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The "10 Best Interiors" were selected without restrictions on the price of the vehicle, and were evaluated for their beauty, build-in, comfort, and ergonomic functionality and operability.

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Wikipedia related words

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Ergonomics(Ningen Kogaku) ​​is a discipline that designs objects and environments so that humans can use them in as natural movements and conditions as possible, and makes use of them in actual design.It also includes research to improve the surrounding human and physical environment so that people can move correctly and efficiently, and to reduce accidents and mistakes as much as possible.

"" In JapaneseErgonomics"AmericaThen.Human factor(en: Human Factors),EuropeThen.Ergonomics(en: Ergonomics) Corresponds to the field called.


ErgonomicsA humanIt is an engineering that affects everything that involves.The physical shape of humansactionSuch as身体Characteristics, physiologicalreactionAnd changesPhysiologyNot only the aspect, but also the change of psychological emotions, etc.PsychologyIt also includes a quest for aspects.

Also occurred during workACCIDENTIs it a simple design mistake of the equipment used, or is it humanrecognition,CognitionThe problem of analyzing the problem and how to prevent recurrence is also within the scope of research in the field of ergonomics.

However, in terms of industrial safety, accident prevention and maintenance, etc.Safety engineeringThere is also a field called.For detailsSafety engineeringPlease refer to.


Things to keep in mind when looking back on the history of ergonomics

Today's "ergonomics" has come to be talked about in various fields such as medical care, nursing, safety management, engineering design, and dealing with environmental problems.Supported by these movements, "ErgonomicsInterest in the history of "" also grew, and its "origin" was later "discovered".Today we know that there are two sources.One was coined by Winthrop Talbot in 1911 in the United States. "human engineering"The flow, and the other is coined by the Polish scholar Wojciech Jastrzębowski in the mid-19th century."ergonomicsIs the flow of[1]..Please note that both of these are today's "ErgonomicsIt is a fact that it was discovered later on the premise of the prosperity of.Today's "ergonomics" did not develop under the direct influence of these two ideological sources.Therefore, when we use the words "origin" or "source" of ergonomics, we need to be aware of what they mean.[2].

The beginning of "human engineering" in the United States

For the first time in the United StatesErgonomicsWhen the word "" appears, the word "treats human beings"科学It was used as a message for labor reform, saying, "It must be." A technique for dealing with things in the latter half of the 19th centuryMechanical engineering (mechanical engineering) Has achieved tremendous development and has become a driving force to push up the American industry, but the art of dealing with humans has not developed in a way that is commensurate with it. To fill this gap, the latter is comparable to mechanical engineering.科学It must be established as a professional job and developed as a professional job.This awareness of the problem, backed by a strong professional ideology, began in the early 1910s.human engineeringIt crystallized in the word ", and was used as a synonym for" personnel management "in 1916, and became widely known.[3].

"In the United StatesErgonomics (human engineeringThe first use case of ")" is the magazine "Winthrop Talbot", which was first published in 1911.Ergonomics]. January 1911, "ErgonomicsIn the first issue, he describes his labor reform initiative.[4]..He states that the term ergonomics was originally devised to describe a "new profession" that should be contrasted with mechanical engineering.He suggested that the "Faculty of Human Engineering" should be newly established as a decentralized department within the company responsible for this new function.This department should be positioned in the same position as "production, sales, purchasing, accounting audit, transportation, engineering, and R & D departments" within the management organization.[5].

In the 1920s, the term "ergonomics" was used in engineering education and industrial psychology.[6] It was used in the field of "human factor eingineering", but it was not until after World War II that it blossomed.During World War II, the design problem of the cockpit of an Air Force fighter led to the progress of research to adapt machines and working environments to human abilities, and after the war, ergonomics matured as a science of mechanical design and system design. Will be done.

Development of "ergonomics" in Japan

Although "ergonomics" in Japan is basically strongly influenced by American "ergonomics", it is composed by our predecessors by fusing various knowledge from other countries.One of them, Kazuo Tsubouchi, points out six movements that became the mother of ergonomics in Japan in his book "Ergonomics" (Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, 1961). These are (6) Experimental Psychology, (1) Medicine and Physiology, (2) Broad-sense Work Research, (3) Environmental Engineering, (4) Control Engineering, and (5) Industrial Design.[7]..The most influential factor in ergonomics today is industrial engineering (IE), which is created by incorporating the genealogy of (3), and from a historical point of view, (6). ) Is an extension of IE.For these reasons, the term "ergonomics" is used today as an alternative to IE in Japan.Representative works of the United States Salvendi's IE Handbook (2001 edition)[8]And Japan's "Human Engineering Handbook"[9]Comparing them, the items and contents that are taken up overlap greatly.

These two research fields merged in Japan and were named "ergonomics". The word "ergonomics" itself was used by Kwan-Ichi Tanaka as the title of the book in 2.[10], Described the content of experimental research results on fatigue and efficiency[11].. A translation of Wesley E. Udson in 1956 as "ergonomics" in the present sense.[12]Was published.The first ergonomic book compiled by the Japanese was published by Shoichi Kurata in 1959.[13].

On December 1964, 12, the opening ceremony of the Japan Ergonomics Society was held at Waseda University.[14], A place was built to bring in research results on ergonomics.

Ergonomic theory

Human-machine model

Humans take in information from machines with inputs (receptors) such as the five senses, make decisions, and work on machines with outputs (effectors) such as hands and voices.The machine receives it with a keyboard, mouse, etc. (manipulator), processes it with a mechanism, outputs it to a display, etc. (display), and transmits it to human input (receptor).

A human-mechanical model is a model of this sequence of flows: physical characterization (vibration, noise, gravity, etc.), cognitive characterization (time allowance, uncertainty, danger, etc.), organization. Physical characteristics (organizational structure, job definition, etc.) characterize this model.

Such modeling clarifies the themes of human factors such as what to do with the display and input method of the machine, the layout and design of the work place, the design with high maintainability, and the design of the work environment.

Human mechanism and characteristics

In ergonomics, the length and mass of each part of human beings,Cognitive psychologyMatters, the work of the five human senses, etc.Based on these, the goal is to design a system that can be operated more comfortably by humans.

Individual differences / aging and intra-individual fluctuations

There are individual differences in human beings, and even if one human being is taken, the state changes from moment to moment.In addition, there are items that decline with age and conversely increase.It is also one of the fields of ergonomics to design a system in consideration of these factors.

Indicators and controls


ComputerIn relation,softwareErgonomic research on ergonomics is in progress.The ease of use of software cannot be developed without knowledge of the people who use it.

Research in the field of ergonomics in the field of ICT is more than the name of ergonomicsHuman interfaceIt is often called by the name.in this case,Human interfaceThe research is not limited to software, but covers all ICT technologies including software.

Universal design

Reliability design

Human factor

Human factor(British: Human factors) Is a term with a very broad meaning, human efficiency,Technology,Design,Human machine interfaceIncluding areas such as.With humansToolsIt means paying attention to the involvement of various procedures that exist in modern society.

The term "human factors" is mainly usedThe United States of AmericaUsed in.The names of research fields are called "human factors engineering" and "human engineering".Outside the United States, the term "ergonomics" is often used.In the United States, "ergonomics" has only an anthropometry meaning in human-machine interfaces, etc.[Source required], Human factors are terms that emphasize the psychological aspect.

Human Factors researchers have various academic backgrounds,psychologistThere are many engineers.Other designers,AnthropologyPerson,Computer scienceThere are also people.Many enter from other disciplines, but some universities offer human factors degrees.

Research fields of human factors include workload, fatigue, situational awareness,Usability,User interface, Learnability, attention, vigilance, human efficiency, human reliability, human-computer interaction, control / display design, stress, data visualization, individual differences, aging, accessibility, safety, virtual Working in special environments such as the environment, humanError,Decision makingand so on.

Simply put, human factor is a study of adjusting the surrounding environment so that people can feel it naturally.Nowadays it is a generalized term,Second World WarでaircraftIt originated from researching its design and operation in order to increase its safety.The psychologists involved in the study coined the term human factors.

Ergonomic techniques and statistical thinking

When studying ergonomics, objectsMeasurementAnd its processing becomes important.In fact, it's basic身体-posture-actionIn addition to the measurement ofLiving bodyFor evaluation of burden onelectro-cardiogramOften measurements are taken.Also,Questionnaire method·Such,PsychologyMeasurement method may be used.

When compiling these measurement data,statisticsIn addition to the methodFMEA-FTASuch asReliability engineeringSometimes the method used in is used.

Typical ergonomic application

Hereinafter, application examples of ergonomics will be described by limiting them to typical ones.

Aviation industry field

As mentioned above, human factors are also a concept derived from the US aviation industry, and when pursuing the cause of an aircraft accident, human error is almost always involved.Improvement of instrument placement and design, aircraft operation, andpilotAs a result of reducing error risk in all areas such as fatigue countermeasures, the safety level of aircraft has reached the current level.

Manufacturing field

An example of something designed based on ergonomic ideas is less burdensomechairOr depending on the height of the userkeyboardThere is a tray that can adjust the height ofdesk, You won't get tired even if you write for a long timemechanical pencilAnd so on.

医療 分野

For example, one of the medical errorstransfusionIn order to prevent mistakes, the conventional measures were to "conduct training regularly and pay close attention" and "leave it to individual efforts".However, in recent years, ergonomics have been adopted to "enlarge letters" and "Blood TypeUse a bag with a different color sticker for each "," Change the shape of the insertion port so that only one type of tube can be inserted (eg) oxygenMeasures such as "plumbing" have come to be taken so as not to make a mistake even when attention is low.


computerAmong affiliated companiesAppleWas particularly interested in software ergonomics from an early stage,UsabilityResearch results onMacintoshIs bearing fruit.

TraditionalTypewriterConsidering the load on the finger, not the sequence of originErgonomic keyboardHas been developed.


  1. ^ Japan Ergonomics Society "History of ergonomics'
  2. ^ "Ergonomics, its origin and history'
  3. ^ Tsuguyoshi Ueno "American Personnel Management Movement and Aspects of" Ergonomics "-The Rise and Fall of the Ergonomics Boom-" Fukushima University "Commercial Studies" Vol. 83, No. 4 (March 2015): 3.
  4. ^ Winthrop Talbot, "A Study in Human Engineering," Human Engineering 1 (January 1911): 3-5.
  5. ^ Tsuguyoshi Ueno "American Personnel Management Movement and Aspects of" Ergonomics "-The Rise and Fall of the Ergonomics Boom-" Fukushima University "Commercial Studies" Vol.
  6. ^ JoAnne Brown, The Definition of a Profession: The Authority of Metaphor in the History of Intelligence Testing, 1890-1930 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), esp. Chs. 7-8.
  7. ^ Kazuo Tsubouchi "Ergonomics" (Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, 1961), 12.
  8. ^ Gavriel Salvendy, ed., Handbook of Industrial Engineering, 3rd ed., 3 vols. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2001).
  9. ^ "Human Engineering Handbook" edited by Kenji Ito et al. (Asakura Shoten, 2003).
  10. ^ Matataro Matsumoto and Kwan-ichi Tanaka "Ergonomics" Right Bunkan, 1921
  11. ^ Wataru Masada "Augmented New Edition Ergonomics" Seiseisha Koseikaku, 1997, pp.7-8
  12. ^ Wesley E. Udson, Ergonomics, Translated by Kazuhiko Aoki and Akira Nomoto, Corona Publishing, 1956
  13. ^ Shoichi Kurata "Ergonomics" Gihodo, 1959. The basis for the "first" is based on Wataru Masada, "Augmented New Edition Ergonomics," Hoshisha Koseikaku, 1997, p8.
  14. ^ Wataru Masada "Augmented New Edition Ergonomics" Seiseisha Koseikaku, 1997, p1


  • Wataru Masada "Augmented New Edition Ergonomics" Seiseisha Koseikaku, 1997
  • Yoshimi Yokomizo and Akitetsu Komatsubara "Ergonomics for Engineers 2006th Edition" Japan Publishing Service, XNUMX

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