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大人 3

Five hundred yen coin

Five hundred yen coin(Gohyakuenkou)Japanese GovernmentIssuedcurrency.XNUMX yen coinAlso called (Gohyaku-edama). Face value 500Yen Ofcoin.

Commemorative coinAmong general circulation coins excluding such as, coins with a face value of 500 yenJapanese coinNot only the highest price in世界But it is one of the highest denomination coins[1][Note 1]..This is South Korea500ウ ォ ンInviting a large amount of currency alteration cases (described below) due to low-value coins such as coins,2000 (HeiseiIn 12), it was forced to recast.[1]. Since thenBank of Japan notesIncludingbillSimilarly, it has been renewed to incorporate new anti-counterfeiting technology for the purpose of anti-counterfeiting at intervals of about 20 years.[Note 2].

XNUMX yen white coin (first generation)

Five hundred yen white coin
500yen-S57.jpg
MaterialWhite copper
gradecopper 75%
nickel 25%
Scale7.2g
直径26.5 mm
DesignPaulownia(surface)
bamboo,Orange(Back side)
SurroundingsWith lettering
Issue start1982 (57)
May 4
Issuance end1999 (11)

Overview

1982 (Showa57 years)May 4[2]ToXNUMX yen bill(IwakuraPortrait ofC XNUMX yen ticket) Appeared in place of[3][Note 3].

On the surfacePaulowniaFlower leaves and the letters "Japan" and "XNUMX yen" are on the back with the year of manufacture and above and below.bambooLeaves, left and rightOrangeTwigs are designed[4], The typeface of the number "500" on the back is derived from the C XNUMX yen coin[Note 4]..The material iscopper75%,nickel25%White copperMade of white copper with the same compositionFifty yen coin-Hundred yen copper coinIt is natural to make it larger, but as a result of examining the relationship between mobile phone, identification with other currencies, balance with high-value coins from other countries, vending machines, etc., the diameter is 26.5. mmIt became the size.The actual thickness is 1.85 mm.

The letters "◆ NIPPON ◆ 500 ◆" are repeatedly engraved on the edge as one of the anti-counterfeiting technologies, which is the first technology adopted since the establishment of the Mint.[4], The engraving is made so that the front and back are not aligned with the direction of the engraving of the characters on the circumference, so the top surface will be the front when the characters "◆ NIPPON ◆ 500 ◆" are placed so that they can be read correctly. There are almost half of them and half of them.

History

The circulation of 60-yen coins exceeds XNUMX% of the total coins, andvending machineDue to the demand for higher denomination coins against the background of the rapid spread of coins, it was issued as an exceptionally high denomination coin in the world.[1].

at firstTemporary currency lawWas effectiveTemporary supplementary currencyIssued as1988 (Showa 63)Law on currency units and issuance of moneyAfter enforcement1999 Until (11) "currencyWas continuously issued as.This XNUMX-yen coin is the last ordinary coin issued as a temporary supplementary coin.

The year 62 had the smallest number of manufactured products (277), followed by the year 5 with the smallest number (64). Unused coins of these years are traded at prices exceeding the face value in old coin dealers.

Currency alteration case described laterDue to the frequent occurrence of the coins, the issuance was suspended in 2000 (Heisei 12) in the form of being taken over by the XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin.[1]..Although a XNUMX-yen coin with the name "XNUMX" was manufactured, it was not issued after all.

2 yen nickel brass coin (XNUMXnd generation)

XNUMX yen nickel brass coin
500JPY.JPG
MaterialNickel brass
gradecopper 72%
zinc 20%
nickel 8%
Scale7.0g
直径26.5 mm
DesignPaulownia(surface)
bamboo,Orange(Back side)
SurroundingsDiagonal knurled
Issue start2000 (12)
May 8
Issuance end2021 (Reiwa 3 years) Schedule

Overview

1999 From around (11)Counterfeit/altered coinsWas discovered one after another and became a social problem.2000 (12)May 8The second generation 2-yen coin with a different design and material, XNUMX-yenNickel brassCoins appeared[1][5]..Since it was necessary to take immediate action, the recast was made by changing the material and installing anti-counterfeiting measures without changing the basic design.[1].

It is the first ordinary coin issued as "money" under the "Act on Units of Currency and Issuance of Money, etc." from the beginning of issuance.Also, in Japan in the Heisei eraCommemorative coinMany types are manufactured and issued, but as a normal coin, this XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin is the only one issued in Japan with new specifications in the Heisei era.

It was the year when the era changed from Heisei to Rewa.2019 Regarding the 31-yen coins (31 / first year of Reiwa), the number of coins issued in 1 was 2616, while the number of coins issued in the first year of Reiwa was 4 million. Not only did the number of coins in the first year of Reiwa decrease to 7695, but the number of 6-yen coins in the first year of Reiwa fell below 1 million for the first time as a XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin, the smallest number. Although it became a record, for XNUMX-yen nickel brass coins, so-called special year (special year) coins are issued with a small number of issued coins so that unused coins are traded at a price exceeding the face value at old coin dealers etc. There is no prospect.

Difference from XNUMX yen coin

Diameter, paulownia on the front, bamboo and tachibana on the back, etc.[4]Although the rough appearance is not different from the XNUMX-yen coin[6]There are some differences, mainly to prevent counterfeiting, as shown below.

Ingredients

The 72-yen coin was made of white copper with the same composition as the XNUMX-yen coin and the XNUMX-yen coin, while the XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin was XNUMX% copper.zincMade of 20% nickel and 8% nickel nickel brass.This willElectrical conductivityBecause of the changes, it became easier to detect counterfeit coins with a machine.Along with this, the color is slightly golden and the quantity is 7.2. gFrom to 7.0 g, which is a decrease of 0.2 g.

Front/rear/side changes/anti-counterfeiting technology

Although the design follows the XNUMX-yen coin, the design on the front and back has been slightly changed and the design on the side has also been changed to prevent counterfeiting.

  • Fine line
    • On the surface, the background of "Japan" and "XNUMX yen" is convex, and fine lines thinner than the hair are applied to prevent counterfeiting.
  • Fine point
    • Fine point processing is applied to the central part of the paulownia leaf on the surface.
    • Both fine lines and fine points use the latest technology in metal microfabrication.
  • Latent image
    • On the back side, there is no hole drawn inside the number "500", it looks like "5 ●●".Furthermore, the "0" part is provided with a latent image in which the characters "500 yen" and "vertical lines" emerge depending on the angle.However, since it is a coin, many of the used coins are crushed and difficult to see.
  • Micro character
    • MintAlthough it is not disclosed, it is hard to see with the naked eye, but 0.2 mm each on both sidesJAPANESEIs engraved with micro characters[7].
  • Diagonal serration
    • On the side, instead of the lettering of the 181-yen coin, a diagonal jaggedness (the number of jaggedness is XNUMX), which is extremely rare in the world coins, was inserted in the XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin.In this way, the XNUMX-yen coin uses advanced technology for side processing compared to other face value coins.

Thickness

The 1.81-yen coin and the 1.85-yen nickel coin are supposed to have the same thickness by design, but in reality, the thickness of the 50-yen nickel coin is XNUMX mm, which is XNUMX. It is slightly thinner than the XNUMX mm yen coin.This difference is due to the fact that the edges of the coin have been changed from inscribed to jagged on the smooth surface.For this reason, for XNUMX XNUMX-yen coinsCoin holderIn some cases, 51 XNUMX-yen nickel brass coins can be stored.

3 yen bicolor clad coin to be issued (XNUMXrd generation)

[Not issued]
XNUMX yen bicolor clad coin
MaterialOuter edge:Nickel brass
Center (surface layer):White copper
Center (inside):copper
By color-Clad
gradeCopper 75%
zinc 12.5%
nickel 12.5%
Scale7.1g
直径26.5 mm
DesignPaulownia(surface)
bamboo,Orange(Back side)
SurroundingsThere is a deformed diagonal jaggedness
Issue start2021 (3nd year of Reiwa)
May 11plans

Overview

2021 (Reiwa3 years)May 11In addition, the third-generation 3-yen coin, whose design and material have been changed for the purpose of improving anti-counterfeiting power, is XNUMX yen.By color-CladCoins will appear[8][9]..Initially, it was planned to be issued in the first half of 2021 (3rd year of Reiwa),New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)Beverages, cigarettes, etc.vending machineAnd station ticket machines,TMJ2021 (3rd year of Reiwa) due to delays in repair work to make various devices such as new coins compatible with new coins.May 1Treasury announces postponement of issuance[10].. same yearMay 4Announced that it will be issued again by November[11]..The production of this XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coin was made in the same year.May 6Started from[12].

change point

The table below summarizes the changes in materials and formats.The subjects (paulownia, bamboo, tachibana) used for the design are the same for all three types.

Name / Issuance start dateMaterial / dignityScale
(g
直径
(mm
Thickness
(Actual measurement)
(Mm)
Counterfeit prevention technology
Five hundred yen white coin
(April 1982, 57)
Material
White copper
grade
Copper 75%
25% nickel
7.226.51.85
Surroundings
lettering
 ("◆ NIPPON ◆ 500 ◆")
XNUMX yen nickel brass coin
(October 2000, 12)
Material
Nickel brass
grade
Copper 72%
Zinc 20%
8% nickel
7.01.81
表面
Fine line
Fine point
裏面
Latent image
 (Vertical line, "500 yen")
Surroundings
Diagonal serration
XNUMX yen bicolor clad coin
(November 2021, 3 (Reiwa 11))
Material
Outer edge: nickel brass
Center: 3-layer structure with copper sandwiched between cupronickel
(Bicolor clad)
grade
As a percentage from the whole[Note 5]
Copper 75%
Zinc 12.5%
12.5% nickel
7.1 
表面
Fine line
Fine point
Fine characters
 ("JAPAN" / "500YEN")
裏面
Latent image
 ("500YEN" / "JAPAN")
Surroundings
Deformed diagonal jagged

Counterfeit prevention technology

It has been announced that the following new anti-counterfeiting technologies will be adopted:[8]..Of the following technologies, the bicolor clad with a two-color, three-layer structure and the irregularly shaped diagonal jagged edgesCommemorative currencyThen, it has already been proven.2008 Issued in (20)Currency commemorating the 60th anniversary of the enforcement of the Local Government ActIt was first adopted in Japan, and some commemorative coins with a face value of 500 yen issued after that have also been adopted.

  • Bicolor clad with 2-color 3-layer structure
    • Nickel brass is used for the outer circumference, and the inner copper is sandwiched between cupronickel.The copper part is invisible from the outside, but this layer is useful when taking advantage of changes in electrical conductivity when handling with a machine.[13].
  • Deformed diagonal jagged
    • A part of the diagonal notch on the edge is shaped differently from other notches (eye spacing, slope, etc.), making it difficult to forge.[13]..World's first adoption for distribution coins[13].
  • Fine characters
    • Fine character processing of "JAPAN" is applied to the top and bottom of the inside of the surface edge, and "500YEN" is applied to the left and right.[13].

The fine lines, fine dots, and latent images that have already been used for 500-yen nickel coins will continue to be used, but the latent image is based on the vertical lines of the 500-yen nickel coin and the letters "XNUMX yen". The characters will be changed to "XNUMXYEN" and "JAPAN".[13].

Design

Although the design follows the XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coin, the design on the back side is that the design of the lower bamboo among the top, bottom, left and right bamboo and tachibana designs has disappeared, and the letters of the year of manufacture at the bottom of the back side are from series to edge It will be changed to an arc-shaped arrangement along[14]..Also, in the 500-yen nickel coin, the hole was not drawn inside the number "5" on the back side and it was like "500 ●●", but because the location of the latent image processing was changed, it was "XNUMX". The number is in the form of returning to a design close to a XNUMX-yen coin.

Counterfeit/altered coins

In the same year that the 1982-yen coin was introduced in 57 (Showa XNUMX), South KoreaBut(Korean versionWas introduced.At the timeExchange rateIt was worth about 170 yen in Japanese yen, but the material and size are exactly the same as the 26.5 yen coin, it is made of white copper with a diameter of 7.7 mm, and only the weight is 0.5 g, which is a little heavy, so the surface is Reduce the mass by XNUMXg by slightly scraping or making a hole with a drill etc.vending machineThere were many examples of using 7.2g of XNUMX-yen coins.[15][16].

The main method is to insert a altered 500 won coin and operate the "return lever" to take out the genuine 500 yen coin stored in the vending machine.By abusing the design mechanism of the vending machine that coins other than the inserted coins come out to the return slot, the difference profit at the exchange rate of 500 won and 500 yen is obtained.In addition to stealing genuine 500-yen coins, there is also a method of stealing goods, tickets, or change worth XNUMX yen from vending machines by using altered coins as XNUMX yen.

In order to deal with this trick, the structure of the vending machine has been revised so that the coins put in can be pooled and prepared for return.

Other than the 500 won coin, the material, mass, and dimensions were similar, although the number was small.(I.e.1RiyalCoins andハンガリー20ForintCoins and 50 forint coins,PortugalOld 25EscudoCoins that have been altered, such as coins, and counterfeit coins have also been found.

In this way, the situation surrounding 2000-yen coins became extremely bad, and in 12 (Heisei XNUMX) it was changed to XNUMX-yen nickel brass coins.

After issuing XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coins, vending machinesTMJDue to the renewal of the coin, the modified coins that were accepted as XNUMX-yen coins gradually became obsolete.2003 From around (15), forgery of XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coins began to be reported sporadically.

2005 (17) At the end of JanuaryTokyo-Fukuoka-Kumamoto Ofpost officeA large number of counterfeit 2-yen nickel coins were finally found at ATMs and counters in the area, and the handling of coins at ATMs was temporarily suspended at post offices in the area.[17].. Many vending machines limit the number of 500-yen coins that can be inserted at one time to three.[18], Some vending machines are limited to one.

As of 2011 (Heisei 23), there is a strong demand for XNUMX-yen coins.Electronic moneySome experts pointed out that it would be hard to be affected by[19].. actually,CashlessAdvance2010 eraSince then, the circulation of XNUMX-yen coins has continued to increase.[13].

From the above circumstances, 33-yen coins are still legally valid, but there are increasing cases where they cannot be used due to improvements or updates in the accuracy of vending machines.In addition, XNUMX-yen coins before the XNUMX inscription (Giza Ten) Is also highly unusable in vending machines[20].

2020 At the end of the year (2nd year of Reiwa), counterfeit XNUMX-yen coins were discovered one after another.There is also a view that the criminal will rush to use counterfeit coins before the issuance of XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coins.[21].

Commemorative currency

Issued after 1982 (Showa 57) when XNUMX-yen coins appearedCommemorative currencyIs often issued with a face value of 500 yen, excluding those using precious metals such as gold and silver.

500 yen coin
  • International Science and Technology Expo Memorial 500 Yen White Bronze Coin
  • 500 yen coin to commemorate the XNUMXth anniversary of the founding of the cabinet system
  • A 500-yen coin commemorating the XNUMXth anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor's reign
  • Seikan Tunnel opening commemoration 500 yen coin
  • Seto Ohashi opening commemoration 500 yen coin
  • 500 yen coin to commemorate the throne of His Majesty the Emperor
  • 20 yen coin for the 500th anniversary of the return to Okinawa
Regarding the above, the material is the same as ordinary coins, but the diameter is 30 mm, which is larger than ordinary coins, and the weight is 13 g, which is heavier than ordinary coins.
  • Crown Prince's wedding commemoration 500 yen coin
  • Kansai International Airport opening commemoration 500 yen coin
  • The 12th Asian Games Memorial 500 Yen Cupronickel Coin (There are 3 types of designs: run, swim, and jump)
  • Nagano Olympic Winter Games commemorative 500 yen coin
  • 10 yen coin to commemorate the 500th anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor
The above is the same as the XNUMX-yen coin, which is a regular coin, in terms of diameter, quantity, and material.However, in each case, the surroundings are not lettering but jagged, which is different from ordinary money.
500 yen nickel bronze coin
  • 2002 FIFA World Cup Memorial 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin (3 types of designs)
  • 2005 Japan International Exposition Commemorative 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin
  • 50th Anniversary of Antarctic Research Expedition 500 Yen Nickel Bronze Coin
  • Japan-Brazilian Exchange Year and Japanese 100th Anniversary of Emigration to Brazil 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin ☆
  • 20th Anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor 500 Yen Nickel Brass Coin ☆
The above is the same as the XNUMX-yen nickel bronze coin, which is a regular coin, in terms of diameter, quantity, and material.However, ☆ is different from ordinary coins in that the surroundings are irregularly shaped diagonally jagged (other than that, the surroundings are also diagonally jagged like ordinary coins).
500 yen coin
  • Chubu Centrair International Airport opening commemorative 500 yen silver coin
This coin is a premium coin (a precious metal commemorative coin whose manufacturing cost exceeds the face value).
500 yen bicolor clad coin
  • 60 yen bicolor clad coin (500 types of designs) commemorating the 47th anniversary of the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Law
  • 30th Anniversary of His Majesty the Emperor's Reign 500 Yen Bicolor Clad Coin
  • His Majesty the Emperor's coronation commemoration 500 yen bicolor clad coin
  • 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games commemorative 500 yen bicolor clad coin (there are two types of designs: Raijin (Olympic) and Wind God (Paralympic)) ★
Using the standards (diameter, quantity, material, structure) adopted for the above coins, the format of the XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coins of ordinary coins to be issued was established.However, only in ★, the circumference is not a deformed diagonal jagged but a normal diagonal jagged.

For details on the year of publication and style, seeJapanese commemorative currencySee.

Transition

  • 1981 (Showa56 years)May 7: Established a XNUMX-yen coin style[Note 6][2].
  • 1982 (57)May 4 : Five hundred yen white coinIssue start[2]..The design isPaulownia..The surroundings are lettering.
  • 1988 (63)May 4 : Law on currency units and issuance of moneyWith the enforcement ofTemporary supplementary currencyThe XNUMX-yen coin, which was issued as a coin, will continue to have the power to be used as a "temporary auxiliary coin that is regarded as money."
  • 1999 (Heisei11): The issuance of XNUMX-yen coins has ended.
  • 2000 (12)May 1: Established the style of XNUMX-yen nickel coins[Note 7].
  • 2000May 8 : XNUMX yen nickel brass coinIssuance started.Although it follows the previous design, details such as the number "500" are different due to the anti-counterfeiting measures.The circumference is diagonally jagged.
  • 2021 (Reiwa3 years)May 1: Established a XNUMX-yen bicolor clad coin style[Note 8].
  • 2021 years (Ryowa 3 years)May 11(schedule):XNUMX yen bicolor clad coinScheduled to start issuing[9]..Although it follows the previous design, details such as the arrangement of year inscriptions are different.The circumference is irregularly shaped diagonally jagged.

Incidentally,1994 (6)May 4UntilXNUMX yen billWas issued in parallel[22].

Number of issued sheets

"Independent Administrative Agency Mint Bureau Data on money "Number of coins manufactured by year"

References

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ At the time of its appearanceスイス5Franc,Germany(OldWest Germany) Of 5マ ル ク,スペイン500PesetaAlong with coins, it became a hot topic as a high-value coin.
    In Germany and SpainEuroWas introduced and the maximum face value coin was 2 euros, so nowキ ュ ー バ5PesoCoin (Cuban convertible peso is 1.08U.S. dollarToPeg), Alongside the Swiss 5 franc coin (the face value of each coin is the value of each countryExchange rateDue to fluctuations in).However, although Cuban 5 peso coins are not commemorative coins, they are rarely distributed.
  2. ^ In particular, banknotes are generally renewed approximately every 10 to 20 years as an anti-counterfeiting measure in other countries.
  3. ^ The C-XNUMX yen note was manufactured and issued for a while after the issuance of the XNUMX-yen white copper coin.1985 (60), suspension of payment from BOJ1994 (6)).
  4. ^ This front and back is a convenient name at the Mint, and unlike coins of the Meiji era, there are no legal provisions for the front and back.
  5. ^ Looking at each part alone, the outer edge part has the same composition as a XNUMX-yen nickel brass coin, and the central surface layer part has the same composition as a XNUMX-yen white copper coin.
  6. ^ July 56, 7 Cabinet Order No. 3
  7. ^ January 12, 1 Cabinet Order No. 28
  8. ^ Reiwa January 3, 1rd Cabinet Order No. 27

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f Akira Watanabe 2012, pp. 18–31.
  2. ^ a b c Bank of Japan Financial Research Institute, "Institute for Monetary and Currency", Bank of Japan Financial Research Institute, 1994, p. 106.ISBN 9784930909381.
  3. ^ "The 94th Diet House Finance Committee No. 23 April 56, 4 Temporary currency lawOf XNUMX yenTemporary supplementary currencyAbout adding ". House of Representatives. October 2020th, 8Browse.
  4. ^ a b c Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau 1994, pp. 181–182.
  5. ^ "The 146th Diet House of Representatives Finance Committee No. 3, November 11, 11 Regarding the recast of 17-yen coins”. House of Representatives. October 2020th, 8Browse.
  6. ^ Money after the Meiji era <As of August 2000> --Bank of Japan Currency Museum
  7. ^ Naoyuki Kawasaki. “See the micro characters of the new 500 yen coinTakai Laboratory, Department of Electronic Information Electronics, Department of Electronic Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University. As of November 2002, 11オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2020th, 8Browse.
  8. ^ a b "I will issue new Bank of Japan notes and XNUMX yen coins" (Press Release), Treasury, (April 2019, 4), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 4., https://web.archive.org/web/20190409005102/https://www.mof.go.jp/currency/bill/20190409.html October 2020th, 8Browse. 
  9. ^ a b "About the issuance start date of the new XNUMX-yen coin”(Japanese). Ministry of Finance. October 2021th, 10Browse.
  10. ^ "We will issue new XNUMX yen coins and commemorative coins”. Ministry of Finance. October 2021th, 4Browse.
  11. ^ "About the issuance time of the new XNUMX-yen coin”. Ministry of Finance. October 2021th, 4Browse.
  12. ^ "New 500-yen coins will be manufactured at the Japan Mint from November". Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun). (November 2021, 6). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASP6P66JSP6PULFA019.html?iref=com_rnavi_arank_nr01 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Isamu Mukaiyama 2019, pp. 10–11.
  14. ^ "The new 500-yen coins are in two colors." The center is the 2-yen coin and the surroundings are the colors of the current 100-yen coin.". FNN Prime Online (Fuji Television Network Co., Ltd.). (April 2019, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 8.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200814205838/https://www.fnn.jp/articles/-/7418 
  15. ^ "Did you know about the new 500-yen coin? What's the surprising reason for the new 500-yen coin?". Adult life (Media software). (April 2019, 4). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2019, 5.. https://web.archive.org/web/20190503024619/https://otona-life.com/2019/04/10/11752/ 
  16. ^ "The 146th Diet session Questions on the Vending Machine Trolls caused by the use of modified foreign coins etc.”. House of Representatives. As of July 2019, 7オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.October 2020th, 8Browse.
  17. ^ “About discontinuation of handling coins at ATMs” (Press release), Japan Post, (November 2005, 2), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2005, 2., https://web.archive.org/web/20050205022156/https://www.japanpost.jp/pressrelease/japanese/kawase/050203j302.html 
  18. ^ Mono Magazine Editorial Department (September 2017, 9). "Unknown profit mechanism for people with "vending machines"". Storage chest 100 (Toyo Keizai Online). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200305120407/https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/186320?page=3 
  19. ^ “Why circulation increases only with 500 yen coins? Electronic money and “appropriate use””. Econo detective team (NIKKEI STYLE). (October 2011, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2020, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200411050246/https://style.nikkei.com/article/DGXDZO35987840Y1A021C1W14000?channel=DF210220171905&style=1 
  20. ^ Emi Iwaki (July 2015, 7). "There is a vending machine. No matter how many coins and bills are thrown in, it's a wonder that they return to the change counter.". tenki.jp supplement (Japan Weather Association). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2015, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20150726004037/https://tenki.jp/suppl/emi_iwaki/2015/07/25/5511.html 
  21. ^ Counterfeit XNUMX-yen coins found one after another Is it a rush before issuing new coins? Sankei WEST December 2020, 12 25:16 (viewed December 39, 2020)
  22. ^ "Banknotes that are not currently issued but are valid XNUMX yen coins”(Japanese). Bank of Japan. October 2022th, 10Browse.

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