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✈ | Crew Dragon returns from space travel The world's first civilian orbit


Photo Crew Dragon landing off Florida

Crew Dragon returns from space travel World's first civilian orbit

 
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After the launch, the Crew Dragon was put into orbit about 575 kilometers (km) above the sky and lapped for three days.
 

The mission "Inspiration 4" by the SpaceX spacecraft "Crew Dragon" will be held in September 2021 local time ... → Continue reading

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Dragon 2

Dragon 2 (Dragon 2) IsAmerica OfPrivate Space Enterprise SpaceXDeveloped byManned spacecraft.DragonUnmanned spacecraftDeveloped as a successor to the machine2020 He achieved his first manned space flight in May.Dragon 5 is the company'sFalcon 9 block 5It is designed to be mounted on a rocket, launched, landed on water, and returned.

As an American spacecraft,2011 Ofspace shuttleIt is the first manned spacecraft to fly after retirement, and it is the first new spacecraft in 40 years when calculated from the first flight of the Space Shuttle.Earth orbitIt is a manned spacecraft that has reached.

Overview

Dragon 2 is compared to older dragonsFlight computer,AvionicsIn addition to being new, the shape of the aircraft has also been changed, it has large windows, andSolar cellThe array has been redesigned.In dragon 2Crew dragonA version that supports manned flight calledCargo dragonTwo unmanned versions will be produced to replace the older dragon called.Unique to Crew DragonLaunch escape systemTwo units were installed in each of the four corners.スーパー・ドラコン

A system that uses the reverse injection of the engine is adopted.Both Crew Dragon and Cargo DragonCommercial Resupply Services (CRS2) and Commercial Crew Transport Development (CCDev) Under the planInternational Space Station It will be used for transportation to the (ISS).Also, the crew dragonLow orbitBeyond,MonthToSpace travelIt is also supposed to be used for.

The development of Crew Dragon2010 ToDragon riderWas started as.this isNASAWas in response to the policy of outsourcing the transportation of personnel to the ISS to the private sector as a CCDev plan.The crew dragon design was released2014 In May, in October 5Boeing OfCST-100At the same time, it was selected as the aircraft for the same plan. NASA sees the Crew Dragon as a low-cost option, with the high-cost but solid valued CST-100 raising $ 42 billion, while the Crew Dragon raised $ 26 billion.2019 Performed an unmanned test flight to the ISS in March2020 In May, the first manned flight test of the CCDev project was completed.[5]..Cargo dragons too2016 NASA's CRS1 plan in JanuaryNorthrop Grumman OfCygnus,Sierra Nevada Corporation OfDream ChaserHas been selected with.The SpaceX CRS2 mission began in December 2020, after the old Dragon CRS mission was over.

design

There are two versions of Dragon 2: Crew Dragon and Cargo Dragon.[3].

Crew Dragon was originally called Dragon Rider[6][7], 7 crew members or intended to accommodate the transportation of cargo with crew members[8][9]..With fully automated rendezvous and docking capabilities (manual)NASA docking mechanism Designed to connect to the ISS using (NDS)[10][11]..In a typical mission, the dragon rider would dock to the ISS for 180 days, but the spacecraft itself would be Russian.SoyuzHas the ability to stay for 210 days as well[12][13][14]..The earliest design was announced in 2010, and SpaceX has been around since then.Launch escape systemWas planned to be integrated into the Dragon Spacecraft.This method has several advantages over the towed abort tower method used on most existing major manned spacecraft.[15][16][17] For example, the escape system can operate in the entire orbit, the escape system can be reused, safety is increased by eliminating the need for separation, and the engine of the escape system can be used for landing. Being sexual[18].

SpaceX was initially traditional in Dragon 2parachuteIn addition to the method of landing on the sea and returningRocket engineIt is planned to reverse-inject and land, and it has indicated a development schedule that it will realize occupant transportation by 2017 by this method.SpaceX has proposed to NASA that the first few flights of the Crew Dragon will be landing on the sea using a parachute, but landing will be the basis after that.[19]..In this way, the parachute return was treated as a backup to the last, but since the landing due to the reverse injection was later canceled, the parachute was used for all return.[18].

In 2011, of Dragon 2Life support equipmentFor developmentParagon Space DevelopmentWas announced to be involved[20]..Also used in 2012 for launch and re-entrySpacesuitIt became clear that we are developing[21].

Regarding the price of Dragon 2, the 2015 NASA document says "RKK Energia OfSoyuzSpace ship7600 millionUS dollar(Approximately 84 billion yen) / Compared to the launch cost of people,Space xDragon 2 spacecraft launch cost 5800 millionUS dollar(Approximately 64 billion yen) / person and economical at a low price. "[22].

Dragon 2 was designed on May 2014, 5CaliforniaHawthorneIt is inSpace xPublished at a press event at the headquarters of[23][24][25].. In October 2014, NASA carries an American astronaut to the ISS with a dragonCommercial Crew Transport Development (CCDev) Selected as one of the candidates for the plan.SpaceX is the company's launch of Dragon 1Falcon 9 block 5Planned to use[26][27][28].

Technical specifications

Dragon 2 has the following features[23][24][29].

  • Reusability: Can be reused multiple times.This will significantly reduce the cost of accessing space.In spaceXRefurbishIt is expected that it can be reused about 10 times without it.
  • Load capacity: Cargo Dragon: 3,307 kg (7,291 lb), Crew Dragon: 7 people.
  • Return: Landing at sea with four main parachutes.
  • Engine (Crew Dragon only[30]): 8 on the sideSuper Draco.. Two units are clustered with a total of four pods, and each unit has a propulsion force of 2 kilonewtons (4 lbf).[23]..Also, each pod has 4 units eachDracoIs also installed[19].
  • 3D printerUtilization: SuperDraco's combustion chamberInconelThe(English editionIt is manufactured by outputting at.
  • docking: Space stationToAutomatic docking abilityhave.Older dragons do not have automatic docking capabilities, and when docked on the ISSCanada arm 2Needed to be gripped by.However, manual operation is also possible if necessary.
  • Fuel tank: for engine pressureheliumAnd fuel for SuperDracoOxidanttank.Carbon systemComposite materialTitaniumConsists of.
  • Heat resistant: SPAM backshell developed by SpaceX.Update the 3rd generation PICA-X heat shield.
  • Operation: Instead of traditional physical switchTablet-like computerTo be equipped.A new model of SpaceX design to match thisSpacesuit"Starman" has a touch panel compatible fingertip[31].
  • Decompression measures: Crew members wear "Starman" in case of emergency exposure to sudden decompression.Also, if the opening is up to 6.35 mm in diameter, the spacecraft can safely return.[19].

Initially, the following three methods were considered as landing systems.

However, in spaceXElon MuskAnnounced in July 2017 that it would discontinue the development of power landings and parachute all landings.SuperDraco continuesLaunch escape systemIt is left for use, but the landing gear is removed.Due to safety difficulties, SpaceX says the technology will be used again in future spacecraft.[33].

Dragon 2's parachute system is olderDragonIt has been completely redesigned compared to the one.This is because it became necessary to deal with various scenarios such as emergency evacuation during launch.[32].

Launch record

Launch date and time (UTC)Mission nameCapsule No[34]Length of stay on the ISSResultRemarks
2015 May 5Emergency escape rocket testDragon fly testerN/AsuccessFloridaCape Canaveral Air Force Base (SLC-40) Test of emergency escape rocket[35].
2019 May 3[36](English editionC2014 dayssuccessUnmanned test flight.After the launch, it docked on the ISS on the 3rd and left on the 8th.
October 2020th, 1Escape test in flightC205N/AsuccessInitially, the aircraft recovered in the unmanned test flight was planned to be used, but due to an explosion accident during the ground test, the aircraft manufactured for the manned test flight was used.[37].
October 2020th, 5Crew Dragon Demo-2C20662 dayssuccessManned test flight with two crew members.Doug Hurley(English editionIs boarding. After four extravehicular activities, he returned to the coast of Florida Peninsula, USA on August 4, 2020.
October 2020th, 11SpaceX Crew-1C207successA manned mission with four crew members.4th / 64th long-term stay(English edition,(English edition,Soichi NoguchiAre on board.[38]
October 2020th, 12(English editionC208successFirst by Cargo DragonCRS2Mission.
October 2021th, 4SpaceX Crew-2C206successManned mission with 4 crew members[39].Akihiko HoshideAre on board. The C2 capsule used in Demo 206 was reused.
October 2021th, 6(English editionC209success
October 2021th, 8(English editionC208success
After 2020CCtCapMission 2–6Hold until the achievement of SpX-DM2. NASA has contracted six ISS crew transport missions[40].
2021–2024[41]CRS2Mission 2–6NASA has also signed six more ISS unmanned supply missions[41].

References

  1. ^ a b c d "DragonLab datasheet (PDF)Hawthorne, California: SpaceX (September 2009, 9). As of January 8, 2011オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2010th, 10Browse.
  2. ^ http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ast/media/DragonFly_Final_EA_sm.pdf
  3. ^ a b c Audit of Commercial Resupply Services to the International Space StationNASA. April 26, 2018. Report No. IG-18-016. Quote: "For SpaceX, certification of the company's unproven cargo version of its Dragon 2 spacecraft for CRS-2 missions carries risk while the company works to resolve ongoing concerns. related to software traceability and systems engineering processes. "
  4. ^ a b "F”. SpaceX. October 2017th, 7Browse.
  5. ^ "NASA and SpaceX announce early 2020 to transport people to the ISS on a U.S.-made spacecraft”. ITmedia (June 2019, 10). October 2019th, 10Browse.
  6. ^ "Final Environmental Assessment for Issuing an Experimental Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the DragonFly Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, McGregor, Texas". faa.gov. Federal Aviation Administration. Pp. 2–3. October 2014th, 8Browse.
  7. ^ Gwynne Shotwell (March 2014, 3) (mp21). Broadcast 2212: Special Edition, interview with Gwynne Shotwell (audio file). The Space Show .. Applicable time: 24: 05–24: 45 and 28: 15–28: 35. 2212. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 2014-03-22.. http://www.thespaceshow.com/detail.asp?q=2212 October 2014th, 3Browse. "We call it v2 for Dragon. That is the primary vehicle for crew, and we will retrofit it back to cargo." 
  8. ^ "Q + A: SpaceX Engineer Garrett Reisman on Building the World's Safest Spacecraft”. PopSci (April 2012, 4). October 2012th, 4Browse. “DragonRider, SpaceX's crew-capable variant of its Dragon capsule”
  9. ^ "SpaceX Completes Key Milestone to Fly Astronauts to International Space Station”. SpaceX (October 2011, 10). October 2012th, 5Browse.
  10. ^ "Dragon Overview”. SpaceX. October 2012th, 4Browse.
  11. ^ Parma, George (March 2011, 3). “Overview of the NASA Docking System and the International Docking System Standard (PDF)”. NASA. As of October 2011, 10オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2012th, 3Browse. “ILIDS was later renamed the NASA Docking System (NDS), and will be NASA's implementation of an IDSS compatible docking system for all future US vehicles”
  12. ^ Bayt, Rob (July 2011, 7). “Commercial Crew Program: Key Driving Requirements Walkthrough”. NASA. As of October 2012, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2011th, 7Browse.
  13. ^ Oberg, Jim (March 2007, 3). “Space station trip will push the envelope”. MSNBC. October 2012th, 5Browse.
  14. ^ Bolden, Charles (May 2012, 5). “2012-05-09_NASA_Response (PDF)”. NASA. October 2012th, 6Browse.
  15. ^ As an exceptionGemini planIn the spaceshipEjection seatWas used."Encyclopedia Astronautica: Gemini Ejection" Archived 2005-04-25 at the Wayback Machine.. Astronautix.com. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
  16. ^ Chow, Denise (April 2011, 4). “Private Spaceship Builders Split Nearly $ 270 Million in NASA Funds”. New York: Space.com. オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2011, 12.. https://www.webcitation.org/6415KG6df?url=http://www.space.com/11421-nasa-private-spaceship-funding-astronauts.html October 2011th, 12Browse. 
  17. ^ "Spaceship teams seek more funding" Archived March 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. MSNBC Cosmic Log. December 10, 2010. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
  18. ^ a b "SpaceX Updates – Taking the next step: Commercial Crew Development Round 2”. SpaceX (October 2010, 1). October 2011th, 1Browse.
  19. ^ a b c Reisman, Garrett (February 2015, 2). “Statement of Garrett Reisman, Director of Crew Operations, Space Explorations Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) before the Subcommittee on Space, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, US House Of Representatives (pdf) ”. science.house.gov. US House of Representatives, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. October 2015th, 2Browse.
  20. ^ "In the news Paragon Space Development Corporation Joins SpaceX Commercial Crew Development Team”. Paragon Space Development Corporation (June 2011, 6). As of January 16, 2012オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2012th, 4Browse.
  21. ^ Sofge, Eric (November 2012, 11). “The Deep-Space Suit”. PopSci. October 2012th, 11Browse.
  22. ^ Commercial Launch America (PDF)
  23. ^ a b c Norris, Guy (May 2014, 5). “SpaceX Unveils'Step Change'Dragon'V2'”. Aviation Week. http://aviationweek.com/space/spacex-unveils-step-change-dragon-v2 October 2014th, 5Browse. 
  24. ^ a b Kramer, Miriam (May 2014, 5). “SpaceX Unveils Dragon V2 Spaceship, a Manned Space Taxi for Astronauts — Meet Dragon V2: SpaceX's Manned Space Taxi for Astronaut Trips”. space.com. http://www.space.com/26063-spacex-unveils-dragon-v2-manned-spaceship.html October 2014th, 5Browse. 
  25. ^ Bergin, Chris (May 2014, 5). “SpaceX lifts the lid on the Dragon V2 crew spacecraft”. NASAspaceflight.com. http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2014/05/spacex-lifts-the-lid-dragon-v2-crew-spacecraft/ October 2014th, 5Browse. 
  26. ^ http://www.spacex.com/news/2014/09/16/nasa-selects-spacex-be-part-americas-human-spaceflight-program
  27. ^ Norris, Guy. "Why NASA Rejected Sierra Nevada's Commercial Crew Vehicle" Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 11, 2014. Accessed: October 13, 2014. Archived on October 13, 2014
  28. ^ Berger, Eric (June 2017, 6). “So SpaceX is having quite a year”. Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/06/so-spacex-is-having-quite-a-year/ October 2017th, 6Browse. 
  29. ^ Clark, Stephen (October 2014, 10). “NASA clears commercial crew contractors to resume work”. Spaceflight Now. http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n1410/09cctcap/#.VDgLfBaum5d October 2014th, 10Browse. "a highly-modified second-generation Dragon capsule fitted with myriad upgrades and changes – including new rocket thrusters, computers, a different outer mold line, and redesigned solar arrays – from the company's Dragon cargo delivery vehicle already flying to the space station." 
  30. ^ Elon Musk at the ISS R & D Conference, July 19, 2017, (2017-07-19), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BqvBhhTtUm4 October 2018th, 8Browse. 
  31. ^ The reason why space suits and the inside of the ship have evolved dramatically ... Commentary by Soichi Noguchi - Asahi TV
  32. ^ a b Bergin, Chris (May 2014, 8). “Dragon V2 will initially rely on parachute landings”.NASAspaceflight.com. http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2014/08/dragon-v2-rely-parachutes-landing/ October 2014th, 8Browse. 
  33. ^ Elon Musk suggests SpaceX is scrapping its plans to land Dragon capsules on Mars The Verge July 19, 2017
  34. ^ https://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/dragon-v2.htm
  35. ^ "SpaceX crew capsule completes dramatic abort test". Spaceflight Now (September 2015, 5). October 2015th, 5Browse.
  36. ^ "NASA, Partners Update Commercial Crew Launch Dates". NASA Commercial Crew Program Blog (September 2019, 2). October 2019th, 2Browse.
  37. ^ "SpaceX identifies the cause of the "Crew Dragon" spacecraft explosion". My Navi News (September 2019, 8). October 2020th, 5Browse.
  38. ^ "US Commercial Manned SpaceX Crew-1 Manned Operational Flight (Crew-XNUMX) Mission". Full history of ISS-related flights. JAXA (September 2020, 11). October 2020th, 11Browse.
  39. ^ "NASA Announces Astronauts to Fly on SpaceX Crew-2 Mission to Space Station". October 2020th, 8Browse.
  40. ^ "Boeing, SpaceX Secure Additional Crewed Missions Under NASA's Commercial Space Transport Program – GovCon Wire". October 2019th, 12Browse.
  41. ^ a b “NASA Awards International Space Station Cargo Transport Contracts” (Press release), NASA, (March 2016, 1), http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-awards-international-space-station-cargo-transport-contracts October 2017th, 8Browse. 

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