Kazuki Nakajima becomes a special lecturer.Tom's Formula College's "Experience Course" 3rd is 1 ...
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The "Experience Course" to be held on October 10th is positioned as a course for beginners and inexperienced people at Tom's Formula College, where instructors carefully lecture from getting on and off the vehicle, even inexperienced people can use the formula car. It is a program that allows you to fully experience high exercise performance with your whole body.
TOM'S Co., Ltd., which operates one of the most prestigious racing teams in Japan, races from inexperienced people on October 10th ... → Continue reading
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Formula car (Formula car) Is in line with the standard (formula) that "wheels and driver are exposed"Racing carIs.Performed in a formula carCar competition Formula raceIs.This section also describes formula racing.
The term "formula car" in Japanese often refers to "open-wheel car" in American and "single" in British English. -seater car), but there is a slight deviation (-seater car)#Name).
A formula is a "standard", and directlyInternational Automobile Federation According to (FIA)F1Is the topCar competitionVehicle standards for participating in (races), or for similar racesRacing carIs.Among the racing cars, it has a special form for racing, so it can not be compared simply.Prototype racing carIt is on the side of the "race-only car". ("Top Fuel Drag Star" which is the top category of drag racingCar speed recordExcept for vehicles that do not emphasize "turning" and "stopping" such as private cars)
First of all, regarding the fundamental "formula", as an example, the student formula (w: Formula Student,All Japan Student Formula Tournament(See, outside the tier), quoted from the rules, "The vehicle must be open-wheeled and open-cockpit (a formula style body) (abbreviated below)"a.In other words, "the tires are not covered with the cowl and the cockpit is open."The car body is a formula style.
Other than that, first of all, as a feature from the automobile competition before World War II,
- Open wheel (mentioned above).That is, the tires are not covered with fenders, etc., and there is sufficient clearance around them (however, it was not clearly defined before the mid-1950s,Mercedes-Benz W196Has a streamlined body and is competing in the F1 Grand Prix). In the 2010sFormula E(Front and rear wheels)IndyCarAlthough it is remarkable in (rear wheels) etc., there are also regulation races that are shaped so that the cowl almost covers the wheels, although it is not a perfect fender.
- Open cockpit (mentioned above).That is, there is an opening above the seat, and there are no doors or windows because the driver is exposed.
- Single seater.That is, there is one seat (which, along with the cowl, regulates two seats (albeit corpse)Prototype racing carIt can be said that it contrasts with.In addition, for riding experience eventIf there are two seats for a special purpose such as, it is impossible to arrange them side by side, so the tandem arrangement is exclusively for the front and back).
- Rear wheel drive(In the 1960sFour-wheel drive (4WD) Cars have been built (en: Four-wheel drive in Formula One)).Front wheel driveThe car is Mickey Thompson (1960s Mickey Thompson) from the prewar Miller car to the late XNUMXs in IndyCar.en: Mickey Thompson), But it is extremely rare when viewed from the whole.
- While maintaining the safety of the competition, the weight has been thoroughly reduced (the minimum weight specified in the regulations is about 600 kg).).
- Because it is not supposed to run on public roadsDirection indicator,HeadlightAnd someSecurity partsThere is no.
- 4 wheels (since 1983)F1 regulationIt is clearly stated as "up to 4 wheels".Before that, the number of wheels was not clearly stated, so Tyrell took advantage of this deficiency.P34Developed)
There is such a thing.
Next, as a feature added after the 1960s,
- rearMidshipEngine (formerly front engineMet.Midship #racing carSee also).
- A huge wing called a wing in front and behind the car bodyAero PartsIs attached (someJunior formulaIn some cases, the use of wings is prohibited. The first wing appeared in F1 around 1967).
- Negative pressure on the underside of the car body (Venturi effect) As a downforce sourceMinimum ground clearanceThe (vehicle height) is only a few centimeters, and the center of gravity is low (mainly changes in the 1970s. Before that, especially the lightweight body of the 1960s, commonly known as the "cigar type").
The most distinctive feature of the formula car's appearance is the structure with exposed tires.Air resistance (in technical termsDrag) Is sometimes said to be a small form, but it is not a very correct understanding.The drag coefficient (so-called Cd value), which is often used as a value to evaluate air resistance, is around 1 in formula cars, and if only the coefficients are compared,PriusIt is about four times that of the recent low drag coefficient styling.However, it should be noted here that the drag coefficient depends on the dynamic pressure and area.DimensionlessThe point is that it is a "coefficient".That is, if it is sufficiently small compared to the (forward projection) area, even if the Cd value is large, thatThe air resistance itself that the vehicle receivesIs small.Although it is not possible to simply compare, for exampleGroup CThe Cd value of the vehicle is smaller than that of the formula car, and the maximum speed is before the 1990 renovation.Salt CircuitAt the end of the back straight (Unodiere) in, it exceeds 400km / h and is faster than F1.
From the above, some people wonder why the form with a large drag coefficient is not changed, but the structure with bare tires is the definition of a formula car in the first place.
Not limited to formula cars, it can be said in general for racing cars with high power in recent years, but if there is sufficient propulsive force to compete, the car body will rise rather than having a small drag force.LiftDo not generate, but conversely press downDown forceIt is rather important to have a good balance between stability and maneuverability.Various aero parts attached to the car body are attached to press the car body against the ground to generate downforce that improves the stability of the car body, and to control the airflow to stabilize the running.In particular, the downforce is large, and the maximum downforce in the history of F1 cars is about 2008 kgf in the 2,000 regulation, which is heavier than the vehicle weight (about 600 kg).Some people think that it is possible to drive on the ceiling of a tunnel, but it is necessary to calculate the speed required to obtain that downforce and the grip force required to maintain that speed.
Driving a formula car, rather than maneuveringThe behavior is extremely complicated due to many factors such as the engine that emits a large torque, the small mass of the vehicle, the change in behavior due to the difference in airspeed derived from aerodynamic parts, etc., and the required technology is general for passenger cars. Very high skill and skill are required, which is very different from normal driving.
The area around the driver's seat is called the "cockpit."There is only the minimum necessary space.Also, to ensure safety, only the area around the cockpit is made of a special material and is extremely sturdy.In a big crash etc., it can be seen that only the cockpit shell remains and secures a space to protect the driver while other parts are damaged and scattered.According to the theory of so-called monocoque, the wider the opening, the harder it is to secure the strength, so it becomes narrower, but if it is too narrow, it will prevent the driver from escaping in the event of a fire, so the size is set by regulation above a certain level. In some cases.
Passenger car,Rally carUnlike, the formula car is better at intermediate acceleration than when stopping and starting.Depending on the gear ratio of the transmission,European circuitIt takes a little over 0 seconds to accelerate from 100 to 3km / h. At 100 km / h or more, a large downforce is applied, so the drive wheels generate a large frictional force, and the allowable driving force is improved.As a result, the acceleration power is improved, and 100-200km / h acceleration is faster than 0-100 acceleration and takes only about 2 seconds.
At the same time, this downforce improves the speed of passing through curves (corners). In the case of F1, the maximum is about 5G on the outsideCentrifugal accelerationIs hanging.
The reason why comfort equipment and safety parts are not installed is that these parts increase weight and air resistance, which leads to adverse effects that reduce time and fuel consumption in the race, and the engine position and vehicle height are during the race. This is the result of pursuing the dynamic performance and behavior of the car to the utmost limit.
As mentioned above, the formula car has a large air resistance coefficient, but it also has excellent maximum speed performance.1km / h even in F350 specializing in European circuitsMonza Circuit), And in IndyCar with high maximum speed performance, it reaches 370km / h or more.The maximum speed that the formula car recorded on the circuit is2000 CART,Michigan International SpeedwayIt is 413.518km / h recorded in.
Driving on public roads
In Japan,Road Traffic LawIn the formula carPublic roadThere is no matter prohibiting running on.However, many organizations do not require or prohibit equipment such as "safety parts" that meet the Road Traffic Act as a requirement for participation in the race, so it is similar to vehicles that do not comply with the general Road Traffic Act. I can't drive on public roads.When conducting speed competitions such as races or running exhibitions on public roads, it is necessary to obtain a "road occupancy permit" as with other non-official vehicles.
in the past,Modified carSpecialty storeGarage ribbonAdded safety parts such as blinkers and rearview mirrors to the formula car manufactured for the All Japan F3000, and actuallyLicense plateExample of getting (F3000 public road specification car), But it is legally possible, but practically very difficult, because the application requires enormous procedures and remodeling costs to obtain type approval.Also like modern timesMinimum ground clearanceIt is also unrealistic for a vehicle with an extremely low value to be unable to cope with steps on ordinary public roads (as an example).ShakotanCars are refused warehousing in the semi-underground parking lot because the bottom of the car gets caught at the top of the slope and becomes a turtle.If you force it in, you will not be able to get out because the nose hits the slope this time).
Development of head protection device
1994 A series of serious accidents in F1 (World GP Round 3 San Marino GPDeath of Ayrton SennaIs known as the most important case)1996 Is now obliged to install a side protector on the side of the cockpit (Sauber The1994 Monaco Grand PrixAtKarl WendlingerWas the first to voluntarily hire him in the wake of a major accident that caused him to become seriously ill).
More2009 ToFelipe MassaThe momentum for introducing a head protection device has increased in the wake of an accident that caused a serious injury such as a skull fracture due to a direct hit from a part of the machine in front of him.As a result of the examination, "Halo(Halo)We decided to introduce a device called ".In English, it means "a round ring of light like a back light."at first2017 It was planned to be introduced from, but it was postponed by one year due to opposition such as "damaging the aesthetics of the machine".2018 It was officially introduced from.
There are many races using formula cars.International Automobile Federation The highest class defined by (FIA)Formula 1 (F1) Class.Below thatFormula 2 (F2), and below thatFormula 3 (F3),Formula 4 Continue with (F4).
Also, as a series by other famous formula cars, in North AmericaIndyCar SeriesAnd its subcategoriesIndy Lights, Set in JapanSuper formula(OldFormula Nippon), Held mainly in EuropeWorld Series Formula V8 3.5and so on.Especially in the category held in North America, the name "open-wheel car" is used.
Formula 1 (F1)
F1Is held as a world championship, a series under the jurisdiction of the FIA that travels around the world. F1 raceGrand PrixIt is called and is held in about 20 countries excluding the African continent.The biggest feature is the only formula car race in the worldChassis originally developed by participating teamsThe point is that the race will be held at.So in F1 the teamConstructorCalled. The development and production cost of one unit is estimated to be several million dollars, and even if the operating cost of the team is low, it will reach billions of yen, and if it becomes a top team, it will reach tens of billions of yen.Therefore, in F1, drivers who bring in a large amount of dowry (sponsor costs) to maintain management (so-called so-called), centered on private teamsPay driver) Exists.The drivers participating in the race will be issued by the FIA.Super licenseMust be held.
The highest open wheel car category in North America.Originally what is "IndyCar"Indy 500It is a term that refers to a racing car that runs in the United States, and has since become synonymous with American open-wheel cars.The IndyCar Series has been held by multiple governing bodies for over 500 years since the Indy100 was held, and in the pastAAA Automobile Association (AAA),United States Auto Club (USAC),CART, The Indy Racing League (IRL) existed. From 2011IndyCarSponsored byIndyCar SeriesThen, mainly in the United States,Oval truck, Permanent European circuit (road course), etc., around 16 races are held annually.Especially in the oval, a super high speed battle with a maximum speed of 350km / h or more will be developed.International A grade (grade A) license is required for participating drivers.
Super Formula (SF)
Super FormulaJapan Automobile Federation In the highest peak championship stipulated by (JAF),Japan race promotion Operated by (JRP). From the 1970s to the early 90s, Japan adopted the F2 and F3000 regulations, which will be described later.All Japan F2 Championship,All Japan F3000 ChampionshipWas held, but in 1996, the predecessor Formula Nippon inherited the F3000 regulations and was launched.Then, in 1999, it adopted its own vehicle regulations that incorporated the new international F3000 safety standards.About 2 races are held annually at grade 7 or higher circuits in Japan.Most of the participating drivers have fewer races per year than the F1 and IndyCar above.FIA World Endurance Championship (WEC)SUPER GTWe are also participating in the war in parallel.Drivers who participate in the race must have an international B grade (grade B) license or higher.
Formula 2 (F2 or equivalent class)
The F2 Championship is a championship located directly under F1, but the name isFormula 3000,GP2It has been a long time since it was replaced by.In the meantime, F2 equivalent category (formerly) in EuropeFormula Renault 3.5→ World Series Formula V8 3.5,AUTO GP, FA1 etc.) was in a rush, but now it is declining and disappearing due to cost and super license, and with the disappearance of V2017 8 in 3.5, Europe is only F2.
In the United States, it is directly under the IndyCar Series.Indy LightsIn these championships, most races will be held as support events for the F1 and IndyCar Series, respectively.
There is no category that corresponds to F2 in Japan, but because it has all-Japan F2 and all-Japan F3000 as its origin, and because it is questionable that it is on par with F1 and IndyCar.Formula Nippon,Super formulaSome consider to be F2.
In the past, development competition was fierce for F2, and many manufacturers and constructors entered the world, but after that, due to the rise of F1 and cost issues, one-make progress was made.Currently, it also means that it is a category to identify the eggs of F1 and IndyCar drivers, there are almost no examples of multi-make, and if you become a champion, it is considered as "graduation" and it is almost impossible to participate in the next year or later (in that sense, Super Formula, which has a multi-make engine and can continue to participate in the championship, is in the "top category" regardless of whether it is the same as F1 or IndyCar, and can be defined as higher than F2. In recent years, the champions in other categories have participated in Formula Renault 3.5 in 2010, but only participated in one race and two races in the following year.)
Formula 3 (F3 or equivalent class)
F3 classThere are many categories corresponding to in countries where motor sports are popular, and until the 2000s, national championships were held in Japan, Australia, Brazil, Austria, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom in addition to the European championships.Also, for drivers who have achieved good results in the above championships,Macau Grand PrixYou will be given the opportunity to participate in.
Although F3 is relatively inexpensive, it has a high level of driver racing, so it has a multi-makeup soil, and there were a large number of manufacturers and constructors entering engine development in both Japan and Europe.On the other hand, as the cost has been increasing in recent years, the reorganization by FIA has been promoted, and as a result, it will be old from 2019.GP3A two-stage structure (both one-make) has been introduced: the "FIA F3 Championship", which was reorganized, and the "Formula Regional", which is held in each country as a lower category.However, some of the conventional local series do not follow this and continue their own series, for example, Japan.All Japan Super Formula Lights ChampionshipAnd so on.
Formula 4 (F4)
Formula 4 is an introductory category that assumes a step up from the cart. It can be broadly divided into various national championships held in accordance with the international standard (FIA-F4) stipulated by the FIA, and championships of original standards held in Japan, France, and the United Kingdom.
A category of FIA management newly established in 2014.It does not use fossil fuels as power at all, and runs only on the power of the motor.
Although it is not positioned as a world championship, it is a major feature that it has been competing all over the world and many F1 experienced people are also participating.
Chassis is season 5 (2018 - 19) Has been replaced by something called "Gen2", and the maximum speed is 285km / h.On the other hand, because the front and rear tires were designed to be covered with cowls, some people said that it was not a formula car in a strict sense, and in response to that, "Gen8" that will appear in Season 2021 (22-2) In "Evo", the front tires are back exposed.
In addition, there is also a championship with a formula car made by a specific automobile company, in which case it is held under the name "Formula XX".Many are lower than F3Junior formulaIt is classified into, but some of themWorld Series by NissanThere are some that are positioned in the same rank as F3000.
Formula car racing class
|Region||Superlative||Second grade||Second grade||Second grade||Second grade||Second grade|
|Europe||Formula 1||Formula 2||GP3|
World Series by Renault
|Formula 3||Formula Renault2.0||Formula Ford|
French F4 Championship
|North America||IndyCar Series||Indy Lights||-||Pro Mazda Championship||USF2000|
|Japan||Super formula||-||-||All Japan Super Formula Lights Championship|
Formula Regional Japanese Championship
The term "formula car" in Japanese often refers to "open-wheel car" in American and "single" in British English. -seater car).However, since both words basically have literal meanings, there is a slight difference.
The English version of the article corresponding to this article on Wikipedia is Formula Racing (en: Formula racing) Is the article.The English version of the article about vehicles is an open wheel car (en: Open-wheel car, Japanese version pear), and in British English it is a single-seater car.Formula cars are usually open-wheel and single-seater.
In addition to formula cars, open-wheel cars are sprint cars for short-distance competitions that are competed on dirt roads (en: Sprint car racing) Etc. are also included.In addition, there are some pre-war Grand Prix cars that are open-wheel but not single-seater.
Monster sportsE-RUNNER Pikes Peak Special is a single-seater but not an open wheel.
またFormula driftIs a modification of a commercial vehicle, in which case the word formula is used purely to mean "standard".
See also each category of Wikimedia Commons.
- ^ 2014 Formula SAE Rules, T2.1 Vehicle Configuration
- ^ See the abstract translation on the All Japan Student Formula Student web page.
- ^ Example: https://www.indyracingexperience.com/experiences/experience_types/ride
- ^ The minimum weight of the car body "includes" and "does not include" the driver's weight (Dry weight) May break up.If it is less than the minimum weightballastIncrease with the installation of.
- ^ However, the engine is completely behind the front axle and the overhang is minimal, so-called "front midship" in modern times.
- ^ The word "steering" includes the letters "vertical" in the vertical and horizontal directions.Degree of freedomThere is an implication that you can freely manipulate things that are larger than 2.The word "steering" is appropriate not only for steering like a general passenger car, but also for racing driving where load transfer by acceleration / deceleration and control of under or over are important. The reason why F1 drivers are also called "--pilots"