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🚄 | Nostalgic railroad car looking back on the photo-165 series rapid "Fairway"-[Tohoku edition 002]


Nostalgic railroad car looking back in the photo-165 series rapid "Fairway"-[Tohoku edition 002]

If you write the contents roughly
This was the operation of the original "Moonlight", and it was operated once between Shinjuku and Kuroiso, mainly targeting golfers.

Last time, I wrote that the trip to Tohoku will start from Kuroiso station, and one of the reasons is that DC electrification changed to AC electrification at Kuroiso. → Continue reading

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Operation (railway)

Operation(Yeah) isTrainInvehicle,CrewActually operate列車Is to assign to.Railway operation planIn the plan on how to allocate vehiclesVehicle operation plan, Plan on how to allocate crewCrew operation planThat is.In this section, we will explain the operation plan for railways.


TrainTrain scheduleHowever, in order to make the diamond actually feasible, the actual vehicle and crew to support it are required.The number of rolling stock and crew required for operation is directly linked to the cost of railway operation, so it is desirable to keep it as small as possible.On the other hand, vehicles have various restrictions such as the need for regular inspections, crew members have various restrictions such as working hours and breaks, and regarding vehicles,stationThere are also physical restrictions due to the number of lines in.It is necessary to devise an operation plan that can realize a given train schedule while satisfying these various constraints.

The operation plan is the vehicle operation plan (JRThen.A operationと 呼 ば れ る[1]) And crew operation plan (in JR)DriverOperationB operation,conductorOperationC operationと 呼 ば れ る[1]..Some private railways use an MC pair system in which the combination of driver and conductor is always fixed. ), But there are some differences in the constraints, but the nature of the problem is similar, so I will explain them together in this paper.

Basic concept of operation plan

Figure 1 shows two types of simple train plans (train schedules) and corresponding operation plans.In the figure of the operation plan on the right side, the solid red line, the broken green line, and the dotted blue line indicate that the train is operated by the same train or crew.In this example, at the position of station BDepotIs supposed to exist.The circled symbol means departure from the depot to the main line (departure), and the triangle symbol means arrival at the depot from the main line (entry), which is common among Japanese railway operators. It is used as a target.

Originally, if you look at the train schedule, only two trains are operating at the same time, so it is possible to operate with two sets of trains and crew members, but in reality, three sets of trains are organized due to the location of the trains.・ A crew member is required.

In this example, due to the change in the turn-back relationship at station A, the trains to which the trains and crew members are assigned, which are represented by the solid red line and the dotted blue line, are different.Except for the case of a very simple train timetable, multiple different operation plans can be considered for one train timetable as in this example, and only the combination for a huge number of trains of an actual railway. There will be an operation plan for.From this operation plan, the purpose of the operation plan is to consider a plan that satisfies the constraints and reduces the required organization and crew.

The created operation plan isBox timetableIt is summarized in a chart in the form called.Figure 2 shows an example of a box diagram corresponding to Operation Plan 1 in Figure 1.In the box timetable, the same places (stations) are vertically aligned, and the formation and movement of crew members are indicated by a single bent line.Actually this is for each trainTrain number, Information such as the time of the turnaround station and the shift station of the crew, the time of departure / entry (going to work / leaving), the actual working time of the day, and the mileage are written.A combination of trains operated by the same train or crewPath(Or仕業).

Each formation and crew is not operated on the same route every day, but is assigned to different routes in order.The order assigned to the routePolice boxThat is.Operation plans can be broadly divided into two types: route creation and police box creation. When making a distinction between police box creation,Police box plan(OrAppropriation plan-Allocation plan).The police box is generally in a fixed order, but it may not always be in order due to the vacation of crew members and temporary repairs of vehicles, so it is changed from time to time.

Operation plan constraints and evaluation

The constraints on the operation plan and the evaluation index of what kind of operation is good are different between the vehicle operation plan and the crew operation plan.

Vehicle operation plan constraints

The vehicle operation plan has the following constraints.

One-to-one correspondence between formation and train

In order for trains to be operational, all trains on the timetable must be assigned a one-to-one formation.HoweverIncrease and decreaseFor trains with, instead of one-to-one, multiple trains will be assigned to one train.In this case, special attention should be paid to the orientation and type of organization.

Allocation conditions for formation

Can be operated depending on the type of organizationrouteAnd trains are limited.

In addition,Rigid overhead wireBecause you are usingpantographLimited to vehicles equipped with twoJR Tozai LineAndHokuriku Main Line OfDirect currentDue to the fact that it was manufactured at the local expense, the operation section is limited.JR West Japan 521 seriesThere are various conditions such as.

Continuous condition of time and place

Trains assigned in the same train are not feasible unless the times and locations of the stations before and after that are continuous.In order to meet this condition, the number of trains departing from a station and the number of trains arriving must match (except for additional trains).If this condition is not met on the train scheduleForwardingTrain settings are required.However, even if the conditions for the number of departures and arrivals are met on the train schedule, it may be necessary to set a deadhead train for operational reasons.

Number of tracks

At the same time, it is not feasible to carry out an operation plan in which the number of trains existing at the same station / depot exceeds the number of lines at that station / depot.For example, in the operation example shown in Fig. 1, since there are times when two trains are stopped at station A at the same time in both operation plans 1 and 2, at least two tracks must exist at station A.In this case, two trains arrive at station A in succession and there is no train departing between them, so two or more tracks are always required at station A on the train schedule.Even if it is not necessary on the train schedule, the number of required lines may increase depending on the method of operation planning.

If the number of lines cannot be met in the operation plan, change the train schedule to change the time of the arriving train and the departing train, or set a new forwarding train and set another station or depot with a vacant line. Need to evacuate the formation.

Minimum turnaround time

There is a minimum required time for the crew to return at the terminal station, such as the time it takes for the crew to move to the crew room on the other side.If the arrival and departure lines are different and you need to shunt, the time required will be further extended.

Inspection / cleaning cycle

Due to statutory regulations, vehicles are regularly operated according to conditions such as mileage and time.InspectionNeed to be implemented.In addition, it is necessary to regularly clean the rolling stock according to the internal regulations of the railway company.Of the inspectionGeneral inspection,Inspection of important partsSince the inspection cycle is long and the inspection takes a long time, it is common to remove the relevant vehicle from the police box and inspect it, and it is rarely considered directly in the vehicle operation plan.Alternate inspection,Work inspectionSince the inspection cycle and the required time are short, consider preparing a route that inserts the time to stay at the depot for the time required for inspection in the vehicle operation plan, or consider that the necessary inspection is performed in the police box. do.

Route connection conditions

Due to the alternation plan described later, connection conditions between routes are required.In Fig. 1, all routes start at station B and end at station B, but in reality, we may plan to keep them overnight at other stations or depots.This detentionStayingCalled.When planning an operation to stay at a berth, it is not possible to create a police box plan unless the number of routes ending at the place of staying and the number of routes starting at the berth do not match.

Operation of other companies' vehicles

With other companies' routesDirect operationIf you use another company's vehicle as a commercial trainVehicle usage feeNeed to pay.In the case of mutual direct operation, match the mileage between the companiesOffsetBy doing so, there are many cases where payment is made in cash.Therefore, it is necessary to organize the operation so that the mileage of each company is matched.

In this case, an example of deciding which company's vehicle will be included in which operation (vehicles differ depending on the operator)subwayOften),Tobu RailwayIntroduced by6050 seriesTheNoiwa Railway,Aizu RailwayThere are cases where vehicles of the same shape are commonly used by each company.

Evaluation of vehicle operation plan

What kind of vehicle operation plan is good is evaluated from the following viewpoints.

Required number of trains

The number of trains required to execute the train schedule should be small.This is because the required number of knitting is directly linked to the cost.However, considering the inspection period, setting a temporary train, and reducing the turnaround time to reduce the timetable will easily spread to the return delay of the arriving train when the timetable is disturbed, so it is necessary to allow some margin. ..

Number of forwarding settings

Deadhead trains only incur costsFareI avoid setting as much as possible because I can't earn income.

Number of inspections and cleanings

Vehicle inspections are required by law to be carried out within a certain period and mileage, but the minimum period and mileage are not set.If you make an operation plan that carries out inspections and cleanings every day, you can always meet the conditions, but inspections and cleanings require workers and are costly, and that time is used to run the train. Can't be done.For this reason, it is common to plan to operate until the very end of the cycle so that inspections and cleaning are not performed unnecessarily.However, even if the operation is changed when the timetable is disturbed, the inspection deadline cannot be violated, so some margin is required.

Number of replacements and work

If trains with different arrival and departure lines are operated in the same way at the turnaround station, shunting work will occur.In addition, it is possible to achieve both cost reduction and passenger service by flexibly increasing and disassembling the formation according to the demand, but it takes time and effort for the increasing and disassembling work itself.

Constraints of crew operation plan

The crew operation plan has the following restrictions.

Correspondence between crew and train

Crew members must be assigned to all trains on the timetable for the trains to be operational.However, unlike the vehicle operation plan, the correspondence between the train and the crew does not necessarily have to be one-to-one, and it may be one-to-many.In this case, all but one person in charge of the crew will simply board for movement.To board the train only for movement without being in charge of the crewPiggybackIt is called, and corresponds to the forwarding of the vehicle.Unlike forwarding, which requires the setting of train schedules, the setting of piggybacking can be done in the crew operation plan.

In addition, the vehicle operation plan andOn-site work planIf shunting is set in, it is necessary to assign a crew member to the shunting as well.

Crew assignable conditions

Operable by crewrouteAnd trains are limited.This is legallicenseSome are regulated by the railway operator and some are regulated by the internal regulations of the railway operator.In general, railway operators limit the operations that can be carried out by each crew member by combining routes and vehicle types.In many cases, certain training is required to operate on new routes and vehicle types.

Continuous condition of time and place

Trains assigned by the same crew (including piggyback rides) are not feasible operations unless the times and locations of the stations before and after them are continuous.However, when the depot and the station are close to each other, the operation of moving between them on foot may be considered, which is different from the vehicle in which the continuous condition is absolute.Furthermore, although it is not usually considered, as an emergency response when the timetable is disturbed, nearby railway lines andbus,Taxi,Private carCrew members may be sent using (including commercial vehicles of railway companies).

Transit conditions

When taking over the crew at a turnaround station or a station on the way, it takes a certain amount of time to take over.Since this also affects the train schedule, there are often limited places to take over at stations along the way.

Working conditions

Since the crew is human, the laws and regulations and the business operatorLabor regulations-UnionConcluded withCollective agreementEtc.Working conditionsMust be observed.Regarding this, it is necessary to consider commuting time, leaving time, actual working hours, restraint time, break time, etc.Vacations will be considered in police boxes.In addition, for safety reasons, there are restrictions such as limiting continuous flight time and continuous flight distance to allow a certain break time, and securing a certain amount of rest time at home.

Overnight route and day shift route

A crew member of the operator to board a late-night train or an early-morning trainCrew lodgingWe may set a route to stay inOvernight routeCalled.On the other hand, a route where attendance and departure fit on the same dayDay shiftCalled.On the overnight route, the harbor is limited to the location of the accommodation facility.In addition, the place of attendance and departure must be the ward office of the crew member on both the overnight route and the day shift route.

Because the driver does not have a long continuous flight due to safety restrictions,Long-distance trainMany drivers take turns driving.For this reason, the driver's overnight route is limited to one night and two days.On the other hand, the conductor is a long-distancenight TrainThere are times when you will be on board from the first station to the last station, and a route that lasts for two nights or more may be set up so that you can return to a long-distance train after staying at a remote location.

In the crew operation, the routes before and after the berth are planned together with respect to the overnight route, so that there is no direct restriction on the connection conditions of the route in the vehicle operation.

Evaluation of crew operation plan

What kind of crew operation plan is good is evaluated from the following viewpoints.

Required number of crew

The number of crew members required to carry out the train schedule should be small.This is because the required number of crew members is directly linked to the cost.The number of crew members means the number of routes.As with vehicle operation, if the turnaround time and break time are set to the limit, delays are likely to spread, so a certain amount of leeway is required.

Number of piggyback rides

Although piggybacking is included in working hours, it is not actually working, so there are many cases where consideration is given to reducing the number of settings.

Number of transfers

Operations with many connections not only require a lot of time to take over, but also tend to cause problems such as the vehicle arriving when the timetable is disturbed but the crew members connecting are not arriving.For this reason, some businesses operate vehicles and crew members together for a long time.That the vehicle and crew will be operated togetherCo-rotation(Or emphasizing that A operation and B operation are commonAB co-rotation).

Variation in working hours

Basically, working hours, break times, sleeping hours on overnight routes, etc. do not vary between routes.This is related to fairness among the crew, but some variability is adjusted through the police box.In addition, detailed consideration will be given to avoid having crew members arriving on the overnight train by late-night train on the early train the next morning.

Creating a route plan

When creating routes, we will create train combinations from the places where the restrictions are most stringent, such as overnight routes and turnaround stations.If the restrictions cannot be met, consider setting a deadhead train or whether the overnight route can be replaced with a day shift route.If you cannot create a route plan that meets the restrictions, you will have to change the train schedule.

Then, the fragments of the route created in this way are joined together to assemble the route for the day.A route that meets the conditions will be planned by trial and error while considering various conditions such as the inspection cycle and working hours.

If there are multiple depots or crew ward offices on a long railway line, or if there are passengers on other lines, between the related depots and crew ward offices. The first thing to consider is where to assign which train operation.The ward office in charge may be limited depending on the assignable conditions, but if multiple ward offices can handle it, it may be possible to satisfy the constraint condition by changing the responsibility of operation between ward offices. It will be a complicated plan.

For routes where weekday schedules and holiday schedules are set separately, route plans are also set for weekday routes and holiday routes respectively.

Extra trainIs considered at the planning stage for the operation ofScheduled temporary trainIf is, it may be included in the route plan in advance.On the other hand, in the case of a special train with a short operation date or a sudden special train, the predetermined route may be changed drastically or a new route dedicated to the special train may be set.

The department in charge of creating the operation plan plays a central role in creating the route plan, but in order to reflect the actual situation at the site, adjustments and corrections with each ward are repeated to make the final route plan.

Creating a police box plan

When the route plan is completed, a police box plan is created (allocation plan / allocation plan).At this time, in the ward office that is in charge of many routes, the routes are divided into groups to some extent and police boxes are created for each.About this unityDating programOr simplysetThat.

Arrange the routes included in each programPolice box sequence tableTo create.Figure 3 shows an example of a simple police box sequence table.Figure 3 is for an exchange program that is in charge of three round trips for the train between station A and B and one round trip for the train between station B and station C. This is an example that includes three routes, but in an actual exchange program, it usually includes more routes.The police box sequence table is from that shapeHorizontal barCommonly known as.Each item on the horizontal bar is a horizontal extension of the line indicating the operation of the box timetable, and although it is omitted in Fig. 3, there is a description such as the train number and time.Both the end of Route 1 and the beginning of Route 2 are at Station B, which indicates that Route 1 ends with a berth at Station B and Route 2 begins the next day at Station B.The organizers and crew members who will be in charge of this exchange program will be operated in the order of route 1 to route 3.However, as mentioned above, for crew members, the routes that are staying at night are treated as overnight routes from the beginning.

The police box schedule also takes into account inspections and vacation schedules.Inspections in vehicle operation include those that allocate a certain amount of time to inspections in the route and those that include days when the route is not set in the police box order.In crew operation, it is necessary to give vacations to crew members at regular intervals, and this is dealt with by setting vacations in the police box order.

In addition, when operating according to the police box sequence table, it is necessary to plan so that the above-mentioned restrictions on vehicle operation and crew operation, especially inspection cycle and working conditions, can be observed.In addition, regarding vehicle operation, there is no restriction that you have to return to your ward every day (in the case of a daily work route) like crew operation, but if a failure occurs during operation and repair is required, your vehicle Due to problems such as forwarding to the base and arranging a substitute vehicle, it is desirable to return to the base of the vehicle to which it belongs every short period of time.

Planning a police box is even more complicated when there are weekday and holiday schedules.In crew operation, plan day shift routes on weekdays and holidays, and create four patterns of overnight routes: flat-parallel road, flat-closed route, closed-parallel road, closed-closed route. Is the basis.On the other hand, in vehicle operation, since the route is divided every day, the constraint conditions must be satisfied for all possible combinations such as whether or not the route can be connected from the weekday route 4 to the holiday route 1. It will be necessary to make a police box plan that confirms.

Basically, the operation is performed according to the police box sequence table, but it is based on the police box sequence table at any time, such as when you want to specially repair the vehicle, perform a long-term inspection such as a general inspection, or set a vacation due to the convenience of the crew. Instead, we will allocate alternative formations and crew.

The police box plan is mainly prepared at each depot and the ward office to which the crew belongs.

Operation change

If the timetable is disturbed, change the operation as needed to deal with it.When the arrival train is delayed and the delay is likely to spread to the departure train that is scheduled to be operated by the train or crew that was devoted to the operation of that train, it is possible to prepare and operate a substitute train or crew. This is a typical countermeasure.Regarding operational changesOperation arrangementSee.

In general, crew operation can flexibly send the crew required for piggybacking, and there are no restrictions on the number of lines, so the restrictions at the time of reorganization are not so strict.On the other hand, in vehicle operation, the movement of trains always requires the support of train schedules and crew members, which is a strong constraint.

Transitional operation

When the timetable is revised, it is necessary after considering whether it is possible to connect the route before the timetable revision and the route after the timetable revision if all trains are operating on routes that do not span days. Depending on the situation, change the police box and make some corrections to the route.

On the other hand, if there is a night train operation and you have to move to a new timetable while the train is in operation, a more complicated response will be required.On such routes, the train schedule itself may shift to a special one called a "transition schedule" from around the evening of the day before the revision, and the train will operate on a schedule that does not apply before or after the revision.The operation plan also corresponds to thisTransitional operationMust be planned and implemented.However, even on routes where night trains are not operated, the schedule may change due to vehicle operation the next day.

When it comes to a large-scale timetable revision, vehicles may be transferred, and a large number of deadhead trains will be set for the transfer.It is necessary to deal with this transfer transfer in the operation plan.

However, in Japan after the introduction of JR, the blank slate revision of the JR Group was implemented on March 1988, 3.IslandsIt was implemented only once at that time, and there were not many large-scale timetable revisions other than the blank paper revision, and in combination with the reduction of night trains, this problem was a change in operation mode such as system separation. It is smaller except for the cases accompanied by.

Systematization of operation plan

Currently to the operational planComputerThe introduction of the system is progressing.This is a computer that automatically supports constraint condition checks, which are difficult tasks that are prone to mistakes by human manual work, and many of the plans themselves are thought out and input by humans.There is also a function that automatically prints forms in the form of box timetables and horizontal bars.

Furthermore, efforts are being made to automate the planning work itself in earnest.Regarding the vehicle operation plan, the route plan and police box plan are combined together.Traveling salesman problemA route plan for the crew operation plan, which is modeled and solved in the form ofSet cover problemIn the form ofConstraint programmingIt is known to model and solve in the form of (see References).The difference in modeling between the vehicle and the crew is due to the restriction that the crew's route must return to their ward each time.


In the operation plan, "connecting train A to train B" to make train A and train B the same operation (route), or "turning train A to train B" focusing on the return operation, etc. It is called.In addition, the operation plan itself is sometimes called "turning". "I can't turn it well" means "I can't make an operation plan well".

Basically, an operation plan is created so that vehicles for toll collection trains are used only for that train, but for the purpose of improving the efficiency of the operation plan, etc.local trainIt may be applied to.Such an example can be seen in the interim operation.On the contrary, it is not possible to allocate a vehicle that is not originally for a toll collection train to a toll collection train.passengerServicesIt should be avoided due to the above problem, but it may be set for various reasons.Railway fanからInferior train(Inferior limited express, inferior express)Commonly knownBe done[2].


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b "Invitation to the railway system" p.38
  2. ^ Mitsuteru Teramoto, "The Complete Express of Inferiority", "Railway Pictorial" No. 768, Denkisha Kenkyukai, November 2005, pp. 11-10.


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