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🚗 | Audi collaborates with rally driver Brock in the field of electric vehicles


Photo Ken Block visiting Audi

Audi collaborates with rally driver Brock in the field of electric vehicles

 
If you write the contents roughly
According to Audi's legendary racer, Mr. Brock decided to become a rally driver.
 

Audi formed a partnership with Ken Block on September 9, and electric mobility such as EV ... → Continue reading

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Rally

Rally (British: Rally) Is a time attack with a vehicle that can drive on public roads according to the law.Car competition..Give directions to the driver who drivesNavigator(Co-driver) Will ride in a competition car and run in the designated section to compete for the speed of the total time and the accuracy of the designated time.

Overview

The origin of the word rallyOld frenchOf "ralier (re: +alier: join again)[1]It is the prototype of the event that gathers in one place after leaving each place.[2].. Its origin is of the Middle AgesknightIs said to have gathered from various places to the castle that started the war[3].. There was a competition where people could ride on horses and compete for the earliest arrival at the lord, even during normal times, and the words were passed on to the car competition of the 20th century.[4].

The car race that started at the end of the 19th century was running on public roads between cities, but for safety reasons, closed circuit (circuit)raceThen, it was differentiated into a rally on a public road. The rally as a car race began in 1911Rally monte carloIs originated from[2].. At that time, participants departed from European cities, crossed the steep peaks and passed through designated points, and resorts on the Mediterranean coast.(I.e.It was an event to get together[Note 1].. In the rally world with Rally Monte Carlo1932 Founding RAC rally (currentlyWales Rally GB),1953 FoundingSafari RallyIs called "three major rally"[5].. In the past, there was a strong tendency to compete for the durability of long distances and long runs, but in modern times, the sprint format, which summarizes the course and schedule in a compact manner and repeats short-distance time attacks, is the mainstream.

The highest peak of the rally1973 Was founded inWorld Rally Championship (World Rally Championship, WRC). Since good results in the rally have the effect of promoting sales of commercially available cars, in the high-end series and traditional events, car manufacturers contracted with top professional players,Works TeamCompeting to participate. Also in JapanAll Japan Rally Championship,Japan Super Rally Series,TOYOTA GAZOO Racing Rally ChallengeAre being held.

Competition basics

  • The feature is that the competition is basically held on public roads. The competitor isDriver's licenseOwns a competition vehicleVehicle inspection registrationAlreadyLicense plateBased on a passenger car with.
  • Considering the impact on general traffic, the course is located in the suburbs where traffic is light.Mountain pass-Forest road・Use farm roads and connecting roads on private land.
  • In the normal section that passes the general roadLane-signal-Speed ​​LimitSuch asTraffic LawsProtect the vehicle and drive while mixing with general vehicles. Connected by public roads (Special Stage, SSIn the section called ), the road is temporarily occupied, and the time trial is conducted only with the competition vehicle.
  • A booklet (road book, also called "frame drawing" in Japan) instructing the travel route and speed from the organizer is distributed. On the competitor side, the SS preparatory run (Wrecking) For detailed course information,Pace notesCan be created.
  • The driver and the navigator (co-driver) will ride in a group of two people (crew) and will start one vehicle at a time. The navigator in the passenger seat reads the roadbook and pace notes, and the driver in the cockpit drives according to the information.
  • Only the driver and the navigator have to repair the car during the competition, except at designated service points, where no one other than the crew can help. However, if you stop by blocking the course, it is unofficially allowed to escape with the help of the audience (originally a violation, but is tolerated).
  • Attendants will be checked at several passage confirmation points (Check Point (CP) or Time Control (TC)) along the way. A target arrival time is set for each point, and points are deducted if it is too early or too late.
  • After the goal, points are deducted and SS run times are totaled, and the results are determined in ascending order.


Rally type

The rally has different competition methods depending on the main factors of ranking, and can be roughly classified into rally that emphasizes speed and rally that emphasizes driving accuracy.Japan Automobile Federation In the (JAF) domestic rally competition regulations, the formerSpecial stage rally, The latterAverage rallyDefined as (Type 1・Type 2)[6].

Special stage rally

The highest peakWorld Rally Championship Most modern rallies such as (WRC) are mainly time trials in SS. Compete for pure speed with total time of several days. Also called "Sprint Rally".

The passage confirmation point is called a time control (TC) instead of a checkpoint, and is provided in front of the entrance and exit of the service point and each SS start point. Unlike the secret averaging rally, the driving route and TC position are disclosed in advance, and the SS is trained within the speed limit (Wrecking) Is also allowed.

Before the SS start, the competitors are informed of the target arrival time (target time) to the next TC, and start the time trial with the official countdown. Created at the time of recPace notesRely on to drive the SS all the way. After fully running through the finish point, stop and enter the time on the TC card (section time is start/finish pointPhotocellMeasured by). After that, according to the road book, travel section (road section orliaison) To arrive at the next TC and repeat SS time trial. After the completion of all routes, the ranking will be determined in the order of increasing SS travel time.

The road section is timed so that you can arrive at the next TC with plenty of time, and you can wait for the check-in time before the TC.[Note 2].. However, if the arrival at the TC is delayed due to time loss at the SS or traffic congestion in the road section, you will be penalized with 1 seconds per minute (early arrival will receive a penalty of 10 minute per minute).[Note 3]). In competitions in Japan, rules are adopted to prevent the road section from being rushed even if the SS is extremely slow, taking into consideration the speed limit and traffic volume of general roads.[7].

Average rally

Also called "Time Rally" or "Road Rally". It has been the main rally system for many years in Japan,All Japan Rally ChampionshipHad adopted this until 2005. It is still often seen at local rally events.

First-class average rally

The designated section was instructedAverage speedRun (reliability run) and compete for the accuracy of the required time.

Competitors will follow the roadmap given on the day of the rally at the indicated average speed. In principle, intersections and branch roads that are not shown in the frame are straight ahead (run on the road). There may be a designated speed change point (pass control point, PC) on the way. In reality, the driving pace fluctuates depending on the road conditions, so the navigator always calculates the difference between the instructed speed and the average speed of the vehicle and instructs the driver to pace up/down.

There are several passage confirmation points (check points, CP) in the middle of the route, and the required time (=mileage÷instructed speed) is set for each. The competition vehicle will be temporarily stopped here and will receive a check card with the time when the vehicle passed. Checkpoints are displayed as white lines on the road, but the location is not marked in the roadbook (blind check)[Note 4].

Check cards are collected when the route is completed, and points are deducted for each CP's early/late error (final time). Depending on the event, there is a conversion system of "1 point per second" or "1 point per minute". In addition, points will also be deducted if the time limit is exceeded at the service points (rest control point, RC) for refueling or repair. The winner is the one with the lowest total of these deductions. Experience and the ability of the navigator, such as accurate understanding of running conditions and prediction of where checkpoints appear, are often involved in the performance.

Correction of error

The mileage written in the road book is based on the data obtained when the official measurement vehicle traveled in advance, but there is a trip meter error with the competition vehicle. This is due to factors such as tire loss, air pressure, and manufacturing errors of the trip meter. If you continue to compete in the competition, the distance will vary between cars. To correct this, a point called the Odometer Control Point (OMCP) will be provided some distance from the start point. At this point, the navigator can calculate the distance between the official vehicle and the error of the competitor vehicle.ProofreadingThen, correct the measured distance in the section after OMCP.

At the OMCP point on the road book, the distance from the start measured by the official is stated. Whereas the described distance is 10.0 km, for example, when the number of the trip meter when the vehicle comes from this start to this point is 11.0 km, the correction coefficient is 11.0/10.0 or 1.1. Therefore, it becomes necessary for the vehicle to drive at the speed obtained by multiplying the commanded speed by 1.1.

It has been a long time sinceWriting,slide rule,Gear calculatorEtc. were used.Kurta CalculatorWas favored by rally athletesGear calculatorIs one of the. But,Traffic warWhen the wind hits the rally due to social circumstances such as this, the rally changed into a form called a calculation rally in which the instruction speed was frequently changed, and a simple calculation method became necessary.

The demand for this was met by a rally-specific slide rule called a "disc." This is a disk slide rule with two needles that can lock each other's angle. First, adjust one needle to the OMCP distance (2 in the previous example) scale on the load book, and then the other needle. Fix the angles of the two needles according to the scale of the trip meter distance (10.0 in the previous example) when the vehicle has run to this OMCP. After that, when the first needle was adjusted to the graduation of the indicated speed, the speed of the graduation pointed by the other needle became the speed at which the vehicle should travel.

However1980 eraWith a trip metercalculatorA dedicated rally computer with a built-in (commonly known as Raricon) appeared, and these calculation tools were wiped out. RariconGlove boxThe final time is displayed automatically when you enter the current time, start time, and instructed speed (it is the navigator who is your partner). After entering the official numerical value with OMCP, the trip meter will be automatically corrected thereafter.

First-class average rally

Although it mainly focuses on reliability runs, it includes a special stage (SS) and a high-average section (high-speed section) as part of the course to compete for accuracy and speed. Exists in the intermediate and advanced levels, and is also called the "sports rally."[8].

There is no command speed in SS, and the target time is 0 seconds. Therefore, the time required to pass through this section is deducted. For example, if the SS running time is 3 minutes and 12 seconds, 1 points (1 x 192 + 60) will be deducted for 3 second 12 point conversion. The high average section (high average section) is not necessarily occupied as in SS, but the athlete dares to indicate a speed that is difficult to achieve (within the legal and command speed). Competitors drive at high pace in an effort to minimize the deductions, which effectively becomes a time trial section.

Leisure rally

The rally is thin, and even beginners can enjoy the rally.

Scavenger rally[9]
A rally where you can pick up, find, and shop on the course for the items asked.
Quiz rally[9]
A rally that answers the questions given while finding hints on the route.

Typical rally competition

Rally series under the jurisdiction of the International Automobile Federation (FIA)

Japanese rally series

  • Japan Super Rally Series(JSR)
  • JAFAll Japan Rally Championship(JRC)
    • Rally of TSUMAGOI
    • Monterey
    • Shinshiro Rally
    • MCSC Rally Highland Masters
    • Kumakogen Rally
    • Tour de Kyushu
  • JAF Regional Championship
    • JAF Hokkaido Rally Championship
    • JAF East Japan Rally Championship
    • JAF Chubu/Kinki Rally Championship
    • JAF Chushikoku Rally Championship
    • JAF Kyushu Rally Championship
  • TOYOTA GAZOO Racing Rally Challenge
    • Rally cup
    • Joint cup
  • TRDRally Cup by JBL
  • Japan Alpine Rally Historic Rally Series
  • JAF Registered Clubs Regional Council (JMRC)
    • JMRC Hokkaido MARUI Rally Series
    • JMRC Tohoku Rally Series
    • JMRC Kanto Rally Champion Series
    • JMRC Chubu Rally Champion Series
    • JMRC Kinki SS Rally Series
    • JMRC Chugoku/Shikoku Rally Series
    • JMRC Kyushu Rally Champion Series
  • Legend of the Rally
  • Nationwide seven university general physical education meetRally of car competition

Country-specific rally series

  • Rally america
  • ARA National Championship
  • Other national championships

Competition vehicle (rally car)

Designed and manufactured exclusively for the circuitFormula carUnlike (F1 cars, etc.), rally cars are based on commercial road cars mass-produced by automakers and are modified for competition to the extent permitted.The manufacturerInternational Automobile Federation (FIA)Japan Automobile Federation Apply to a motorsports governing body such as (JAF)HomologationA model that has received (official approval) can be used as the base vehicle.Since it runs on public roads, it is necessary to meet the safety standards of the competition country to some extent when remodeling, and even during the competitionLicense platePut on and drive.

FIA official regulations for rally cars areGroup A,Group Rally(Formerly known as Group R),Group N,Group R-GT,Group B(Currently abolished), etc., each of which is the annual production volume of the base vehicle, engine type, displacement, etc.SuperchargerPresence or absence, drive method (2WD/4WD) Is specified.Although the permissible range of modification differs depending on the group, if you try to keep the performance and cost close to that of a commercial vehicle, you can mass-produce high-performance 4WD sports cars (= have a market and customers that sell a lot of 4WD vehicles). It is easy to be biased only.Therefore, in the top category, it is common to widen the range of modifications in order to increase the number of vehicles and the number of entries so that even ordinary popular cars can participate.WR car,Super 2000,Group R5,AP4Such provisions correspond to this.

In general, the base vehicle of such a top category rally car is considered in terms of small turn and cost.C segmentThe following compact cars will be adopted.There was a time when coupes and sedans were once preferred as base cars.In recent years, the number of passenger cars has increased significantly.Crossover SUVThere are an increasing number of cases where the vehicle is used as a base vehicle.

Protecting passenger safety as a major specification change from the base carRoll cageEquipment such as four-point seat belts and in-vehicle fire extinguisher is mandatory. The appearance of the body cannot be changed greatly from the base car, but the underguard that protects the bottom of the body, mud flaps, rear wing, light pod for night driving, etc. can be equipped with official parts. The interior is lighter for the rear seats and sound insulation materials,Air conditionIt has been removed by simplifying. In the rallySide turnBecause it makes full use of commercial vehicles, especially in Japanese cars where transmissions often have only AT/CVT settingsHand brake barIs still active today. It is also necessary to have spare tires and tools in case of a flat tire or crash.

Many measuring devices that display time and distance are also installed, and in recent years overseas rallies are also equipped with a "safety tracking system" that allows you to know the distance to other vehicles and crash position information using GPS.

Also of the competition that also performs time attackJim KhanaCompared to the rally car, the rally car is a little heavier and has a solid body reinforcement for safety and reliability. In addition, the setting is generally milder than Jimkhana so that it can flexibly respond to changes in the road surface and irregularities (gravel and fallen leaves scratched on the road surface).[10].

Power-up of the engine is strictly regulated,TurbochargerToRestrictorIs installed to limit the intake volume. On the other hand, engine control (ECU) tuning tends to be loose, and engine development emphasizes response and drivability (drivability) more than power.

Another competition similar to a rally

Rally raid

Rally raid(Cross-country rally) is an endurance race that runs through roadless wilderness such as the great plains, deserts, and rocky areas. Like the Sprint Rally, with a navigator, the schedule consists of SS and liaison, but both the competition schedule and total mileage are overwhelmingly long, and it will take more than a week to complete the entire course. There is a high probability of encountering a miscourse, accident, breakdown, etc., and the elements of adventure and survival are strong. Therefore, compared to the Sprint Rally, it requires more reliable running performance than speed.

In the rallyhatchback,sedanWhile small vehicles like the one run one by one, the rally raid vehicle is a large one with bad road running performance.Cross country car(a SUV) Andpick-up truck,Camion(cargoTrack),SmallBuggy car,ATV,bikeThe feature is that various vehicles such as two-wheel, four-wheel, and six-wheel drive at the same time.[11].

Because the distance is too long, each person does not perform a "reckle" to look down the course and make pace notes, and the navigator will look at the frame map given by the organizer. Because it is difficult to run faithfully to the time frame, some people are following the rivals and other classes to prevent course mistakes, or are intentionally lost to mislead the rivals that mark behind them. The bargaining that occurs is also generated.

In JapanDakar Rally(Formerly Paris-Dakar Rally)Mitsubishi Pajero,Hino RangerHas played an active part and was also broadcast on TV as a digest, so this competition generally tends to be regarded as a “rally” image. The competition format is similar, and it is generally easy to be confused because it is commonly called simply "rally" in the event name like Dakar.

Rally cross

Rally crossIs a fusion of rally and circuit races, and is a competition in which machines close to rally cars compete for ranking in a race format on a short circuit.The navigator does not board the passenger seat, but gives instructions to the driver from a high place in the venue (called a "spotter").

1HeatIt was a short-term decisive battle of several laps, with 1 to 4 vehicles running per heat,QualifyingHeatLoser RevivalWho wonfinalMake a heat and decide the winner.GravelとTarmacThe course is a mix of, and features a dynamic style in which machines with a maximum of 600 horsepower collide with each other.

It is a traditional sport in Europe since 2014F1As a prestigious FIA World Championship alongside WRCWorld Rallycross Championship (World RX) is being held[12].

Gymkhana/Dirt Trial

Gymkhana is a tarmac (paved road) and dirt trial is a gravel (unpaved road) time attack. Both of them have different names depending on the road surface, of course, they are closed courses and there is no navigator, so they are simpler time attack competitions than rallies. In addition, there is no world championship, and there are no uniform standards or rules by the FIA, so it has a strong amateur color.

footnote

注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Later it was transformed into a time attack format (SS rally) in the Alps mountains, but the style of the past is still held as "Rally Monte Carlo Historic".
  2. ^ You cannot enter the TC area until 1 minute before the target time.
  3. ^ The reason why the early arrival has a higher penalty than the late arrival is because it prevents the speed limit from being exceeded in the road section.
  4. ^ If you know the CP position in advance, you can adjust the vehicle speed so that it is on time before the CP.

Source

  1. ^ "Meaning of rally". Koto Bank Progressive English-Japanese Dictionary (XNUMXth Edition)Asahi Shimbun / VOYAGE GROUP. October 2017th, 3Browse.
  2. ^ a b "HISTORY". Suzuki WRC Challenge
  3. ^ WRC basic term dictionary "rally" World Rally ChampionshipJapanese official site
  4. ^ "F1 and World Motorsports" p.138.
  5. ^ "Rally Japan is coming!". Nippon Rent-A-Car. Retrieved 2014 February 2.
  6. ^ 2013 National Sports Rules Supplement (PDF, Article 2 (280 pages) of the regulations for holding rally competitions)
  7. ^ "Competition rules for special stage rally (2) Road section". JRCA. Retrieved February 2014, 2.
  8. ^ Page 36, "Introduction to the New Practical Rally".
  9. ^ a b Page 37, "Introduction to the New Practical Rally".
  10. ^ AUTO SPORTS December 2012, 12 Published by Sanei Shobo
  11. ^ "Why not start a rally". SSER. Retrieved February 2014, 2.
  12. ^ "[Video] Rally Cross World Battle promotion decided!". RALLY PLUS NET. (October 2010, 10) Retrieved February 9, 2014.

References

  • Tetsuya Takasugi "Introduction to New Battle Rally: Perfect Manual from Zero to Teaching Rally!!", Sankaido, 1999,ISBN 4381077350
  • Toshiyuki Iijima "All about the WRC World Rally Championship", Grand Prix, 2004,ISBN 4876872619
  • Yoji Iijima "Introduction to Motor Sports", Grand Prix Publishing, 2005,ISBN 4876872694
  • Katsuhiko Makino "F1 and World Motorsports", Hon's Penguin, 2006,ISBN 4902525186

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