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🚗 | Kyocera to release 9 new technologies such as ultra-high-speed wireless communication "Li-Fi" ... CEATEC 2021


Kyocera exhibiting at "CEATEC 2021 ONLINE" held online

Kyocera to release 9 new technologies such as ultra-high-speed wireless communication "Li-Fi" ... CEATEC 2021

 
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As a result, a power supply network that uses renewable energy such as solar power generation and wind power generation as its main power source will be realized.
 

Kyocera will exhibit at "CEATEC 2021 ONLINE" to be held from October 10, 19.hold… → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Electricity distribution

Electricity distribution(Denryokuryutsuu) is appropriate for consumerselectricityTo supplyシステムIs to build and operate.

Electricity demand changes depending on social conditions, andPower gridSince a large amount of investment is required for a long period of time, it is necessary to deal with it from a long-term perspective.

Long-term forecast of electricity demand

When making long-term forecasts of electricity demand, it is necessary to estimate many factors such as economic trends and changes in the lifestyle of ordinary households.Also,EnergySupply and demandEnvironment issuesNeeds to be considered on a global scale.

Electric power equipment maintenance plan

ReserveIf the power system necessary to meet the expected power demand is not constructed after securing the power system, industrial activities and citizens' lives will be seriously hindered.Also,Power plant・ Transmission system ・substationA large amount of investment is required for the maintenance of the facility, and it often takes a long period of time due to local opposition movements.

Therefore, the power facility maintenance plan includes a license system andSubsidyThe government is also involved in this.

Related item

Wind-power generation

Wind-power generationWhat is (Furryoku Hatsuden)?WindWith the power ofTurbineTurnElectricalIt is a power generation method that converts to.

History

The United KingdomThen in 1887GlasgowJ. Bryce is said to have started generating 3kW of electricity with a vertical windmill, and in 1888 in the United States.Cleveland OfCF brushIs said to have used 17kW of wind power for 144 years until 12 with a huge multi-blade wind turbine consisting of 1908 blades with a diameter of 20m, and in 1891 in Askov, Denmark.Poul la CourEstablished the Wind Power Research Institute by Wind PowerElectrolysisAn experiment of power generation was carried out with hydrogen and oxygen.[1].. In Japan in 1949Motohiro Yamada SapporoYamada Wind Power Construction Co., Ltd. was established in Japan and started full-scale production of wind turbines.Oil shockWind power generation, etc.Alternative energyIncreased interest in 1973Ashikaga Institute of Technology,Mie UniversityStarted research on wind power generation in 1975Tsuruoka National College of Technology,Yamagata UniversityResearch on wind turbines began in Japan, and after that, several educational institutions and companies entered the market, but in the 1980s, the stable supply of oil and falling prices slowed down research and development, and in the 1990s.Global warmingAs part of the measures against wind power, interest in wind power generation has increased again. Unlike the 1970sComposite material,Power electronics,Computational fluid dynamicsbysimulationThe development of technology will be a tailwind and it will spread all over the world.[2][3].

特性

Wind power has many different characteristics from traditional centralized power sources.

Strong Points

Mainly, it has a small environmental load, reduction of fossil fuel consumption, energy security, industrial promotion and job creation.[4][5]

  • carbon dioxideIt has the effect of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (#Greenhouse gas emissionsreference)
  • The power generation cost is relatively low, and commercialization is relatively easy. (#Cost-effectivenessreference)
  • The energy self-sufficiency rate is expected to improve. (#Energy balancereference)
  • Since it is a small-scale distributed power source, the impact in the event of an accident or disaster can be minimized and the overall operating rate can be increased. (#Construction and maintenancereference)
  • The construction period is short and it is easy to respond to fluctuations in total demand. In addition, the interest from investment to the start of operation is low. (#Construction and maintenancereference)
  • Since it does not require fuel for operation, it can reduce business risks caused by price fluctuations (inflation, etc.). (#Cost-effectivenessreference)
  • Reduces the time required for repairs and maintenance compared to large-scale centralized power plants[5]. (#Construction and maintenancereference)
  • Can be used as an independent power source for areas with high fuel and transmission costs, such as remote islands[4][5].
  • Does not require cooling water[5].
  • Smaller ones can be installed adjacent to the demand area and may help reduce transmission costs.[5].
  • Individual equipment is relatively small and can be operated by individuals[5].
  • If the wind blows, it can generate electricity at any time, including at night.

Disadvantage

There are mainly problems of instability and uncertainty of output power and adverse effects on the surrounding environment, and it is especially important to select the installation location.

Wind turbine

Used for power generationwindmillAre called wind turbines, wind power generators, wind power generators, etc. The horizontal axis propeller type is most often used. (windmillIn addition, depending on the application, a vertical axis Darrieus type, a gyromill type, a Savonius type, or a combination type thereof may be used. Straight blade vertical axis type[7], Screw magnus windmill (Magnus effectSee also). Other than the windmill,vibrationWind on the board,Piezoelectric elementThe method of obtaining electric power is being researched.[8](Bladeless)

A general horizontal axis propeller type consists of three major components.

  • Rotor part
    Consists of a blade, rotor shaft, hub, etc. It accounts for about 20% of the cost of wind turbines. Converts kinetic energy of wind into low-speed rotational energy.
  • Generator section
    It accounts for about 34% of the cost of wind turbines. Generator shaft, generator[9][10], Control devices, gearboxes (planetary gears, etc.),[11] Etc., and is housed in a case called a nacelle. The gearbox has a role of adjusting the rotation speed suitable for power generation.
  • Support/Structure
    It accounts for about 15% of the cost of wind turbines. Foundation, tower, yaw control system, etc.[12] Composed of.

Rotor diameter and efficiency

Wind turbines will be more efficient and profitable as the diameter of the rotor increases. The main reason is that there is friction from the ground and obstacles near the ground, and the wind can be captured more efficiently at high altitudes. For this reason, wind power generators for power generation business tend to be larger. In 2005, the world was centered on the 2.5 MW class. A model of 2008 MW also appeared in 5[13].. However, from the viewpoint of maintenance, as the rotor diameter increases, the tower becomes taller and the blades become longer, so that inspection and repair are likely to be difficult.

The amount of power generation is proportional to the square of the radius of the rotor and the cube of the wind speed. Efficiency is up to 2% (Betz's law[14].. 1919, GermanAlbert BettsIt was derived by.

The Japanese manufacturers were mainly in the 1MW class, but in recent years, the 2-2.4MW class has been commercialized.[15].. There is also a movement to develop a small-scale wind power engine product for the purpose of spreading to households.[16].

life

The life of the prime mover of large machines is usually about 20 years.[17][18] (It may be 30 years depending on the model and conditions). Design life is mainly determined by the balance between durability and cost. The base part is designed to have a life of about 50 years and can be used for two generations. It should be noted that in JapanDepreciation17-year useful life as an asset[19] Therefore, it may be calculated by using this instead of the life, but the power generation cost is estimated to be about 5% higher by that amount.

As for the prime mover that has reached the end of its life, compared to the centralized power plant, the number of wind turbines that can be stopped at once at the time of renewal is small and the construction period is short, so it is said that it has little impact on the operating status of the entire power plant.

Generator manufacturer

Of the wind power generator manufacturer marketshareAs of 2018デンマーク OfVestasCompany ranked first with 22%,GoldwindIs second with 15%,米 国 OfGECompany ranks third with 11%[20].

In Japanese manufacturers, in the 2000s,Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,Japan Steel Works,Fuji Heavy Industries, Etc. were produced, but domestic order volume was sluggish and they withdrew one after another. Fuji Heavy Industries' wind power generation businessHitachi, Ltd.Was acquired and leveraged, but HitachiEnerconSince it is affiliated with, the need to continue producing independently is reduced. It was reported that the policy of ending generator production in 2019[21].

In 2020JE WindHas obtained international type certification for onshore 2MW wind turbines and offshore 5MW wind turbines, making it the only Japanese company to manufacture MW class wind turbines.

Construction and maintenance

The period (construction period) required to install the wind power generator depends on the scale and environment, but is generally shorter than other power generation methods. It is usually 1-3 months with 4 unit[22].. About 20 units will take 10 to 11 months, 50 to 100 unitsCollective wind power plantBut there is an example of about 1-2 years. In an example of constructing a total of 6 MW, 15 2 MW units 80 to 160 km offshore of Denmark, a total of 1 MW, construction work on site took about half a year, including production from about a year and a half[23].. This is another large centralized power plant (Nuclear power plant,Geothermal power plantIt is much shorter than This makes it easy to respond to changes in the demand structure and update equipment, andinterestAlso has the effect of keeping it low. For example, the following benefits can be obtained.

  • With centralized power plants, the construction period is long, so it is necessary to build a large amount of equipment in anticipation of future increase in demand, and since the capacity per unit is large, waste due to miscalculations increases. Cheap. However, when using a small-scale distributed power source such as wind power, it is possible to expand or relocate in small units in a relatively short period of time.[5].
  • The period required for regular maintenance and repairs is short (in many cases, it is possible to shift the time for each individual facility), so the availability of the entire system can be increased accordingly.[5].
  • In a large-scale collective wind power plant, there are cases where the construction time is divided into multiple construction sections and the construction and operation of the construction sections are started sequentially, and the timing of future equipment renewal is intentionally shifted. This allows most of the collective wind farms to continue operating even when the equipment is renewed, and financial risks due to changes in demand can be suppressed. Wind turbines are still under active technological development, and models with improved performance are appearing every year. Therefore, by constructing the wind power generator in stages, there is an advantage that a higher performance model can be introduced in the construction zone where construction and operation will be started later.[24].

However, some preparation period is required for wind condition surveys prior to construction. In addition, due to the rapid increase in demand in recent years, there are cases in which the delivery time exceeds one year.[25].

As for maintenance, it is generally said that wind power generators are relatively easy to repair and inspect compared to large-scale centralized power plants (nuclear power plants, large thermal power plants, etc.), and the required time can be shortened.[5].. However, in Japan, as many as 2008% of wind power generators are imported as of 8, so repair parts are often ordered from overseas. Therefore, it may take several months for the parts to arrive.[26].

Wind farm format

Collective wind power plant

Collective wind farmsWind turbineInstalled in one placePower generationFacility to do. Also called a wind farm. On a large scale, hundreds of square miles are lined with hundreds of wind turbines, but the land between the turbines can be used for other purposes such as agriculture. It may be installed offshore.

Retractable wind power generation facility

The foldable wind power generation facility is a power generation facility that uses a windmill that can tilt the columns.There are advantages such as being able to prevent damage from typhoons by knocking down when strong winds are expected, performing maintenance on the ground, and not requiring large heavy machinery for installation.[27][28]..A normal wind power generation facility has a structure that can withstand strong winds of the typhoon class, but a foldable facility that has the property of avoiding such strong winds requires a cost for deformation, but it is for a strong structure. Cost can be reduced.In addition, even ordinary equipment cannot prevent damage caused by typhoons, and for typhoon-prone areas, making it foldable creates a cost advantage to prevent damage and destruction.

Offshore wind farm

Installing a wind power generator on the sea is called offshore wind power generation (offshore wind power generation, offshore wind power generation, marine wind power generation). There is little influence of topography and buildings, and more stable wind power generation is possible. In addition, the problems of securing the location, landscape and noise can be alleviated. As of the end of 2010, more than 3GW has been installed mainly in Europe[29].

There are examples of building large-scale wind farms in each country by building a foundation on the sea floor in shallow waters.[30][31].. Originally, construction has been promoted mainly in Denmark, but in recent years it has shown momentum to spread throughout Europe, especially in the United Kingdom. The British government's goal is a grand target of 2020 GW offshore wind installed capacity (Round 33 combined) by 1,2,3. In Germany as well, starting with the national project Alpha Ventus 60MW in the North Sea, the introduction is expected to accelerate after 2009. In Japan, there are examples of construction in ports[32]In March 2010, the first installation example outside the port started operating in Ibaraki prefecture[33].. In addition, a method of using a floating foundation is also being researched for deep water locations. The world's first full-scale floating offshore wind power plant, Hywind, was constructed in Norway in 2009[34].. With regard to offshore wind power generation (offshore wind power generation), it is difficult to transmit power to land, so the generated electricityhydrogenManufacture it, compress it,Organic hydrideIt has been studied to transport it by adsorbing it on the surface, and it is expected that this will solve the problem of power fluctuations.[Source required].

Offshore hydrogen production concept

Kyushu UniversityCentered around researchersSeaBuilds a huge wind farm inEnergyA study group of the concept of using it as[35].. According to the concept, at seaHachinosuHexagonal shapeconcreteOn a structure (300 meters on a side), 2 meters in diameter that can obtain wind power more than twice that of conventional windWind turbineInstalled. Use seawater without electricityElectrolysisdo ithydrogenAnd transport the hydrogen to the land by ship to generate hydrogen.Fuel cellTo use for. Combining the latest technologies such as high-strength new materials, efficient wind turbines, hydrogen storage,Nuclear power plantWe are aiming to generate 1 million kilowatts worth of power equivalent to one unit at low cost. The useful life of the new material will be 100 years or more, and the power generation cost will be less than half that of nuclear power plants. It is said that the problem of fishery compensation can be solved by using the inside of the hexagonal floating body as a farm. It will be possible to establish technology within 100 to 6 years if the funds are available.

Aerial wind power generation concept

In the United States and Europe, as the next-generation wind power generation, a wind turbine is installed with a balloon or the like in the sky above which strong and stable wind can be obtained.Aerial wind generator(AWT,English: Airborne wind turbine) Etc. are considered[36] [37][38][39][40][41].

Wind power situation

Wind power generation is used in various countries around the world, and it is 2010% of the world's electricity demand in 2.3, but there is also a study that it will reach 2020-4.5% in 11.5.[44].

At the end of 2013, the cumulative installed amount of wind power has reached 318.1 GW, and although the rate of increase has slowed, it has increased by 12% compared to the previous year.[45].. Wind power growth is expected to grow by 2013% to 2018% from 12 to 15[45].. China's growth is remarkable, with a new installation volume of 16.1GW. Also, the increase in the UK is characteristic due to the introduction of offshore wind power.[45].

World cumulative installed capacity(End of 2017)[46][47]
RankingCountryCapacity (GW)
1Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku188.3
2United States flag The United States of America89.0
3German flag Germany56.1
4Indian flag India32.8
5Spanish flag スペイン23.1
6British flag The United Kingdom18.8
7French flag France18.7
8Brazilian flag Brazil12.7
9Canadian flag カナダ12.2
10Italian flag イタリア9.4
-More48.3
Whole world539.1
World installed capacity(2013)[47]
RankingCountryCapacity (GW)
1Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku16.1
2German flag Germany3.24
3British flag The United Kingdom1.88
4Indian flag India1.73
5Canadian flag カナダ1.60
6United States flag The United States of America1.08
7Brazilian flag Brazil0.95
8Polish flag ポーランド0.89
9 スウェーデン0.72
10 ルーマニア0.70
-More4.75
Whole world35.29

Europe

In 2006, the installed amount in Europe increased by about 2005% from 19 to reach 48027MW. Annual power generation of the entire facility is expected to reach about 100 TWh. This is equivalent to 2005% of the total EU electricity consumption in 3. Wind alone is expected to cover 2020% of the EU's total electricity demand by 13[48].. By policy, most countriesFixed price purchase system(FIT) system is being promoted around the system (Renewable energy #Dissemination policyreference). Most advancedデンマークSaid that 2% of the country's total electricity is already covered by wind power, and it is still spreading, and it is expected to increase to more than 2025% by 5.[49].スペインWill supply 2010% of the electricity demand in 16.6 with wind power andcarbon dioxideReduced 26% of emissions[50].. Electricity costs were suppressed by the increase in the share of non-fossil energy, and it became cheaper than neighboring France, and exported 2010 TWh in 8.3.[51].. In March 2011, 3% of the monthly power generated by wind power generation became the largest power supply source, surpassing nuclear power and gas combined power.[51].

米 国

The United States has always beenCalifornia,TexasWas building a large wind farm inMinistry of EnergySince (DOE) set a goal to cover about 2030 GW, which is equivalent to 20% of electricity demand by wind power generation, by 290, the installed capacity has increased. However, in 2010, the market contracted due to the financial crisis, etc.[44].

California is the largest wind farm in the world as of January 2014Alta Wind Energy CenterExists. As a leading wind generator manufacturerGE EnergyExists.

Japan

In Japan, it has not spread as much as in Western countries. As a reasontyphoonThe cost of installing a wind turbine that can endure is higher than that of the US and Europe, and it is difficult to secure a flat land for installing a large number of wind turbines.Solar powerThere is a history that emphasizes.

Japanese electric power companies are reluctant to wind power generation business, but projects such as “Municipal windmills” by local governments and “Citizen windmills” by citizen groups are progressing.[52]

In Japan, full-scale introduction of wind power generation began around 2004, and since then, it has gradually spread, and as of 2014, there were approximately 2000 wind turbines nationwide, with a total power generation capacity of approximately 250 million kilowatts. .. However, with the spread, accidents that could lead to disasters, such as the entire windmill part falling, are occurring, and measures are being considered.[53].. The famous wind farm in Japan isTomamae TownWakkanaiEtc.

Chugoku

Cost and efficiency

Cost-effectiveness

Wind power is next to hydropower再生 可能 エネルギーAmong them, the profitability is high, and for large-scale ones, the cost has been reduced to the cost of competing with thermal power such as natural gas and nuclear power.

It also started in GermanyFixed price purchase systemIs a general method for supporting renewable energy including wind power[54].

Large-scale implementationデンマークHas reduced wind power costs by more than 20% over the last two decades to levels competitive with utility power[55].. Considering global warming costs, wind power in Europe is estimated to be an order of magnitude less expensive than coal-fired power generation.[56].. It is also reported that the price of equipment has increased due to the soaring prices of materials in recent years.[57].

Once installed, once the wind power generation is installed, the effects of fossil fuel price fluctuations are limited to maintenance costs, etc.[5].

When reducing thermal power generation and replacing it with wind power generation, it is necessary to take measures against output fluctuations, expand the transmission network, and secure the capacity for standby power generation.[57][58].. Generally, up to a certain rate of introduction, the additional cost is said to be within a practical range (eg:[57][59][60]). In Europe, expansion of the system is being considered in response to the increase in wind power generation in the region[61].

Effect of introduction scale

Wind power generation is a small-scale distributed power source, and overall reliability and stability increase as the scale and scope of installation increase, and power generation costs also decrease.

  • If the wind power generation equipment is of the popular class, the availability rate[Annotation 2] The value itself can be extremely high, and many cases with an availability rate of 95% or more have been reported. This is because the time required for maintenance and the like is generally short. Even if the availability of individual wind turbines is low, the overall availability will approach 100% due to the increased number of installations and the combined use of other distributed power sources. On the other hand, in the case of general large-scale centralized power plants, it is reported that in the United States around 1990, 73% of nuclear power, 85% of fossil-fuel thermal power plants average, and 91% of hydropower.[5] P242).
  • Except for insufficient wind speed, the factors that make the wind power generation facility inoperable are:Lightning, Failure, periodic maintenance, system failure, etc. One case in the UK was reported to account for 48%, 37%, 13% and 2% of the respective cases ([5] P241). Because wind power fluctuates, the availability of individual wind turbines is typically below 40%.
  • The wind turbines dispersedly installed in different places have lower correlation in output fluctuation as the distance increases. Especially fast (highfrequencyThis tendency becomes more noticeable with fluctuations and the total output is smoothed to some extent.[62].. Therefore, the distributed arrangement is effective for leveling the output. However, the fluctuation does not disappear completely.
  • Larger scale and distributed deployment will result in slower overall changes but easier support by the grid, although large fluctuations will remain. In a survey of 6 areas along the coast of the Netherlands, there is a large fluctuation in output at intervals of several hours, but the probability of a 100 million kW fluctuation isThermal power generationReported to be as frequent as forced outages[5].
  • With a small installation amount, the cost of countermeasures against output fluctuations is calculated to be higher than necessary.[63].
  • The estimation of the allowable introduction amount when connecting the grids will be greatly different due to a small difference in the preconditions of the simulation. For this reason, there are some cases in which the allowable amount of fluctuation is underestimated.[64].

Energy balance

Time to “saving energy by energy generated by wind power” from “energy input during the life cycle from production to installation/operation to disposal”Energy payback time(EPT), and the ratio to lifeEnergy balance ratio(EPR). It depends on the performance of the prime mover and the wind conditions of the installation site, but usually EPT is about several months.[65][66][67] It is said that The energy balance ratio is also estimated to be 38 to 54.[67].. In addition to technological improvements such as upsizing, improvements are expected in the future through recycling and reuse of the foundation.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas (GEG) emissions per unit of wind power generation are small, and there are calculation examples in Japan such as 25-34g-CO2/kWh.[67](G-CO2/kWh is the value converted from the amount of electricity generated by converting greenhouse gas (GEG) emitted during the life cycle into carbon dioxide (CO2)). This value depends on the wind conditions at each installation location and the performance of the wind turbine. In recent years, large, high-performance wind turbines may be less than 10g-CO2/kWh.[68].. It is said that one 750kW machine is equivalent to 1 acres (about 500 square km) of forest.[69].

The average GEG emission of electricity in Japan is calculated to be about 346g-CO2/kWh (transmission/reception end, 2001). For example, if the life is 20 years and the GEG emission is 25g-CO2/kWh, the CO2 payback time (CO2PT usage period until CO2 is "gained", CO20PT) is 25 x (346/1.45) = 10 years. With 2g-CO7/kWh, it takes about XNUMX months.

Task

Among various issues, technological issues (such as output fluctuation and measures against strong winds) are the focus of development competition aimed at improving performance and safety. Many of the problems that have been regarded as problems in the past can be dealt with technically.

Impact on human health and living environment

Noise and low frequency measures are one of the challenges of wind power generation.[70].

There have been cases where neighboring residents complain of discomfort such as dizziness, palpitations, or tinnitus when installed close to a house. Such as wind noise from blades and turbinesnoise,Low-frequencyvibration[Annotation 3] It came to be pointed out that the cause was. Construction opposition movements have taken place in various parts of Japan, and in Germany a ruling was ordered to remove already built power plants.

Noise and low frequencies have become known in the media, and there have been cases in which residents in the planned site oppose the installation plan.Therefore, measures against noise and low frequencies have been studied and considered, It came to be hit concretely[71].

One of the technical improvements is the bladeWingsIt is the improvement of the cross section. In old windmillsaircraftBecause the airfoil cross section was used, the airfoil tip peripheral speed reached 100 to 120 m / s, which was a factor in increasing noise. This blade tip peripheral speed is significantly reduced by using a blade cross section (thick blade) dedicated to wind turbines, and is currently about 60 m / s even for large aircraft. In addition, the noise is 200m- due to measures such as gearless by adopting a multi-pole generator (eliminating gear noise) and shifting from downwind type to upwind type (eliminating noise crossing turbulent airflow downstream of the tower). If it is about 300m away, it will be reduced to a level that is indistinguishable from the surrounding wind noise (or "fridge noise").[72].

In addition, there have been considerable concerns about radio interference since the start of wind power generators, but in reality there have been no such complaints. Shielding obstacles and reflection obstacles are considered to be factors that cause radio interference, and there is a possibility that the rotor blade part, the stationary tower, and the nacelle part at the tip thereof affect each of them. Since all rotor blades as of the 21st century are made of fiber reinforced plastic and are not considered to have a significant effect on radio waves, they should not be installed between the TV transmission tower and the house and the reflection of the nacelle housing should be reduced. It can be solved by confirming the influence of nacelle and tower in advance. In addition, prevention and shielding of radio noise from generators and accompanying power equipment in the nacelle must be considered.[73].. In addition to noise, shadows that cross intermittently due to rotating wings called shadow flicker or stroboscopic effect are regarded as problems, and this is thought to affect the ecosystem. The only countermeasure so far is to stop the windmill when the sun is in a low position. It is desirable to install the wind power generator as far away from the private house as possible, and it is said that attention should be paid to it from the planning stage.[70].. In England, it is stipulated to keep a distance of 5km from a private house.

Impact on ecosystem

Bird Red ListCorresponds toGolden eagle,Bear hawk,Goshawk,フ ク ロ ウ,BuzzardRare such asBird of preyYoung bird collides with a wind power blade (rotary blade) (Bird strike) And die. Most collision deaths occur when a bird tries to pass through the range of rotation of a windmill and is cut off without avoiding the rotor blades. One theory is that the high-speed feathers cannot be seen due to the phenomenon, and the scenery on the other side can be seen through, so the birds do not notice. Experimental results have shown that the eyes of birds are more prone to motion smear than humans. Bird strikes are known to occur in large numbers in areas of the route through which hordes of birds pass, although birds are also affected by habitat loss, reproductive disruption, and forage loss. There is also a report that if the installation location and form are properly selected, the risk is less than that of a normal transmission line (Krone et al.).[72].. The average annual number of bird strikes in the United States is 1 per large wind turbine (2.19) and 2001 in Germany (all have been adjusted for the number of dead bodies removed by foxes). The total number of bird strikes in the United States is about 0.5 billion a year, but the one by windmills is 10%, which is extremely low compared to windowpanes. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds has also stated that "properly installed wind farms do not pose a significant threat to birds."[74].. A Spanish impact study reports a mortality rate of 0.1-0.2% for birds flying at windmill sites. On the other hand, according to a survey conducted in Mie Prefecture from 2007, the territory density and species density during the breeding season were used.1/4There is a report that it has decreased in[75].

Technically, the following measures are considered.

  • Investigate the habitat of birds in the installation area in advance, and select an installation location and type that will have less impact.
  • Radar detects the approach of migratory birds and stops the rotor blades in advance.
  • Place tapes and scarecrows around the windmill to eliminate the foraging of birds of prey.[73].
  • Design so that the rotation speed of the blade is slow even with the same amount of power generation (determined by the blade cross section and the generator.#noisereference)
  • A columnar design with no cross girders or protrusions will be used to prevent birds from staying on the tower.
  • Paint in white, which is easy to see. However, it may contradict the consideration for the landscape of painting in an inconspicuous color.
  • Painting one of the windmill wings black can reduce bird collisions (70% or more in experiments).[76]
  • A flash light alerts you. However, consideration must be given to landscape issues.
  • Diffuser windmill with brimWind lensAttach something that is easy to see, such as a windmill.
  • Cover the windmill with a net.

otherMigratory birdThere are also concerns about the adverse effects on the flight route of[77][78], Installation on important migration routes should be avoided.

Sediment flowing out due to land modification (deforestation, etc.) caused by the construction of a land wind turbine may pollute the downstream area. In particular, rare animals such as salamanders are sensitive to pollution of their headwaters, so there are concerns about adverse effects. Even in the case of offshore wind turbines, it is difficult to completely eliminate the impact on the surrounding environment, such as the turbidity of seawater that accompanies construction.

Landscape

Natural when installing a wind power generatorLandscapeThe impact on can be a problem. For example scenic(I.e.In such cases, it was opposed because the landscape would change due to the installation of wind power generators. On the other hand, there is also a movement to use the magnificent sight of large windmills as a new tourism resource.

In both the survey of local residents immediately after the construction of wind farms in the United States and the United Kingdom and one year later, the second survey showed less opposition to landscape and noise.[73].

Output fluctuation

Since the output of wind power fluctuates involuntarily day and night, keeping up with demand is basically another power source with abundant adjustment power (Thermal power generation, Water storage typeHydropowerEtc.). Also, on the wind power plant side, there are cases where output smoothing and load tracking are performed to some extent, and in recent years, power generation amount prediction technology has also been used. Generally, up to about 10% of the amount of power generated is not a big problem, but if it exceeds 20%, it is said that the additional cost will increase noticeably.[79].. An example of adjusting some of the fluctuations by importing and exporting using transactions between Spain and neighboring countries[80][81] Can be seen.

Short-term fluctuation

In wind power generation, the output fluctuates independently of demand according to fluctuations in wind speed, resulting in fluctuations in voltage and power factor. This fluctuation is generallySolar powerIt is also large compared to. Especially when the introduction amount is small, the fluctuation including high frequency components increases. However, when introduced on a large scale, fluctuations are greatly mitigated and the burden on the grid side is reduced (#Effect of introduction scalereference). In fact, in Denmark, northern Germany, Spain, etc., it has been demonstrated that wind power can cover 20-40% of electricity supply without sacrificing reliability.[82][83][84].. In addition, when adding wind power generation to the existing system, it is said that it is not necessary to add a new backup power supply.[72].. However, if the ratio of wind power generation to the system capacity is large, it is said that it may be possible to reduce the power generation cost of the entire system by adding a certain amount of power storage equipment, and studies and experiments are underway.[85].. Although these measures are costly, they are within a practical range up to a certain rate of introduction (#Cost-effectivenessreference).

The following measures are effective for smoothing the output for each wind turbine or WF.

  • Utilizes the inertial force of the large blade itself. The output of the generator is smoothed by dynamically increasing the number of revolutions when the wind is strong to store kinetic energy and using it when the wind is weak.
  • Some wind turbines are reserved as adjustment power, and the output of the entire WF is smoothed by performing appropriate arrangements.
  • Electricity is temporarily stored in a storage battery.
  • Adds power factor adjustment capability to the grid interconnection unit (such as an inverter).
  • Energy is stored by inertial rotation by a flywheel and pressure accumulation by hydraulic pressure, gas pressure, and air pressure (compressed air). For example, in a research example using compressed air, there is a report that operating rate can be increased from 15% to 34% by adding 93% cost.[86].
  • Perform local weather analysis and predict power generation in real time (#Preliminary survey and power generation forecastreference).

In addition, a method of producing hydrogen from electric power obtained by wind power generation is also being researched.[87].

Long-term output fluctuation

The introduction value of wind power generation becomes relatively large when the time zone with strong winds (season) and the time zone with high power demand (season) overlap. Generally, when there is a large demand for heating at night or in winter, the value of introduction is particularly high compared to other power sources. If they do not match (such as when the nighttime power from another power source has already been surplus), the value is reduced accordingly. If the amount of power generation is insufficient for the demand, other power sources will be used.

(I.e.

The biggest enemy of wind power generators is the wind, which is too strong. The wind power generator has a rated wind speed, and if it is operated at a speed that greatly exceeds the rating, it may cause burnout of the prime mover or damage to the blades. Therefore, if the wind speed is too high, the speed is suppressed for protection or power generation is temporarily stopped in some cases. There are some who overthrow the strong winds by knocking down all the columns, but there are only a few.

  • Due to its regional characteristics (high latitude, inland), wind power generation used in high latitudes such as Europetyphoon,CycloneSuch asTropical cycloneOften unaffected by the storms caused by.
  • Areas below mid-latitude, such as India, may be exposed to storms. For example, on September 2003, 9typhoonThen,MiyakojimaIt destroyed seven wind turbines in the area.This is because the maximum instantaneous wind speed reached 7 m / s in the vicinity, exceeding the highest class regulation value (74.1 m / s) of the international standard (IEC61400-1).[88].
  • Compared to regions such as Europe where wind power generators are relatively widespread, in Japan, typhoons may be required to withstand more than international standards such as IEC under natural conditions such as turbulence and lightning strikes.[88].. NEDO is developing guidelines to address this[89].

The following measures are used for strong winds and fluctuations.

  • Speed ​​is controlled by changing the blade angle (pitch) (feathering)
  • Tilt the blade or the entire wind turbine to the wind
  • Temporarily disconnect the wind turbine and generator
  • Physically strengthen the entire facility (pole, etc.)
  • Adopting the downwind type after taking measures against noise[90].. Or, point the blade leeward only in strong winds[91].
  • A model that can withstand strong windsWind turbineAdopt
  • Strengthening the preliminary survey of wind conditions in the installation area

Secure land

1 MWp (1000kwp) for wind power generators on landacre(About 20Ha) Needs about the same area. However, the area occupied by the wind turbine itself is less than 5% because it is mainly columns, and if it is installed in a place such as a field or a pasture that does not require height, the problem of securing the land will be reduced.[79].. Wind power generation has become commonplace, and the possibility of wind turbine pollution has been introduced and recognized on TV programs, etc., so if there is a house in the neighborhood, there may be a movement against the installation. When installing in a high place compared to the surrounding area, for maintenance of site location, material transportation, maintenance during operationForest roadNeed to be built, and the resulting felling of trees may be a problem.

However, it has not been installed on land in recent yearsOffshore wind powerIs being considered, in which case the problems associated with onshore installation will be resolved. However, offshore wind is generally expensive.

Preliminary survey and power generation forecast

Prior to the commercialization of wind power generation, it is important to survey the wind conditions in advance. The wind fluctuates involuntarily, but its fluctuation amount, fluctuation speed, average intensity, etc. can be treated stochastically. Wind power generation can also be treated stochastically. Therefore, by collecting a certain amount of data in advance, it is possible to predict the wind conditions and the amount of power generation with appropriate accuracy.

In recent years, local weather analysis technology using a computer has made it possible to predict the amount of power generation to some extent, even for short-term fluctuations.[92][93].. Commercial service has already started[94][95][96].. In recent years, in some countries, it is obligatory for power producers above a certain scale to predict the amount of power generation (Fixed price purchase systemreference).

On the contrary, if the wind condition survey is inadequate, the amount of power generation may be smaller than initially expected, resulting in a deficit. When it is not possible to continue operating due to factors such as the amount of power generation being lower than expected, or when replacing with a higher performance model, it is difficult to move the foundation part driven into the ground, but the upper wind turbine Can basically be relocated or resold. In recent years, the second hand market of wind power generators has been expanding in Europe, etc.[97].

ACCIDENT

Wind power generators, like other power generation methods, are not immune to accidents. The following examples of accidents can be seen due to structural damage and mistakes during operation and maintenance work.

  • The blade breaks and scatters with the momentum of rotation[98].. May cause damage to surrounding structures[99].
  • Wind turbine fire[100].
  • Damaged/collapsed tower[101].

It has been pointed out that the cause of these accidents may be that the power generation tower was enlarged without adequately testing its mechanical strength.[98].

  • According to a U.S. survey, the number of wind turbine accidents resulting in human injury from 1972 to October 2008 was 10.[102].
  • In Japan, it has been reported that the wind turbine was over-rotated due to a work error during maintenance, and it collapsed.[103].

Recycling

Wind turbine generator recycling technology is under development due to lack of numbers[104].. Metals such as iron are recycled[105] But commonly used in bladesFiber reinforced plasticThe recycling technology is not widespread and will be disposed of by incineration. Technology to recycle glass fiber from used blades is being developed[106].

How to use the renewable energy area

Currently, the introduction of the renewable energy sea area utilization method is in progress in Japan.With regard to the renewable energy sea area utilization method, we tried to introduce offshore wind power generation, which is important from the viewpoint of achieving both maximum introduction of renewable energy and reduction of burden on the people, as costs are decreasing overseas.However, there was no unified rule regarding the occupation of the sea area, and it was not possible to coordinate with the preceding users.In order to solve these problems, it was established on November 30, 11 and promulgated on December 30, 12.As a concrete content, the promotion area is defined as a sea area where the natural conditions are appropriate, there is no hindrance to the advance use of fishing, shipping, etc., and the conditions such as being able to supply the generated power can be supplied.And, through open recruitment, the best business operator from the viewpoint of long-term, stable and efficient can obtain the occupancy permission of the area for up to 7 years.Currently, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Port Authority of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism have three locations: "Noshiro City, Akita Prefecture, Mitane and Oga City Offshore", "Yurihonjo City, Akita Prefecture (North and South)" and "Choshi City, Chiba Prefecture". (30 areas) is designated as a promotion area.[107][108]





footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ All three stopped at the Higashiizu Wind Power Plant during the 2011 Sanriku-oki Earthquake
  2. ^ Percentage of power that can be generated if the wind blows. Different from occupancy rate
  3. ^ noiseHas a frequency of tens of Hz or lessLow-frequencyNoise is also included. This is usually inaudible to the human ear, but it is perceptually perceived secondarily by vibrating the shoji screens and windows. There are reports of indefinite complaints similar to autonomic imbalances such as headaches and dizziness, which are commonly known as "windmill disease", and damages that cause insomnia, and the damages are becoming a problem in various places. It is necessary to pay sufficient attention to these low frequency noises from the planning stage. Low frequency noise工場,boilerTraveling on the roadLarge carIt also occurs from. No safety standard has been established for low frequencies.

Source

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References

Related item

外部 リンク

Industry group
世界
Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) formula
World Wind Energy Association WWEA
Europe
European Wind Energy Association] (EWEA) formula
米 国
American Wind Energy Association] (AWEA) formula
Japan
Japan Wind Power Association
Group
Manufacturing company

 

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