a simple circuit.DivisionTo get 1 second by repeating the operation of halving the frequencyExponentiationThis frequency is often used because it is convenient to have a value of.Crystal oscillators of other frequencies may also be used.


Also, in recent yearsCesium atomVibration (9,192,631,770Hz = 9.19263177GHz) was used.Atomic clockRadio waves transmitted based on the time ofStandard radio wave,JJY) ReceivedQuartz watchAutomatically correct the time ofRadio clockIs also used.[7] Go further and receive anywhere on earthGPSAdjust the time by radio wavesSatellite radio clockHas also appeared.

On the other hand, regarding powerPower InputTo save the trouble of replacement腕 時 計In the field ofGeneratorDrive (AGS) How to get electricity, built into the dial and parts other than the boardSolar cellElectricity generated bySecondary batteryOrCapacitorThere is a type that operates while charging.

Watches are also the subject of hobby collection, such as quartz andRadio clockEven in the heyday ofSundialFor lovers who collect and put it in the garden and look at it,Mechanical watchSome people love to collect and wear it every day.

Also the clockElectronicsIt is also built into many of.this is,videoRecording reservation andmicrowaveHeating time, etc.timerUsed as.

またPersonal computerClocks are also incorporated in several ways, and time values ​​can be obtained and used from such clocks even in the source code of programming languages. →#Clocks in digital circuits and PCs

Watch history

From prehistoric times(I.e.(Probably also for other animals)(I.e.It is thought that it had an ambiguous and unclear concept of morning-noon-evening depending on the position of.One way to know the position of the sun is to "see the shadow of a fixed and suitable object", which is so-calledAbout 2000 BCIt is said that it was invented aroundSundial.

DaijirinAccording to ChinaweekInstead,DokeiI stood upBaton Of影Measure the length of粘土Made oflatitudeMeasuring instrumentIt seems that there was[8],DaijisenAccording to thatDokeiIs for measuring directions and shadesCompassOld Chinese expression pointing to[9] friend.Perhaps based on that, the Japanese dictionary "Selected Edition of the Japanese Language Dictionary" refers to the Chinese equipment.directionOr, an instrument that measures the heat and cold of the land using the shade (the shadow of the sun or the shadow of the sun).[10]Or an instrument that uses the sun to measure time (ieSundial) And so on[10]..In other words, it seems that the sundial was called Dokei around the Zhou dynasty. (Note that Dokei is an instrument that measures the direction by standing a stick on the ground, etc., and even when mechanical watches appeared in later times, the notation Dokei was not used to refer to them. Was considered to be a completely different thing.)

Still moreSundialHas the drawback that it can only be used during sunny days.Therefore, another method of measuring time was considered.For example, made in a specific sizecandle,Incense stick, Use the distance that the fuselage burns (combustion clock),Wed,sandUses the volume that falls from a small hole (Water clock,hourglass) Etc., 1400 BC-between about 700 BCEgypt,Italy,ChugokuIt was devised by such.Among them, water clocks use water with a constant flow velocity, develop a mechanism powered by it, and change to one that uses a fairly complicated mechanism, eventually producing a mechanical clock.[11].

Northern Song DynastyIn the times, escapements were invented to limit the movement of the drive shaft in order to measure the time more accurately.1092 ToSu SongThe world's first clock tower with an escapementWater transport elephant stand OpenedWas built in[12]..The water transport observatory was both a clock tower and an observatory.At the same time, the evolution of water clocks progressed in the Islamic world, and many of its mechanisms spread to Europe.[13].

In the 14th century, in Europe, a mechanism was invented that regularly lifts the weight and adjusts the speed at which it falls with a rod balance and escapement.Also around 1510, a locksmith in NurembergPeter henlein MainspringWas invented and became portable.

1583 ,Galileo GalileiDiscovered that the period of the pendulum was constant regardless of the amplitude (to be exact, only when the amplitude was very small), and came up with the pendulum clock.1656 ,Christian HuygensInvented a pendulum that draws a cycloid curve and a method of powering the pendulum, and made a pendulum clock.[14].

1654 ,Robert HookConducted a study of the balance spring and discovered that it vibrates at regular intervals, similar to a pendulum.1675 , Huygens has developed a pocket watch that uses this principle. In the early 18th century, the progress of watch technology progressed further.George GrahamInvented the cylinder escapement by his discipleThomas MudgeInvented a lever escapement[15].

The significance of watches in medieval Europe is mainlyReligiousFor the purpose, it was to know when to pray to God.ButAge of DiscoveryTo enter the,Astronomical navigationAnd the current position by timekeepinglongitudeIn order to know, an accurate clock that does not go crazy even if left in a swaying ship for a long time (Chronometer) Was required.The error of 1 minute in time is 15 in longitude.Minute(1/4Every time, 28km on the equator), and there were many accidents in which the clock went wrong, leading to distress and grounding.

1713 , The British government puts a prize of £ 5 on the sweepstakes condition of "within a minute of error on a five-month voyage"[16],1736 ,John HarrisonHas completed a watch that meets the prize conditions.However, perhaps because Harrison was just a craftsman, the British Parliament made various difficult habits and did not pay the prize money, and made improvements over 40 years.HarrisonGeorge VHe finally got the prize, three years before his death.

Famous as a genius watchmaker who revolutionized the history of watchmakingAbraham-Louis BreguetAnd he claims that the progress of watches has been accelerated by 200 years.[17]..Breguet was born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, afterFranceWe mainly produce watchesTourbillon,Minute repeaterHe made many epoch-making inventions that are also used in modern mechanical watches.Breguet's customers are the King of FranceLouis XVI,Napoleon Bonaparte,United KingdomkingGeorge V,RussiaemperorAlexander IIIAll the most powerful people at that time asked him to make watches.It is said that Breguet produced about 3,800 watches in his lifetime, and produced many masterpieces. Among them, the masterpiece is the queen.Marie AntoinetteIt is a pocket watch "Marie Antoinette" made according to the order of.

Since then, mechanical watches have undergone various improvements in search of precision and portability.Also, in the early 17th and 19th centuries, improvements were made from handicraft small-lot production by a team of craftsmen's apprentices to the demand for how to make high-precision watches in mass production and for anyone to perform regular maintenance. It was an era.The drive unit where the power is appliedgearHas also been devised so that the number of teeth of the gears is not divisible by each other so that the force is applied as uniformly as possible.The change in the length of the pendulum and the elasticity of the balance spring also affects the accuracy depending on the temperature.20st centurySmall coefficient of thermal expansion at the beginningInvarDepending on the alloy and temperatureModulusThe Elinvar alloy was invented, which made a great contribution.The various escapements were also narrowed down to the current ankle escapements.

As a power source in the 20th centuryelectric motorHas come to be used.Initially, the speed governor was the same as that of a conventional mechanical watch, but the power source was only an electric motor instead of a royal fern.Furthermore, after World War II, in the field of small table clocks and watches, transistor clocks that used transistors to stabilize electricity, clocks that used RC oscillator circuits for speed regulators, and sound fork clocks that used sound forks were developed. However, with the advent of new high-precision clocks, such as quartz clocks that use crystal oscillators as practical clocks for the general public, and atomic clocks that use the vibration of cesium atoms as advanced timekeeping devices in experimental facilities, etc. Disappeared.

Quartz watches are inexpensive, can be miniaturized, and have a practically sufficient accuracy with a one-month error of about 1 seconds, so they are now commonly used.Atomic clocks, on the other hand, have a high precision of about 15 second in 2000 million years, but it is difficult to reduce the price and size at the beginning of the 1st century.Therefore, the time signal by the atomic clock is received by radio waves at an appropriate frequency, and the time of the quartz clock is automatically corrected.Radio clockIs also used.Also, if you need to know the more accurate time, such as for science and technology applications,GPSIt is also worth noting that this has made it easier to obtain accurate times on the order of one billionth of a second anywhere on the planet.

In electric watches before the generalization of quartz watches, in analog watchesPower frequencyRotate in sync withServomotorOr, in the digital type, it was driven by obtaining a pulse every second from the power supply frequency (the latter is still used today).Video tape recorderIt may be used for timer reservation clocks such as).For this reason, the commercial power supply (50 / 60Hz in Japan) is controlled for advance and lag so that errors do not accumulate over a long period of time.

On the other hand, as a new invention of mechanical watches, at the end of the 20th century,George DanielsbyCo-Axial escapementHas been proposed.This is said to be the invention since the ankle escapement.Also by SeikoSpring driveThe invention of is revolutionary as a fusion of mechanical and quartz watches.

Type, classification

There are various taxonomies.

There is a "clock clock" as a basic expression, but the basic classification method is to call what you carry as a "watch watch".This classification method is a standard classification method among the standard ones used by both children and adults.

There is also a classification method based on the operating principle.It is classified as a mechanical watch / quartz watch / radio-controlled watch ... etc.

There is also a classification method based on the display method.It is classified into analog method / digital method.

Clock and watch

The English dictionary describes the clock as a device that displays the time, and is not necessarily a device that cannot be carried.[18] In other words, clock is the basic vocabulary. 

  • Table clock (desk clock, table clock): A clock that is used while standing on a desk or table.[3].
  • Wall clock(Wall clock): A wall clock that is fixed to a wall or a wall clock that is fixed to a pillar.[3].
  • Hall clock: Large vertical clock for indoor use[3].

A watch that is mainly carried around the body and used is called a watch.[3]..If the watch is further subdivided, there are watches and pocket watches (wrist watches).[3].

  • 腕 時 計: A watch worn on the wrist with a band[3].
  • Pocket watch(Wrist watch, pocket watch): Clothes with chainsclothesOr attached topocketA watch that can be carried in[3].
  • Nurse Watch: A short chain is attached to the 12 o'clock side instead of the 6 o'clock side so that nurses who wash their hands frequently can see the time immediately in an era when the waterproof mechanism was not advanced, and on the other side It has a pin and is designed to be worn on the chest.Even now that waterproof wristwatches have become a matter of course, they are still used in some cases due to the demand not to put metal products on their hands so as not to injure patients.
  • Smart watch: Digital watchWearable computerso,SmartphoneHas the same functionality as.
Classification method based on operating principle
  • Mechanical watch
  • Quartz watch(Quartz clock)
  • Radio-controlled clock (radio-controlled clock): A clock that has the function of receiving standard radio waves and correcting the time and calendar.[3].
  • Satellite radio clock (satellite radio clock): A clock that has the function of receiving GNSS radio waves from GPS satellites and correcting the time and calendar.[3].

In addition, the clock of the system that controls the slave clock by the pulse signal from the master clockSlave clockThat.

Display method

Analog type

analogThe formula is a needle type that combines a long hand and a short hand.Usually, one rotation of the long hand represents 1 minutes and one rotation of the short hand represents 60 hours.

A part that is attached to the movement and marked with a scale or mark that indicates the time is called a dial.[3]..Usually in equal parts of the circumferenceArabic numerals,Roman numeralsUse the dial on which the numbers are placed (place the numbers in 12 or 4 directions).Some designs do not include numbers in the background, but since the hands of the clock rotate in the same orbit, the time cannot be recognized unless the vertical direction is fixed.Therefore, at least in a practical clock, the direction in which the long hand, the short hand, and the second hand all overlap is set upward, and the time is adjusted to 0 o'clock or 12 o'clock (such as a wall clock with a plain background).The dial has a lightPhosphorescentThere is something[3].

There are two types of needle control, one that moves in direct proportion with a mechanical mechanism and the other that moves separately with a stepping motor.

The movement of the second hand includes sweep movement (sweep second, continuous hand movement, continuous second hand, sweep motion second, sweeping motion second) of continuous flowing second hand movement, and step hand movement (step second) that moves while dividing every second. , Step second hand, step motion second, stepping motion second)[3]..In addition, there is also a function that sounds a melody at a fixed time or manually moves the hand rhythmically (melody hand movement, rhythmical motion).[3].

Those that display pre-shaped needles with liquid crystal without using mechanical needles,Apple WatchlikeDot matrixSome display the needle with.

The long hand, minute hand, and second hand (there may be no second hand) are all independent, and they are not coaxial (the dials are also independent).This form is the basic principle of mechanical watches (Mechanical watchSee section).
2-needle type
Only the long hand and the short hand, which are coaxial (including those with a second hand but not coaxial).One gear is added to the regulator to drive the minute hand.
3-needle type
The second hand is coaxial with the long and short hands. The second hand is driven by adding one or two gears to the two-hand mechanism.
4-needle type
In addition to the second hand, long hand, and short hand, the GMT hand is coaxial[19].. The GMT hand is a hand that goes around in 24 hours, and many of them are designed to be distinguishable from the hour hand.[19][20][21]..In addition, GMT isGreenwich Mean Time(British: Greenwich Mean Time)[20].

Most of the analog type displays are displayed for 12 hours (divided into 12 equal parts), but there are some that display the numbers for 24 hours in small numbers.Regarding the time interval of the dial, the indefinite time method that changes depending on the day length (someJapanese clockHowever, modern clocks basically use a fixed time method with a constant time interval.In addition, many scales have been added to the dial, and some have chronographs (seconds, minutes, hours) and calendars that can be displayed with hands.In many cases, the date and age of the moon are displayed on the dial base plate by looking through the holes on the rotating plate.In addition, the method of expressing the direction and direction by using the dial of an analog clock such as "12 o'clock direction" and "3 o'clock direction"Clock positionThat.

It is basically clockwise, but the reason isSundialThe theory that was clockwise was predominant.[22][23]..Although there are errors depending on the latitude, longitude, and season, you can know the rough direction from the position of the sun.[24].

A watch whose movement can be seen through the exteriorskeletonTo say[3].

Digital type

デ ジ タ ルThe formula is a method of displaying directly in numbers.There are 12-hour display and 24-hour display in the digital type.Many are switchable.In some of the following methods, fixed numbers and symbols (colon, etc.) are built in.Dot matrixThere is something to display the mechanism of.



Various functions and decorations


  • World clock(Hall clock): A clock that displays the standard time around the world.[3].
  • Multi-hands time keeping instrument: A clock with function display hands other than the hour, minute, and second hands.[3]..In the case of mechanical type, it is also called a complicated clock.[3].
  • Small second hand clock (small second clock, sub second clock, sub second hand clock): A clock whose second hand is a different axis from the hour and minute hand axis.[3].
  • Clock for the visually impaired (Braille clock): A clock that allows you to know the time by voice or touch.[3].
  • Barber clock: The hands rotate in the reverse direction and the letters alsoInside outA clock that displays correctly when reflected in a mirror.The name comes from the fact that it was manufactured for cases such as barber shops where the front is covered with a large mirror and there is no space to put a watch.
  • Daylight saving time ON / OFF selection function: Daylight saving timeClock with a function related to the display of[3].


  • カレンダー: Clock with function to display day, day, month, year, etc.[3].
  • Auto calendar: A clock that distinguishes between large and small months except for leap years and does not require date correction at the end of each month.[3].
  • Fully automatic calendar (perpetual calendar, perpetual calendar, perpetual calendar): A clock that automatically detects leap years and does not require date correction[3].
  • Reverse calendar (retrograde calendar): A clock that displays the date in a fan shape and has the function of rapidly returning the date hand to the beginning at the end of the month by automatic or manual operation.[3].
  • Moon Phase: The phases of the moon (Lunar phase) Is a clock with a function to display[3].
  • Astronomical clock: Display of star chart ・ Some display the movement of celestial bodies such as the moon and the sun (some super-complex clocks realize this with a pure mechanical clock).These are a type of calendar function, but since it was originally an unequal time system in John Harrison's time, the function of displaying and adding the equation of time according to the season has been realized for a long time.


  • Alarm: A clock with a function to notify the time and attention by sound or vibration.[3].
  • Daily alarm: A clock with a function that sounds at a set time every day unless it is canceled.[3].
  • One-shot alarm (one-touch alarm, quick alarm): Alarm function clock that cancels the setting each time the alarm sounds[3].
  • Snooze: A watch that has the ability to sound the alarm again in a short time after the alarm has stopped.[3].
  • Alarm clock: Bell, electronic sound,radio-compact discThe purpose is to wake up by sounding (alarm) or light, or by inflating the air cushion laid under the bedding in special cases.


  • Acoustic information clock: To notify the time by sound at the hour or at regular intervals.[3].
  • repeater(Repeater): A clock that sounds the current time manually.[3].
  • Grand strike: A clock that audibly announces the current time on the hour, at regular intervals, automatically or manually.[3].


  • Karakuri clock: A clock that informs the time by moving decorations such as dolls at the set time[3]..The one with a moving doll is called a marionette clock, and the one with a melody is called a carillon clock.[3].
  • Cuckoo clock(Cuckoo clock): A bird-shaped statue pops out and screams to inform you of the time.[3].
  • Flower clock: A clock that is integrated with a flower bed and is mainly installed outdoors.

Watch industry

The watch industry was a handicraft industry in the 17th century, with fierce technological competition between Britain, France and Switzerland.Of these, in FranceEdict of Nantes Louis XVI OfFontainebleau edictBy1685 The watchmakers, who were abolished in Japan and had many Huguenots, escaped persecution and moved to Switzerland.GenevaAnd then it's located northeast of itNeuchâtelThe watch industry became prosperous in Japan, and these two cities became the center of the Swiss watch industry.[25]..While the starting lineup of Geneva focused on luxury watches, it was formed by the migration of craftsmen from Geneva.[26] Neuchatel andJura MountainsIn the production of watches, the production of low-priced watches was the main force.[27][28].

Since the production of watches is complicated, craftsmen rather than individuals have adopted a method of producing by division of labor, but in this method each part is accurately produced and it is combined and crazy. It was necessary to work without any problems, and as a result, this group of craftsmen acquired accurate machine-making techniques.This technology was also applied to other machine manufacturing and became the technical basis of the Industrial Revolution.[29].

Clocks up to this time are directly linked to voyage safetyChronometerExcept for, most of them were just ornaments.However, in the Industrial Revolution era, it became necessary to know the exact time, and the weight of watches as ornaments up to that point as practical products rapidly increased.At that time, such an accurate clock was not yet completed, but in the pioneering era of the western part of the United States, there was a demand for accurate and standardized railway clocks, and a highly accurate clock was required and developed in the United States. The center of gravity of production was shifted.However, the American watch industry had declined by the first half of the 20th century due to rising labor costs. Low labor costs since the end of the 19th centurySwitzerland-GermanyEtc. became the center of the watch industry.

Watch production as an industry in JapanMeiji EraAfter the mid-term (1880s)Tokyo,Osaka,NagoyaThe production of wall clocks and table clocks began in the surrounding area, but mass production of precision watches such as pocket watches and wristwatches began in the 20th century.1927 In AmericaQuartz watchWas invented[30] But,1960 eraHas been rapidly improved and put into practical use.1969 The analog quartz wristwatch was commercialized for the first time in Japan since the 1970s.デ ジ タ ルDue to the shift to conversion, the Swiss watch industry declined and shifted its main focus to Japan.[31].. At the end of the 20th century, production areas shifted further to Asian countries.

By this time, watches with many times the precision of the highest precision in the chronometer era became available at low prices, and digital watches and the like could not be further advanced in practice.

The Swiss watch industry missed the drastic changes in watch technology caused by quartz in the 1970s and 1980s, and the economic crisis also added to it, resulting in a significant reduction in the scale of the industry.[32]..The number of Swiss watch industry workers decreased from about 1970 in 9 to just over 1984 in 3.[32]..However, after that, the Swiss watch industry regained the world's attention due to the reform of the industrial structure, and the number of employees increased again, reaching the level of 2013 in 57300.[32]..The Swiss watch industry is different from what it used to be, and now it's cheap for youth, for a few tens of dollars, mid-priced watches, and complications decorated with gold and jewelry.complication..In fact, we have started to manufacture watches in all price ranges, from mechanical watches with (complex mechanical mechanisms) that cost hundreds of thousands of dollars (that is, super-luxury watches worth tens of millions of yen in Japanese yen). ing[32].. (Switzerland has revived not only in the luxury goods market, which it is originally good at, but also in the cheap watch market. Specifically, Nicolas G. Hayek is fashionable and cheap to regain the world share that was completely lost to Japan.SwatchWas developed and launched in 1983, and thanks to its worldwide popularity, the Swiss watch industry has succeeded in breaking into the global market share of low-priced products. Currently, 95% of Swiss watches areOutputHas been[32].. Total export sales as of 2013 were 218 billionSwiss franc[32]..Analyzing the export destinations on a monetary basis, 53% of Swiss watch exports are destined for Asia, 31% destined for Europe, and 14% destined for North America.[32](On a monetary basis, sales of luxury watches of tens of millions to millions of yen to the wealthy have a major influence. As a result, the export destinations on a monetary basis are Asia, Europe, and North America, where there are many wealthy people. Mainly for).In contrast, only 1% each for Africa and Oceania.[32]..There are also independent watchmakers who do not belong to the manufacturer and make it individually or in a small workshop.TourbillonWatches with complicated mechanisms such as these are evaluated as jewelry for the wealthy. In 1985Independent Watchmaker AcademyWas formed.

2009, SwitzerlandLa Chaux-de-FondsIs highly evaluated for the connection between the watch industry and city planning.La Chaux-de-Fonds and Le RockleAsworld HeritageRegistered in.

Clocks in digital circuits and PCs

In the latter half of the 20th century, the word clockDigital circuit(Logic circuit) Is also used to indicate the pulse signal (source) when synchronizing.The signal is called a "clock signal", and the circuit design method that synchronizes with such a method is called "clock signal".Clock synchronous designIt came to be called.ク ロ ッ クSee article.

Still morePCAnd so onReal-time clock,Times of DayIn many cases, they have a "clock" that ticks the clock.

operating systemUsually, it has a time management system that uses a timer other than those.

High standardProgramming languageThen, by loading the library, it is often possible to acquire and use the clock time of the PC in the program.for example,C languageAt the beginning of the program, "#include" If you write something like ", you will be able to use the clock,PythonIn this program, you can use the clock by writing "import time" or "import date time".

Others In addition to displaying the time as standard on the taskbar on the screen of the personal computer, mainlyGadget, Many analog and digital clocks have been released as free software.

A work based on a clock

Fairy tales, novels
Nursery rhymes, songs


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Carefully selected version of the Japanese dictionary "Clock / Kei"
  2. ^ "Encyclopedia Nipponica" "Clock"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "Clock terminology”. General Incorporated Association Japan Watch Association. 2020/6/24Browse.
  4. ^ a b c Mitsumasa Yamamoto "Clock has arrived in the village" Postal Museum Japan Bulletin No. 9 Postal Museum, Viewed May 2019, 10.
  5. ^ a b c Eiichi Oshida "What is time?" Japan Nikkei Bulletin No. 14 Japan Clock Association, viewed October 2019, 10.
  6. ^ Commentary on the carefully selected version of the Japanese dictionary "Clock / Kei"
  7. ^ There are standard radio wave transmission bases all over the world.The standard radio wave transmission base (radio wave transmission station) in Japan isFukushimaTamuraMetropolitan area (Otakatori Valley, 40kHz)SagaSaga CityFuji area (Haganeyama, 60kHz) in two places.Radio clockSee article.
  8. ^ Daijirin
  9. ^ Digital Daijisen
  10. ^ a b Selected Edition Japanese Language Dictionary [Clock / Kei Do]
  11. ^ "History of Illustrated Clocks" p13 Takashi Arisawa Kawade Shobo Shinsha January 2006, 1 First edition published
  12. ^ "A Millennium History of Technology in World Civilization: Toward a Dialogue with" Technology of Survival "" p66 Arnold Percy Translated by Takeshi Hayashi, Translated by Reiko Azuma, Shinhyoron Publishing, June 2001.ISBN 978-4-7948-0522-5
  13. ^ "A Millennium History of Technology in World Civilization: Toward a Dialogue with" Technology of Survival "" p77 Arnold Percy Translated by Takeshi Hayashi, Translated by Reiko Azuma, Shinhyoron Publishing, June 2001.ISBN 978-4-7948-0522-5
  14. ^ "History of Illustrated Clocks" p17 Takashi Arisawa Kawade Shobo Shinsha January 2006, 1 First edition published
  15. ^ "History of Illustrated Clocks" p37 Takashi Arisawa Kawade Shobo Shinsha January 2006, 1 First edition published
  16. ^ "British in the George Dynasty" by Georges Minois Translated by Ririko Tezuka and Takasuke Tezuka Hakusuisha Que Sais-je published October 2004, 10 p.10
  17. ^ "History of Illustrated Clocks" p36 Takashi Arisawa Kawade Shobo Shinsha January 2006, 1 First edition published
  18. ^ A mechanical or electrical device for measuring time, indicating hours, minutes, and sometimes seconds by hands on a round dial or by displayed figures. 
  19. ^ a b "There are different ways to call the hands of the clock, such as the long hand, the short hand, the second hand, and the hour hand.”(Japanese). SUNDAY LIFE / Watch Blog. 2020/10/14Browse.
  20. ^ a b syohbido. “Convenient use of GMT”(Japanese). Pocket watch Swiss watch specialty store Masamido new blog. 2020/10/14Browse.
  21. ^ "About GMT function and how to use it --Chrono24 Magazine”(Japanese). www.chrono24.jp. 2020/10/14Browse.
  22. ^ Why are the hands of the clock clockwise?
  23. ^ Why did the hands of the clock turn clockwise?
  24. ^ "How to know the direction with an analog clock Metropolitan Police Department". www.keishicho.metro.tokyo.jp. 2021/7/30Browse.
  25. ^ "History of Illustrated Clocks" p35 Takashi Arisawa Kawade Shobo Shinsha January 2006, 1 First edition published
  26. ^ http://www.fhs.jp/jpn/origins.html "From the origin to the present" Swiss Watch Association, viewed July 2016, 7
  27. ^ Yasukazu Morita "Story of Swiss History" Chuko Shinsho p138-139 Published July 2000, 7
  28. ^ "Illustrated Swiss History" p70 Tomoji Odori Kawade Shobo Shinsha August 2011, 8 First edition published
  29. ^ "World History of Rise and Fall 13 Modern European Conquest" p183-184 Norihiko Fukui Kodansha December 2008, 12 17st printing
  30. ^ http://www.jcwa.or.jp/etc/history.html "History of Watches" General Incorporated Association Japan Watch Association July 2016, 7
  31. ^ http://www.jcwa.or.jp/etc/history01.html "Overview of the Japanese Watch Industry" Retrieved July 2016, 7 by the Japan Watch Association
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h "Today's Swiss watch industry" Swiss Watch Association Retrieved June 2021, 6
  33. ^ Original title Paul Owen Lewis (1989). P. Bear's new year's party!.: A Counting Book. Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press. ISBN 978-1-58246-191-5. OCLC 671817083 
  34. ^ Song of the same nameBig old clockIs a picture book.
  35. ^ There are three types of old sheet music. "Jinjo Shogaku Reader Song"1912 Published (Meiji 43), "Jinjoshougakuka for the second grade"1913 Published (Meiji 44), "New Revised Ordinary Elementary School Song-For Second Grade"1932 Issued (Showa 7)
  36. ^ The title of the premiere is "Big old clockIt wasn't.Mimi MiyajimaYoshimoto Kogyo(Yoshimoto, Tokyo) A child singer and tap dancer who belongs to the group.
  37. ^ An example of publication in the early 2000s.Fun ・ Eigo no Uta ABC no Uta ・Big Furudokei (Super Selection) (CD). Japanese crown. September 2005.
  38. ^ Premiered on NHK Radio's rhythm play program "Play" for kindergartens and nursery schools


  • Sobel, Dava (1995). Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time... New York: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025879-5 
  • Sobel, Dava & Andrewes, Willam JH (1998). The Illustrated Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time. New York: Walker Publishing Co .. ISBN 0-8027-1344-0 
  • North, Thomas (1882). The Church Bells of the County and City of Lincoln. Leicester: Samuel Clark. Pp. 60–61 
  • Challenge to Longitude — XNUMX Years in a Second ISBN-9784 88135-505-3

Related item

Metaphorical expressions related to watches, etc.

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