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🚄 | Taisho era station building at Shinshimashima station


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Taisho era station building at Shinshimashima station

 
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Even now that the new islands and islands have been abolished, some of the railroad tracks that have existed since the Taisho era still remain.
 

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Taisho

Taisho(I want toIt is,Japan OfEraone of.

MeijiAfter,ShowaBefore.Dahua245th since then[Note 1]It is the era name of.Emperor TaishoIs the reigning period of1912 (First year of the Taisho era)May 7から1926 (Taisho 15)May 12Until.

For the first time as a Japanese era, the entire period from the first year to the final year, 15 yearsGregorian calendarWas used.The period when the era was TaishoJapanese history period classificationAs,Taisho era(GreatTo say[1].

Change

Rescript of the Taisho era (July 1912, 45 (Meiji 7))
The first year of the Taisho era, after July XNUMX, XNUMX, the ancestral sect Enforcement of the master of the family (Omitted below)[2]
  • 1926 (Taisho 15)May 12 --Emperor Taisho died at the age of 47, and his eldest son, Prince Hirohito (later)Emperor Showa) Was practiced at the age of 25ShowaRevised to.The same day was "December 12, 25".In addition, Prince Hirohito1921 (Taisho 10)May 11Since then, Emperor Taisho's illness has become seriousregentIs serving.

Source

The origin of the Taisho era is "I Ching"Hexagram"LTorupositive, Amano Michiya ”(The right thing to do is the way of heaven). "Taisho" has been played four times in the past (""Motohiro""Compliance""Manji""SacrednessAt the time of era change[3]) I was nominated, but was adopted for the 5th time.

According to the "Taisho Emperor Jitsuroku", there were "Taisho", "Tenko", "Xinghua", "Eiyasu", "Inui", and "Akitoku" as new era proposals to replace the Meiji era. It was decided in the Taisho era by the deliberation of the Privy Council, focusing on "Taisho", "Tenko" and "Xinghua".

Mori OgaiIn writing the "Era Name"Kako TsurushoIn the letter addressed to "Taisho"Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAlthough it is used in China and does not carry money, it dislikes the era name of the "positive" character in China. The letter "positive" can be read as "one-size-fits-all", so it is unconfirmed that we should look for an example that was destroyed with the letter "positive". "[4].

Features

The Taisho era (1912-1926) refers to the period during which Emperor Taisho reigned.

Japanese history period classificationIs usually (Ichigen systemBefore),Old tomb-Asuka-Nara-Safe-Kamakura-Muromachi-Azuchi-Momoyama-EdoIt is a name given by the center of the administration.The Taisho era (the number of years is 15 years from the first year of the Taisho era to the 15th year of the Taisho era, and the period is1912 ~1926 14 years)Japanese historyIt is the shortest period division in.


Twice in the Taisho era[5]Extend toGuardian movement(Constitutional defense movement) has occurred since the Meiji eraTranscendental CabinetPolitical system is shaking,Political partyThe power will advance.They areTaisho democracyCalledYukio Ozaki-Dog breedEt al.[6]Became the leader.

Taisho democracyTimes1918 (7th year of Taisho)Rice riotOften distinguished before and after, but for the first time in the same year of the rice riotsKnighthoodNon withoutEthnic familyIs a classHouse of RepresentativesHave a seat inTakashi Hara(Nicknamed "Principal Minister of the People") is a full-fledged political party cabinet (=Hara Cabinet) Was organized.

Hara is a politician with an outstanding political sense and leadership.Education"Improvement of the system", "Transportation"Maintenance of institutions", "industryandtradeTradePromotion ","National defenseWe promoted the four major political platforms of "enhancement ofCommon election lawIt ended without reforming as much as expected by the commoners during its appearance, such as opposition to1921 (Taisho 10)Otsuka StationWas a memberYuichi NakaokaByTokyo StationOn the premisesassassinationWas done (Takashi Hara assassination case).

Before and after thisGeneral selection exerciseIs activated,Hiratsuka Raicho,Fusae IchikawaLanoWomen's suffrageThe exercise was also active.

1925 (Taisho 14)Takaaki Kato CabinetBelowCommon election lawWas established, but at the same timeRussian RevolutionIn Japan due to the outbreak ofSocialism-CommunismFrom a sense of caution about the rise of thoughtPublic Security ActWas enacted.The speech world is also booming and has an imperial familyMonarchyDemocracyTried to eclecticYoshino Sakuzo Ofdemocracy[7],Tatsuyoshi Minobe OfEmperor Organization TheoryEtc. appeared.

1921 (Taisho 10)May 11Prince Hirohito became ill due to the worsening of the condition of Emperor TaishoRegent PalaceIt became.It was a powerful eraMeijiFrom the momentum to review the timesEmperor MeijiEmpress ShokenEnshrineMeiji JinguWas founded on November 9, 1920 (Taisho 11)[8].

1923 (Taisho 12nd year)Yuzaburo KatoEight days after the prime minister died during his tenureGreat Kanto EarthquakeThe capital, Tokyo, was devastated, but it soon recovered.After the earthquakeYamamoto GonbeiFormer Prime Minister returns to power again,Second Yamamoto CabinetWas established.After that, the second constitutional movement (constitutional defense movement) took place.Three guardiansThe Takaaki Kato Cabinet was established as the Cabinet.

Japan tooAlliesAs on the side of the winnerStrong line"Five powersBecame a member ofWorld War ILater,Versailles-Washington systemAdaptive toKijuro ShimeharaBy Foreign MinisterZiyuan diplomacy(Takaaki Kato Cabinet) was deployed andRepublic of ChinaNon-intervention in domestic affairs,Soviet UnionCertain, such as establishing diplomatic relations withDove・ Showed internationally cooperative colors.

In the Taisho eraFeudal clanLed the CabinetEdo PeriodBornelder statesmanIn an era when we retired from politics and passed awayHigher educationThe generation of people trained by the institution became the center of society.[9].

AbroadWorld War IAs a result, a revolution overthrowing the royal government took place.Of the defeated countryGermany,オーストリアReconciled with Germany from the Allies and withdrew from the frontロシアThe monarchy was abolished.Russian RevolutionThen the world's firstSocialist country OfSoviet UnionWas established.In germanyWeimar ConstitutionUnderGermany(Weimar Republic) Was born.The establishment of a republican nationdemocracyWas considered a victory.

However, the birth of the republic in Japan has the meaning of abolishing the emperor system and the imperial family, and be wary of the spread of communism by taking advantage of the growing labor movement.Public Security ActWas enacted.The abolition of the monarchy in many countries was an excuse.CommunismThought is JapaneseIntelliInfluencing the layers, in the Taisho eraIntellectualIt is,Remodel-innovation-revolution-維新4 types of political movementsloganListed in.

As a characteristic of culture and customs,Modern cityUrban culture, with the development of the economy and the expansion of the economyPopular cultureHas blossomed and entered a glorious era called "Taisho Modern"[10]..The number of women working has increased, and until thenFemale workerInstead of, such as a telephone operator or a female clerk, "Occupational ladyNew professions such as cafe women's salaries, bus girls, department store clerk, female doctors, and movie actresses have become popular in Tokyo.Yokohama,Osaka,KobeAnd so onlarge company,Foreign-affiliated companiesWork forUniversityGraduation and high incomeWhite collarAppeared, with haircut and western clothingMoga(Abbreviation for modern girl. Men are mobo) has appeared[10].

Throughout the Taisho era, this kind of enjoyable culture is born in the city, but on the other hand,SlumFormation, outbreak of public turmoil,UnionAnd a peasant union was formed,Labor disputeSocial contradictions have deepened, such as intensifying.

Constitutional movement and politics

1911 (Meiji44 years)Second Saionji CabinetJapan's national finances were very bad when it was established,Chugoku OfXinhai RevolutionStimulated byarmyWas annexed in the previous year as a measure against the anti-Japanese movement.KoreaTo be stationed inExpansion of 2 divisionsStrongly urged the government.AusterityOf policySaionji public aspirationRefused this, and the government and the ruling party (Constitutional society) And the Army, many people were indignant at the Army's domineering, and the momentum for political reform increased.Also1912 (Meiji 45 / Taisho XNUMXst year)May 7ToEmperor MeijiDemise of the crownEmperor TaishoIs enthronedTatsuyoshi MinobePublished "Constitutional Lecture"Emperor Organization TheoryAnd advocating the political party cabinet theory also made the people expect new politics.

1912 At the end of (Taisho 2st year), protesting that the expansion of two divisions was not approved by the Cabinet,Yusaku UeharaMinister of the Imperial Japanese Army resigns aloneEmperor TaishoSubmitted to the ArmyMinister of the Military Active military systemThe Saionji Cabinet was forced to resign because he did not recommend his successor.BehalfChoshuMarriage of State and Army ElderKeitaroBut just took officeMinisterSamurai chiefResign3st Katsura CabinetWhen organizing, ignoring the principle of "Fuchu Miyanaka"MiyanakaTo change from the position ofFeudal clanThere were criticisms that the forces were trying to monopolize the administration with the new emperor.[11].

Rikken Kokumint OfDog breedConstitutional society OfYukio OzakiOpposition forces led byNews (Chinese)In addition, with the addition of commerce and industry and intellectuals in urban areas, the movement to "defeat the clan and defend the constitution" has spread nationwide (First Constitutional Movement).KatsuraConstitutional DoshikaiI tried to counter this by organizing myself, but the Constitutional Movement was only getting stronger.1913 (Taisho 2), while the people surrounded the parliament, he resigned in just over 50 days (Taisho XNUMX).Taisho Political Change).

After Katsura,SatsumaFromNavygeneralIsYamamoto Gonbei Constitutional societyOrganized a cabinet in the ruling party.The Yamamoto Cabinet will reorganize the administration andCivilian appointment orderRevised to open the way for political party members to become high-ranking bureaucrats, and to change the active military officer system of the military ministergeneralExpand your qualifications toOfficials-MilitaryI tried to expand the influence of the political party on1914 (Taisho 3) Corruption of senior Navy officials over the import of foreign-made warships and weapons (Taisho XNUMX)Siemens scandal) Was discovered, the protests of the urban people increased again, and he was forced to resign.[12].

I saw thisYamagata YuhoEt al.VeteranIs popular among the common peopleOhte ShigenobuIn a hurry to recommend to the successor prime minister,Second Okuma CabinetWas established.OkumaConstitutional DoshikaiDeparted as a minority ruling party,1915 (4th year of Taisho)electionThe ruling party such as Rikken DoshikaiConstitutional societyOverwhelmed.As a result of this2 divisions expansion planPassed the parliament.Also in the same cabinetWorld War IIs outbreak and alliesThe United Kingdom German EmpireWhen Japan declares war onJapan-UK AllianceDeclared war on Germany for the reason of the German colony in ChinaQingdao,Shandong,Southern Ocean IslandsOccupied part of[13]..Then, taking advantage of the fact that European countries cannot afford to intervene in the Chinese issue due to the war,1915 (Taisho 4nd year)Yuka ShikaiTo the governmentTakaaki KatoThe Foreign Minister has submitted twenty-one requests (Request for 21 articles from China).

In the subsequent Terauchi administration, the Beiyang Clique, who succeeded the Go administration,Duan QiruiGive the Cabinet a huge loan (Nishihara Loans), Strived to expand Japan's powers in China across politics, economy and military.To retain interests in the Far East4th Japan-Russia Agreement,The United KingdomMemorandum of understanding,Correspondence AmbassadorKikujiro Ishii OfIshii-Lansing AgreementConcluded.1917 (6th year of Taisho)Russian RevolutionSeemed as an opportunityTerauchi Cabinet TheNorth Manchuria-PrimoryeI tried to expand my power toSiberian troops).

Masateru TerauchiAgainst the Transcendental CabinetConstitutional societyWhen was formed, Prime Minister Terauchi1917 Dissolved the House of Representatives in (Taisho 6),electionAs a result, the Rikken SeiyukaiConstitutional societyon behalfHouse of RepresentativesBecame the first party of.Rapid due to the warinflationSiberian troopsRice prices soared in Japan due to the hoarding of rice in anticipation1918 (Taisho 7) In AugustToyamaNewspapers report that housewives demanded a bargain sale of rice in a fishing villageRice riotSpread all over the country.In addition, there was a movement to improve the treatment of workers and reduce tenant fees for tenants.[14].

The government finally subdued it, but Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, who promoted the Siberian intervention,1918 (Taisho 7)May 9Resigned to.

Elders who witnessed the power of the popular movement finally admitted the party cabinet,Constitutional societyPresident'sTakashi HaraTo the Prime Minister,1918 (Taisho 7)May 9Is the first full-scale political party cabinetHara CabinetWas established.Ethnic familyHara, who was not, was called "Principal Minister of the People" and was familiar to the people.Against the backdrop of increasing demand for universal suffrage, Hara expanded his party's power while raising the status of the political party, and built a deep relationship with large capital and landowners.He also tried to reduce the political power of the elders while avoiding conflicts with the elders.However, Hara continues to refuse the introduction of the universal suffrage system, contrary to public expectations, as "a threat to the organization of today's society."[15], Reduced the tax qualification for voting rights to 3 yen or more,Single-seat constituency systemIt was limited to the election reform to introduce.These have led to public distrust as "party interests".Also on the diplomatic side1919 (Taisho 8) Japan-China army clashes in ManchuriaKanjoko caseOccurs.1920 (9th year of Taisho)Amako Port IncidentThen the Japanese residents and the Japanese troops stationed thereRed ArmyChinese armyThe cabinet was blamed for being killed.1921 (Taisho 10) On November 11, Hara was assassinated by railroad worker Konichi Nakaoka at Tokyo Station (Taisho 4).Takashi Hara assassination case).

Then became the president of SeiyukaiKosei TakahashiBecame prime ministerTakahashi CabinetTried aggressive policies in response to the economic downturn, but this caused internal conflicts, raising expectations for the Kenseikai, which appeals for austerity and universal suffrage.On the diplomatic side, in early 1922 (Taisho 11)Washington ConferenceThe Washington system was established in Asia.As a result, internationalism has strengthened in Japan as well.The Takahashi Cabinet collapsed due to internal conflict, and was replaced by Admiral, who had full authority over the Washington Conference.Yuzaburo KatoOrganized a cabinet with Seiyukai as the de facto ruling party.Kato performed naval disarmament in accordance with the Washington Naval Conference agreement, and furtherYamanashi HanzoBy the Minister of the ArmyYamanashi disarmamentThe army disarmament called[16].

After Kato's illness, in the crisis of the Great Kanto EarthquakeSecond Yamamoto CabinetYamamoto, who returned to power after being established, appealed for the need for a national unity government and the adoption of universal suffrage, but could not obtain the cooperation of the Seiyukai.Toranomon IncidentWas forced to resign after taking responsibility for[16].. continueAristocratWas the motherKiyoura CabinetWas established and showed an anti-party political attitude, but in opposition to it, the House of RepresentativesConstitutional society-Innovation club-SeiyukaiThe three factions ofSecond Guardian MovementCaused1924 (13th year of Taisho)electionThen.Three guardians(Kenseikai, Seiyukai, Kakushin Club) won a big victoryCabinet of the Three GuardiansAsTakaaki Kato CabinetWas established.Since then, it has become customary for the leader of the first party of the House of Representatives to serve as prime minister (Constitutional road[16].

The Kato CabinetUgaki Disarmamentと 呼 ば れ るTakada Army Division-Toyohashi Army Division-Okayama Army Division-Kurume Army DivisionWith the cost of reducing troops by reducing the number of four army divisions and reducing the number of officerstank-Automobile-aircraftな ど20st centuryPlace a large amount of military equipment introduced inarmyModernized and secondary school (currentlyhigh schoolThe curriculum of the boys' school above (almost equivalent to the course) was provided with military training, and the excess officers were made instructors.[17]1925 (14th year of Taisho),Common election lawTo all adult males over 25 years old regardless of the amount of tax paidVoting rightGive boysGeneral electionWill be realized.However, there were restrictions such as not allowing women's suffrage and not allowing the right to vote for the poor.[18]..Universal suffrage was expected to play a role as a safety valve for the "revolution," but at the same time, eight years ago.Russian RevolutionSince there was a possibility that it would become the "ignition point of the revolution" like this, at the same time as the general election lawPublic Security ActIs established, and "National bodyStrict crackdown on banning activities aimed at "transformation of private property" and "denial of private property" and joining such associations[19]..In addition, Royal Decree No. 1751925 (Taisho 14)May 5ByKorea,Taiwan,KarafutoThe Peace Preservation Law will also be enforced.However, the realization of universal suffrage paved the way for proletarian parties to advance into parliament, and in 1926 (Taisho 15)Labor Peasant PartyWas launched.Also in the same yearSecurity police lawArticle 17 was also abolished.On the diplomatic side,Soviet-Japanese Basic TreatyThe first socialist nation in the history of the worldSoviet UnionEstablished diplomatic relations with[16].

On December 12, the same year, Emperor Taisho died at the age of 25, and his eldest son, Prince Hirohito, practiced at the age of 47. The Taisho era, which lasted about 25 years, ended for 15 years.ShowaEntered the era of.

World War I and the economy

1914 (Taisho 3)World War IBroke out.ElderlyJun InoueCalled the opportunity "Tenyu" and entered the war because of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.Although the mainland and colonies were not damaged,AlliesAs a result of sending troops to Europe and causing a large number of deaths in the war, he became a member of the victorious country.

Immediately after the outbreak, it was temporarily due to the confusion over the expansion to the global scale.panicIt fell to the verge of death, but eventually replaced Japan with the European powers that were shaken by the war.AmericaBoth emerging nations are accelerating trade as production bases for goods,Japanese economyIs unprecedentedBoomAnd greatly developed the economy.Especially due to the global shortage of goodsfiber(spinningindustry·Fishing netManufacturing industry) etc.light industry,Shipbuilding-Steel industryな どHeavy industryWas a backward underdeveloped industry with dramatic developmentChemical industryIs also the largest輸入Due to the previous battle with Germany, production by the home country was required, and at onceModernizationHas advanced.Under these circumstances, many "Money"Appears.Also, government financesRusso-Japanese WarSucceeded in overcoming the financial difficulties that have continued since then[20].

But,1918 When the war ended in (Taisho 7), a reactionary recession occurred due to excessive capital investment and inventory retention.Furthermore, the lifting of the gold export ban that had been suspended during the war (so-called ""Gold ban”) Because I missed the timeBank of JapanIn large quantitiesFriStayedGold standardLost the function of currency adjustment by.Furthermore, due to the Great Kanto EarthquakeKeihin Industrial AreaFurther expansion of inventories due to the destruction ofEarthquake billAnd itsBad debtDue to the occurrence of the problem of economic recovery, the outlook for economic recovery remains completely uncertain.Showa financial crisis-World DepressionWill be welcomed.

Paris peace conferenceThen,Racial discrimination elimination planInsisted and gained the support of the majority of countries, but the United States,The United Kingdom,AustraliaIt was rejected by the opposition such as.at that timeAsiaFew inIndependent countryJapan wasLeague of NationsJoined the United States, United Kingdom,France-イタリアAs the world's first-class country alongside the five countries ofLeague of Nations OfPermanent memberWill be.To the Deputy Secretary-General of the League of NationsNitobe InazoHas been inaugurated.But it was a German colonyマ ー ャ ル ル(Japan isSouthern Ocean IslandsToSouth Sea AgencyWas set up in Japan)MandateAs a result of being done, JapanThe Pacific OceanAdvance into the region,フィリピン,Hawaiian IslandsDirectly with the United States that ownsterritory-WatersThe border between Japan and the United States has deepened, and the pressure of the United States has deepened the conflict between Japan and the United States.Japan-UK AllianceIs resolved, etc.Pacific War(Great East Asian War) Was also foreshadowed.

Earthquake reconstruction

1923 (Taisho 12) On December 9thGreat Kanto EarthquakeOccurred[21]..The capital city for this unprecedented catastropheTokyoWill suffer enormous damage[21]..After the earthquake, former Prime Minister Gonbei Yamamoto regained power,Second Yamamoto CabinetWas established.Of the new cabinetInterior MinisterBecameShinpei GotoWent up to a large-scale city plan for reconstruction after the earthquake.Taking advantage of the destruction caused by the earthquake, the city of Tokyo has been significantly improved since the Edo period, and road expansion and land readjustment have been carried out.InfrastructureHas been improved and has undergone a major transformation.

The streets that inherit the tradition of Edo were destroyed, leaving a part of it, and Tokyo becameSewerMaintenanceradioIt has undergone a major evolution into a modern city, with broadcasting beginning in earnest.But partly plannedParis,UKDue to various reasons, the construction of ring roads and radial roads was not carried out with reference to.The experience cultivated by this is after the warMetropolitan ExpresswayIt leads to the construction of.

culture

Performing arts culture

Japan's firstrecordHit withPopular songIt is assumedSumiko Matsuiof"Headband songA number of popular songs such as "" were born.jazzWas introduced to Japan in this era and developed as it was.Rakugo-Talk-can-Bunraku-kabuki-New school-New national dramaIntroducing Western theater to traditional Japanese theater such asShingeki movement(Art theater-Tsukiji small theater) Became popular[22],Showa periodDevelop intoEntertainment worldIs the basis ofAn actor-actress-singerNew professions such asPopular cultureThe prototype was born.Activity photo(Currentmovies) AndGirl opera(CurrentTakarazuka Revue) Appeared[23].

Urban culture

Russo-Japanese WarSince that time, it has been the center of economic cultureOsaka-KobePopular culture was established against the backdrop of the city (Hanshin Modernism), Spread all over the country.Many of the Japanese lifestyles that continue today are required to have roots in this era.On the other hand, in Tokyo in 1915 (Taisho 4)Ukiyo-eWhile reprinting the prints, newTraditional woodblock printsWas trying to createShozaburo WatanabeBy the initiative ofFriedrich Capelari Of水彩画TheNishiki-eOf windwoodblock printTaking advantage ofHashiguchi Goyo,Ito Shinsui,Kawase Hasui,Hiroshi Yoshida,Natori ShunsenByNew printActivities have started.This movement1923 (12th year of Taisho)Great Kanto EarthquakeLater, it spread nationwide, involving many emerging publishers, and continued until the Showa period.

道路,TransportationHas been maintained.Tram,Blue bus (Tokyo shared car),Entaro Bus[24]Such asShared busTraveled in the city.From the late Taisho era to the early Showa eraGreat Osaka eraToOsakaThen,TokyoA large number of private railway nets were completed earlier than before, especiallyKobayashi IchizoLed byHanshin Express RailwayBy skillful management technique ofBetween HanshinManyResidential satellite citiesHas appeared.

on the other hand,Sino-Japanese war(1894 ~1895 [Meiji 27-Meiji 28]), the best in the OrientTrading portHad becomeKobe PortThe latest Western culture, which has flowed into the city, was accepted and spread by the wealthy people in the satellite city, and modern art, culture, and lifestyle were born.After the Great Kanto Earthquake, Osaka and Kobe became more culturally prosperous due to the migration of cultural figures from Tokyo.Introduced Western-style life in urban areas in the middle of the Taisho eraCultural housingBecame popular as a general-purpose house.

Tokyo(Tokyo city) Then, in the Great Kanto Earthquake火災Due to the enormous damage caused byDowntown Edo PeriodWhile losing the cityscape of, the impact of the earthquake was generally smallMarunouchi,OtemachiBuildings with elevators were built one after another in the district, and a large office district for large companies and foreign-affiliated companies was established.People burned out in the downtown area moved to Setagaya, Suginami, and other areas that were purely rural areas, and moved Shinjuku and Shibuya from a mere red-light district.FukutoshinI grew up to.

1918 (Taisho 7nd year)Vocational schoolsIn the form of being promoted fromPrivate universitiesAroundOld universityTo authorizeUniversity decreeHigh school decreeWas promulgatedHigher educationThe institution is in placeTokyo Imperial UniversityHalf of the graduates of the university are now working in private companies, and the university graduates who work for large companies and foreign-affiliated companiesOffice workerBecame the main character of the masses.

Until the Meiji eraKimonoWas a shopLong-established store"One after anotherDepartment storeTransformed intoGinza TheDepartment storeIt has transformed into a city.wellUse of Kamado by YamakiMeiji Era OfoillampIs obsoleteWater supply-gas-ElectricalBecomes widespread.Shinzen marriage,Oomoto,Reiyukaiな どNew religionBecomes popular.For household appliancesFan-Electric stove・ Electric iron ・Electric stoveBecame popular[25].Tinplate,celluloidMade oftoyNew material toys have appeared.

Start of sports

Hakone Ekiden Tournament Shinzo KanaguriStarted with the efforts ofOlympic competitionBecame popular.1920 (9th year of Taisho)Antwerp olympicThen, in tennis as the first Japanese medalsilver medalWas won.Asahi ShimbunMainichi ShimbunbySecondary school baseballSports such as have started.Meiji JinguTo the outer gardenJingu Gaien Baseball StadiumWas created1926 In (Taisho 15), "Tokyo Roku University Baseball"Will become extremely prosperous.

Media development

Based in Tokyo, "Current news], [National newspaper], [Man morning reportThe main paper of 』declined due to the Great Kanto Earthquake and replacedOsakaHeadquartered inOsaka Asahi Shimbun], [Osaka Mainichi NewspaperHas surpassed 100 million copies and advanced to Tokyo, and countered it with "Yoritsu ShimbunHas also grown and laid the foundation for the newspaper industry, which is now known as the "three major papers."

1925 (Taisho 14) In March, in the three major cities of Tokyo, Osaka, and NagoyaradiobroadcastBegins, and new mass media will inspire society.

According to an article written about newspapers in the early Taisho era, Kensei Kashiwa said, "Newspapers are so useful." Together with the precious one, it has a terrifying magical power that influences the psychology of the crowd. "Also, in "The back side of the newspaper" in Etsaburo Mitsumoto's "Saddle and Desk: Sequel Tokyo Mamai Guri" (December XNUMX [Taisho XNUMX], Museijin Monosho) Without knowing, I don't know anything more than just the letters that appear on the surface. "The newspapers of the Taisho era had a great influence on people.

The appearance of automobiles

Because the railway was damaged by the earthquake, "Automobile"Was on the stage of urban transportation, and"Yen Taku"SuchTaxiWith the advent of, it will occupy a large position as a means of land transportation regardless of whether it is passenger or freight.In addition, not only the upper class and the wealthy class as before, but also the middle classAustinMainly imported cars such asPrivate carHas also begun to spread.

Food culture:

In urban areas, focusing on the newly emerging middle class,Western food"Was widespread"Cafe""RestaurantsHas grown and revolutionized the way restaurants should be.Curry and rice-Pork cutlet-croquette TheTaisho's three western foodsWas called[26][27][28][29][30][31][32]..Especially croquettesTaro Masuda Crowner[33]Of the song of the lyricsCroquette song (1917 (Taisho 6nd year)hit) Appeared, which affected the dining table of ordinary people who had nothing to do with Western food.Due to rice riotsRice priceAs a measure against soaring pricesHara Takashi CabinetAggressivelyBread OfSubstitute foodThe movement was developed.Bread became popular in the postwar period of the Showa period, but it became a Japanese-made Western food.Rice OfriceThe mainstream Japanese diet after the war was established in the Taisho era,Chinese cuisine OfChinese noodlesThe spread ofJapanese OfRehabilitationThere was exercise[34].Russian bread Russian RevolutionI came to Japan in exileWhite RussianIntroduced and spread by[35].1919 (Taisho 8)May 7 For the first time in JapanLactic acid bacteria drinkCalpisWill be released.Artificial ice has developed.ice cream·Bread·chicken rice-coffee-Ramune-Black tea-Cider-beer-キ ャ ラ メ ル-チ ョ コ レ ー トWestern foods became popular[36].A coffee shop,Restaurantsincreased.Showa single digitOvernoodles,canningSimple foods such as kind have developed[37].

Fashion

Western hair became popular among women, and seventy-three divisions and hair hiding were performed.Uniforms were used for schoolgirls.Boys are in the cellHakamaWas often used."Western style" that was not related to ordinary people until the Meiji eraBeauty salon","dance hallIs no longer rare in the cityModern boy / modern girlMen's men and women (Mobo Moga)DressIt was also in this era that[38]..On the other hand, the working class in rural areas (especially agricultural and fishing villages) rarely benefited from such modern culture, and the gap between urban and rural areas did not close.[39].

Academic research history

Kitaro NishidaSuch asKyoto SchoolWas the mainstream of scholarship.Oriental historyThen.Konan NaitoChantedTang Song TransformationThe argument was actively discussed. 1915 (Taisho 4nd year)Kitasato Shiba SaburoOf establishmentKitasato InstituteWas established.1917 (Taisho 6nd year)Business worldWith donations fromNational treasury subsidy, Etc. as financial resources,Semi-public and semi-private OfFoundationAsRIKENWas established.OtherAviation Research Institute(Researching aviation science at the Institute of Tokyo Imperial University)Institute for Materials Research(Kotaro HondaAt the suggestion ofTohoku Imperial UniversityEstablished in) ・Earthquake Research Institute(Earthquake and earthquake prediction research based on the lessons learned from the Great Kanto Earthquake) was established in the Taisho era.

Taisho literary history

In the literary worldNeorealism OfRyunosuke Ayukawa,Aestheticism OfJunichiro Tanizaki,furtherWarrior alley-Naoya ShigaEt al.Humanitarianism(Humanism) was the idealBirch schoolHas emerged.Modern by this timeJapaneseWas formed by the efforts of many writers.Poetry-WakaThen.Sakutaro HagiwaraCompleted the rhythm of a new colloquial free verse, and the style of Japanese writing that continues today is completed, in addition to the above,Nakazato Uesanof"OisoAnd '文藝 春秋』I also hit the managementHiroshi KikuchiLiterary works such as[40].

1 book in the publishing industryYenof"Yen bookSold explosively[41].1921 (Taisho 10)Komaki OmiBy the magazine "SowerWas first published, until the early Showa periodProletarian literatureIt developed into a movement.Also1924 (Taisho 13)Kaoru Oyamauchi Tsukiji small theaterFounded,New playWas established.Newspapers, doujinshi, etc. gradually became popular, and new paintings, music, photographs and "Activity photoWas calledmoviesEntertainment such as was gradually enhanced.At the podium, "Hototogisu』Builded a great force and boasted prosperity as the most influential magazine of conservative haidan.Soetsu YanagiRecommends Korean artFolk art movementAdvocated[42].

At the end of the Taisho eraKiyokata KaburagiFor "exhibition art" etc.PrintEtc.Desktop artWas advocated as.

社会 問題

Social work

At that time, discussions on social projects became active, and the first national management policy was held.Census 1920 It was carried out in (Taisho 9).After the rice riot, in the government and local areasSocial bureauandArea committee systemWas created one after another, and by those institutions, the city's poverty survey andPublic marketWas being installed.

Medical hygiene issues

Tokyo-OsakaIn urban areas such asWater supplyHas become widespread.It was very common until the Meiji eraInfant mortalityDecreased in the Taisho era.All over the worldPandemicCausedSpanish coldInfected 2380 million people in Japan (ratio to the population at that time: about 43%),Shimamura Hogetsu,Mt. Ooyama, In the royal familyTsunehisa TakedaDied, and about 39 Japanese died[43]

Educational total mobilization movement

In addition,1919 (Taisho 8)World War IUnder the initiative of the Ministry of Interior for the purpose of coping with changes in people's thoughts and lives triggered byCivil power development movementHas been started and laterEducational total mobilization movementFrom this time on, the nation's tendency to control every corner of the people's lives, which is a precursor to the situation, began to be seen.

Labor movement

The reason why social work became active in the Taisho era wasPeasant disputeFrequentlyLabor movementLarge-scale, etc.Local improvement movementIt has been pointed out that problems that cannot be solved by the conventional production expansion policy as seen in the above have become more serious.

Bunji SuzukiByFriendshipWas established,World War IDuring the periodInflationBy the progress ofRice riotThere has occurred.MoneyWas born, but the gap between rich and poor widened, causing a rapid increase.Labor disputeThe labor union such as the fraternity association was deeply involved in[44].

Buraku Liberation Movement

Taisho democracyVarious social movements were carried out by.

In the Meiji eraFour people equalityEven after that, discrimination against Buraku people remained.Meiji governmentPoverty alleviation, inadequate liberation policy, and dedicated to the peopleleatherIndustry etc.LivelihoodLosePoorThere was a prejudice from the peasant class of the former peasant status.Mankichi Saikou,Seiichiro SakamotoPlay a central role1922 (Taisho 11nd year)Nationwide companyWas formed[45].

Women's liberation movement

The liberation of women is shouted,Waitress-Department storeClerkbusGirlTelephone operator-theaterGuide ・Hairdresser-clerk-Japanese,English Oftypist-Interpreter-Babysitter-Caretaker-DoctorWork in societyOccupational ladyincreased.

General electionSince the target of the exercise was only men, female activists aiming to improve the status of women appeared.[46],New Women's AssociationWas established. Also,High school,UniversityThe number of female students going on to higher education has increased[10].

Korea annexation issue

Third movementByGovernor-General of KoreaSo farConstitutional police systembyMartial ruleReview,OnenessKorean Peninsula OfModernizationWith the goalCultural politicsIt was changed to.Koreans to escape povertyForeign landからInlandStowaway toKoreans in JapanConflicts with indigenous people and social unrest have become social problems due to the increase in the number of people.

Taisho Buddhist Movement

Buddhism was modernized under the influence of Western thought, and it became Buddhist thought.Western philosophyA Buddhist modernization policy was implemented to integrate the two.There was a monk's suffrage movement from the end of the Meiji era to the Taisho era.Political activity of monks is activeGiro Senoo New Buddhist Youth AllianceWas formed.Buddhist political groups actively engage in social movements, but they were suppressed by the military in the prewar period of the Showa period.At Tokyo Imperial UniversityIndian philosophySpecialized department1917 It was established in (Taisho 6).Inoue EnryōBuddhistsuperstitionDenyApparitionThere was research.1924 (Taisho 13nd year)Taisho Shinshu OkurakyoThe compilation of is started. [47]

Chronological Table

1912 (Taisho first year)
May 7,Emperor Meijidemise,Crown Prince YoshihitoIs practiced by the 123rd emperor.It was changed from the Meiji era to the Taisho era.Emperor MeijiGreat funeral ceremony.Nori NogiArmy generalCouple Martial deathTo do.Keitaro,3st Katsura CabinetEstablished.Constitutional Advocacy Association formed.Thermal power generationPull outHydropowerThe amount is number one.FriendshipFormation[48].. This yearRepublic of ChinaIn the year whenRepublic of ChinaIt is the same year as the first year of the Republic of China.
1913 (Taisho 2th year)
Taisho Political Change(First Katsura CabinetResignation),The 1st Yamamoto Gonnohye CabinetEstablished.The United States of America OfCaliforniaImmigration Land LawEstablished.Takarazuka Revue (laterTakarazuka Revue)birth.
1914 (Taisho 3th year)
Kagoshima OfSakurajimaIs largeeruptiondo itOsumi PeninsulaAnd land continuation.By external powerSiemens scandalDiscovered.Emperor Taisho's coronation celebration "Tokyo Taisho Expo"Begin. "Headband song"Fashion.Japan's firstDomestic carDebut.World War Ioutbreak,Japan-UK AllianceBecause ofGerman EmpireToDeclaration of war,AlliesJoin a member.Tokyo StationOpening of business.MitsukoshiKimono store is the first in JapanDepartment storeDeclared and built a modern store with elevators and escalators.
1915 (Taisho 4th year)
Japan Republic of China OfYuka ShikaiTo the administration21 articles against ChinaRequest.12th House of Representatives general electionRuling partyIs overwhelming[49]..Election interference occurs.1th National Secondary School Championship Baseball TournamentHeld.Emperor TaishoCoronation.Tokyo Stock ExchangeAnd unprecedented volume.
1916 (Taisho 5th year)
Yoshino SakuzoBut"Central public opinion"so"democracyProposed.Natsume SosekiDied.
1917 (Taisho 6th year)
May 4,13th House of Representatives general election(165 seats of Seiyukai, 121 seats of Kenseikai, 35 seats of Kuomintang, 60 seats of independents).Russian Revolution..With the United States on Japanese interests in ChinaIshii-Lansing AgreementConclusion.
1918 (Taisho 7th year)
Siberian troops.1918 US uproar.Konosuke Matsushita Bifurcated socketFor sale.Suzuki MiyoshiBut"Red BirdFirst issue.World War IThe end.Spanish coldEpidemic expansion (first wave).Warrior alley Miyazaki"New village"Constructed.University decreePromulgation.Tokio Marine Buildingcarry out.
1919 (Taisho 8th year)
Paris peace conferenceHeld.May 3ToKorean PeninsulaThird movement.
May 5ToRepublic of ChinaMay Fourth Movement.MoscowCominternFounding competition.May 7,Kanjoko case.CalpisReleased.Election law amendment.Held a national universal suffrage tournament. "Painopainopai(Tokyo section) ”fashion.
1920 (Taisho 9th year)
League of NationsEstablished.Amako Port Incident.New Women's AssociationEstablished.The first medical condition of Emperor Taisho is announced.Ueno ParkThe first in Japanmay Day.May 5,14th House of Representatives general election(278 seats of Seiyukai, 110 seats of Kenseikai,KMT29 seats ,, 47 independent seats), 1stCensus(Total population 7698, inland 8379).Meiji JinguConstruction work is done.May 11, Yukio Ozaki, Tsuyoshi Inukai, Saburo Shimada and others formed the Universal Suffrage Alliance for Political Innovation.
1921 (Taisho 10th year)
Zenjiro Yasudaassassination.Takashi Hara assassination case.Prince Hirohito's visit to EuropeImplementation andregentInauguration to.Motoko Hani OfJiyu GakuenWas founded.Spanish coldThe end of infection.
1922 (Taisho 11th year)
Washington ConferenceHeld, (Four-Power Treaty,Nine-Power Treaty,Washington Navy Disarmament Treaty).
Yamagata Yuho-Mori OgaiDied.Osaka-Nagoya city-YawataPublic sectorWorker demo.
Soviet UnionEstablished.
CominternAs Japan branchToshihiko Sakai-Yamakawa Hitoshi Japan Communist PartyFormed.
ア イ ン シ ュ タ イ ンCome to Japan.
1923 (Taisho 12th year)
Great Kanto Earthquake,National Spirit Promotion Niseki Suru Rescript] Is promulgated. "Boatman song"Fashion.Marunouchi Buildingcarry out.Kameido Incident.Gansu incident.Toranomon Incident.
1924 (Taisho 13th year)
Japanese Immigration Law US CongressEstablished with.Prince HirohitoKunimiyaQueen Yoshiko (laterEmpress Kasumi) And married, Queen YoshikoCrown PrincessBecomes15th House of Representatives general election(Three guardiansBig win,Constitutional society151 seats,Seiyukai105 seats,Innovation club30 seats,Seiyuhonto Party109 seats,Independent69 seats),Metric systemImplementation.Koshien Stadiumcarry out.Women's suffrageThe acquisition period formation alliance is formed.Second Constitutional Movement.
1925 (Taisho 14th year)
Public Security ActEnactment.
Common election lawEnactment.
Soviet-Japanese Basic TreatyConclusion.
The Japanese governmentSoviet UnionIs nationally recognized.
Japan's first radio broadcast.
1926 (Taisho 15 / Showa XNUMX)
May 11st Wakatsuki Cabinet(Reijiro WakatsukiPrime Minister,Constitutional societyCabinet) established.Labor Peasant PartyFormed.KoreaJune 6th Movement.Japan Broadcasting CorporationEstablished.May 12, Emperor Taisho demise, and along with that, Prince Hirohito practiced as the 124th emperor.Kobun incident.. Same dayShowaChanged to.

Comparison table with the Christian era

TaishoFirst year2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
AD1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
Zodiac signsRenziYin Water OxJia YinMaidenBingchenYin Fire SnakeNoonYin Earth GoatComplaintRooster
Taisho11 12 13 14 15
AD1922 1923 1924 1925 1926
Zodiac signsSkyGuihaiKoshiOtsuyuBing Yin
First year and last year period
First year of the Taisho era (1912): July 7-December 30 <12 days>
Taisho 15 (1926): January 1st-December 1th <12 days>

Evaluation of the Taisho era

The one that bears the Taisho era

Company

Place name (public facility)

Theme park

Cultural work name

Products

Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Northern and Northern Dynasties OfNorth morningIncluding the era name of.When excluded, it is the 229th.In addition, it is the 238th when excluding the era name only for the Southern Court.

Source

  1. ^ World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition "Taisho Era"
  2. ^ "July 45 | Taisho and Kaigen: History of Japan". OctoberBrowse.
  3. ^ "Meiji" is the XNUMXth honesty = the original era that was not selected, the most is XNUMX times, Jiji.com, February 2019, 02, 02:15.
  4. ^ "The man who invented "Showa" and Ogai Mori's obsession that influenced "Reiwa"". Contemporary businessKodansha (January 2019, 5). OctoberBrowse.
  5. ^ The first is1912 (Taisho 12st year) From December to the following year3st Katsura CabinetThe overthrow movement was held in various places around Tokyo.The second is1924 (Taisho 13) AprilKiyoura CabinetHe launched a movement to overthrow and demanded reform of the party cabinet, universal suffrage, and the House of Lords.
  6. ^ These two people who are the fighting spirit of the political party sideRepublic of ChinaHe affirmed Japan's privilege in the "21 demands" against. (Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959, page 15)
  7. ^ Translation of democracy (Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959, p. 14)
  8. ^ "Meiji Jingu Shrine and Postwar Reconstruction”. Meiji Jingu Respect Society. OctoberBrowse.
  9. ^ Yoshihisa Saraki "Visit the Taisho Era, the Original Scenery of Heisei Japan" "Taisho Generation" (Sankei Shimbun, 2002, pp. 178-181, Meiji People and Death Items
  10. ^ a b c "Cosmetic Culture" No. 8 "Taisho Modern" Paula Research Institute of Beauty and Culture, 2015
  11. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 190 pages
  12. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 193 pages
  13. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 196 pages
  14. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 202 pages
  15. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 16
  16. ^ a b c d "World Encyclopedia" (Heibonsha) "Taisho" item
  17. ^ "Illustrated Japanese History Handbook" p. 253
  18. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 225 pages
  19. ^ 1925 The newspaper (Taisho 14) published a critical commentary on the Peace Preservation Law and opposed it head-on in the editorial. In the "editorial" the law is "Human rights violationHe argued that it was "human rights suppression" and that even the lives and ideas of the people would be subject to crackdowns, leading to no freedom of assembly and association.The background to the enactment of the law was that it was considered as a policy to curb the rise of social movements and socialist movements after World War I and the Russian Revolution.AmericaIt is believed that the movement of global security legislation, including the Anarchist Control Law, had an effect. (Narita) Ryuichi "Taisho Democracy" Series Modern History of Japan ④ Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 1045> 2007 pp. 210-211
  20. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 200 pages
  21. ^ a b "9% of human damage is concentrated in Tokyo and Yokohama: Looking back on the Great Kanto Earthquake". Nippon Tocom (September 2019, 8). OctoberBrowse.
  22. ^ From Taisho to Showa Boys and Girls Japanese History Pages 202-207
  23. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 71 pages
  24. ^ "Meiji / Taisho / Showa Life (14) Taisho Life and Culture", page XNUMX, Shiobunsha
  25. ^ Shueisha Learning Manga Japanese History Taisho Era Taisho Democracy Page 125
  26. ^ Ayako Ehara-Hiroko Ishikawa"Commercial Study of Cooking Education from the Viewpoint of Home Economics Textbooks (Part 2) -Taisho Period-", Home Economics Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 1, Japan Home Economics Society, 1986, pp. 67-75.(From page 72)
  27. ^ Kenichi Shindo "What kind of fried food do you like?" Immoral gourmet "that makes you feel uncomfortable"Asahi ShimbunMorning edition dated August 2014, 8,Weekend be2 page
  28. ^ Naoki Hashimoto (October 2016, 4). “Changing Japanese food 6 "Western food" story". Food Education for Adults Dr. Food Education Dry Lecture.As of August 2017, 3オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.OctoberBrowse.
  29. ^ Makiko Nagatomo. “Western food". Kyoto City Tourism Association. OctoberBrowse.
  30. ^ "Chapter 5 Modern (Meiji to Showa Prewar) -Western and Japanese food". 2013 Faculty of Economics Seminar Conference Report Paper History of Japanese Food Culture. Matsuyama University.As of August 2016, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.OctoberBrowse.
  31. ^ Tomohiko Kimura (May 2011, 5). “History of our school No. 8 Taisho era and old junior high school". Naniwa High School / Junior High School.As of August 2016, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.OctoberBrowse.
  32. ^ "Croquette test”. Japan Croquette Association. As of June 2016, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.OctoberBrowse.
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Yoshihisa Saraki "I visited the Taisho era, the original view of Heisei Japan" "Taisho generation" (Sankei Shimbun, 2002, pp. 148-151, 3 Taisho era foods-Items of the era when "Tomorrow is also croquette"
  35. ^ "Prewar Japan not listed in textbooks" p. 55
  36. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 74 pages
  37. ^ Boys and Girls Japanese History From Taisho to Showa 224 pages
  38. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 152 pages
  39. ^ From Taisho to Showa Boys and Girls Japanese History Pages 224-225
  40. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 228 pages
  41. ^ Living in the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa eras (37) XNUMX pages of living and culture in the Taisho era.Shiobunsha is the publisher
  42. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 153 pages
  43. ^ "Record of the "Spanish flu" epidemic", Heibonsha Toyo Bunko, 2008, p.104. Diet Digital Library "Cold fashion"
  44. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 212 pages
  45. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 215 pages
  46. ^ Takayoshi Matsuo, "History of Japan, Vol. 17, Taisho Era-Taisho Democracy," pages 118-120, items for the advancement of cities and women
  47. ^ "Illustrated Buddhism in One Book", page 73, published by Narumi-do
  48. ^ Manga Japanese History Modern Edition War and Democracy.200 pages written by Shotaro Ishinomori
  49. ^ Comrade Association153 seats, Seiyukai 108 seats,Chuseikai33 seats, Kuomintang 27 seats,Okuma Haku Supporters Association12 seats, 48 ​​independent seats
  50. ^ Takayoshi Matsuo "History of Japan Vol. 17 Taisho Era-Taisho Democracy" Page 15 Upper 2 frames Shueisha
  51. ^ Yoshihisa Saraki "I visited the original scenery of Heisei Japan in the Taisho era" Page 216, lines 10 to 17

References

  • Yoshihisa Saraki "I visited the original scenery of Heisei Japan in the Taisho era"
  • Takayoshi Matsuo"History of Japan Vol. 17 Taisho Era-Taisho Democracy"
  • Ryuichi Narita "Taisho Democracy"
  • Gakushuin University Museum "Taisho era to read with postcards"
  • Kazuo Higo"History of Boys and Girls in Japan From Taisho to Showa"

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