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🚄 | Nostalgic railroad car looking back on the photo-sleeper limited express "Elm" "Hokutosei"-[Tohoku edition 003]


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Nostalgic railroad car looking back in the photo-sleeper limited express "Elm" "Hokutosei"-[Tohoku edition 003]

 
If you write the contents roughly
By the way, the sleeper limited express "Elm" was a sleeper limited express that was operated to complement the "Hokutosei" that had three round trips at that time during the high-traffic season such as summer vacation, and was operated between Ueno and Sapporo, which is the same as the "Hokutosei". ..
 

Last time, I told you about the changes in trains at Kuroiso Station, but this is the same for locomotives that pull passenger trains and freight trains.Right ... → Continue reading

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Sleeper train

Sleeper train(Shindai trainee)night TrainOut ofSleeperRefers to the train mainly.

Japan

Sleeper definition

Published in the 1960sJapan Transportation Corporationof"Timetable], "mainly sleeping car, all the trains are designated trains" was defined as. The same timetable uses the notation of "sleeper train" until the July 1963 issue, and has been changed from the August issue to "sleeper train".[1].. Therefore,Unreserved seatincludingSeat carIncludes a small number of sleepers in the formation.TsugaruWas not considered a "sleep train". However, after that, some trains of express ``Towada'' (Joban line) and ``Karikatsu'' (Nemuro main line), and express train ``Kitaguni'' (Hokuriku main line) after downgrading to a temporary train, mainly sleeper seats There are only 1 to 3 cars, and there are cases where even trains designated for all cars were not treated as "sleep trains" in the same timetable (on the other hand, one of the sleeper limited express "Meisei" and "Comet") For a while, the department was driving with a total of 4 seats, including 1 reserved seats for normal cars and 5 green car, but this is treated as a "sleep train"), the reason for which is unknown.

"Sleep limited express" is one of the "sleep trains"Limited express trainAnd20 series passenger carLaterFixed formationPassenger carby"Blue trainOr581/583 series train,285 seriesThere is a sleeper train by.Only the 285 series trains still exist.

History

Prehistory

There used to be a large number of sleepers, "all-BusesThere were many sleeper trains called "The United States of AmericaWith the exceptionRailroads around the worldでLong distanceThe night trains that operate betweenMassesSleeper cars and general vehicles for the purpose of catering to all passenger needs.Seat carIt was common to form a mixed formation of.

JapanIs no exception to that,1900 ToSanyo RailwayHas started operating Japan's first sleeper car,Sleeper trainThat hasn't existed for a long time. Even for trains dedicated to honor customers, both the sleeper car and the seat car were connected.

However, as an exceptional existence,Pacific WarUp toTokyo - KobeThe night train driving betweenExpress trainFor one round trip,Second class carOne other,First class・With a second-class sleeper carDining carThere is a time when it was organized only. This train has 17 trains and 18 trains for a long time.Train numberIs given,UpstreamAs a train you take,Celebrity trainIt was known by the popular name. There is a concept that this train is the first "sleep train" in Japan, but it has the character of "a night train exclusively for high-class passengers such as first and second class".Third-class sleeper carThe direction is slightly different from that of the post-war "sleep train" that was connected. In addition, this trainPacific WarBecomes more intense1943 It was abolished in (Showa 18).

The emergence of sleeper trains

After the war Of1950 eraSince then, the total transportation volume of railways in Japan has increased significantly. Also,1941 The third-class sleeper car that was temporarily abolished in1956 Resurrected to[2].. Relatively inexpensiveFareWith the availability of sleepers, the demand for sleepers themselves has increased. In addition, the third class sleeping car is1960 Second-class sleeper car,1969 ThanB sleeperIt became.

Tokaido Main LineWhole lineElectrification1956 withOctober OfTimetable revisionThen,Tokyo - HakatawhileLimited express train"AsakazeIs newly established. Sleeper cars occupy 10 cars in 5 cars[3]At that time, the ratio of sleepers was high. This was a good result. Further1957 OctoberFrom Tokyo- OsakaOf the overnight express "cometChange the composition of. 14-car train (including 1 carLuggage car), the seat car is only one last third seat reserved car, the remaining 1 carsMarone 40 typeSuch as a second-class sleeper carNahane type 10Half of the XNUMXrd class sleepers were. This train has a pre-war train numberCelebrity trainIt was the same as the 17th and 18th trains that were proclaimed as "," and the proportion of second-class sleepers was higher than other trains, so it was said that "the famous train has returned." There is also a way of thinking that this "comet" is "the arrow of a (genuine) sleeper train".[Source required].

1958 Japan's firstFixed formationPassenger carAs20 series passenger carAppeared and was put into the limited express "Asakaze". There are only three passenger cars in the 13-car train, and the rest are sleeping cars.[4].. In addition, the dining car电源One luggage car was included.

Next day1959 OctoberIsJoban LineVia(I.e. - AomoriOvernight express "HokutoWas converted into a sleeper train. In the 12-car train, there were 1 dining car, 2 luggage cars, 2 second-class sleepers and 6 third-class sleepers. Hazardous seat passengers use the express "TowadaIs being rescued as an all-car seat formation.

From the 1s, only one seat car was connected to "Comet" / "Hokuto"1960 eraFor the first sleeperExpress carBecause there was almost no. It is said that the measures to convert night trains to sleeper trains initially had the purpose of improving the habitability of the entire train and rationalizing maintenance and inspection.[Source required].

increase

Since 1956,National railwayIn the honor passenger train ofElectric train-RailcarBecame popular.

There were no sleeping cars in the trains and railcars of the time, and even when operated as a night train, all trains had to be ordinary seat trains. Therefore, to meet the demand for sleepers, it was composed of only sleepers.Passenger carbedLimited express-ExpressFor general seat demand, a method has been adopted in which trains and railcars for daytime express trains are also used for night trains and these are geeseed as express trains on separate flights. In this way, transportation capacity could be increased by newly manufacturing only non-powered sleepers.

This trend is1961 10 of the monthNational blank sheet diamond major revisionIt became remarkable from.Tokaido Main LineDaytime express train153 seriesWith the large number of trains being put in, the trains were turned into more trains, and the night trains were segregated. From 1961 to increase trains1965 Light-duty second-class sleeper (formerly third-class sleeper) car manufactured using the underframe of an old passenger carOhane 17A total of 302 cars were manufactured and rebuilt at the JNR plant. Still, the shortage was the old pre-war third class sleeper car, and it was enough to restore and adapt dozens of Suhane type 34 and others, which were modified to the third-class seat car Oha 30 type during the war. is there. Also, regarding the Nahane type 10 manufactured as the first third class sleeper after the war,1963 Became a slow train to form Nahanev 10 and all sleepers for sleeper trains were made. Furthermore, on the Tokaido Main Line, where there is a high demand for sleepers, the night train express train was replaced with a passenger car sleeper train.[Source required]

Tokaido ShinkansenEven after the night express train on the Tokaido main line declined due to the opening of theSanyo Main Line,Tohoku Main Line,Hokuriku Main LineIn such cases, geese of sleeper express trains and seat night express trains were held. on the other hand,Ou Main Line-San'in Main LineIn sub-mainline-class line districts where there is no demand for tailoring, passenger cars and express trains that combine sleepers and seats continued to operate as before.

Generalization

In the case of a sleeper special express train, the Tokaido/Sanyo/Kyushu line, which was the main setting section at the beginning, that is, Tokyo vs Sanyo/Kyushu cities are the main passengers, and the remarkable use of a sleeper car is also taken into consideration. Before opening the Tokaido Shinkansen1962 Trains with fewer seat car connections[5]Appears and the Shinkansen opens[6]4 years later1968 By the end, the connection of seat cars was completed, except for "Asakaze" 1 ​​round trip first class car Naro 20 type.[7].

In 1964, it was set as the first limited express sleeper outside Tokyo Station.HangIs connected to two second-class cars.1965 It was also set as a limited express train connecting to the Tokaido Shinkansen at the first departure and arrival in Kansai.Dawn"A second-class car has also been set.

However, due to the development of the daytime limited express train network by train in the Sanyo / Kyushu area and the Tohoku area, the number of users of 20 series seat cars gradually decreased, and "Akatsuki" abolished the connection in 1968.Even in the former, the passenger car of "Hakutsuru" was changed to via the Joban Line.YuzuruTwo cars connected to1970 Has been abolished. For this reason, of the 20 series passenger cars, most of the seat cars were converted into sleeping cars, and the only vehicles that completed the seat car were three Naro 20 series for the "Asakaze".

Incidentally,1967 It is a sleeper train that started operation in581 seriesSo, the second-class car uses a structure intended to be used as a seat in the daytime and as a sleeper at night, and there were provisional operations at the beginning of the appearance, and the first-class car was not manufactured for both the seat and the sleeper. However, it became a full-scale operationOctober 1968, 10 timetable revisionBy the time the development of a seat that doubles as a sleep was not in time,1969 With the abolition of the grade systemGreen carAbout the name change)A sleeper) Was manufactured as a seat car instead. Therefore, in connection with day trains, one car is often connected at all times, and it was in a state of connecting seat cars even during night driving.

decline

Since 1975, in addition to a significant increase in fares and charges,Shinkansen,highwaynetwork,Air routeAs a result of the development of high-speed transportation network, the number of passengers for night trains including sleeper trains (particularly those for business purposes such as business trips for business and public use) has drastically decreased, and compared to the 1960s when it was at its peak. Customers have decreased significantly.

Incidentally,1980 eraFrom the latter half, the passenger car sleeper limited express,Express BusThere is a case in which only one seat car is connected for the purpose of countering. In terms of pure seat cars, "Akatsuki" and "Naha"There was a "legato sheet", but "Akatsuki"2008 May 3Since it was abolished as a result, there are no corresponding cases. Also,"AkebonoWas connected to a vehicle called "Goron and Seat" (simple sleeper), which was treated as a seat car without a blanket or yukata while using a sleeper car.

further"Sunrise Izumo-SetoIn addition, a vehicle (simplified sleeper) called "Nobinobi Seat" is connected, which is treated as a seat car but can be laid down with a blanket.

Seikan TunnelA sleeper limited express that connects the metropolitan area Keihanshin and Hokkaido that appeared after the openingHokutosei""Twilight expressWas still very popular in 2013, when other sleeper trains were almost destroyed. However, due to the decrease in passengers due to competition with aircraft and the aging of vehicles,Akebono”Was abolished by the timetable revision on March 2014, 3 (end of regular service/temporary train), and “Twilight Express” was also abolished by the timetable revision on March 15, 2015. At the same time, the regular operation of "Hokutosei" has also ended, and the temporary operation of "Hokutosei" has also ended on August 3, the same year.

Specialization for travel purposes

Since the 2010s when it lost its competitiveness as a means of transportation, it is not a means of transportation that makes effective use of inactive time at night andTrain travelThe role of the train is changing, and trains with such a concept (“cruise train”) are being planned and introduced. JR Kyushu is a luxury sleeper train that goes around Kyushu.Nana Star in KyushuStarted operating from October 2013, 10. Similar trains are also available on JR EastTRAIN SUITE Shikishima(Transuit Shikishima)" started operation on May 2017, 5[8][9][10], Also in JR West JapanTWILIGHT EXPRESS Ruifu(Twilight Express Mizukaze)" started operation on June 2017, 6[11][12].

In addition, after June 2016, ``CassiopeiaFrom "Ueno-Sapporo", it has been decided to resume operation as a tour train under the name "Casiopea Travelogue"[13].

From September 2020, 9, JR West will announce "WEST EXPRESS Ginga”Has started operation. However, although it has facilities close to a sleeper, it is treated as a coach and is not a "sleeper train".

The United States of America

19st centuryFrom the end of20st centuryIn the middle ofThe United States of AmericaThen, the ratio of railway transportation to passenger movement was very high.

It takes several days due to the size of the countryTrain travelNaturally, the economy was relatively high, so demand for sleepers was high, and the railway companyPullmanIn partnership with a company that owns sleeping cars, etc., we actively operated passenger trains that connect sleeping cars.

Above all, the east coast line that was in high demand,ChicagoとLos AngelesFrom the end of the 19th century, we will not connect seat cars on routes connectingPullman sleeperIt was normal to operate the only passenger train "all-Pullman".

As a train famous as a sleeper train,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クAnd Chicago20th century limited express (The 20th Century Limited)", "Broadway Limited Express (Broadway Limited)",WashingtonAnd ChicagoCapitol limited express (Capitol Limited)", with New YorkNew OrleansTied "Crescent (Crescent Limited), with ChicagoSan FranciscoTied,Overland limited express", with ChicagoLos AngelesTied "California Express (California Limited)", "Super chief (Super Chief)", which connects Los Angeles and San Francisco.LarkAnd the like. The use of Pullman sleepers usually required first-class fares, and offered only full-course dining cars and luxury lounge cars for high-class passengers only. For some trains1930 eraSince then, all cars have been made into sleeping rooms. These trains were connected not only to seat cars, but also to "western trains," which were mainly connected to trains heading to the west, and which were available at normal fares and cheaper sleeper fare.

World War IIThe later spread of airplanes had a major impact on US rail passenger transportation. The number of passenger trains has drastically decreased, and seat cars are now connected to the trains that were previously used only as sleepers.1967 , The seat car was connected to the "Broadway Limited Express" which remained as "all-Pullman" until the end, and the sleeper train disappeared from the United States. The current Amtrak night trains are all sleeper/seat combined trains.

European countries

Apart from sightseeing trains, sleeper trains are actively operated and are now called hotel trains. Each small room is equipped with a shower, toilet, and washbasin. Ellipsus, which connects Madrid Barcelona and Paris-Milan-Zurich, is a typical railway.

BelgianGeorges Nagelmackers (1845-1905)1872 Was established inInternational sleeper company(Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits, commonly known as Wagon Li in Japan) has succeeded in operating private room sleepers on railroads in European countries. According to the company's vehicleOrient Express (L'Orient-Express)", "Tran Blue Trains such as (Train Bleu) are mainly composed of sleepers and have gained worldwide fame as luxurious and convenient trains.

After that, the Orient Express was abolished and the sleeper trains in France, such as Tran Bleu, also consisted of couchettes and second-class reclining seat cars.Corail RenaireWas replaced by. The number of other trains connecting seat cars has increased, and what remains as a sleeper train now isEuro night OfArtesianite(Between France and Italy), "Berlin Night Express" (Berlin - Malmowhile),City night line"Aurora" (Copenhagen - Basel(Pause), etc.

India

Vast landIndiaThere is also a sleeper train.Wealth differenceThere are problems such asIndian railwayIn most trains, seat cars are connected, but at the same time, the sleeping car has a high specific gravity due to the long driving time.

In particularLarge Durney ExpressIs all carsAir conditionIt has been known as a luxury train using an attached sleeper car. Recently in IndiaMiddle classThe number of users is increasing rapidly due to the growth of. for that reason,Japanese blue trainClose toLimited express trainIs virtually approaching.

In addition, Indian express trains consist of about 20 cars, with the exception of the two to three seat cars, which often consist of sleeping cars.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ See each item of "Timetable" of Japan Transportation Corporation. Changed when the August 1963 issue was recombined with 8 pages.
  2. ^ "Is this all right? Night trains" p.24
  3. ^ Asakaze (train) #19561119
  4. ^ Asakaze (train) #19581001
  5. ^ "Mizuho" 20 series initial organization chartSee, but has been operating since before"Sakura" and "Hayabusa"Compared with, there is no first-class seat car, and instead a second-class sleeper car is connected.
  6. ^ Before the opening of the Tokaido Shinkansen, many people used 20 series coaches as the first train and the last train in sections such as Tokyo-Nagoya and Keihanshin, but with the opening of the Shinkansen, those users have been transferred to the Shinkansen. It was.
  7. ^ In addition, it will be the successor of the first-class car of "Asakaze"Green carConnectionSanyo ShinkansenAll pass1975 It ended in March.
  8. ^ The journey begins to feel "a high-quality experience only for you to enjoy Japan". -New cruise train construction- June 2013, 6 JR East Press Release
  9. ^ The journey begins to feel "a high-quality experience only for you to enjoy Japan". ~About train name of cruise train~" (PDF) (Press Release), East Japan Railway Company, (October 2014, 10), http://www.jreast.co.jp/press/2014/20141005.pdf NovemberBrowse. 
  10. ^ The journey begins to feel "a high-quality experience only for you to enjoy Japan". "TRAIN SUITE Shikishima"-Starting date, operating schedule, details of operating route, starting acceptance of travel products-" (PDF) (Press Release), East Japan Railway Company, (October 2016, 5), http://www.jreast.co.jp/press/2016/20160502.pdf NovemberBrowse. 
  11. ^ [Railway] World Heritage Tour by Luxury Sleeper Train... Planned by JR West Yomiuri Shimbun May 2013, 5
  12. ^ "About the train name of the new sleeper train and the cook who supervises the food" (Press Release), West Japan Railway Company, (May 2015, 2), http://www.westjr.co.jp/press/article/2015/02/page_6815.html NovemberBrowse. 
  13. ^ "Railway opening 140th anniversary, "Adults' Holiday Club" members only, Tohoku support special tour "Cassiopeia Cruise" release-sleeping train "Cassiopeia" first trip around East Japan on the Sea of ​​Japan route" (Japanese) (PDF) (Press Release), East Japan Railway Company, (July 2012, 7), http://www.jreast.co.jp/press/2012/20120715.pdf NovemberBrowse. 

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