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🚗 | Opportunity to use your own car in Corona's disaster ... More than 2% "increased" JD Power survey


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Opportunities to use private cars in Corona's disaster ... More than 2% "increased" JD Power survey

 
If you write the contents roughly
According to the survey results, 30% of people used "trains for long-distance travel (express trains such as the Shinkansen) / airplanes / high-speed buses" before the corona epidemic, but 16 after the corona epidemic. It has dropped to about half, which is%.
 

JD Power Japan has conducted a questionnaire survey on car life and the use of public transportation before and after the corona epidemic. → Continue reading

 response


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Express Bus

Express Bus(Kousoku Bus) is mainlyhighwayPass throughTransit BusRefers to.Below, unless otherwise specified, highway buses in Japan (Road transport lawBuses operated as a form of "general passenger car transportation business" specified in (XNUMX) will be described.

Overview

Generally, the distance is tens to hundreds of kilometerscityBetween transportation or with the city(I.e.Refers to those that use the expressway among those that connect.However,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismThe word "highway bus" used in each notification of the government office is not constant.[1], There is no legal definition of the word "highway bus".Therefore, it is operated as a form of travel agency ("general charter passenger car transportation business".Tour bus) Called its own product "highway bus"[2]..On the highway (road signEtc.) is simply described as "route bus".Sightseeing bus(Because if the toll classification of the expressway is a large bus, the route bus will be a large car, otherwise it will be an oversized car charge), so the "route bus" sign near the driver's seat on the windshield of the bus (Just,ETCDue to the widespread use of buses, there are no longer any manual receipts or payments for tollhouses, so there may be cases where there is no indication of "route bus").

空港The highway bus that provides access toLimousine busAlthough it is also guided, the limousine bus may be regarded as a subordinate concept of the highway bus.[3]..Limited express and express buses that do not pass through highways but are responsible for medium- to long-distance intercity communication may be treated in the same way as highway buses in some cases.[4].

Incidentally,Limited express, express busIs often distinguished from highway buses as buses via ordinary roads, but depending on the operator, it is a high-ranking type within highway buses.Limited express, express busIn some cases, it is referred to as a line name.Also, of the total length of the route, the route with the shortest expressway sectionSemi express busIt may also be called.

Tomei Highway Bus,Meishin Highway Bus,Chinese highway busThe type of each stop isExpressWill be.However, the express service of the Meishin Highway Bus2006 (18) Currently abolished by name.

When passing through the expressway, it is prohibited by law to carry more passengers than the seating capacity of the bus, so except for some short-distance routes that take about 1 to 2 hours in advance. Reserve a seat atSeat reservation systemIs often adopted.In some cases, reservations are not required as with regular fixed-route buses, but you cannot board more than the capacity.Capacity systemIs adopted.In addition, all seats are non-smoking on almost all routes.

Often cheaper than other modes of transportation,TrainUnlike道路Due to the use ofweatherSuch asweatherIn addition to the condition, long holidaysOld basin-New Year's HolidayDue to the holiday season, intensive construction period, sudden traffic accidents, etc.Traffic jam・ On-time performance may not be possible due to traffic restrictions.The following description is basically limited to highway buses as route buses.

vehicle

Similar to a sightseeing bus type vehicle, but because it operates as a fixed-route busDestination display device-Automatic broadcastingDevice / get-off button /Fare indicator-Fare boxThe same equipment as general route bus vehicles such as etc. is installed.On the contrary, at the entrance and exit that is not necessaryガ イ ドOf seats and audience seatsMicrophoneEtc. are not equipped.However, vehicles without an automatic broadcasting device, fare indicator, and fare box may be used for routes that require a complete reservation.Indoor seatMostlyReclining seatIn many cases, the daytime route has 3 rows (2 + 1) or 4 rows, and the nighttime route has 3 rows of independent seats.In the 2 + 1 type 3-row seats, vehicles with aisles on the doorway side and vehicles with aisles on the driver's seat side coexist.

In addition, there are many vehicles that have been converted to highway buses by attaching fare boxes and broadcasting devices to the vehicles used as sightseeing buses.In the case of conversion from a sightseeing bus, there are cases where there is no toilet even on routes that run a certain distance.On the Nishi-Nippon Railroad, night trains have been diverted for daytime use.On the contrary, in JR Bus Kanto, the vehicle for daytime was remodeled into an independent 3-row seat and then diverted for nighttime.

Some highway buses in the early days were specially ordered from the manufacturer with a dedicated engine with a larger output (horsepower) than usual (a typical example is this).JNR exclusive model) However, the price is higher than that of a regular sightseeing bus, and the output of a commercial sightseeing bus vehicle has increased, so the need for it has diminished and it is no longer manufactured.

However, as mentioned above, each manufacturer is based on a regular sightseeing bus and has a destination display device (SaboWe have prepared equipment for route buses, such as (may be substituted by), and vehicles for highway buses with minimal specifications inside the vehicle.Furthermore, in the case of night coaches, it has excellent equipment for night buses, such as three-row seats and an underfloor nap room for shift crew members, as well as a high-power engine and braking power.Full air brakeEach manufacturer has set the InterCity specifications equipped with.

In addition, in order to reduce costs and make barrier-free, for short-distance highway buses, top-door route buses with high-power engine specifications and so-called "One RomaThere is also a vehicle based on ", which is being introduced intensively by some businesses (especially the metropolitan area and the Kyushu region).

For some businesses, to reduce operating costsMicrobusThere is also a case of using (Chinese busWas operatingFlying Fish,Ocean liner,Southern BusKarumai high-speed line,Kamizono KotsuSuper Banpeiyu etc.).There were also routes that used jumbo taxi vehicles, although only on days of the week (Ryobi BusWas once in serviceHiroshima Sakyu Express).

For medium and long distances, under the floor in the center of the vehicle or at the rearToiletHowever, when increasing the number of flights in the Bon Festival or New Year, buses without toilets, such as sightseeing bus vehicles, may be used.In that case, on the highwayservice area-Parking areaI often take breaks in[5][6]..Also, the highway bus itselfNon smokingBecause it is, the break destinationSmoking areaTends to be crowded while the highway bus is stopped.Toilets are often installed in the center or the rear of high-deckers and super high-deckers, and at the rear of the first floor in double-deckers.It is compact due to restrictions on the installation location, and as shown in the photo below, it is often the minimum size for extra work, but the size has been expanded to the full width, and in addition to the toilet bowl, the washbasin In some cases, a powder room equipped with a table and a mirror is installed.

A trunk (luggage compartment) for storing large luggage is installed under the floor, and the luggage compartment can be taken in and out by opening the trunk lid at the bottom of the side of the car body from outside the vehicle.Also, for night trains, under the floor or at the end, and for two-story cars, beside the front door of the downstairs seat.capsule hotelThere is also a crew nap room with a shape similar to that of the driver, so non-driving crew members can lie down and take a nap.In the case of underfloor placement, there is an entrance / exit for the nap room beside the central underfloor toilet, and there is a door similar to the trunk room from the outside so that entry / exit is possible.When using a vehicle that is not equipped with a nap room for continuing flights, etc., the seat behind the driver's seat is often used as a nap space.

In the past, AV service equipment (broadcasting of video and television broadcasts, multi-channel audio, radio, etc.) was equipped mainly on long-distance routes, but in recent years it has tended to be reduced or omitted.In some cases, the seats are equipped with individual LCD TVs.Also, mainly on long-haul routesTea dispenser-Refrigerator Self-service drinks provided byvending machineSale of drinks by, 100 yen coins orPhone carddesignatedIn-car phoneEquipment and services such as these were implemented, but these also tend to be reduced or omitted (,NTT DoCoMoPDC methodMobile phoneHowever, when the wave stopped on March 2012, 3, the car payphone service itself was terminated, so the service was terminated prior to or in line with it, and the car payphone terminal was removed).On the other hand, in recent years passengerslaptop,SmartphoneIn the car usingインターネットTo the vehicle to allow you to connect toPublic wireless LANFor charging mobile devices in the seatOutlet,USB port[7] The number of cases of installing is increasing.

There are cases where multiple flights are operated in the same section with different facilities and fares.Even for the same vehicle, there may be a difference in equipment and price.

The life of a vehicle used on a highway bus is said to be around 100 million km as a guide, and vehicles on long-distance routes will be replaced with new vehicles and scrapped within 10 years. It was in the cycle.However, as the supply and demand of tourist buses began to tighten in the 2010s, some vehicles have been thoroughly maintained and continue to operate on high-speed routes, and some vehicles have been converted to tourist buses.In the used car market, there are cases where even extremely multi-travel vehicles are traded.[8].

History

1950s, before the opening of the highway

Provincial car even before the warHirohama LineThere were long-distance routes such as (between Hiroshima and Hamada),Second World WarDue to the fuel control by the bus, it became extremely difficult to operate the bus.

After the war, long-haul routes began to increase again in the 1950s when fuel control was lifted.1950 (25) Ichibata Electric Railway (currentlyIchibata Bus)ButHiroshima-Matsue LineStarted operation as a direct express bus (1960 To Hiroshima Electric Railway BusAlso entered).KyushuFukuoka-Kumamoto(West Japan Railway-Kyushu Industrial Transportation) AndFukuoka --Kokura --OminLong-distance buses started to operate in various places, and after that, along with road improvements such as the development of automobile technology, pavement and widening, and complete separation of lanes from above and below, long-distance buses via general roads were born in various places.

For long-distance buses after the Kanmon Express LinePower steering・ Air brake ・Air suspension・ Cooling device ・Reclining seatVehicles equipped with equipment suitable for long-distance transportation such as these have come to be used.

At that time, the road was alsoFirst-class national highwayEven though the road conditions were not good, such as unpaved sections and narrow road sections where it was difficult for vehicles to cross each other,Private carBecause the traffic volume was light before the spreadTraffic jamWas few andNational railwayEven before the modernization of transportation, there were many single-track, non-electrified, low-transportation routes, and many bus users.At that time, coaches were more of a complementary role to railways than their rivals.

1960s, early days

In Japan, the following bus routes are the starting point.

From now on,Old basinAt the end of the year, long-distance buses (mainly night trains) will be operated from large cities to local cities, which are called "homecoming buses", which are membership-based buses that use chartered buses.At that time, highways other than the Tomei and Meishin Expressways were not yet open, and most of them took a long time to operate on general national highways, but they were well received because seats were secured even during peak times when returning home. Was.

In addition, the national highway has been further improved for long-distance buses via general roads, and since the so-called "golden age of buses" has been reached, a large number of routes have been opened, and the buses along the railway lines have investedJoint venture bus operatorWas also established in large numbers.

Late 1970s / winter era

1970 eraIn the second half,ShinkansenRailroad transportation network such as is superior in terms of required time, etc., and at short distancesMotorizationbyPrivate carTransition to, and then twiceOil shockDue to the influence of the above, the operation of highway bus routes has become rigid, and it will be a difficult time for highway buses in Honshu.

Early 1980s ・ The prototype of the present is made, and there are signs of a comeback

1980 eraWhen you enterOld railwayAs the fare and fare increase and the reduction and abolition of night trains continued, and the service level remained the same as before, the railway transportation network gradually became less competitive, and the superiority in terms of highway bus fare was outstanding. I came.In addition, a more rational system was born in terms of route management.As a result, the number of highway bus routes has gradually increased.

  • Closed door system(Only boarding around the departure point, only getting off around the destination, not getting on and off at the route on the way) With the introduction, Osaka ~Niimiwhile(Hankyu bus), A new highway bus route was established after a long time.
  • Chugoku ExpresswayThen, in additionJapan traffic-Zentan Bus-JNR Chugoku Regional Automobile Bureau(CurrentChina JR Bus), The transfer to the expressway was actively carried out.
  • 1983 Osaka ~FukuokaNight coach"Moonlight"Then, the operator of the departure and arrival point (Hankyu bus-West Japan Railway) Has been started as a prototype of the current highway bus, such as a joint operation system and a pool settlement system (equal distribution) of fare income.
  • Furthermore, "Tohoku Shinkansen connection"Yodel",Osaka~three timesNew construction of intercity daytime routes such as between cities has also progressed.
  • In particular1985 "(60) opened in"Tokyo-Niigata Line”Runs side by sideJoetsu ShinkansenIt has grown into a route that robs passengers such as, and has become one of the sparks of the highway bus opening boom.Also at this time of year on the Japanese National Railwaysnight TrainIt was a time when the number of passengers was reduced, but in opposition to the Tokyo Ikebukuro-Niigata route,Planned trainAs a result, he drove a temporary rapid "Moonlight" designated by all cars and released a bargain ticket.This is the current "Moonlight Echigo].
  • From around this time, the Japanese National Railways began to feel a sense of crisis because of its impact on parallel railway lines.Shinjuku ~Komagane-(I.e.Regarding the opening of highway bus routes betweenCentral highway bus problemWas the first line to surface, as the Japanese National Railways officially opposed the opening of the line.
  • On the other hand, for highway buses between Shinjuku and Komagane / Iida, bus companies that have been in the red will record a single-year surplus in the year following the start of operation, and highway buses will become an important position for bus companies. It will become clear.
  • In the Kyushu regionKyushu ExpresswayWith stretchingWest Japan Railway,Kyushu Industrial TransportationOpening highway buses one after another, led by the Japanese National RailwaysLimited express trainOverwhelm.AlsoNagasaki ExpresswayWas sending flights to Nagasaki when the extension ofKyushu Express Bus"Kyushu] Also shifted from the general road to the current highway.
  • Until this time, there were only four rows of seats for both day and night.

Late 1980s-Early 1990s-Increase in new routes

In this era, due to the booming economy, the expansion of the expressway network, and the division and privatization of the national railway, the route expansion rapidly progressed in the form of mutual access (joint operation) between bus operators in large cities and local operators. It was an era when a nationwide network was established.

  • "Moonlight"Adopted the first independent 3-row seats with ample space as independent seats for each monopod.This was adopted by a new business operator departing from and arriving in Tokyo.
  • 1986 OfShinagawa - Hirosaki"NocturneIn ", the night coach used to connect big cities, but for the first time, it became a night coach connecting big cities and local cities. The success of the "Nocturne" will shock the entire bus industry and lead to a boom in the opening of highway bus routes.
  • Capital Areaarea - KeihanshinIn the areaMajor private railwayIt can be said that competition became fierce from this period as affiliated bus companies entered the market one after another.Inspired by this, the existingJR bus OfDreamShifted from 4-row seats to 3-row independent seats.The number of users has exploded, and each company hasDouble DeckerHas also come to be used.
  • At this time, "Nocturne", Shinjuku-Fukuoka "Hakata issueThe long-distance night trains that connect Tokyo with all parts of Japan except Hokkaido and South Kyushu were the center of the newly opened routes.A rare route at that time was "Shinagawa-Tokushima"Eddie(At that time, Keihin Electric Express Railway Bus and Tokushima Bus) on the wayKobe CityInside- Awaji IslandIn betweenferryWas using.
  • After that, Shinjuku- (I.e.Ma / Namba- Tokyo DisneylandBetween railways andairplaneHas spread to routes that do not go straight.
  • In the Tsukuba area since the 1980sTsukuba Science CityWith the development of1987 From (62) Tokyo- Tsukuba CenterHighway bus betweenTsukuba) Was opened.After the operation, there are many cases where passengers cannot get through, and at the peak, the bus is one size larger for the purpose of increasing transportation capacity.Megaliner) Was also introduced.However2005 (17)Tsukuba Express With the opening of (TX), many bus passengers have moved to TX and are exposed to fierce competition.
  • Onaruto BridgeAt openingTokushima --Tsuna Port (currentAwaji City)Awaji Traffic-Tokushima BusAwaji / Tokushima line was newly established as a joint operation, and passengersJoint steamerIt was a form of switching to.
  • Chugoku(EspeciallySanyoIn the district)Sanyo ExpresswayDeparture and arrival in Hiroshima city with the opening ofHiroshima Bus Center,Hiroshima StationRoutes from the previous) to each city in the Chugoku region became a rush to open, especially the "Rose Liner" between Fukuyama and Hiroshima is JR WestShinkansenとConventional lineTaken the share from.
  • Kyushu regionIn the first half of the 1980s, the number of routes will continue to expand, and three-row seats (3-1-row seats, unlike night trains) will be introduced one after another on daytime routes, and upgrades will be made to three-row seats. Some routes have increased the number of passengers (SaseboSuch).AgainstJR KyushuAlso responded to the highway bus by introducing new vehicles and expanding discount tickets.However, recently, there are some routes that have returned to 4-row seats due to an increase in passengers.

Late 1990s, the era of selection

The nationwide highway bus route network has been completed, the "opening boom" has ended, and the expansion of new routes has settled down.Bubble burstCoupled with the later recession, it can be said that this was an era in which routes that did not meet the needs of users were being eliminated.

  • Passengers were sluggish and many unprofitable routes were abolished.
  • Long-distance daytime flights with operating hours of 5 hours or more did not increase in use overall, and in many cases they were abolished.[10].
  • In the night coaches that connect big cities and local cities, there were a number of cases where businesses on the big city side withdrew from operation.Tokyu busIn some cases, the night coach has completely withdrawn from the bus itself.[11]..This is due to the fact that the labor costs of crew members are high on the metropolis side, and that highway buses that connect large cities and local cities generally have more users than local city operators and are enthusiastic about their operation. It is said that there is.
  • in addition,Capital Area-Kinki areaThen.Diesel carDepends on the exhaust gas ofAir pollutionTo regulate "Act on Special Measures for Reduction of Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter Emitted from Vehicles in Specific Area(Automotive NOx / PM Law) ”has been enforced, which is our main business.Transit BusIt is thought that the fact that large-scale replacement of old vehicles (generally 10 years or older) was forced in the metropolitan area was one of the reasons why the reduction / withdrawal of highway buses and the transfer of subsidiaries to the metropolitan area operators.

Opening of Akashi Kaikyo Bridge / Aqua Line and highway bus

  • on the one handAkashi Kaikyo Bridge 1998 By opening toKeihanshinとAwaji Island-Shikoku regionLines connecting to are opened one after another,Seto Ohashi BridgeUnlike parallelTrainSince there are no routes, it is so successful that the number of flights has been increased until now.The number of passengers on the Awaji / Tokushima line between Tokushima and Tsuna Port has decreased sharply due to the abolition of all high-speed boats departing from and arriving at Tsuna Port, and the number of flights has been reduced from 10 limited express and 6 express to 1 limited express and 5 express. Then, it switched to Awaji Kotsu independent operation.At the same time, ferry routes to Awaji Island and Shikoku were forced to abolish one after another.[12], A highway bus company was established as a measure against the turnover of ferry companies (Honshi Kaikyo BusSuch).In addition, for the Honshikaikyo bus and JR buses, "Awajishima" and for Shikoku (Tokushima / Takamatsu)BLUE networkAnd evenJR Kobe Line OfMaiko StationTorapid train,Sanyo Electric Railway Main Line OfMaikokouen StationToNaoto-Limited express(However, Maiko Koen Station is 8.5 years after the opening of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge.2006 (18)OctoberWe tried to build cooperation by stopping the bus (stopping more every day) and improving the connection with the highway bus.
  • Boso PeninsulaIn the directionTokyo Bay Aqua LineHas opened, and the time required to reach central Tokyo, Haneda Airport, Kawasaki, and Yokohama has been significantly reduced.For this reason, Shinagawa Station, Haneda Airport,Kawasaki StationA bus for Kisarazu was newly established as a substitute for the ferry.As with the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, tolls are high, so there is a great demand for connecting to highway buses, and around the Tokyo Bay Aqua Line.Sodegaura Bus Terminal,Kisarazu Kaneda Bus Terminal,Kimitsu Bus TerminalAssuming the use of highway busesPark and rideIs being promoted.As a result, from the Boso areaHaneda airportaccess,Tokyo Station-Shinagawa StationThe convenience of connecting to the Shinkansen has improved.In addition, this route is characterized by the large number of commuters, and in the 2000s, highway busesCommuter PassIs now on sale, and a new late-night bus (the fare is doubled) is being built to develop services specialized for commuting and attending school.Although the number of traffic is small and the aqua line continues to be in the red, the convenience of the east-west direction of Tokyo Bay has been greatly improved by the highway bus.

2000s ・ Search for new survival

Revised June 2001Road transport lawWith the enforcement, new bus routes will be opened, and the bus business itself will shift from a license system to a permit system.DeregulationAs a result, new entrants centered on the chartered bus business, and membership-based intercity tour buses using this business have become active, and highway buses will enter an era of fierce competition.In addition, there is a tendency to eliminate excessive equipment and pursue lower fares, which is the greatest merit of highway buses.In addition, from that time on, the JR Bus Group will abolish or reduce general routes in rural areas, which have already been unprofitable due to a decrease in users, and specialize in high-speed buses (especially routes to and from large cities) that are being used steadily. The tendency has become stronger.

Greater Tokyo Area-Fierce competition in the Keihanshin area

  • To survive, the JR Bus Group has reduced the fare (8,610 yen → 6,000 yen) from the previously unthinkable night trains, 550. kmThe above is the "long-distance travel between Tokyo / Shinjuku-Osaka / Kyoto"Daytime limited expressWas newly established. JR Bus Group is reluctant to change trainsElderlyI was thinking of targeting, but in realityStudentIt is so popular that it is difficult to make reservations during long vacations for students, as it is received by customers who want to keep their budget down but can take time.
  • The popularity of this "daytime limited express" can be said to be proof that the demand for long-distance daytime flights, which were unpopular and had many abolished routes, increased due to changes in passenger needs due to the prolonged recession.[13], Tokyo-Hirosaki "Sky TurnIn some cases, daytime flights have started on routes that used to have only night flights (""Sky TurnIs not a lower fare than the night train like the "daytime limited express", but was set at the same fare as the night train, but later the later cheap flight ""Aomori Ueno(Integrated into), there were few reviews on routes that abolished daytime flights in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
  • Tokyo (around) -Osaka (Keihanshin) Between major cities, includingSponsored trip (tour)Cheap (from 3,000 yen one way between Tokyo and Osaka) night trainTour bus(Charter Bus) Is increasing.Bus terminalBecause it is not available, there are many departures and arrivals from nearby parking lots.Tickets cannot be purchased on the day, there are many restrictions on cancellations and changes, and there are some differences from regular fixed-route buses, such as changing buses at transit points depending on the number of customers, but usage is increasing due to price advantages. ..
    • In response to this, between Tokyo and Osaka1980 eraReturned to the 4-row seats that were mainstream before the first half, and on some routes, the operating hours were lengthened to reduce the required crew (one-person operation is possible if a nap time of 2 hours or more is set on the way) and the fare was reduced. (5,000 yen between Tokyo and Osaka) "Youth Dream""Casual Twinkle""Flying sneakers OsakaThe night trains have been set up, and on the contrary, the seats and in-car facilities have been deluxe to start operating flights with additional fares, and women-only flights have been set for each grade to meet various needs.
    • Meanwhile, tour buses have begun to emerge2005 From around that time, there have been a series of cases of withdrawing from the operation of high-speed route buses and reorganizing or abolishing routes.
  • There is also a tendency to increase the number of stops depending on the needs of the destination.For flights via the Tomei ExpresswayTomeieda,Toll Gate MukaigaokaIn addition, flights via Chuo Expressway (mainly to / from Shinjuku Station)Chuo-do HinoThe car is stopped at, for the convenience of passengers.On the other hand, on the Keihanshin side, the departure and arrival points were consolidated by abolishing the first and last flights at Kyoto Station due to the timetable revision in July 2010, and by consolidating the departure and arrival points in Kobe to only Sannomiya Station and reducing the number of flights. ing.

Expansion to rural areas by extending the expressway

  • Since the latter half of the 1980s, the number of highway buses that run on sections that cannot be directly reached by rail has been increasing rapidly.
  • Conversely,Big cityRoad insideTraffic jamA big city that used to look sideways at the passage of busesSuburb OfliveIn order to target the people, a highway bus that dares to set a terminal at the outer edge of the metropolitan area has also appeared.This is "Adatara" (Shinkoshigaya Station~Koriyama StationBetween) andMoriya~日立line(2008 (20)OctoberHowever, the current situation is that we are struggling repeatedly through trial and error, such as frequent timetable revisions.
  • South TohokuThen, while cheap tour buses are entering between each city and Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, etc., for a whileSendai cityCentered onTohoku regionLand transportation was reorganized due to a discount competition between new entrants and existing operators on the intercity express bus routes in Japan (see → for details).Changes in the traffic environment in the Sendai economic zone).
  • In the Kyushu area, the Fukuoka / Kitakyushu Expressway is directly connected to expressways such as the Kyushu Expressway, ensuring punctuality on the Fukuoka side of routes to and from Fukuoka, as well as one-way fare or one-way fare.Round-trip ticket-Number of ticketsThe strategy of reducing the fare to an easy-to-understand fare has come to be taken.For exampleShowa Motorof"Karatsu""Imari-goExisting business operators (Nishitetsu bus) Withdrawal significantly increased flights and faresTicket BookThere are also routes that have grown rapidly due to the possibility of unique expansion strategies such as price cuts.
  • Shikoku region (especiallyKagawaとTokushimaIn), new movements can be seen due to the enrichment of highway buses to the Keihanshin area.For highway bus users, near the bus terminalParking LotFree parking within 24 or 48 hours, so-called "Park and rideThe adoption of the system is increasing.Especially in eastern ShikokuPublic transportIs scarcePrivate carIt can be said that it is a measure that focuses on the fact that the use of
  • On the other hand, a long-established storeMeishin Highway BusIs due to the transfer to private cars as the motorization progresses and the improvement of transportation on parallel railway lines.[14], Because the number of users getting on and off at the stop on the way in Gifu and Shiga prefectures has decreased.2002 The express service that had been operating since the opening of the business was abolished, and the number of stops on the way was significantly reduced and consolidated.Chukyo area --The policy has changed to specialize in intercity transportation in Keihanshin.The tendency is2008 OfShinmeishin ExpresswayIt has become even more prominent after the opening.

Concerns about special ETC holiday discounts

  • 2009 (21)OctoberfromETC significant discountBy[15] It will be possible to travel on expressways at low cost with ordinary cars and light cars, and there is concern that the number of highway bus passengers will decrease due to the shift to ordinary cars and light cars on flights that are on Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays on both departure and arrival dates. Has been done.
    • In addition, due to the large ETC discount, the traffic volume of ordinary cars and light cars on the highway will increase.Traffic jamIs likely to occur and on the highwaybus laneBecause there is no[16], There is a concern that it will be difficult to operate on time due to traffic jams on flights that are Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays on both the departure and arrival dates of the highway bus, and that concern is correct.Naruto / Awaji ExpressAbolition[17][18][19] Reduced flights on 12 highway bus routes at Nishitetsu[20] There are some routes that have been abolished or reduced.
    • In addition, a company that has compensated for depopulated routes with profits from highway buses due to a decrease in the use of highway buses (Iwate Kita Motor-Shinnan TransportationEtc.), there is concern that the abolition of depopulated routes will be spurred.[21].
    • In the future, this discount will be applied to sightseeing buses and highway buses (30). %Discount)[15][22].
    • Still more2011 (23) occurred on January 3Great East Japan EarthquakeUnder the influence ofOctoberETC holiday discount, free highwaySocial experimentWas canceled.But in the Tohoku regionreconstructionFree highway measures as support[23] Is being carried out, which still makes on-time performance difficult.

2010s ・ Competition with tour bus systems and upgrading of seats

  • 2010 eraIs the first year of2010 Compared to the past, short-distance intercity buses are often set up (eg, strictly speaking).2009 Although it is a settingKeisei BusGroup ofMy Town Direct BusAndKeihan Bus OfDirect Express Direct Q KyotoSuch).In addition, entry into the highway bus business of businesses specializing in general route buses (eg)Enshu Railway Ofe-LineR), Etc., and the competition will continue to intensify.
  • In large cities, bus terminals are being developed due to redevelopment around the central station.In Fukuoka2011 (23)October OfKyushu ShinkansenToward the opening of all Kagoshima routesHakata StationWith the redevelopment, the Hakata Station Transportation Center was renewed and furtherHakata Bus TerminalIt was renamed.In Osaka, in May 2011, on the north side of Osaka StationNorth gate buildingWas completed, and the JR bus-type highway bus stop at the Sakurabashi Exit on the south side of the stationOsaka Station JR Expressway Bus TerminalMoved to the 1st floor of the same building.In Tokyo, already in 2007 due to a redevelopment project around Tokyo StationYaesuThe JR highway bus stop at the south exit has moved a little to the north, but there is a possibility that the platform may change or move again depending on the construction situation.In addition, in Shinjuku, along with the Shinjuku Station South Exit District Infrastructure Development Project, the highway bus stops that had been dispersed for each operator have been unified.Busta ShinjukuWas opened in March 2016.
  • The Dream, which connects the Tokyo metropolitan area and Keihanshin, has maintained its strong performance while being exposed to competition with tour buses, but in order to further strengthen its competitiveness, the number of "Premium Dreams" equipped with premium seats will be greatly increased from July 2010. On the other hand, the number of flights for the regular "Dream" has been reduced accordingly.Premiumization is spreading to other companies as well, and the Dream issue to Shikoku (since 7)JR Shikoku BusAt the same time as replacing the double-decker at the end of 2009 with "Hakata-go"Premium seatAnd introduced economy seats.In addition, the low-priced version, which has a need for cheapness, has been unified into the "Youth Eco Dream" while the fare system has been diversified.
    • MoreChinese busThere are two rows of seats, and there is a private room with a capacity of only 2 people.Dream sleeperHas started operation.
    • The introduction of premium seats is progressing not only on night flights but also on daytime flights to and from the Tokyo metropolitan area.
  • In 2010 in the Kansai areaDainikeihanAfter all the buses, the short-distance highway bus between Keihan was expanded.Keihan Bus OfDirect Express Direct Q KyotoAs a new entry route starting withOsaka bus OfKyoto Limited Express New Star,Kintetsu BusThe Yao / Kyoto Limited Express Line has started operation.Both are lines that directly connect eastern Osaka and Kyoto Station, and while railroads require connections via Osaka city, they offer the convenience of being able to connect almost directly on expressways.At the same time松井 å±± 手 駅NearHighway Kyotanabe Bus StopIs newly established,Nankai BusHigh-speed route buses and Dream trains have also begun to be treated as customers.
  • In 2012, in addition to the competition with the conventional tour bus,Cheap airlineCompetition with (LCC) can no longer be ignored.On some routes, there are cases where the fare is discounted to nearly half by calling it "campaign fare".[24]On the other hand, some routes cannot withstand intensifying competition and are abolished.[25].
  • In August 2013, intercity buses in the form of "tour buses" became inoperable and were unified into shared buses (Next section).
    • In addition, with the unification with the new highway bus, it has become possible to set various fares such as by day of the week and by flight, and many conventional highway buses have adopted wide fares.For example, the "Tokyo-Niigata Line" operated by Seibu Bus, Echigo Kotsu, and Niigata Kotsu had the same fare on every day and every flight until the 2000s, but as of 2014, the fare between Tokyo and Niigata is the same as 6,200-3,100 yen. Although it is a route, there is a double difference[26].
  • After that, based on the situation such as intensifying competition with the new highway bus and further increase in needs, "Yokohama Eliner"Or"Dream Shizuoka / HamamatsuIn relatively short distances, there are cases where night trains with 4-row seats start new operations or change vehicles from 3-row seats.
  • The shortage of bus drivers has become a social problem since the latter half of the 2010s, but the impact is also appearing on highway buses.During the busy seasonContinuation flightSignificantly reduced[27], Abolish the line suspension[28] Businesses are also starting to appear.

Unification with tour bus

Since before 2010, "Tour busVarious problems have been pointed out regarding the form, and the ideal way of the tour bus has been examined, but it occurred in 2012.Kanetsu Expressway Expressway Doze Driver accidentIn response, the tour bus and high-speed route bus (shared bus) will be unified.The system after unification is "New highway bus"2013 May 7Operation started at night[29].

In this process, even for the conventional shared bus business, fare setting andOutsourcing of managementDeregulation of such matters has been carried out, and examples of existing businesses using these systems have appeared.On the other hand, only about 3% of tour bus operators have switched to new highway shared buses.[30]..Regarding the old tour bus operators, some operators will start operating new routes after shifting to the new highway bus, but once they switched to the new highway bus and started operating, they then abolished the business. , Some businesses have abolished the route or transferred it to another company.

Impact of the spread of new coronavirus infections in the 2020s

  • 2020 Enter and even in JapanNew Coronavirus (COVID-19) OfSpread of infectionThe effect of this also appeared on the high-speed bus.
    • 2020 May 4ToEmergency declarationHas been issued to the whole country, and many intercity highway buses have been suspended, mainly on routes connecting large cities and local cities.
    • Some of the routes that have been suspended have been suspended or abolished without resuming operation even after the state of emergency in the area to which the route corresponds was lifted.
    • According to a survey by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the transportation personnel and transportation revenue of shared buses including high-speed buses in August 2020 decreased by about 8 to 2019% compared to August 8 before the corona epidemic. Has been[35].
    • In response to this situation, it is said that about 7% of businesses are utilizing the employment adjustment subsidy provided by the government by taking employees off.[35].

Current status

  • Three rows of independent seats have become the mainstream for night buses.Also, in the West Japan area, buses that run long distances mainly have three rows of independent seats even for daytime flights (example:Keihanshin - Kochi,Matsuyama 〈West Japan JR Bus,JR Shikoku Bus>,Osaka-Kobe - Tottori-Yonago <Nihon Kotsu>, long-distance routes in the Kyushu area).On the other hand, in the eastern Japan area, even night buses may be operated with 4-row seats if the distance is relatively short.
  • HokkaidoHighway bus in
    • SapporoMany routes to and fromHokkaido Central BusIt is operated independently or jointly with other bus companies whose managing company is Hokkaido Chuo Bus.
    • 4 routes with night trains to / from Sapporo (High-speed Hakodate,Starlight Kushiro, Dreamint Okhotsk, Eagle Liner) also uses vehicles with three rows of independent seats (some vehicles, rear four rows) for daytime flights.In addition, since night trains operate only at night, there are no breaks for passengers on the way (there are crew breaks).
  • Installation of special seats, etc.
    • Some routes have a few seats that are wider and more comfortable than other seats, and special seats that can be used by paying the normal fare plus a special charge.Konan Busof"Nocturne"Super Seat" (plus 3,870 yen),JR Bus Kantoof"Joshu Yumeguri"G sheet" (plus 500 yen),Nishitetsuof"Hakata issue"Premium seat" (plus 4,000 yen). JR Bus KantoWest Japan JR Busof"Premium DreamThe 1st floor is "Premium Seat" (plus 1300 yen) and the 2nd floor is "Super Seat" (plus 700 yen), and all seats are more expensive than other flights on the same route.
      • Not only does it make the seats wider and more comfortable, but there are also special seats that have partitions in front of and behind the seats and in the aisles to make them look like private rooms.Kaifu tourism"My Flora" andChinese busof"Dream sleeper"Such.
    • On the other hand, some routes are narrow and have seats that can be used at a lower price than regular fares. "Economy Seat" of "Hakata",Phoenix"Select sheet" etc.
    • Chuo Express BusOn the Ina / Iida Line, we offer a service that allows you to monopolize two adjacent seats by using a vehicle with four rows of seats and paying an additional fee to the normal fare. [1].
  • FareHowever, it is cheaper than the normal fare of railways, and the Japanese National Railways has a medium-distance daytime before the division and privatization.Express trainAll overLimited expressWith a direct train from the main line to the branch line and seatsnight TrainCombined with the reduction of flights by the Japanese National Railways and JR, it is gaining popularity among women and students, especially for flights of the old tour bus series, which are particularly cheap.
  • It is popular on the following routes as an inexpensive means of intercity transportation.Annoying and time consuming乗 り 換 えBecause you don't need to be seatedCommutingThere is also demand for[36].
    • Tokyo metropolitan area(Tokyo Station-Shinjuku Station) --Nagoya / Kyoto / Osaka / Kobe city and Tokyo --Sendai, Osaka city --Kanazawa / Okayama / Hiroshima / Fukuoka etc. Daytime flights (JR companies <JR Bus Tohoku・ JR Bus Kanto ・JR Tokai Bus・ West Japan JR Bus ・China JR Bus・ JR Shikoku Bus ・ JR Kyushu Bus> ・ Kintetsu Bus <Defense traffic> ofDaytime limited expressSuch)
    • Night flight (JR Bus Kanto / JR Tokai Bus / West Japan JR Bus> "Youth Dream", Keio / Kintetsu system <JR Bus Kanto / JR Tokai Bus / West Japan JR Bus> with 4 rows of seats similar to sightseeing busesTama Bus-Kintetsu Bus> "Casual Twinkle", Tobu / Kintetsu <Tohoku Express Bus・ Kintetsu Bus> "Flying Sneakers")
  • Obligation to fasten seat belts, etc.
    • Due to the revision of the law, express buses are not allowed to ride more than the capacity (standing seats are not possible), and all passengers are required to fasten their seat belts.

Provisions for administrative disposition

2000 eraIn exchange for the deregulation of bus business that took place in Japan, new provisions for administrative sanctions have been set for violations of various laws and regulations such as traffic violations.

violationIf you doRoad transport lawBased on Article 40, violation points (value obtained by dividing the product of the number of suspended units and the number of days of suspension of use by 10) are added for each business operator / business office depending on the situation, and when the cumulative number of violation points exceeds a certain level, 50 points or more The bus business will be suspended at, and the business permit will be revoked with 80 points or more.Therefore, the violating business operator is prohibited from expanding business (opening or entering a route) at the violating business operator or sales office for a certain period of time by order of the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the director of each transportation bureau, the director of the transportation branch office, and the director of the automobile inspection registration office. (This is called a mourning period. However, if requested by the local government, etc., the opening of a route may be permitted as a special case.[46]).

In principle, the cumulative period of violation points is 3 years.However, if there has been no violation in the two years prior to the administrative disposition at the business office where the violation points have not been added, and there has been no violation for two years at the business office where the violation points have been added, two years have passed since the administrative disposition. It disappears at that point.If the business is split or transferred, the cumulative number of violation points for each business or business office will be inherited.

Still more2004 (16)May 8The standard was revised to 2 months for dispositions of 5 points or less, 3 months for 19 points or less, and 6 year for 20 points or more and malicious violations from the previous 1 years. , The disposal of vehicle suspension has been tightened, and in the past, if the product of the number of suspended vehicles and the number of suspended days divided by 10 was not an integer, the fraction was rounded up, but after the revision, one of the suspended vehicles Changed to extend the number of days of suspension to an integer (it is more stringent because the number of days is extended by rounding adjustment).2006 (18)OctoberA bill was submitted to allow businesses that have left drunk driving to be suspended regardless of the number of violations.

ticket

Seat capacity system

Without seat selectionReleaseWill be done.In this case, advance reservations cannot be made, so when boardingBus terminalAt the window ofticketOr buy it directly in the car like a regular fixed-route busFareWill be paid.

You can board on a first-come, first-served basis and sit freely in the vacant seats.When it is fullAuxiliary seatWill be used.But,decreeAs a result, it is not possible to get on the highway while standing, so if the auxiliary seats are also filled, it will not be possible to get on and will be sent to the next flight.

Many short-distance (up to about 100 km) highway buses use this method.

Reservation capacity system

Basically the same as the seating capacity system, but specify the flight to board in advanceReservationIt is a principle to do.

You can sit freely in any vacant seat without specifying a seat, but if you make a reservation, you don't have to worry about not being able to get on because one seat is reserved for that flight.If you ride without making a reservation, the reserved passengers will be given priority, so you may not be able to ride at full capacity.In that case as well, the auxiliary seats will be used as in the case of the seating capacity system.When the auxiliary seat is also filled, it will be sent to the next flight.

Seat reservation system

Also known as a reservation system.As a general rule, advance reservations are made, and boarding flights and seats are also specified at the time of ticketing.Almost all night trains andPrivate railway・ This method is used on most of the medium- and long-distance routes of specialized buses.Tickets are available at bus terminals, etc.Bus operatorDirectly managed windowTravel clubPurchase in advance at.Most routes can be booked by phone before purchase.

How to purchase outside the bus terminal or travel agency

There are the following systems.

Green Window
JR busJR on some of the medium- and long-distance routes that are involved in the operationRailway station"" Installed inGreen WindowThere are routes that can be purchased at.In addition, it should be notedJR Shikoku BusIn some cases, the sale at the Midori no Madoguchi has been completely abolished.2016 As of January,JR Bus TohokuThen,Green WindowIt is clearly stated that it will be handled inNorth tohoku --There are two routes that operate between the metropolitan areas.Both are operated independently by the company, and telephone reservations are not made at the branch office in charge of the departure point on the northeastern side.The company's highway bus information center at the east exit of Sendai StationAccepted at).
Internet reservation system
For reservations with the spread of the InternetWebsiteA service that accepts inquiries and reservations for vacant seats began in the late 1990s and has become widespread among many businesses.Depending on the website, there are some that require registration for vacancy inquiry / reservation and some that do not require registration.After making a reservation, the window of the bus operator, or the following majorconvenience storeMulti-function terminal installed in (Multimedia station), Issue the application ticket, pay the fare at the cash register, and receive the ticket.Also, at the time of booking, on the reservation siteCredit cardPay by and get a ticketprinterIn some cases, it can be printed with or the contents of the ticket can be displayed on the screen of the mobile phone.
Multimedia station
As mentioned above, there are many routes where tickets can be reserved / purchased and issued at the multimedia stations installed in convenience stores.
In this case, you can search for a route or flight at the multimedia station and make a direct reservation, or you can enter the ticket for the flight reserved in advance by telephone or on the Internet site mentioned above, and enter the reservation number at the multimedia station. There is a way to issue a ticket (when you specify convenience store payment at the telephone counter or reservation site).The handling routes are different.In these cases, the application ticket output at the multimedia station when purchasing the ticket is brought to the cash register, the fare is paid, and then the ticket is issued from the printer connected to the cash register.
Example of highway bus ticket, boarding ticket, reserved ticket
Old tour bus conversion route

In the case of the new highway bus that has been transferred from the tour bus, it has its own reservation site different from the above, and there is no window and payment methodCredit cardOr, it is often limited to payment at multimedia stations and does not issue tickets.

Also, for highway buses that are not new highway buses, seats are also specified when the ticket is issued, but for new highway buses, seats are not specified at that time even if the fare is paid, and passengers will be asked when boarding on the day. Seats are set in consideration of gender, etc., and each passenger is often contacted.

Nickname of highway bus

In many cases, Japanese highway buses are nicknamed by flight or route.There are various reasons, but in the case of the seat reservation system, it is attached as a convenience for ticketing and paperwork, and in most cases it is attached as an advertisement for the route / destination.There are cases where even non-reserved seat routes are attached as an appeal for the route / destination.The following ways of putting on can be seen.

  • For each business establishment ... Granted to all highway bus routes at that business establishment (Hanshin Bus"Salad Express"Such.Also,Tour busThis is the case for most businesses that have migrated from. )
  • For each route / system ... Granted to all flights on that route / system (between Fukuoka and Kagoshima "Sakurajima"Such)
  • For each flight ... Granted for a specific flight on that route (Tomei Express Line"Tomei Liner" etc.)

Highway bus outside Japan

It is mainly used in developing countries where railroads and shipping routes are underdeveloped, but even in developed and semi-developed countries, many routes are often set in areas where expressways have developed.フィリピン,ペルー,Germany,Taiwan, South KoreaAre examples of each (Bus transportation in Taiwanas well as the Korean busSee also).Especially in Taiwan, where competition with railroads and aircraft is fierce, depending on the route, double-row seats, massage, etc.Hand towel・ Individualtv set・ A luxurious intercity highway bus with a bus girl operates 24 hours a day.

on the other handAmericaHas a long historyAlaskaHas a route network throughout the mainland except for "GreyhoundThere is a highway bus, but of the railroadAmtrakSimilarly, for the following reasons, intercity traffic is a high-speed aircraft (Cheap airline) Has become a sole place, and intercity buses are being eliminated.

  • Due to the large land area, it takes too much time as a means of transportation throughout the country (about the distance of a Japanese highway bus).San Francisco~Los AngelesIt takes about 8 to 10 hours between them, and it takes at least 3 days to transfer across the continent).
  • 1980 eraAs a result of the subsequent reduction of domestic airfares due to the liberalization of air travelaircraftHighway bus passengers are low-income and immigrants,BackpackerBecame the main body.
  • Bus terminal(Depot or Depot) Deterioration of the surrounding environment.In particularLos AngelesIt is said that in urban areas such as, it is often in a dangerous place at night.As a result, the middle class, centered on whites, has moved away.

EuropeThen, since most countries are connected by land, there are many international (within the EU) route buses, and bus companies from each country join.EurolinesThere is a collaborative organization called.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Example of public announcement of Chubu District Transport Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Then, "Transporting passengers by car that operates only at the stops on a route of about 50 kilometers or more, which is set exclusively beyond the area of ​​one municipality (including special wards. The same shall apply hereinafter). Routes related to what you do ",Transportation Economy Monthly Report June 10 Topics Then, "Route bus that uses the expressway for more than half of the service kilometer",Example of public announcement of Kyushu Transport Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Then, "On a route of about 50 kilometers or more, which is set exclusively beyond the area of ​​one municipality (including special wards), the operation of transporting passengers by car that operates only at the stops that stop. Aspect, rule (Road Traffic LawEnforcement Regulations) Article 10, Paragraph 1, Item 1 (b) Buses to which fares and charges apply ".
  2. ^ Highway bus reservation(Rakuten Travel) And Bass sagas(Style search) etc. (All routes handled by both sites were tour buses. Currently, there are no tour buses due to the introduction of the new system).
  3. ^ For example,Chiba KotsuNarita Airport Limousine Bus and Intercity Express Bus are called Express Buses
  4. ^ Morioka~MiyakoAmong"106 express busOrKumamoto~Oita OfYamabiko,Keihan Kyoto TransportationとKyoto Keihan Bus OfRitsumeikan University(BKC) line etc.
  5. ^ New direct control methodIf you are traveling on a long-distance route that does not have a service area or parking area, such as a section constructed in, get off the highway.InterchangeNearRoad StationSometimes I take a break at.
  6. ^ Depending on the bus route, the bus may stop in the service area or parking area for purposes other than resting passengers, such as changing crew members and checking vehicles.
  7. ^ "Developed a USB charger "Sumaport" for the inside of a bus-You can charge your smartphone while riding a sightseeing bus-”. LECIP CORPORATION (January 2016, 1). NovemberBrowse.
  8. ^ "How long will the bus last”. Vehicle News (January 2018, 3). NovemberBrowse.
  9. ^ In addition, due to partial openingHankyu busObtained a route license between the Ibaraki Interchange and the Kyoto Minami Interchange1963 (38)OctoberApply to1964 (39)OctoberObtained a license and started operation in December (Kyoto Express Line).When the problem of getting on the bus via the Meishin Expressway was unsolved, the Ministry of Transport said, "Because the starting and ending points have not changed and there is an expressway in parallel, express delivery is expected, and when the partial opening between Amagasaki and Ritto Measures were taken under the conditions of "things that do not lead to a decline in services on conventional routes" and "things that plan communication between major cities". (Hankyu Bus 12 Year History p.50)
  10. ^ In many cases, long-distance daytime flights at that time shared the same operation with night trains that travel on the same section, and the timetable setting tends to be decided by the convenience of the operator, which does not necessarily meet the needs of users. It was also a factor that it was not.
  11. ^ After the withdrawal of Tokyu Bus's night coach business in September 1998, it became a subsidiary in April 9.Tokyu TransceRe-entered the night coach business.
  12. ^ Air routes to ShikokuItamiとTokushima-TakamatsuThe line connecting the two has been forced to abolish after the opening of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge.
  13. ^ The daytime express trains are operated in common with night trains, but one of the reasons for their success was that they were set to a time zone that was easy to use as a daytime flight, rather than a timetable that prioritized the convenience of the operator.
  14. ^ In particularJR West Japan Limited expressTo expand, increase the number of trains, and speed up the operation section ofShiga ――The reason for the Keihanshin traffic is that the railway (JR) has an advantage over the highway bus.
  15. ^ a b About reduction of highway toll Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
  16. ^ Japanese highwayThere is no bus lane in Japan, but overseasGyeongbu ExpresswayThere is a bus lane in some sections of.
  17. ^ Naruto-Hanshin Line abolished on 21st The first high-speed bus route, "1000 yen" effect(Tokushima newspaper 2010 May 1)
  18. ^ High-speed bus abolished Successive "upper XNUMX yen" influence(Asahi Shimbun 2010 May 1)
  19. ^ The Naruto-Hanshin Line is abolished. Highway buses and other companies are also reducing routes.(Tokushima Shimbun 2010May 1)
  20. ^ Fukuoka Airport-Saga, reduced flights from March Nishitetsu Highway Bus(Saga newspaper 2009 May 7)
  21. ^ High-speed charge "up to 1000 yen" Unexpected harmful effects brought to the region J-CAST News September 2009, 9
  22. ^ Highway buses are not explicitly stated, but the discounted models include "buses operated by those operating the general passenger car transportation business."
  23. ^ Important notice to customers
  24. ^ "Dontaku" "Moonlight" one-way fare big discount campaign (PDF) Nishitetsu Bus Information
  25. ^ About the abolition of the highway bus Nagasaki-Osaka line (PDF, Nagasaki Prefecture Press Release (Transportation Bureau, Sales Department, Transportation Division) February 2013, 2)
  26. ^ Seibu Highway Bus Niigata Line Fare Table
  27. ^ Special night bus service, reduced operation even though it is the year-end and New Year holidays – Nihon Keizai Shimbun electronic version published on December 2018, 12 Viewed on November 27, 2019
  28. ^ Geiyo Bus, high-speed XNUMX system suspension – Chugoku Shimbun Digital Published October 2019, 10 Retrieved November 30, 2019
  29. ^ About the start of operation of the new highway bus from the night of July 7 Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAutomobile Bureau Passenger Division, July 2013, 7 (viewed August 30, 2013).
  30. ^ High-speed tour bus, 7% withdrawal ... Regulations will be tightened from August Yomiuri Shimbun, July 2013, 7 (viewed March 31, 2013).
  31. ^ "Keikyu withdraws from long-distance bus Tohoku / Shikoku / Sanin route (Nikkei)". NovemberBrowse.
  32. ^ "Virtual withdrawal from Keihin Kyuko Bus and long-distance night coach (TRAICY)". NovemberBrowse.
  33. ^ "About the abolition of the highway bus "Kanazawa / Toyama-Yamagata / Sendai Line" (Hokuriku Railroad News Release)". NovemberBrowse.
  34. ^ "Toyama Chiho Railway and Hokuriku Railroad Highway Bus Sendai Line abolished (Nikkei)". NovemberBrowse.
  35. ^ a b "Impact of the new coronavirus infection on related industries (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)". NovemberBrowse.
  36. ^ What is the reality of "highway bus commuting"? Is the ideal style realistic from a residential area to the city center? --Vehicle News (2018.04.23 version) Retrieved April 2018, 4
  37. ^ However, at present, the difference is not as great as before due to the route change in Koriyama city and the increase in the number of stops, and it tends to be slower than the railway during rush hours.
  38. ^ Sanko Bus Portal Site Convenient parcel post Retrieved February 2015, 8
  39. ^ "JR East Logistics, Regional Revitalization Logistics Start First flight from Aomori”. Logistics Nippon Shimbun (April 2016, 4). NovemberBrowse.
  40. ^ "About the start of transportation of agricultural products using highway buses (PDF)”. Regional Revitalization Logistics Limited Liability Partnership (April 2018, 4). NovemberBrowse.
  41. ^ "October 2016, 10 Collaboration with Hitachiota City Sale of fresh vegetables harvested in the morning in Nakano Ward”. Nakano Ward (October 2016, 10). NovemberBrowse.
  42. ^ "Direct delivery of vegetables by highway bus to Nakano Ward and Hitachiota City”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2016, 7). NovemberBrowse.
  43. ^ "Fresh, fast, cheap highway bus "Carpool" Vegetables Hitachiota → Tokyo Before noon”. Tokyo Shimbun (March 2016, 10). NovemberBrowse.
  44. ^ "We will start a business to expand sales channels for agricultural products in Hida Takayama by "mixed cargo and passengers" utilizing highway bus routes. (PDF)”. Keio Electric Railway (September 2017, 9). NovemberBrowse.
  45. ^ "Komagane City, Nagano Prefecture will be added to the business of expanding sales channels for agricultural products, etc. by "mixed cargo and passengers" utilizing highway bus routes! (PDF)”. Keio Electric Railway (September 2018, 6). NovemberBrowse.
  46. ^ As an example,Meitetsu busBefore the company splitNagoya RailwayIt was an era2003 I was banned from opening a new bus route for two years due to a concealment case of unlicensed driving, but if this is applied2005 Opened in JanuaryChubu International AirportSystem to and held in the same yearAichi ExpoThis exception was granted because the situation where the related transportation system could not be operated was taken into consideration, and the establishment of a new system was actually approved at the request of the local government.

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